Understanding the Principles of Montessori Education | Karin Gnaore | Skillshare

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Understanding the Principles of Montessori Education

teacher avatar Karin Gnaore, Happy to teach you !

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

39 Lessons (3h 54m)
    • 1. What to expect from this class

    • 2. A very short biography of Maria Montessori

    • 3. How to be respected

    • 4. Do not take yourselves so important

    • 5. The impact of positive language

    • 6. Active learners are learners

    • 7. Positive discipline

    • 8. The Absorbent Mind

    • 9. Polarisation of Attention

    • 10. Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivation

    • 11. Free Choice

    • 12. Sharing and waiting

    • 13. Normalisation needed

    • 14. Deviation means there is a way around

    • 15. Normalisation & Deviation

    • 16. Understanding Deviation continued

    • 17. Every Child develops in a unique way

    • 18. Observation

    • 19. The prepared envivronment

    • 20. Genetics & individual talents

    • 21. Mixed Age Groups

    • 22. Precise Language

    • 23. The Montessori Teacher

    • 24. Self Discipline

    • 25. Free Play

    • 26. What is Montessori Material and why do we need it

    • 27. Design as an Educational Tool

    • 28. Control of Error, How it really works

    • 29. The Practical Life Area

    • 30. the Sensorial Area

    • 31. The Language Area

    • 32. The Mathematics Area

    • 33. Cosmic Education

    • 34. The Importance of Nature

    • 35. The Wordless Lesson

    • 36. The 3-Period Lesson

    • 37. What are Human Tendencies

    • 38. Development of the Senses , as an example taste

    • 39. The Importance of Rules

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About This Class

In this class you will learn to understand what Montessori education is all about. I will explain all the core principles which you can start applying immedialty as a parent, gandparent or teacher of any level. 

Applying these simple principles will change your life as an educator, caregiver  or teacher tremendously. Try it out!

Yet this is not a full Montessori Diploma! This is a short explanation about some of the most important principles of the Montessori educational method!

Meet Your Teacher

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Karin Gnaore

Happy to teach you !


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1. What to expect from this class: So what can you expect from this class? This class is going to introduce to you re most part Montessori principles. You will hear some strange words which you might not have heard before. And I will explain to you how they are just regular words for things that us a teacher should be doing and considering anyway. So I will make you familiar with those wordings. But all those explain you the principles and why they are and why they are important to us . So stay tuned and just learned about the principles. You can use them as a parent, a grandparent and anti baby sitter, a teacher, our university professor in any way as an educator, a teacher, you can use those principles right away. As soon as you've understood him. So statement 2. A very short biography of Maria Montessori: So who was this? Maria Montessori, the founder off Montasser education. Her biography is quite spectacular. Quite extraordinary. But in this less lecture as we're focusing on her education principles, I just give a very, very brief introduction, Um, to her life, just for you to understand. Who was she? And if you like, look up more off her life online. There are lots of resource is out there Samrong some right? So just judged by yourself. So was he. She was born in the year 18 70 in Cavalier, a very small Italian town. Her parents were quite wealthy, well to do and well educated. They moved to row because I wanted her to get better education, especially home. Mom, who was a very well educated woman, which was extraordinary for that time wanted a daughter to be educated. So she always supported her daughter. Ah lot And Maria Montez, Sorry. Had strong bonds with her mother. Um, something were important about a math off bottom out of more remote desert is also that the mother taught Maria Montez Sorry to have pity. An empathy for those less fortunate and especially for less fortunate. Children and Rome have a lot of poor Children at that time. Those Children were Children of workers and the factories of the industrial revolution of the time. They didn't have proper clothing. They didn't have proper food. There was no medical care. And even as a child, Maria Montez or apps of those Children in the streets and her mom taught her daughter to spend her time knitting mittens, shawls, pullovers, caps for those Children and bringing them to those Children in person to help them. So Maria want to Sorry developed a big sense of PT empathy for Children who are less fortunate when, after a long fight, you was finally allowed to study medicine. She also continued this empathy for Children. She became a doctor because she wanted to help Children who were less fortunate on those poor Children she always observed in the city of Rome. Those were the Children, encouraged her to keep on studying, even though it was made harder than hard for her because she was a woman and in fact he graduated as the first female medical doctor in Italy. Being a doctor, a pediatrician, she Waas, working with the Children in the insane asylum, worships of the dose. Children didn't need any medical care that just needed stimulation and education and looking toe how to help those Children. She ended up reading the books off Fitter, and Sig went to Frenchman who had been working with Children with special needs and who had developed methods and materials to teach those Children. And she had those materials made, and she made those she could make herself herself and started to use them for the kids in that insane asylum in Rome. And you speak success with that Later, when the city of Rome had built new buildings for those poor families to live in because the situation was really so bad, it was really real. Muslims. Now the city of Rome had build new buildings to house all those poor families. The Children who are being left the loan wild appearance were working in the factories there were roaming around. They were bored and no education. Nobody has time to teach you what's going on, what's right. So where they started to destroy the buildings and the city of Rome's at O. That's not a good idea. We should lock those Children away, and they called Maria Montez. Sorry to watch those locked away enable disabled, whatever Children. She didn't like the being locked away idea, but she like they dare to look after the Children and see she started to teach them, and her teaching of those Children was so successful that newspaper First Roman newspaper started to write about it. Journalists to read that that article I came to see for themselves that couldn't believe that Children from such families could be so well behaved. And this is how her method, her ideas spread, and she was invited to speak and to teach on different countries. All of a sudden, her method developed and became really, really successful. So called Children's houses, what being set up and the people started to work, according Toa. Her ideas, um especially be enough became a very important center. She had a plan to make Vienna the center off Montessori education for the whole of Europe. And then that interesting fact is that Indiana her students were either Roman Catholic nuns because the Catholic Church had a lot of orders where they were teaching kids in kindergartens and orphanages, but also in schools on the nuns who are already teachers so interested to learn more. And the other group, the Jewish ladies. Well, Jews have been always into education, especially in Europe, especially else in Austria, where they have not been allowed to own land. They were not allowed to do agriculture. They were not allowed to learn trades. So the were in all the educational, highly educated drops like, um lawyers, medical doctors, teachers, university professors, researchers. So the ladies were also entered into education. So those were the two main groups. When the fascist regime of Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in dreaming in Austria start it. They dissolved all those schools. Universe A Montessori education was forbidden. And Maria want to Sorry, had to flee. Uh, see, finally ended up in India, where she was first put on the house arrest because being an Italian citizen on in there being a British colony, she was being considered an enemy. They soon found out she was not an animal at all. Yet nothing. She was herself a refugee, actually, in India. So she continued her work in India. This is how today amounts are education is so famous and so well established in India because she worked there for 10 years, and she taught Montessori education classes for 10 years. She returned to Europe after 10 years, as I mentioned, but not toe Italy anymore. She started live in the Netherlands, where she also died in 1952. Her she's was being buried and the Neverland's her grave can be visited today. And well, that was the briefest of the brief I could do to introduce you to the biography off this famous educator, Maria Montez. Sorry. 3. How to be respected: How can I get my students to respect me? The question and his question? I'm hearing it More and more often people deal with disrespectful students. So how can I make my students to respect me? Very easy. Respect your students. We are the role models. We had the role model for our Children. Our own Children were the role model for us Children in Prisco, in school, in high school and in university. If we give respect, we will get respect. So you wanted students to respect you, respect them for who they are, what they are and how they are. Be friendly and use respectful language to them. That is so easy in German will have the same. The way you shout into the forest. The way a sound we return to you, Vito in then by 89 host so shite his house. And that is especially true for respect. Give respect and you get respect. It is that easy. Try it out 4. Do not take yourselves so important: you want to educate your child, or maybe your Children in kindergarten in a preschool or school the Montessori way, so start to train yourself with the monkey. Sorry way. What do we mean by that? Start by trading yourself on. The first lesson you need to learn on this path is don't take yourself and your will so important when you're working with kids, whether it's your own Children at home, whether you're homeschooling, whether you're a teacher, you are not important at all. It's the Children who are important. So try always to put the child and the best off the child on the best for the child into the center off. Whatever you do, the child is at the center. That's the one off the core concept, and we are serving the child. When we train up a child, we're not serving our own egos. Let's be servants brought keys. But remember, we're not going to be the slaves of our kids 5. The impact of positive language: How can I get my students to listen to me? That's maybe that question, which has been asked the most How kind of make my Children to listen to me. That's what parents want to know. The base. You're not listening anymore. Well, your Children are doing exactly what you tell them to do. They listen to you, and that's why they behave the way they behave. You tell them, though, that's what the brain retains is the last word touch. And of course what as a child, so much but tell That's what he tells it to do because our minds are bray. Can't steal with negativity. So what? The child is doing it? That's what you told them to here. The last word in the brain understood the last one because the last one is the one that is retained the most easily. So you want positive results? Used positive language so easy. So don't tell the child what I did it myself. You tell your child exactly what you want them to do. You tell them. Listen to me instead. Don't talk. You tell them. Be quiet and always be short and presents you tell them as off if they shouldn't touch something, he told him. Be nice. Be friendly. Be gente if you want them to be friendly. If you want them to project you tell them. Walk slowly and said Don't no work slowly or careful. Be careful is also such an important sentence. We tend to say that all the time because I don't drop it on. The child would drop it. No, you see? Careful carefully Carry it. What she As you walk well on you have watched it so the chalk gets accompanied by the language. The child is doing what you want him to do for the language. You accompany him and you help the child to focus. This is why positive language is so important. So when you have a child, do something and you might even be scared about what the child is doing. A company it would positively on which lets say charges climbing a very high something. Maybe a tree. You don't tell the child. Don't because you might fall. The child will fall, I guarantee. But you tell the child what your steps hold tight. Only use in one hand. Watch while you climb positive language the child might be able to focus very well and what he's doing through that positive language. But be careful. Don't say two months less words up being paying attention to more. Because if there are more words like inflation, inflation means the money loses the value. And when you talk too much, the words lose their value. So I'm going to keep quiet. I'm going to tell you like these. Be positive. Be precise. I'd be short. 6. Active learners are learners: Now we come to one of the key concept for education and for teaching in general. What I'm going to explain to you now is valid for adult learners as well as for Children. Listen and try to understand. Make sure your learners, whether they're your bone Children at home or your kin a garden issue. Preschoolers. You're meant to your elementary school kids are maybe edit wilderness. You want your learners to be active, and you have to try to be more passive. Remember, you're not teaching yourself. You are teaching the kids, so make sure that you come up with five years with plans, concept projects that will make the Children to be actively involved. Hands on learning, not listening only because listening just listening is passive. And as we say, knowledge will enter here and come out through here, so make sure they have something to do. As I said, Hunt's on learning. So whatever you teach, try to talk less. Try to put yourself less in the centre and think how you can think and plan. How can the child be the one who is acting out what you want him to learn? Why do you let him dress up instead of explaining how to dress up. Why do you let him read instead of explaining how three or your that India was the numbers or play with the numbers instead of explaining how to do is match. Make sure 100% of the time But you want the child learn. He or she our day are active all the time. And remember, as you are learning about Montessori education now, you want to become active too. So what I'm teaching you will stay in your mind and you will practice it. Really? 7. Positive discipline: this 16. How should like discipline, my child? I don't Don't my grown up. Look what is disappearing May. But if I do something wrong, I unfortunately have to bear the consequences. And that's what we have to teach to our Children. So if the drop something you have to pick it up, it's broken. Um, clean it up. Threw it away. They can't have it anymore because it's broken. If, um, they make something their teams have to clean it. Marie Z. Levin suffered a consequence 100% in traditional education. What we do is the child does something we clean up for them. We carry the consequence, but then we punish the child, and the punishment has nothing to do with what the child it. So are this positive discipline, which means nothing else. But let the charts for the consequence. You can do it in any age. Let's say you have a bigger child was going to school and the child is not studying for his exam. What would happen? The child will get a great now instead off telling the child for the next week you can go out with your friends. It has nothing to do? What will it help The troubled watch YouTube videos? Our television? What doesn't help? So you should come with that. Come up with something that will happen toe, understand the consequence of what he's doing? Um, whatever that could be. For example, the chance getting a poor great has to repeat the exam, letting stay at home, study for exam. Or you need to get a tutor, letting uses pocket money to pay the tutor. If you need to take you the money to pay the tutor for repeating the exam, that's not a good consequence. Um, or if the child has used up all his pocket money, don't borrow you more money to use. The child has used up his pocket money. Don't give him any other one, so he will know what it feels not to have money. You'll understand what it does not have money, and then next time he will be saving it up in such a way using it that it can be enough for him so positive dissected. Whenever a child is doing something wrong, think off a natural consequence toe that wrong doing? Uh, let's say the child isn't going to bag it's a school kid and then tired the next morning. Don't drive that key to school because he missed the school bus. Maybe he missed the school bus. Let him walk to school, then evidently will be late. Or the child is so tired in the morning, doesn't want to stand him, wake him up anyways and insist that he will get ready in time. That's for bigger Children. If they're small off course or what they do wrong is also smaller, but still let him suffer the consequence, like spilling something cleaning up. Sometimes it's hard to find what is really the consequence off the wrongdoing. But make sure that you don't take away the pain from the chopped. We're often disappearances were taking away the pain. For example, the child drops a glass. Now we're afraid the child will hurt himself with a glass, and we clean it up. But how will the child luring the consequence? It can't. It's better to stay close by and teach a child how to clean up broken glass. Then we were playing that because next time the child would break another class, that is for sure. So try toe. Always think off natural consequence, not a punishment that is not connected at all toe what the child It wrong? Because the punishment will make the child toe feel angry because he cannot possibly see what is the connection with his wrongdoing that as a big challenge for us stitches and his parents. 8. The Absorbent Mind: the absorbent mind. What's that? This is one of the main things to be understood by any teacher, any psychologist, any parents, any grandmother and any grandfather as any anti and any brother and sister older siblings, we have to understand the concept of the absorbent mind absorbent mind is a description off the mind off a small child. It's especially small Children. They have only on absorbent mind. That means they cannot choose what to learn. What do you mean? If you book a sponge, a dry sponge into red water, the sponge doesn't have the choice to say I don't want what sort of red water I want that storm. Only a transparent water. A sponge being put into red water will absorb red water on the sponsor. Being put into transparent regular water will absorb transparent regular water on the sponge doesn't have a choice in that, and our Children don't have a choice in what they absorb. They're not thinking it over. That means you put the child in an environment like you put the sponge into a bowl of water on the child, absorbs everything and anything in this environment without thinking about it. The child is not reflecting what I want to absorb Charles of making any choices. The child is absorbing everything. And as the child comes into this world and has to learn everything, the child considers everything he or she is confronted with. Toby Normal. Absolutely normal. That means a child who is experiencing quarrel quarterly fights, be it his parents, his grandparent's or his siblings. That child will learn to fight and to quarry and to talk back. Because this is what the child's mind has absorbed on the child's mind did not absorb problem solving skills. The child's mind, in this case, didn't absorb friendliness. If a child is being put into an environment which is friendly, beautiful, clean need, the child will absorb a natural love of beauty and clean venous on with dry, always, always life, tohave cleaning us and getting his old environment wherever he will find himself. The child didn't choose to be clean and neat. The child absorbed the cleanliness and the neatness from the environment he absorbed. If a child is being put in an environment of learning full of books and intelligent discussions were, maybe he saw his parents studying maybe so his parents. Teaching that child will end up a learner, a scholar and maybe a teacher. The child will find learning normal, the child win, find learning a joy, a pleasure on the child will find it easy to learn. The child didn't choose to, but this is what he absorbs, and this is how he is. You put the child in an environment. We're hey sees violence. Maybe you put them in an environment where the television is always on where his parents are using the mobile phone all the time. The child will grow up having a television on all the time, using the mobile phone owned all the time. This is what he has absorbed, and let's say the mobile phone gets destroyed or lost. The child couldn't live without the mobile phone. Five in one hour because he doesn't find it normal. Toby without his mobile phone for an hour or two, be without on television on for even an hour. He didn't learn it. Learning for small Children means absorbing. You have to be very careful into which environmental put the Children we as teachers and his parents. If we understand the concept, Active storm in mind. We have to do everything possible from the beginning. That means from the birth off the child to put the child in tow. Positive, joyful, pleasant environment. Let the child here. Only good words and good music. Let the child experience beauty and cleanliness. Let the child experience calm on a petition. While the child didn't learn when he was small, he will not learn. When he's old, the Bible says, Teach up a child away. He should go and he will not depart from it when he's old. That is, in Proverbs 22 46 And we have found today that the brain is being wild in those early years , and it's very hard to change when you're older. So Merima Dosari, who called the space the room around the child, the third educator or 1/3 teacher. Let's be very careful on what we put into the environment of the child and which environments we allow our Children to move in. Let's be careful in designing the environment of the Children with beauty, lots of nature with peace, friendliness on with joy absorbent. Mind these, the Children take in everything they are surrounded with and they make it part of themselves, just the small sentence at the end. We all the people have choices. What can choose not to like something. Even though we're surrounded with it, we might choose not to eat something, even though it's on the table in front of us. We have a new absorbent mind, and we have developed willpower. But even all the Children, youth and grown ups were being shaped by what we behold by what we see on by what we are surrounded with. This is wide. There's a problem which says, Tell me who your friends are under will tell you who you are because our environment says a lot about ourselves. And we should not forget that even though which is not to, our environment always has an influence on us. So we should also be careful because we have not dropped the absorbent mind. It has just become less influential young people. They'll have more absorbent mind than we as grown up people have. So we should be careful with what we surround. Our young people they can choose, but the more they are surrounded by things, the more you will find a normal so we should also be careful concerning that. For this age group, we should teach the Children or the young people toe make choices concerning which environment the want to be surrounded with. 9. Polarisation of Attention: well, we'll come back. This video is about polar position off attention. Polarisation means to be able to focus for cause means concentration. This is one of the biggest issues of teachers in today's schools, they complained. Children can concentrate anymore. They can't focus. Their mind is everywhere and anywhere well, polarisation off attention That is the word of Maria Montessori use to talk about concentration. Small Children are easily distracted. This is why sometimes it's very easy to deal with the tantrums or to deal with their Joyce ease of having chocolate in the supermarket. If we are able to distract them, then they forget about what they want it, and that's just it. Small Children find it very hard to concentrate, especially in a group. This is why Maria Montez Sorry said that when the work freely and the kindergarten in our in the Children's house, they should be have that they should have the choice always to work alone and working alone . One by one, he's the main type off work. There will be doing the so called hurts. This thing starts when the Children are six, and this is the age were in most countries, Children go to school. This is when piers would become more important but one Yes, Mom. There to themselves. They are equal centric. Not It was interesting. They are equal centric. They are for themselves the center of the world. And when they're alone and when they're on disturbs, they can concentrate and they can focus a lot. They're very able to concentrate and they're very able to focus. The condition is that we don't do not disturb them. If we do, we will create Children who will not be able to concentrate later in school. Okay, in the garden or university are at the works because they didn't have a chance to learn about concentration when they were young. When there was small, they were not able to learn that. Now what? Arda conditions for polarisation off attention toe happen condition number one. The child chooses his activity by himself or herself. This is why we have free choice and a Montessori environment. Number two. The child chooses his or her place off work. This is why Children are allowed to take the Montessori mater's from one place to another as they just to number three. They are on disturbed That means other Children are not allowed to ask him while they're still active while they're still playing while they're still working with the material. As the Children are not allowed to tell them. Come with us. Come with us or can I play with you? Join Well. The Children has chosen to do an activity alone. The other Children have to respect. But this child is doing this activity alone by himself. In fact, we haven't teach teach Children to tiptoe around those Children who were working so in order not to disturb them. The next condition is that the Children will have time to work with those things We live in a very hectic world. Want Children to be more effective than we are. They come out, they are Children on. We have to respect that. This is why we should let the Children, uh, work as long as I need to. Until they finish on. Put back this certain activity have chosen If we respect these very few conditions Oh, I forgot Went quietness. If there's noise especially if there is Elektronik media on like television, CD players and others, my Children will never concentrate. So there must be quietness, not absolute calmness. But that must be a quiet atmosphere at a calm surrounding. So if we respect those conditions that I have mentioned, the Children will learn to concentrate because nobody tells them concentrate. They will do it by himself because it choose what their intrinsic motivation tells them. The truth. Don't concentrate because they are absorbing what avid activity holds for them. The Children we love, what did do, and they will learn what they can learn, and they will absorb everything that particular activity holds for them. So polarization off attention means four concentration of the child on one certain activity . And it only happens if we watch out for all the conditions. Toby fulfilled free choice off the activity. Free choice off the space free choice of the duration. How long go want to do it being undisturbed and being in a quiet and calm environment. 10. Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivation: what I want you to understand is the concept off intrinsic motivation. Now this is what Merima to sorry first discovered before all other psychologists of the world. He discovered it already and she described it. But today we have the proof from modern psychology that her concept really works. And I want to use the vocabulary of the modern psychological science to explain an old Montessori concept. Good. What is intrinsic motivation? Intrinsic motivation is what is put in tow. Us. We are born with it. All of us. When Gabor, we have intrinsic motivation to learn many things. We want to learn to walk. We want to want to move. We want to learn to climb. We want to learn to speak. We want to learn to take care of ourselves. It is nature. No nature can be encouraged or discouraged. So we have toe nurture nature. That is what month Sorry. Education is telling us the nature that Children wants to learn. We're nurturing that will in the Children. So intrinsic motivation for me as an adult would be what I want to do right now. Because I love it because I enjoy it because it brings me satisfaction because I'm curious about it. So learning being this because I need it to give these lectures, that extrinsic motivation that coming because I'm enjoying the language but learning Italian because I enjoy the sound that's intrinsic motivation. Going to work because I would be fired if I'm not going is extrinsic motivation. I'm afraid off the consequence. But going toe work because I'm looking forward to teaching again today that its intrinsic motivation. I do it because I enjoy it. And I wanted now many other things also going on the race racing running because I need the money that I will win, that I will get if I win. That's extrinsic motivation. But going to the race because I enjoy sports, enjoy running. I enjoy the people applauding. I enjoy that. Ah, feeling off accomplishment when I finished the race. That's intrinsic motivation. We have to understand whatever we do because we're motivated in an intrinsic way. We do it much, much better, and we can stay with what we're doing for a longer time. When you're motivated extreme. Basically, we just stay the time that we have to and not one minute longer and the outcome off extrinsic motivation is never neither for Children off a grown ups as good as the outcome off things which are done through intrinsic motivation. It's a teacher. The ghosts of Teach because he has no other drop extrinsic motivation will never be a good teacher. Never by the teacher goes toe work because she loves the kids. Are because he loves to pass on knowledge. Are because he laughs. What is teaching? We get great results and the same for our kids. This is why the excel in subjects they love, the exciting subjects where the teacher is encouraging and they get bad grades and subjects they don't like. And subjects worded don't like the teacher, even though they might need the good, great to complete school part to complete that school level. Never get good grades. Students and the university will study what they love. Study much faster, gain much deeper knowledge and bigger success in what this study, which means you have a student of law and is studying law because his parents are telling him that this is the best to do and they will pay their studies because he's doing lol what they told him to do. You almost possibly passed exams. He will most possibly finish that degree, but his knowledge will be limited and the way he will later use the knowledge will be also in a very limited level compared to somebody is starting something apparently used Leslie that wouldn't give him a job, But he's upcoming so great that that person might make a great living out of a subject that wasn't promising and giving a would drop so intrinsic motivation can lead two great results , which are completely unexpected. Extrinsic motivation never leads to good results and then give the last example for that. The child that cleans the room because he chooses to do so will spend a long time doing it in a very beautiful way. Concentrate, and it will be really clean and needed nice. Maybe the child comes up with decorations, even the child that cleans the room, because he or she has to well toss everything into the wardrobe so it wouldn't be seen again. But that's not cleaning. That's just satisfying what he has been told to do. And the outcome because so nothing, even though it looks like there has been done something 11. Free Choice: learning toe understand the concept of Montessori education, one of the key concepts we need toe understand, really very, Very rarely is the concept off free choice Maria Montessori understood, as we do today, that we can give complete free Joyce the Children to choose from all the choices of the world, doing whatever you want to do that's perfectly clear. So what? That's the concept really mean? The concept means that you have to guide your child or your Children, depending on which context you're working in. Step by step, making his or her own choices. So did when the child grows to be a bigger child, a teenager or a grown up. But the person we'll feel confident to make choices and to stick to what the person has chosen and also stick with the consequent consequences that this choice brings. Eventually, the choices that we allow our Children to make must be child adequate choices. Depending on the age of the child. Let me give you an example. We have a two year kid at home. It's winter. It's cold outside, maybe zero degrees or minus two degrees or whatever. Anyways, it's cold. It's winter. You don't ask a child. What do you want to wear? Because a child might come up with wanting to wear sandals on the ballet to do what is not adequate. But you can give the child a choice. Do you want your leggings to build the red or the blue ones? Do we want the green or the blue Mittens? And, uh, a child won't choose And please allow the child to choose and allow him to really were what he decided to work in this case on the child might maybe later today for you. Oh, I could have chosen whatever. Get a color and you will know. Okay, what the Jews really happens. What this also brings about is that the child will cut, will understand. When I choose. When I decide it happened, something happens. There is a consequence. And this is creating a sense of responsibility in the Children responsibility for dear own lives. When it comes to food, you might ask the chop. Do you want a potato or brown rice? Both the carbohydrates both are healthy. Both have lots of vitamins, and it wouldn't matter toe for the health of the child. Whether he chooses the potato art of brown rice. But the child will feel whatever he chooses on his town because choosing the potato, he has to eat the protective, choosing the brown rice he has to eat the brown rice, Um, and the child will learn to make healthy choices. If you guys the child to make healthy choices, don't ask a child you want chocolate or broccoli. That's not a child. Adequate choice. But you could ask everyone cauliflower or broccoli that's in child Could choice. Another child might choose whatever he feels at that moment and understand what it's all about. On when the target, the child gets used to making healthy choices like, um broccoli or cauliflower brown rice or potato later in life. When it comes to pull, the child will find it very easy to make healthy choices. When you let the child choose the color of the mittens. The color of the show are the color of the leggings. The child gets used, the word legging short and mittens in winter. And whatever summer clothes you will allow the child to choose. How is it, Um, for bad time, though that's the child. Do you want to go to bed, I assure you, No child wants to go to bed, but you can ask a child. Do you want to brush your teeth first? I want the way you pajamas first, a small choice, but the chart is making a choice that will lead him to go to bed. Which means, actually, the chart is choosing to go to bed or to get ready to go to bed. And these are the type of choices that you want your child to live through. Um, when it comes to occupation in the date time, you can ask Child, do you want rest book or that book? The child is choosing a book anyway, but you're not forcing the child's choosing. We want to play the skin off that game. It's a game. Any hits, and you are giving the choice of a good one on. The child is learning to make good choices for practicing. To make good choices, the child will get used to making good choices. As a child grows up, you can get the chart more responsibility in his choices. Like, Do you want the wash the dishes first? I want to do your homework first. All right, Which say you just the western dishes. If it's at home, Uh, so the charge chooses. Okay, Monday it's my day off Washington dishes Now, even Monday, the kid feels that he wants to play or do whatever he wants to do it. Waas your choice. You decided for money. I didn't force you. You could have chosen another day. So the child will also learn to live with the choice. He has made a next time maybe think it over. Or Steve, happy with the trust, said I chose it. So I doing. I push it through. Don't pardon if the church chooses the cauliflower and then exchange it for the broccoli, it was his choice. Let him live with the consequences off his choices. But make sure there are never any negative consequences for any Joyce is the child makes us . The child will get afraid to make choices and then becomes a fearful person that is not able to choose maybe a job or, ah, home or a partner for life leave. The child would positive, um, choices. So whatever I choose is good for him. Let's learn to give good options to our kids 12. Sharing and waiting: Children would teach still in to share. As a question, I was here. Shouldn't we teach Children to share? We should. But I can share only what I have If I don't have anything at country so we should Children . We should teach turn that they may have something because trying to teach them to share. If we're not teaching them that you may have, I will never work out on then another one should be she teach Children to wait. Should we teach Children Teoh, allow other Children tohave There is the most understood commandment in the Bible, which is called How Shall Not covet and this is exactly what it's all about. If I want to be able to share, the first thing I have to learn is not to cover it, what other people have or what other people doing. And I must be able to live without something out of people have or use. And this is how days in the practical Montessori way. And it could be like that in every kindergarten and in every family, he change it and how toe wait and to share teaching Children how to be happy and thankful and teaching Children not to cover it. So let's assume a certain child. Let's call her. Susie has taken a material from the shelf and is very busy and occupied without than just the first time she's doing back. So she has started to, let's say, a spoon spoon at spoon and spoon. And as this is a new three is putting. Three have brought to the kindergarten. Other Children are seeing it. Oh, so is he's pointing. How How beautiful is that terrace? Colorful material there that trees look so good and they want tohave. What? Susie house. And so is this spacing busy? She has been spooning for 15 minutes already and they're ready. Three Children who have passed by and the one toe have what Suzy has. Should I tell Susie to stop spooning? That means if either I as a teacher, tells those stocks morning given to your friends, I will teach her to things. You can interrupt your work any time another would lessen for life. You can't interrupt your work any time. Number two. I will teach Susie. Why? Don't take something out. You don't need to put it back because she was hands the trade to have friends and colleagues, and she wouldn't put it back. But it was another good lesson. We want our Children to learn a responsibility. When I've taken it out, I have to put it back. A number three. I won't teach Susie not to concentrate because in interrupting the concentration off a child on a certain work with teaching the child in, in effect, not to concentrate. And that's the worst of it. On the other hand, if the Children calm and there's a teacher, a teacher, I won't have that piece tell you to give it to me. Or worse, have the Children are green. That's what they give it to me. And so is the You have to share. I'm and so is this. Giving it out? The other two young would learn. We don't have to wait for anything you want tohave. We just need to disturb very bad lesson If, uh, the Children are also learning if I disturb. If I beg, I get what what? No matter what is the circumstance? No matter what is the condition, that's also not a good lesson. So then disturbing Susie in breaking her concentration. I'm not teaching anybody to share. I'm just giving very bad lessons. No. So it is working with a train. It's by accident. She was the 1st 1 who saw it and who got it and was a new thing and she started to work with it. So I would tell the other Children who maybe want tohave it and they are not very good in waiting. And tell him you wait, What? Which is putting back? You can get it and next time you go in something first I would also make sure nobody is disturbing you. So those Children are learning toe Wait and they're learning to be happy for sociology is working with it and they will also learn that their teachers protecting the concentration and activity of each child. Because if I told them I'm not protecting Susie and taking care, she will not be disturbed Next time out to the same for you. They will learn every child has the same value for their teacher. And there were many more important lessons in this. So please don't be tempted to tell Children you have to share. Tell them that's the way. And in doing so, they will learn to share too 13. Normalisation needed: one of the most misunderstood concepts of Montessori education is normalization. It's as Eve we wanted to do something to the kids, which are no, there's no that's not what she meant. And that's not what we mean when we talk about normalization at so that has special needs on that might be looked upon like a catastrophe. Now a society by some people can be perfectly normalized versus a child in a so called good family. Rich family can be totally full of deviations. How is that normalisation? First of all, is a positive developmental stage. We all develop throughout our lives. And, uh, when we are normalized to develop according to the path which is best for us and which fits our talents, which fits our personality. Andi, how that will be seen is if we love to work. We love to be active. We enjoy work, we have safe discipline, We're happy and we're contented. And we have the right a portion off socially, the social ability so enjoyment, contentment and, um, activity. So you understand right away a chart from us so called good family might be full of relations because a child interests may be using computers to match on television. Too much might be totally passive, and that is a very huge deviation from how human beings should be. No humanization is being reached through activity through being nurtured in a positive way . Lots of people now won't have deviations because if they have being scared and the word because of fear for punishment, fearful consequences, they are totally not normalize. They are having deviations. So as you understand that normalization has a lot to do with with the contentment, positive activity concentration, that means in order for watching to develop that photo have that they need good relationships, they need good environments and it peaceful environments. The environments must be free from pitch from pressure free from stress. And that is our workers, teachers and educators toe care for the environment of our kids to be such environments, and our disappeared in our teaching to be full off positive and passes. And then our child and our Children will develop complete normalisation 14. Deviation means there is a way around: Now I like the word deviation that Maria Montessori is using because for me it says but child is still the child I need to love. I need to care about any to teach. I need toe be positive about I need to have good thoughts. I need to have positive thoughts and positive attitudes. Torch each and every child. Deviation just means the child turned away. There is a deviation, not the charges back. The deviation means I have to bring the child back. Now if I deviate, gets in with a car or by walking, I'm just going around and obstacle on the purposes to go back on track. So we should understand. The deviations aren't permanent. Deviations are challenging for us as teachers, as parents and his grandparent's to lead our Children back on the right way. And that is normalization where they're happy, contented, joyful, active and concentrated. So if you, um, see something negative in the development, lack of concentration is a deviation. Try to think of how to bring the child back on the right path off normalization. How to help the child to get concentration if it tells us unhappy or maybe doesn't have self esteem, tried to sing about how to help the child, to be happy again and took game self esteem. The child is the deviation, something leading shutter Ronald Obstacle. There's an obstacle, and sometimes we the teachers or way the parents might be the obstacle. So our goal is to help the child to deviated around, obstacle back to a normalization, so deviation should help us with working without kids and pleading them in the right way. 15. Normalisation & Deviation: understanding multi sorry education. They're often ins when people hear the words normalization and deviation or the Chinese have normalized. Those concepts are, or those words are being misunderstood. A great deal. What do they really mean? That's one what I want to explain. Marie Montu Sorry. Believe the Children having inbuilt plan. And when the deviate from that plan, when they're unhappy, this contented, maybe depressed. If they are within that plan, then they're happy, uh, contented Children. This is not about what we expect from kids. That's not about how Children might be born, because there are, according to Maria Montessori, Children with special needs and, according to us, were often of high expectations. A big catastrophe now they might be fully normalized because of kids with special needs can be normalized when he has a possibility to to develop, to be active, according to Hiss plan, that is his inborn abilities, the talents that he or she has been given. If we expect you are things from a child which are not within his range of possibility, for sure that child will develop a deviation, no normal as Children are about happy and content Children, Children with deviations are unhappy, Discontented Children as Children are on a pathway, they are born, not ready. They're going for a lot of struggles before the rich about food. So deviations will occur and we have to be ready to help the Children back on the right truck on that is helping them onto normalization. So how do I know if a charge is normalized? Normalised child will be happy. We'll be smiling, will be content the child would. Deviations might be depressed. Sad. I'm able to concentrate. That's one of the main issues also. And this is how you can recognize that there are deviations and you have to start working for the child to come back. So the right fact, but not my truck. The trek are the child. 16. Understanding Deviation continued : I want to come back to deviation again because it is so very important. And I hope that this time you can understand it even better. The aviation means a person for a child is not developing according toe his or her abilities, which means if a child doesn't have enough challenge, let's say intellectual challenge in the sensitive period for scientific knowledge. The child might not develop according toe hiss abilities because he could learn much, much more than what he's learning, what he's being allowed to learn if a child is being presented with too much knowledge, stress or with subjects and learning stuff which he cannot digest, which are, I don't too hard, not inappropriate time. Um, don't much the talent of the kids, then that child also cannot develop according to his or her abilities on. That is also deviation. So whatever is depriving a child from developing according toe her or he's abilities, Palance and Genetic Nature. His deviation. This could also be lack of sleep, lack off movement, unhealthy food. Uh, because also those will deprive the Children off the opportunity to develop according to the way they should develop, um, deviation, no matter What is the cause off it be Too much pressure, not enough challenge or teaching at the wrong periods of time. Whatever is the reason for deviation, the outcome is challenging behaviour. We observe those Children who cannot concentrate Children who are aggressive Children who are depressive, any off those challenging behaviors that give us a hard time and are working with kids. They are a sign for deviation. Have it should be. Our response, believed in a little bit, is our responsibility to detect, uh, the reasons and remove the reasons from the life off the kit are from the curriculum off the kid. If that is possible, most of the time it would be possible and then give the kids time toe go back into his regular way off development, which means we need patients and with them toe guides the child back to give him time to go back. We can't say stop it and expect that the child will stop it because it's not within his power. Deviation is like special needs. You can't expect the child with name, feet, toe work, and you cannot expect the child with a deviation to do what he can do? Uh, it's just impossible. It's just in bus. It was like you ask a blank check to talk about color or to distinguish colors. It is impossible and tenement deviations they cannot do otherwise. Otherwise, it's our responsibility. And we have to see that's the development of the kids is in our hands, because when the board you're not ready, they are dependent on us, and what they become depends to a large extent on us. It's only when they're grown up that they can make their own decisions. But how able they aren't to make their own decisions, how ableto they are to change their habits or the depends a lot on how they have been growing up. So it's we really have to assume this responsibility. It's our responsibility. How the kids develop, uh, in psychology would call that nurture on. That is how waas to do and not the kids 17. Every Child develops in a unique way: construction from within the inner builder. The inner I've context. Those are words Maria Montessori used and those words are very often misunderstood a lot. Um but what did it really mean? And that's what I want to explain to you today. Each one of you and each one, even including myself, is born with genetics. So our genetics determined some talents. The color of my hair, the color of my eyes, the shape of my cheese, the shape of my face, gin, Alex, determine a lot. And the with a genetics come a certain development which should be respected at not being overruled. Maria Monti, sorry was very much concerned for parents and teachers to respect what is being put into a child by the genetics of the child, rather then trying to train up a child the way we think it should go. Because very often we have our preconceived ideas about how a child should develop and very often what the charge would become. This has done a great lot harm to a lot of people who spent their unhappy lives working in professions and working in jobs which they detested, and they hated because nobody cared for what is being laid into their being, which talents that were given which interests they were given. Rather, nobody cared to look for that, but people thought they knew best what was best for the child. And if somebody tells a person this is best for you, generally that's not it. That's number one. So when we want to talk about the architect of the child, we want to look for the talents, for the strength, for the skills and for the competences off the chop, which a naturally coming. And we want to work with the strength off the child. Enough with the child's weaknesses. That is another concern off Maria Montessori and her educational system. Try as much as possible toe go from the strength of the child and the strength. Developing further will help the child overcome the weaknesses, too. In the traditional school system, generally in most countries, and I am here in Austria, it is so very much so. Here in Austria, we want averaged Children with average intelligence with average grades in every subject. We don't want super talents. We don't want geniuses because we have a problem with them. Um, we have to understand that Children are different. And however to child ease, it is a child of God. That's just a fact. And if we lay aside our preconceived others, we will be much happy appearance, much happier teachers on. We will educate much happier Children. The idea off the inner architect goes further because it does away with, uh, making people to be equal following equal curriculums an equal, equal Korea's on allowing Children to be individuals. And here I want to talk about special needs Children special needs. Children also have something like genetic. A genetic pool, uh, especially needs student as we call them. They also have pilots, their skills, their competences. They can be very happy and they can do something useful and they can develop. They will develop. If we allow them to develop, they will develop Great. If we allow them to develop Great. We should lay aside our ideas on how the child has to be like an average child and look for the individual child for the unique child. If we understand this idea of the inner architect, we will see a child with Trisomy 21 as a normal child who has his plan for his life being laid into his cradle, right Osbourne at birth. It might not be the plan that we think is so important and good and whatever, but who are we to judge what is good for that child or what is good in general? Who are we to judge? What is good if we for if we forget about a preconceived ideas and look for the inner building plan off the individual job, we will see an Asperger Syndrome child. That's a very wrong word. Anyway. We'll see a child with autism spectrum disorder as a regular child regular because God made that child. So the genetics made a child to be so and me as a parent, me as a teacher, me as a grand parent and anti or whoever I am toe the child, have to look what is being laid into this child concerning talents competences. What makes the child happy, what artists kills. And then I have the responsibility to help this child develop according to his or her personal plan. The concept off the Ener building plan, which is laid in tow, each and every injury to which is born into this world is such a great concept and will teach us so much reverence for the uniqueness off people. That we will change our attitude completely concerning Children concerning people concerning humanity. Well, stop judging. And we will stop looking for the average understanding this concept of the inner plan being laid in tow. Every child we make us toe allow geniuses, Toby geniuses. And if there strain in some aspect, never mind. We will allow people to be different from us because we understand my plan is different from your plan. And this is how we can work together. Because when each one brings about his talents, her talents, we will make a perfect whole society. 18. Observation: observation. Observation is the key toe teaching Children step by step what they need to know and learn and acquire. Next observation is also key to avoiding conflicts in the home and the Children's house and school, and the observation will help you to detect whatever needs the child has, which might not be fulfilled. No very, very important. When you come to observe a child, take your time to observe and forget what you know about the child. A conflict you have had with a child yesterday. Forget ah, history have about the child or maybe some information about weaknesses, disabilities or whatever. If you are able to observe what is happening right now in any given moment in any given circumstance with any given child and be object objective about it, you will detect ah, lot off abilities and talents and developmental steps the Children are making. But you need time for this, and you need toe forget. Also, forget about schedules and curricula us because those will keep you from observing the child as a unique creature. Have observed the child. Take your time as teachers, but also as parents, maybe home schooling parents. We need to consider that observing the child understanding Talyn's needs, uh, opportunities of learning windows of opportunities. This is time off teaching most of the time, especially the 21st century. We live in a time where we want to use every moment on. We have a plan. For every moment. We want our child to be the best of the best grades. The best points toe have the best Korea's. We want a bright future, and we think that our Children, especially if we practice any alternative method of teaching, they have to have the best results. Teaching is about our students. It's not about the results, our teaching, whatever we are teaching, no matter which age were teaching as about individual, unique child, and not about our preconceived ideas or about expectations, a curriculum appearance or we ourselves might place upon ourselves. So observe the chart, find out his needs, find out he's desires, find out what he's curious about, find out these challenges and then sit down to think about what might be your next steps. Which materials to present to him, Um, which activities to engage with a child with and always bear in mind? Do you have a relationship with a kid that will enable you to guide the kids to a next step without relationship, you will not do anything good. So when you absurd, what are the needs? Even if you observe misbehavior what we call misbehavior if you observe conflicts, consider you should observe in a very, very objective way. Most of the time, we observe with preconceived ideas and observed in a very objective way, and that a one when we observe very often we want to intervene where the feeling that Children need our help. Yes, Maria Montessori said. Help me to do it myself, which means whatever the child or Children can do by themselves, don't do it for them. And there's a conflict. They might be able to figure it out by themselves, so we need more patients. But what we also need is more trust in the kids that they will be able to figure it out by themselves and reach a good result may be a better one that we would have achieved had we intervene. Um, how we observe and what we observe at what we're looking for, if largely greatly depends on the age group, we are observing. Um, if we observe Children below six years old, they might be so happy and engage in an activity all by themselves because they're not in that social age yet. If we observe Children who are six and above, we want observe the social interaction. Andi. If they don't have any social interaction, we should ask ourselves why and how it could help them toe get it and not a one. Also, when the Children are talking, please listen to what they say and the way they say it. That means if they speak, listen to the grammar. Listen to the intonation. Listen, toe the richness off their vocabulary. How poor and the how rich is the vocabulary after using dialects or accents, so you will know about their language development. But it was a lesson about what they speak on the way they speak about things, or about people the way they act in social interactions and those Children about six years old. Listen, tow them. That's part of observations. Observing is looking objectively and listening objectively, and both do it as a scientist, a researcher. You want to look at very, very small details the way Children do something. How long did it take to do that? The mood in which they are. That's really a big challenge. And in I really want to challenge you to observe for our class project so that you will learn toe open your eyes and to your ears. You will be amazed most of the times. I assure your things that different from what you think they are. 19. The prepared envivronment: What is a prepared, environment prepared environment is an environment that has been prepared. No well, that's a logic who prepared it? It's a teacher. Anger environment can be prepared only by teachers who know the Children. We as teachers, have to be aware of the needs of the Children. Learning and developing themselves is a big, big need for Children. I have to understand what's the need for the development and this is how we prepared a government. We feel it with materials that will help the Children to develop their skills and competences by using those materials. We are very purposeful in how many materials were put in that environment and which things we get out of it. That is everything that doesn't serve a purpose. We go out off the prepared environment and then everything that has served a purpose. But it should have learned what they needed to learn from it. They're not working with it anymore, and I dont interested in it or I just found out that it was the wrong material I chose. We'll also go out of that room and it might not be replaced because maybe I've put too many things into the room. Or it will be replaced by something that I have just found out through observation that your little neat, How the prepared environment looks depends on the age, the size and the no. 20. Genetics & individual talents: my unnecessary talks about a lot about the inner plan, which is built into the Children, and this is something which is being misunderstood a lot. I've mentioned it before, but I want to mention it again because it is so very important. Very often, parents, when they have kids, they have the plans with the kids, where often parents want their Children to become what they didn't have the chance to become from that boy. If I was three aiming to become a doctor, I want to give this chance to my kids to become a doctor. I will already start saving money so that when my kid has done their A levels, the child will go to medical school and they will help the child through medicals, toe school financially and with whatever I want to help the child would, uh, this child might not have an interest to go to medical school, and it's a very bad idea to push the child to go to medical school and lots of Children, uh, doing things because they have been pushed to do the things and and the rafting. It's not with force, and parents are not even aware of it, but they're influencing the kids so much. They're not giving the child a chance of developed on talents and their own interest. And that is very, very bad, because holding a profession is a very, very big responsibility. Just think of a medical doctor whose passion is not medicine is not healing people, is not helping people is not, um, guiding people isn't if medicine is all the passion and healing, is that the passion? But the person is learning that are starting that because he was being gently pushed into that direction would very good arguments. This person will end up being a very poor medical doctor, and being a poor medical doctor means that mistakes will happen overlooking diagnosis, wrong medication, reacting to so and so on. Yeah, so watch out for the talents and the interests of the kid. Let the child developed as many times and interest they have and then help them to develop all of these freedom. Some the Children might drop again because they just find out it's not the right thing for them, but whatever they're taking up and whatever they're learning that developed turned their developing a skills through that which will guide them and lead them toe other skills. I'm giving an example. A child wants to learn to play the piano, and the child is learning piano for two years and drops it. I can. Actually, after two years, the child is not a very good pianist. Not at all. I backed up these two years off, Learned to play the piano. Have trained a lot of skills in that kid concerning organization concerning fine motor skills concerning her musical ear, concerning concentration concerning concentration on several things at a time. Because he's reading two keys simultaneously, it's a about order in place, many monkeys competences being trained. Now the champ finds out piano lessons are not what I'm enjoying so much so the child wants to drop it and many, many parents consider. Oh, I've bought the piano. I've paid for the lessons. It wasn't worth it. Let me tell your parents. What did you expect? Did you expect your kid to become a war pianist? Was this why you bought the piano? Was this what you paid for the lessons? New. You paint for the lessons because your child wanted to learn you bought the piano because he wants to make your kids happy. And your child has been happy for those two years. Why was able to develop his talents for them and out of that development for in these talents, the child will find out what he or she really needs are ones. How the Chuck How can the child find out if he never had a chance to try out? There's no way and give an example from my life. I was doing gymnastics and I was really good hours release party. I was really good in gymnastics. I'm so saddened I could do so many movement And I was so courageous. I was not afraid to have a fall from a high, very high thing. I enjoyed it. I love that. And you know what it has given me so many skills, cross motor skills, music, skills, movements, kills But also self confidence. Confidence in my competences because I found I can't make it. I can actually do it. It gave me a sense for my own body. Have a good feeling for my own bodies. I know when I'm Sequenom Well, what it can accomplish what I can accomplish when I'm tired when I need sleep. What? When I need food, I got such a good feeling for my body, which is helping me every date. But also the self confidence thing I believe very much is came through the sports I did. But today I'm not at all a professional, sporty person, huh? But it has given me a healthy body. And it has given me the opportunity a chance to go on sports which are important former every day, body to stay well, to stay fit to stay young so it waas worth it. I spent hours and hours and hours. I was bleeding on my hands because I was training so much and I believe it was worth it. Even though I'm not doing competition gymnastics right now, I've taken up a completely at a career, but it gave me what I needed for this very career. So I'm so thankful to my parents and at the opportunity to train on that and you should allow you to drain what they're interested in 21. Mixed Age Groups: mixed age groups. That's something so strange for many of us who have grown in a regular school system where all the Children of the same age, same cast, same age. But that's not naturally on Maria Montez are observed that it's not natural because in a society, uh, in a natural society what Children are born into, we don't have to know of the same age except if they're twins or if they are letting been apart because the world may be born the same year, normally with mixed groups in a family. Mommy and Daddy, I'm not the same age. Normally they are. There is a gap between Mommy and Daddy. There is an age gap between Granny and Grandma on and Brandy. One side granted genocide and Grandma and Grandpa. And then I was at the Children off a family. They're not the same age. Well accepted the twins, which happens. But if we have two sets of twins like I have friends off two sets of twins that those that are not the same age so again we have a mixed age group in a family, um, mixed age groups. What do they do for kids If there is a mixed age groups, all the Children automatically learn. Do you do things for smaller Children if they are given a possibility to? That's the import of many times appearance. Thanks so much care of a baby that all the one becomes jealous because there's no more time . This can be avoided easily. If the parents gave responsibility to the biggest one and take time for the bigger one and then everything becomes easier now and traditional societies. Many societies have names or titles for older sisters and all the brothers we have thus in the in the Turkish language in the Philippines, we have that in, um, Chinese in Japanese that we have words for old assistance for all the brothers, which are like titles. And those titles are even used by Ledley Children. So the small child knows I have to respect my older brother on my older sister. Listen to what he says, Uh, watch what he does, and this makes the small Children to learn from that big Children. But it also gives assist, a sense of responsibility and importance to the bigger Children, and they will take their time and they will assume their responsibilities for the smaller ones. And, um, the small ones we learned from big, big ones. The big ones will be the role models for the small ones. The big ones learned responsibility, patients helping being helpful. Teaching does not once learn respect and everything. The big one knows the small one is learning, not remember, even if I, my oldest sister, there are Children who were also the main when I was a child. Sure and even now. So even though I'm an older sister, there are other Children who have been older than me, like my cousins, who I have to respect. So everybody is at the same time you number and an older person, and this is how the whole thing becomes violence. Now. This is also bringing forth intrinsic motivation, because if an older child is given responsibility, his automatically intrinsic motivated to, uh, exercise patients and helpfulness because he has to send off importance, I'm important, and the the younger child is motivated to use the older child as a role model because it was his older. She's out there. If it's been developing, for example, she's my older bread. My sister are He's my older brother. I want to be like him so they would learn from the older Children. No. When it comes to classrooms, Maria Montessori says the three years H Span is idea. That means if you have a primary school, you would have Children 6 to 9 and a matter one nine, 12 years old, which is three years on the three years the general fit to each other. They're not so much a part that all the ones have to go back to 01 helping younger ones, but say they're repeating what they have learned earlier. Space is what makes it very, very healthy in traditional systems. In also, for example, very small villages usedto have primary schools on because the world few Children in one village, one teacher was taken care off all the Children off the village. Okay, that was too much of a nature span. But of course, those teachers didn't teach them at the same time, from a great one to great eight, but still in the tradition system. This work out very, very well, was very successful in people, learned a lot from each other from the teacher from the parents and they ended up having a good educational system. So traditionally, the system of mixed age groups has been proven very successful. Uh. 22. Precise Language: using precise, correct language on vocabulary. This is what Maria Montessori A is telling for old teachers, and in that way also it'll appearance. We have to use the precise, correct words for whatever we're talking about, and we should use adjectives to describe those things. So use the words Avoid use the words Hummingbird, Blackbird and, uh, used the precise word to describe every dramatic ship. Every bird, every bird has a name. He saw her own name used the precise name off the flower like tulips. Daisy. Tough Odil. Whatever days, Andi, as this is a challenge, inform yourself being parents think teachers being educated try to know the words that you will need that day. The talk to the Children Don't use general language like cool, super wonderful. Say things like, I'm so happy or I'm contented or I'm satisfied. I'm full. Also, I want to talk about the body used the precise, um, names of the body parts like nick throat tin. Don't say just head. That's too general eyebrow eyelashes. Use all the precise and exact words. Inform yourselves. There is a saying that say's every word a child doesn't know is it sucked the child can sink. And this is a very serious appeal to all of us, because every word we don't teach to a little child is a thought that he cannot sink and for that matter also thought he cannot understand, which means that child will go to school later on. Will read his history book and want. Understand what it's all about because it's full of words written by intelligent people who have a ritual. Cavalleri on the child wouldn't understand the words. The child wouldn't understand the story. It's all about whether it's whatever story, let's say the whole coast or something more pleasant. But the child is not able to understand. This is why, these days we see a lot of Children having problems and struggling with subjects at school , like geography and history, which actually a subjects, and they're just stories. You listen to the story, understand the story. Remember as the story you gotta with grade money. The Children miss out on the language to need to understand those stories they can't learn . The mo caballero inches new because they don't understand the words with this right, which describe the vocabulary that said a new word is Holocaust and that the child is in secondary school are in high school or, um, in a car to me and the child is learning about the Holocaust. The child doesn't understand all the other words that describe what is a Holocaust the Chuck will not be able to understand, and that's the responsibility off the early educators beat appearance. Beat kindergarten teachers, big grandparents or aunties give as much language with as many words as possible to the Kate Maria Montez. Sorry, developed on a lot off material that challenges to use language. Mendoza for us as teachers toe learn the language. When I'm teaching my courses, I'm using those materials a lot because I'm very aware that the teachers wasn't my classes . Don't know most of the words which they need to know in order to use them in their everyday work with the kids. So I'm using those materials. Teach them the materials at the same way they learn in the words which they have going teas , and that's what we I'll have to do as teachers. We have to prepare ourselves first before we go and teach a class in this sense, start to enrich your vocabulary and observe yourself lesson to yourselves. When you talk to kids, Thank you 23. The Montessori Teacher: so I want to talk a little bit about the role off the teacher, a teacher, an educator, appearance, a mother, a grandmother. They're all the same. Whoever is responsible for educating and child whoever is responsible for training it up. A child is a teacher. So what is the role of the teacher? What is his responsibility or her responsibility? Number one. Prepare the environment. Then vermin must be safe and positively nourishing for the Children. And it has to change by the needs of the Children are changing. So preparing the environment is one main responsibility and role for the cheering. Number two Be there whenever you're needed, said something was drawing is to be ready to be there for the kids whenever they need you. Number three observe on the kids, and I understand the needs and development, the moods, the Thailand's, uh, the knowledge, the skills deviations. Understand the kids through You're intent. Purposeful observation it take notes. You want to write down What are the needs and the developmental, uh, processes that you have been observing in that child and then you have to teach. You have to teach, not all the time, not without break. But we have to know how much you have to teach toe the group how much you have to teach to 1 to 1 child in a 1 to 1 setting. But your old, of course, is also to teach. And, um, maybe the most important. Prepare yourself because you are the role model for the kids. As I've mentioned before, acts speak louder than words. So personal preparation off my character, my mood, my health, my humor, my personality, my outside preparation. They're very important how my here is how my dress is. Uh huh, everything It should absorb it and they learn from me, even if I think that I'm not teaching. So personal Preparation is a big, big part off being a teacher and off the responsibility off a teacher and moms and dads, eurozone teachers, Grandma's and Grandpa's here, also a teacher. A teacher is whoever teaching the kick 24. Self Discipline: discipline very often was, I have to discipline the child. Or when I was a kid, I was being disciplined. Ah, that's not what discipline is about. That's punishment. Marie Monte. Sorry, Wanted people, Toby, self disciplined. And today, when you listen, adults talk. They admire other adults who have self discipline, like having self discipline concerning eating. So you will not over eat having self disciplined concerning shopping so you wouldn't buy things which are not necessarily what you don't meet having self discipline concerning exercise. So you would really go for that drugging on a regular basis. Having self discipline concerning studying many people not able to focus on studies went on being not being pushed to do so. But all that If you don't have it, you don't have self discipline, and when you need to be pushed, you will never feel really well. So Maria Montessori wanted that we would. We as educators, would help our kids to develop itself discipline. When I'm having self discipline, then I am being free because I don't need anybody to push me. It's I'm deciding what I want to do if I'm having self discipline imposed responsible because I assume responsibility for my actions, but also I can be counted responsible by other people because I know that I'm acting in a responsible way because of my self discipline. So self discipline is connected. Also toe reliability and responsibility. Self discipline is always about doing it. My self. If I have somebody do it for me, I'm not having self discipline. So that means people who have, like, let's say you have service, who do things for them. They're not having self discipline concerning those things. They're having servants for people who does things by himself. They have self discipline. Self discipline is about it's about control off air. Um, when either having self discipline, I will watch out for mistakes. And yes, mistakes happen no matter how much I'm trying to be perfect, no matter how much I'm graining and desire in tow, do things in a perfect way. Mistakes happen, and when I'm having some discipline, I'm observing my own mistakes and I will try to correct them. People who do not have self discipline, the overlook, their mistakes or day deny their mistakes, and you will observe them that with kids a lot, and then when I'm having self discipline. I don't need punishment because making a mistake, I try to correct it. Why should you punish me? There's no reason for it so that the whole topic of self discipline will make living together, working together, learning together much, much happier. Because if everybody is striving, toe have self discipline and to help each other to himself. Discipline. We can live without punishment because we're not judges. We're not the judge, We're all people, and, uh, then we'll make our living together much, much more peaceful and much, much more pleasant. Now when we worked with kids and we kept them, for example there, three years old, you're four years old or they're seven years old. They have learned a lot of ready in their lives and that might they might have developed already. Wrong habits. Wrong, correct trains off course. That's hard. I didn't really belong and a difficult journey because self discipline is easy to learn when you learn it from being a baby or a toddler, and it's much harder when you want to learn when you're ready six years old, so we should bear that in mind and have a lot of patience with the kids. But I also have this goal in mind. It's not about me disciplining the kids and looking for the best method to discipline them . It's about finding the best way to help them to develop self discipline, because whether I'm appearance and educator or teacher, it's not about me controlling the Children. It's about the Children being able to control themselves. And when I'm in the position to help them, to do just that when they get into the world alone without me because they're being grown. If I've been able to help them to develop that self discipline, it would have the discipline by themselves. But if I'm not mastering that, if I'm not able to help them to develop their self discipline, they won't do anything anyhow. And they will have a lot of problems in their life because they're not controlling their actions. Yes, thoughts, their words and their will run into a lot of trouble. So discipline is about helping kids to develop self discipline and to control themselves and to assume responsibility for the actions 25. Free Play: but I am not. The story developed something she called free play. What is it? Go and play with your system. That's what we often tell our Children. But that is not free play what Maria Montessori said and sought and thought Waas free play is the child is allowed toe decide on what he's going to do, even if the want would be observing what others are doing. Then the child is allowed to decide where he's doing what he's doing. So sit down at the table is not what free play is about and for how long the child is doing that activity, Um, also the child can choose with whom he's going to do that, and if the child would want to do it alone, he can do it alone. What is very important? It's not all day long that the child or Children can decide what they want to do, where they want to do with who they want to do and how long they want to do. There have to be rules, always that they must be structured and well structured because Children need structure because Children need order and especially small Children are in a sensitive period for order and structure. Timeto was give orientation to kids, and that's all the one after human tendencies. But what you want to do is I want to give them a frame. So is it. Now is our time for free play. What do you want to do? Where do you want to do with whom we want to do and how long you want to do? Which means I'm giving them two hours for free play, and one child might want to spend the two hours, Let's say, drawing flowers on paper. And after that, there are many, many, many papers full of flowers, which it'll has been drawing. Another child might decides to the one activity after the other. Let's a practical life activities. Take out one trade, take put it back in, and after the two hours and charges than many different things. It's not all day long, and those about the were There are routes. If I must home, I can't allow my Children to play on the street. Andi, if I'm cooking in the kitchen, I will not allow my kids to play in the kitchen owner. If there's a room which is to stew called. I'm not allowed to play my kids there, So there must be rules the Candace Edward want to play, but with in I limits that I'm giving them, um, it's not freedom toe touch in your complete wherever you want to play whatever you want to play, there might be families who would not want the Children to play in the bedrooms. That's a cultural thing, and if it is, so that's OK. If the child knows Bedroom is that for playing, the bedroom is on for plain that shows it, but within the limits and the regulations they can choose. And this is what is called a child, um, and choice that is fit for a chopped a child size choice, as we might call it, the Children kind. Decide, um, within the frame. And that's the important free play is choosing from a choice which the ed your character has provided and that choosing from every choice that might be there in the world, that's not free choice. Even we don't have a full free choice where free choice have willpower, but we don't have every choice. Let's say I want to eat X Y said. Right now, I don't have this choice because that food is not in my kitchen, right? No. If I want to cook, it may have to go shopping first. Maybe I have to go to the bank first. Oh, whatever. Even in life, Free Joyce is unlimited, and our Children have to learn to accept the limitations and within the limitations to make a decision. And this is, I believe, very much what society all about. Let's say democracy. I'm having the choice. If I'm living in a Democratic state, I can choose freely for who I vote. But I can't you somebody was not on the list. Easy. Um, and there are many, many other things. I have a choice, but I don't have an unlimited choice. And why should we give our Children what we ourselves don't have? So we have to provide the limits within. The Children can choose, and it's very, very important. Number one, as we have to provide the environment, want you can move freely and also we were not disturbed by the way they move. So if we have to prepare the environment, but also we have toe set our own limits were We do not want our Children to. For example, I wouldn't be comfortable. My general will be jumping on my bed so I will not give them that choice. I'm not become for them if they play in my word room because I've been ironing my clothes so I will not give them that choice. And this is very, very important. But within what I have prepared, they can choose what when? True, how long? And we're 26. What is Montessori Material and why do we need it: what is Montessori material and why do we need it? Montessori material is just one part off the Montessori method, and while argument sorry developed is it is so that Children can have hands on learning and a very important saying says what I didn't have in my hands, I don't have in my brain. It's John Lok, who said that in the 18th century it's Omarama to sorry developed Montessori material based on the materials which have been developed earlier by two French men by the name off attire , and Seguin, who are working closely together because he tire was the teacher of signaling. She had read the works of these two Frenchmen, translated them into the Italian language, and she started making a materia space on what these two Frenchmen had developed on described in the works she made him and she developed them further and based on that foundation she developed further materials. So the criteria for months sorry material is that each material must have one distinct learning goal. Of course, there are several indirect goals connected to each and every material, but each material guides the child wants the further and the child is learning one saying one education goal with one material. And this also explains why there is such a multitude of materials out there because each materials just for one learning step and then Monty, Sir, mature must be portable by Children. That means the Children must have the opportunity to take the material their hands and carry it to the place where they want to work with it. This is very important because we're often a certain a spot in the room might be crowded or noisy on. The child was looking for quietness. In order to focus on something, we'll look for a different area in the room. This is why it must be portable. That doesn't mean that all the material a lightweight summer, quite heavy weight, especially because many of the matures and make from Beachwood on beechwood is quite heavy . And another one is Montessori. Materials must allow the child work with them alone by themselves. They don't need a teacher, the child is working with them and they don't need a teacher. Most of the materials are sell apps, a self explanatory that means looking at the material, seeing it display the child knows what to do with it. This is not true for every material, but for most materials it is another criteria which must be fulfilled is that the material must be beautiful. Beautiful does not mean that it has lots of ornaments on. It means that it well stretch it appealing, attractive, clean, complete and beautiful. In the sense that you look at the DNC. Wow, anyone to touch it. That is what material is has to be. If it's not beautiful, it's not want to some material, even if any company advertises it as that. No Montessori materials I, um, coming in five or seven listing categories, there are five main categories off Montasser materials. These are practical life sense, Auriol, language, mathematics and cosmic. And there are two other categories which is sometimes put into the cosmic area and sometimes being mentioned separately. And those are music and, uh, art Maria want to Sorry. Coming from Italy were Music is our is and has been there very important had a lot of materials developed for teaching Children about music and for the Children to develop a musical ear. So that's something important in the Montessori curriculum on for the next radius I want to explain to you step by step each and every learning category so that you will understand what is a net and what are the learning goals for those categories So you will know which were tested, Choose for your kicks. 27. Design as an Educational Tool: design on beauty, learning goals and design. We are tempted toe provide materials and an environment for Children, which is full of design off patterns like my place here today has a design on its a practical design, because if there is, um, some foods built on it, it cantrow easily. Um, and this is what is happening if we give material. Children, which have designs like my Blazer, has a design. It will prevent Children from seeing what's there are doing flowery design patterns, stripes, whatever it is, is taking the concentration off the child. That means is consuming the concentration of the child Children are still learning to see to see clearly. Oh, soon the smaller child, the more the child is focusing on small objects because he's learning to focus. So if you give Children material, which has designed like flowers or little bags and lady birds cute kid things, the Children will focus on the design and not on what they're doing. Let me give you an example. You want to provide a simple pouring exercise for the charts. The charges pour water. You're providing a tray which has a beautiful flower design you are using colored water because you learned in your Montessori class that when the water is color, the Children concede easily and focus more easily on the water. So you use food color to color your water for the child foreign exercise, and child is excited about the pouring exercise. What is happening will be the following. The let's say flowers on the tray will absorb concentration off the child from the water. Tow the trade, which means the chance of spilling water. For a small child, it's much higher than if the tray had a plane color. What's happening else is the design would prevent the chart from texting spilled water. Because the design is not peaceful, it's not comets, UH, has it's Ah, it's loud, it's noisy. It makes a child to watch closely, but still, the drop off water is not seen easily on a design on a pattern on the flower pattern. It's as if the water was part of the pattern, and this would prevent Children for controlling their arrows when they do such materials. Um, anything signed we use in the Montessori method has toe fit what needs to be done so it has to fit the learning goal. What? I mean, if I want the child to learn counting lets the chuck count something plain like thoughts, because the interest and the focus should be on the counting or on the quantity. I do not let the chart count flowers because even bringing in flowers, I want the chance to learn about flowers. Andi can't mix both because Children can only learn one step after the other. Um, so design can be there, do you? And only if it has something to do. If it is closely connected. It is directly connected with the learning go. Children are easily distracted. Everybody who has ever observed Children know that, and this is how we have to provide materials which allow the Children to focus. I would give one more example if I'm providing material with cars and pictures and maybe information on for Children to learn whatever want the child to learn. Um, the back off the cards must be plane because earlier than it's clear for the child. The information is on. The one is a one side. That's my information. That's what I have to look at. That's what I have to read and what I have to watch. That's what I have to observe. That's what have to match the back. The flip side must be playing. It could be played white playing green plane. Read whatever you like, but plain because if something let's say from the topic that you have provided for the child is on the flip side. That means the child will focus on both sides of all the cards, and this will create confusion and prevent focus on the learning goal. It will distract, and learning will be made harder or even impossible, depending on the personality of the kid. So let's say you want tohave material about snails. Interesting spring is coming and snails are starting to coming out, so you want the time to learn about snails. Don't put snails on the back off the material. Have it plain if you wanted green because mostly we observing snails in the grass or in the forest have it green. But plane, uh, do not put lots of different different small and tiny snails. Or maybe even comics clip art snails on the back because the child will be confused by that . Pachter, distracted from learning about the different types of snails, and I can't learn anything anymore. In the worst cases, if you put tiny patterns off what the child is learning in the front on the back and maybe all the tiny, tiny, tiny snails around the back, the child who is still focusing on small objects a lot well, maybe read about one type of snail, but focus his vision on a different type of snail. So please don't you ever use, um, flipped such which have design. Why we do that is just because we're used to seeing it like that. Many companies who provide cards, games with cards, material with cards, learn materials or what they call morning matures with carts very often prints designs on the back off the carts on because companies are doing it, we think that we are providing quality matures. If we do that. No, the quality matter is if we don't do it. So, actually, if you bought such cards to use them for your achievement, you should stick plane backs on the back off the court and laminate those cards again in order for the Children to really use those cards very well, 28. Control of Error, How it really works: control off a room. This is one of the very, very important principles of month. Sorry education. Montessori materials have more, mostly in build controls off Arab. These controls is era require from the student the child to be careful and to accept and respect all the requirements needed for working with a certain material. It does not mean that the control is becoming automatic. Also, the control of era is always connected to the nature off the material and fixing the era. That said, a child is making a mistake is always connected to the requirement and to the learning goal off the material. If any control of error is not connected to the learning, goes off a material that it's not a control of error in the sense off Montessori material. And it is always another control of era in the sense off educational value. What do you mean by that? The child is working with the sound cylinders, and the child has 46 off cylinders and a cylinders four red and for a blue and always one red and one lose a lender make the same sound on the child has to compare the sounds off the PSA lenders with its other order to match equally sounding cylinders. If those cylinders have members colored thoughts or letters on their backs so that the child could discover the letters and numbers, the signs or the color thoughts, this means the control of error is not connected to the learning goal off the material. And therefore, this is not an educational violet and valuable pressures. Um, learning, um, control of error. Mostly, what will happen is to live their intelligence sounds. Lenders are for small Children, so three years and up. But even those Children are intelligent enough to discover that there are colored dots or numbers. They compared the numbers on the colors and match the colors match. The numbers are matched, the letters or the signs, which are on the back off those cylinders, which means they're not learning the learning goal. They're not learning anything about something. They're not learning toe. Listen to sounds because they are doing the visual control. So visual control for something that is teaching about sound is against the learning goal, and therefore it's not allowed. Don't do it. What I'm doing if I'm having those sounds. Elinda spot from a shop and they print numbers there. I take sandpaper and I stand to them away. Now how is it correctly? Let's go back to the sounds of letters. The child has eight cylinders for red and for blue shaking, listening and matching. If, in the end, the child wants to match the last Pierre and finds out that the last year he thought was the last beer doesn't match, that means something in the beginning has been done wrong as the only four pierce with a tail enders, it's not so hard to read through the exercise until all the sound are sounds are matching. Two by two, they're always equal, and this is something you can require a child to do. It takes a little bit of patient, a patient's, but not too much and weaken. Really expect Children to do that. I want to give another example where the control of error is connected to the exercise. Let's say the child is doing a practical life exercise. Let's say the child is doing pouring off water. It's a pouring exercise on a tray. Now what would be a mistake when pouring water? The mistake would be if what Awas built. So if ever child is doing his pouring exercise of pouring water and spills water, what is the error control? The eyes of the child are seeing that there is water spilled on the trade and how to correct There must be a Spanish, our class for the child to wipe away dust built water. This is the natural, a raconteur and error control that we grown up. People would also exercise in our life in fine pouring water and I'm spilling it. I will wipe it away. And that's error control. The error control is connected to the activity. Um, I will give one last example to explain if there is a cards material where it shouldn't have to lay out cards. This could be a floor so called this could be any material that has cards with information on. Now, those materials are actually all the time, um, cosmic material. So the information written information is connected to the pictures on the carts. How could the shop himself, by himself, control if he or she laid them carts out in the correct way? Very easy. The child who is doing this type of cosmic material is reading the information on the cards and by understanding what he or she is reading. Comparing with the reading information written information, he's reading toe what is on the picture. So if the charges reading the flower is yellow and has called for deal, the child has to look for the yellow flower, which is the definitely, and those two are matched. Now, if it's ah circle or a material where all the flowers are yellow, the child has to read more in detail, and the information on the cards must be more detailed and has to say something about the shape off the leaves, for example, or the size off the flower. Or which type of yellow does the flower have. So the child is reading and matching information toe the picture. There must never, ever be any thoughts, numbers or signs at the back off the Kurtz, because thes will lead the Children toe, turn around the carts. And is that reading, comparing matching, concentrating on flowers or animals or whatever the materials about They would concentrate on the thoughts and numbers and science which have been made on the back off the material. These, um, controls of errors are making Children very lazy. Jalen will not learn anything. There will always look for quick solutions. And this has a very bad influence for the rest of the life of the kids because it will always look for quick solutions for everything. And there will be prevented, prevented from making an effort from trying harder. And in this we're learning more. So the error control. If I want the Children to read about flowers, animal sites, countries, provinces or whatever, I want the child to read, toe, understand and to soak in the information. I don't want the child to look for a quick solution because quick solutions never make learning. So this'll also has to do with discipline in general, uh, in our societies all over the world. But often we have the idea that we have to punish Children for disobeying or from making mistakes. And these punishments, which are being used all over the world, generally have no connection with the mistakes off the Children. What's happening? A child is carrying a tray with dishes, and the child drops the tray, and the dishes break generally was happening. Mommy is screaming at the kids for breaking the dishes. Screaming is not connected to breaking dishes at all. It has nothing to do on what the child is learning. When I am making a mistake, I'm being screamed, act screaming and swearing at. Children are violence. So what the Children are learning? If I'm making a mistake, violence is happening to me and we assume, er, beings Dr Run away from violence. Violence is not something we want, and it's not something we can handy. So if you're in are experiencing violence, even if it's only were barely, they will avoid doing any activities which might bear those consequences. Um, what would be disciplined, connected to the mistake? Let's go to the same example again. And the child is carrying a three with dishes, drops the tray, the dishes full down that they just break. Not a consequence. Must be fitting toe what happened, and also to the age and the responsibility a child could assume. Let's say it's a very small child, really wanted to help, really wanted to do his best Help Mommy and carry the trade. Maybe sets the table on Mother's Day or something. It's a small child. The consequence. The only consequence and therefore the only discipline matching ISS. The dish is broke. The child has to clean up the broken dishes. Of course. Don't collect them with a hand because, um, the child might hurt his hand kept his hand and half wounds and bleeding. But using a broom, um, and a shovel to please that the dishes would be a natural consequence. Watching Mommy cleaning up the dishes as the broken dishes from the floor sweeping them. It's not a consequence, because what the child is learning. If I'm making a mistake, money will fix it. And that's also not a good idea for teaching Children that. But the child himself has to clean it up, if ever. It wasn't done properly, and the mother is afraid that there could be some hidden small small pieces off the dishes . Then you could know was clean after the child, but without the child noticing it. So you have to be patient and wait. Was it The child knows you're cleaning up after him? The child was never clean by himself because he knows that you're being clean. You are cleaning, and also the child knows you are anyway not satisfied with what he's doing. So why should you make an effort? Um, if the child is older breaking the dishes? Um, and we considered a child wasn't careful. The child waas paying attention. Or maybe the child did it purposely. So if it's a more, much, much more severe crying, the natural consequence would be number one. Clean it all up and number two hi for new dishes from your pocket money or, if the child doesn't have money, were for money, so new dishes can be bought in this case, don't go to the store the same day or the next day and by the dishes you always wanted from your own money, because the child who was and learned anything from that, too. So control of error is closely connected to discipline at natural consequences off what the child is doing and what's the child needs to learn. Some materials might require that the teacher or the educators has an eye on the kid, what he's doing and the way he's doing. Does it matter? As long as you don't go there until the chunk there is a mistake because mystic is nothing . That's everything at nothing and doesn't mean anything. That's a word at some general that it has no meaning. But you could draw the attention of the child correcting himself. For example, he said, Oh, can't you read this for me? What does it say? Violet? Oh, and what's the color? Dear slumber? Do you draw the attention and ask questions, allowing the child to correct the mistake by himself? What you're doing is happen the charts to focus and understanding the requirements. Um, so this is something very, very important. Children who do not learn to control their own errors, Children who are not thought to pay attention to their exercises to whatever get doing and verifying the result of what you have done. They are not acquiring self discipline on that means in their life. There will always rely on other people, will do things for them or who will check after them. And that's not a very good idea at all. So make sure that the control of error in whatever exercises you let your child or Children do is connected to the learning goal. With the exercise 29. The Practical Life Area: the practical life area can be explained very easy in the practical life area, our everyday activities, things we do, we have not considered them either. We consider the work house work, for example, like washing the dishes and sweeping the floor are we don't even think about them at all, like brushing teeth. How dressing up things we do without thinking about them in a special way. Um, practical. I've activities are about movement about motor skills, cross and fine motor skills and about behavior in the practical life area. We have, uh, exercises of movement, like walking a line. We have very simple preliminary eggs exercises like hearing a tray rolling and unrolling a mat. And those exercises are very important to start with from the beginning so that the Children are able to function in the I want to Sorry classroom. Whether that classroom is at home are in a school or in the kindergarten dozen backed him. Children need those preliminary exercises. To be able to function in the classroom on the preliminary exercises are like rolling and rolling a mat, and you really practice it with small kids. Take the math out, found roll it roll it again and put it back because or let Children know how toe un role and pack the mat. They can work on a mat on only if Children feel confident enough to carry a tray or a tray with something on. They will feel confident enough to take the exercises out of the shelves and put him back to the shelves. And they're often we don't see Children being active in the classroom, even though they had the classroom has beautiful materials because they don't feel confident enough to take the things out and put them back, especially those Children come from. Families were not allowed to toe touch China, where, where they're being given plastic sayings to do where they're always being told you break it, pay attention, things like that and the those Children are not confident to take the things because they're being taught. Don't patch, not it come to you and you tell them touch. They wouldn't do it because the first lessons are is very strong within them. So you need to take those kids step by step off course. If you have kings which are older, our kids, which feel confident and you see that they can do those things you might demonstrated once , or you might want them to demonstrate it for another chunk, and then you as a teacher. Are you kidding? You know they can do it, so you don't need a lot of time practicing it. You need to know what is the come with our competences of each child, What is what a child can and what child can. So you stand. Don't start with from zero with each and every child ones you understand. What's the Montessori method all about? Practical life exercises? Um, come there often entrees. And when they are on trays, that means there are materials. What's the difference? A child wants to take the real broom to sweep the red kitchen off. Mommy, that is an exercise. The money must be there. They will do it together. It's a real work. Um, there is a sweeping exercise on a trade than it's an exercise. And what's the big difference Whenever there is a time off free choice labor, that means us and educate that you met the time when the Children can choose the work and then it can take up any of the materials and do them and practical life exercises come entrees very often and one activity on one trade so they'd take out one activity to practice one skill one movement, like pouring. And when you've pouring exercises, start with simple ones where nothing can be spilled and that would be pouring rice. Foreign rice is wonderful because rice flows out of a small picture. Makes a beautiful noise. If you color or die the rice, it becomes a very beautiful exercise, and Children enjoy that. When they can pour rice, you can let them. You can allow them to poor beings I lent. Is those also good to poor? Be careful, the beans might jump away. This is why I start with a rice is a good one. Millet or barley? Oh, our wheat. All right, they're all. They also make good pouring exercises when the Children can pour dry materials, then you will allow them to pour butter. But often you want to die the water with food color because it makes the water visible and one it's very visible. The Children can concentrate on that water much better than when you use regular, transparent water. The weight is every tray must have a possibility for a child to leave it clean for the friends, that means if you have a pouring exercise with water, there must be a small sponge stir. If water is being spilled on the trade, the child will wipe it away. And here is another purpose of the tray of the child spills something. It will be on the trade and not everywhere. Which makes killing up again very easy. We have spooning exercises, use different materials for spooning those could be stones. Little bells, rice, uh, beans off any kind of any color, Len tills There are a lot of things which can be spooned. Uh, sporting becomes easy if the material is not to light weight. So spooning pompons might be quite hard. But spooning pains is much easier. And so the material should be that the spoon must be able to you dig it in very well and spoon today to another bowl. Uh, we have cultural exercises, which means if you're in China, you might want to teach your Children to spoon. Yes, spoons are used all over the world and also trained the Muslims and the movement off them handler. Well, but if you're in China, you will have to teach you to knows how to use chopsticks. And it was a very interesting experience for me in China to find out they're much stark in the garden that did not have any materials with chopsticks. Seven though they were using chopsticks ST and it was so happy and relieved when it told not, that's perfectly fine. Montessori excess I So that's needed might not be very needed in Austria that we can use turns different types of tanks to transformative us from one pull to the other and pompoms met Pompons make a very beautiful town exercise because they're fluffy on when you use tweezers or times, you can easily grab them. But big materials like stones or plastic X can also be used that way. So we have spoons. We have trump steaks with Tang's. Oh, if you chuck can do that, let's say you have maybe even the child that is handicapped in the fine motor skills are not there at all. Maybe that's a child with a sensor integration disorder. You are any disorder that appears to fine motor skills. You might allow the kid to use their hands for transferring whatever they're transferring. So you have exercises doing with times a child that is not yet in his development so far can use their hands. But then no tongues must be on the trade. You can, um, have many out of different exercises from practical life. Like there are frames they're called dressing. Friends were ritual practice to close zippers and buttons and lace shoe laces, buckets of frame so did not have to stress. I have to finish it fast. I have to do it fast. They can practice peacefully and think mastered and then get ableto Celeste their own shoes . There are also frames for different ways of closing doors. There are, ah, lot off other practical life exercises, like arranging flowers in a vase. There are capping exercises where the Children practice to use scissors before we ask him to cut out something. And those, I was a very important. We have practical life exercises. Word is sue very small kids without using a needy weaving. Is was a practical life exercise, and then we have practical life exercises were Children glue. They use glue to do something so everything you will want to use. So as kill, the Children need tohave in order to function in the classroom or in the home for later practice, thus keel before hang in a practical life exercise. You want to do crafts with the kids that need to be able to cut, and they need to be able to clue. Have two or three different exercises. Would cutting two or three different exercises with gluing. And then the Children will enjoy the craft. Have prepared for the much more because they're able to do what you want them to do. So that is the practical life area. Of course, they're also exercises that teacher turned to care for themselves. They're fun exercises like fixing clips here. Clips. They were fined exercises like, um, white being off cleaning a mirror. What a practice, that skill that need to clean up bathrooms and windows. They also presented entrees. We have exercises that come comping hair. What if Children will come there here, their own here as a mirror there for them. We have cream put cream on your face, and there's a mirror on the tray where they can see if all the crate cream they put on their faces disappeared. We have exercises creamy off. You have your hands where we have hand cream, so everything you might think about what the child needs to be able to do. You can create a practical life exercise. Brady is There was a practical I've exercises, which will make easy for kids with three colors, and they could learn how to break so practical life exercises. You can have advised ideas to do them, but make sure the material is beautiful on the one learning. Go for one material on 13 No designs, no ornaments on. Make it simple, straightforward, well structured, self explanatory. And there should be some era controls of the Children can control their own errors and correct them by themselves. It is very, very important to teach kids to correct their own errors. So later in life, the willows of practice correcting the arrows if they make one instead of hiding them away or denying that have done, uh, any mistakes. So that is the practical life area 30. the Sensorial Area: we will now go to the sensory area. This is also very, very crucial area, because here the senses off the kid are being trained. Basically, Maria Montessori developed a lot of exercises. What shouldn't have toe patch something and feel something? This is something Manager miss out today, especially those kids who are growing up in the city because in the city we have no chance to touch things. We have no chance to go barefoot so Children don't feel anything, especially rough things. So Maria Montessori introduced lots of exercise isn't our exercises where they don't have to feel textures, and she starts it up with them smooth and rough boards when it shouldn't touch sandpaper on a board, and they will know the difference between smooth and rough and then that she has a grating exercise. Word is rough and not so rough and less rough and entire small, so Children are creating it. Then generally was have to say that in the sensory area, all the senses have being trained, and the sense or in material does involve a lot of movement. We have, since Orman materials for the eyes, for a visual sense, where the Children are being trained to see, but not just to see because they're born seeing unless they're blind Children. But we trained their visual abilities. We want them to see lots of color shades. We want them to differentiate. Shapes even would slide the Francis. We want him to differentiate lengths all with their eyes, just we want them to to cease ices. So that is about the visual sense. Then in the face was I have spelling sense and with the sensor mature were training the kids to smell and to recognize different others and to compere orders. So we're training the nose, which is always an important sense, and then taste the journal of being taught to differentiate onto computer different taste for the ears. The Children are being thought to compare sounds and to recognize sounds not on his sound. That sounds different pitches. Also, they're being taught to differentiate different pitches. Then we have the sense off pressure and resistance. So there's material what they can compare, how hard they have to press something and, yes, material what you have to compare, um, the weight, something just with their hands, not with us kill. There's material where you have, um yeah, weight resistance. Um, and also the textures is a draft. Is it smooth? But more than that, the different techstars also have different textures, and the Children are being taught to compare that. Generally we conserve. The Children are being led to compare something characteristics of material. Then it Descents or material. And the censoring material prepares from mathematics because the Children are being taught to compare ships. And, um, yeah, shapes scrambles and someone sends armature prepares for nature materials for cosmic matures because they've been taught to compare the shapes of leaves since our material compete prepares for language because they've been taught toe toe compares or into compare ships. And our letters have different shapes to so everything else which student will need to learn, and life is being prepared through the practical life area. This answer yes or these two areas. I, the foundation off all learning in the Montessori classroom feel free. Even if you're teaching, all the kids toe prepare. Um, practical life matures for them and since, or materials for them have them in the classroom and maybe the Children jump on them and start practicing I in order to make up for deficits which they have from their upbringing in very chance filled 31. The Language Area: No, we're going to the language area. We first have to say that all Montessori materials help to develop language really enough and well enough. But according to the understanding of Maria Montessori, the language materials a materials which contain either let this words a grammar, these three and they are being made or designed to teach the Children on 100 reading and writing. On the other hand toe analyze language that is grammar. So the language areas you have materials like sand people, letters, the movable alphabet are different materials for, um, understanding grammatical structures was have to understand that there is not one set of language materials because in English who have many more language materials because reading and writing English is a far more complicated in reading and writing German, for example, for net ical, languages like German literally in Kiswahili have less language materials than languages, which are not written for 90 college. So don't look for each and every language, materially and each and every language. Very even the sandpaper letters are not present in all languages. Why, because it's always the in German. We have 30 letters in English. You have 26 letters. But in Mandarin we have 90,000 letters actually signs, and they can't be put in 90,000 sandpaper, uh, tablets. That doesn't make sense. So the language materials vary depending on the language, which you want to teach you the Children. And that's very important because the way you used them and which materials they use furs in which you use. After all the various and the math of how you teach reading and right to Children. Also Berries, depending on the language, Don't you worry about the language area generally can be said that reading and writing are things which are being done in an intuitive boy, and once you have gotten a kid to do it into a different, you don't need to worry about reading and writing anymore. One more thing. Also, the grandma varies depending on the language. Jim and Grandma is different from being his grammar. Some languages have more grandma, some of less grammar, so languages are sold, the friends so the language materials, depending on the language you are teachings also greatly varies, and the math of that you apply also greatly varies depending on the language that you're teaching. But just bear in mind. Language area According to Maria Montez, sorry are let us words and grammars and of course, symbols that help us to remember us. 32. The Mathematics Area: now we're coming to mathematics most of the time. Um, it has been said that mathematics is not being needed in kindergarden. Oh, are forgetting the garden age, and this is not through a toll, because if we do not take care about the mathematical area early enough, we are deprived Children off the opportunity to to developed mathematical mind. As Maria Montessori said, it was after Bear in mind. Don't start too early because of mine is not get ready for it. This is why, after since our area which prepares the mathematical area since our Larry has a lot of geometry longer and short, the things it's sensory area helps toe organize the infrastructure on what is being prepared in the sensory area is being needed for the mathematical area later. So whereas you start with a since a really area with a two year old child, he will not start generally with the mathematics area with a child younger than four years . Most of the time, they're right. Exception pseudo rule. But exceptions are exceptions, and you don't have 10 exceptions among 20 Children. That's very important for you to consider, so mathematic materials have been correct the rise by having numbers on by allowing you to use them in order to calculate with them. They have brakes or fractures, and you may be something for weighing or something for measuring. And those materials are also very, very, very many because, as we said in the very beginning, the Montessori materials each material has one learning Go and madame Ethic is such a complex system that you need a lot of materials in order to teach the kids step by step, one step at a time. One step one material. And this is why manager and find mathematics so hard, especially in the Austrian school system, because we're teaching mathematics in there fast pace, we start very late. We don't give them something. Hands on that. You don't understand what they're doing and also would teach them several steps at a time. And that doesn't work. Definitely. I'm not a problem with mathematics is the one that you know. I'm not seeing the numbers. How much is one? How much is, too? They can't imagine it, and they can't deal with it. Most of the kids, so around four years of age would be a very good time to serve the mathematic materials. And remember, it's those that have numbers quantity that allow you to calculate that you can use to measure or dwell that contain fractures or, um, yeah, that's it. That's actually so it's quite easy. But in spite of being so easier to recognize, remember, But domestic materials don't stop in kindergarten, then don't stop in primary school, Meriem Ahtisaari has mathematics materials, even for complicated things, which Children store gearing in secondary school or even academy. And she was. She developed those matures fortune to see what they actually being taught or what they actually do it. So that's a good news for us who are not good in mathematics. This will help us. This will allow us to learn, because we will understand. 33. Cosmic Education : So we're coming to the last and most important and the most the largest category. And this cosmic education cosmic application is dealing with Where do I come from? Worldwide belong. What's my role? And the cosmos? Who am I? So it deals with history weren't come from it deals with religion. Where I come from, who are my culture? Geography? We could summarize saying, Um, cosmic education is bioenergy. Geography, history, religious, education, physics can mystery political science and peace education. Um so it also is a lot with my role in the world and at the same them. This is the area that has all the scientific knowledge. Maria Montessori made it to be just one category because all those are connected between each other, like history and geography. You want to learn about, um, the old empire off the Egyptians? You need geography worries Egypt and his streak. What happened then? But maybe you're telling the story off. Joseph The Bible story of Joseph You will immediately need the Bible, geography and history. So as those areas are all connected to main Toby, just one learning category. This doesn't make it less important. The chest that's just a showing and appreciating how these areas are connected. Music very often is also counted among the cosmic education. Some people for did a port the same with art most of the time being considered to be part of the cosmic area. But some people still are located off as being as are part of it. And then there was one important part of the cosmic area, and that is peace. Education. Mariam want to sorry herself experience to world wars. She was a refugee in India and, um, she definitely experienced what it means, what war is all about. And she was against war and she was really trying to stop where she was trying to educate people. She did speeches, seminars, publications, four piece. And she did so much in this area that she waas nominated for the peace. No big price Two times in her life. She never got the price because we can imagine right off the World War two There are so many freedom fighters and resistance fighters, people who I helped Jewish citizen to escape death that those got those prices. Not her was being a refugee herself, but just being nominated shows Ah, how much people estimated the value off what you did concerning training and educating for peace. Something there often is. It is from God. But we should really think about it that we should train our Children for peace and not for war. And then we do Monte. Sorry, education. 34. The Importance of Nature : I want to talk about the importance off nature for the development and education of Children, Maria Montessori said. The best prepared environment is a forest that is, nature is the best prepared in government. God prepared it, and it's better than anything we could ever do. So we have two seater that Children are outside in nature, as much and as often as possible. Being in nature is helping the Children with the practical life skills. Um, being out in nature is helping them with a cosmic education. With the movement and with their using and developing senses, let me go into a little bit off details. Walking on a flat ground, like on a tiled floor are on a tomahawk road. Is not training the Muslims and Sinuses off the feet as the US walking on uneven ground, like hiking or in a forest When it's up and down, that is, training the Sinuses and the masses off the fit in a completely different way, and if you want, gets tohave healthy feed and to develop healthy, healthy feel if you want them to develop, um, even walking to be really ableto work, you have to walk outside off Tamberg roads and paved the wanes. Uh, Children who work only on straight ways Let's say in gymnastic holes or whatever do will never, ever be able to really work very well because as the difference between just walking and really having their muscles and feet straight for working cause need education about all the plans and all the animals outside, of course, uh, and movement and fresh here is what is those being provided outside? So to say I am doing Montessori education and I'm not going out. It means that I haven't understood anything we cannot overestimate. Nature is providing the Children with, ah, lot off sensory stimulation which can on be have provided indoors All the smell and sound of a forest singing off the birds and the smell of the different plans is the especially cannot be provided indoors, no matter how hard you try and then also, um, being out in nature is not about especially with small Children, about hiking with hiking boots, and they won't feel anything allowed him toe cry, allowed him to climb, allowed him toe touch, allow them to collect as much as the touch is developing their senses. off patch. As much as the climb is developing their strength, the mask please, and that's kills. So nature is the number one environment. You should expose Children to, to develop the sense of smell hearing, but also seeing because in a forest or in the field, they have so many shades of green as you can never be able paint inside and provide inside the changing sky, Sun said. There is so many shades of colors and so many shapes, so provide as much nature out door nature as possible for your kids. 35. The Wordless Lesson : I My remote sorry Developed two main pipes off lessons and those lessons A mainly applied to small Children that is 0 to 6 years old. Um, sometimes you might still apply with all the Children, but generally bear in mind. Those are for smaller Children. The first type of lesson I want to talk about is the world less lesson worried less doesn't mean that you are completely Saarland. Wordless means that you use a minimum off words. It means you want the child to focus on the action. Worthless lessons are being used for practical life things. You want to show the child how to do something and you don't need any technical explication . You want to try to focus on the action and on the material and concentrate on it so that the child would be ableto copy from what you're doing. If you're showing something how to do something to annul the child, you might still want to use the word less lesson. You talk to the child when you do the words as lesson, but as little as possible. Don't use unnecessary words. Don't use words that have nothing to do with what you're doing like I want to show you something looking so nice. And, you know, yesterday I did at the other end, and the doctor took why you do something and the child will look at you. Listen, what you say but will not look at what you're doing. That's right, Parton. When you want the child toe, see how he should do something and you want the child to do what you are showing him. Don't talk as much as possible, so I only what is necessary. That is the word listless. And, for example, you will draws it. Do it slowly. Look to what you're doing. So that's so it pours into it and always use positive Langdon's So you don't spare because the job will here speak, you say to pour it directly into it. So use always positive language, use the language to focus on the material and on the action. And that is the wordless lesson 36. The 3-Period Lesson : the second very famous way off. Teaching kids Marie Motus are developed and described and taught is the so called three period lesson. The three period lesson, um, is mainly for Children to learn. Works now downs off things. Animal places and so on. Now are the most important words of our language on the Children. Need toe Learn each and every now a Merima decide developed this lesson out of office, observing the kids What do Children, too, when they're very small and the language is very limited. There's a points to something on what you should do as a teacher, you say. What? The name off, What's the chances? 20 yet and Merima to Sorry, used this observation in development. This three parent lesson. Let's say you want to teach your child about animals, and I chose something very easy. Very simple. You have that and you start with only one thing. First you say Seabra zebra. This is a zebra. That's the first period you name. What do you want? The child's too learn second period recalling. Can the child remember the name? What's that? No, that's too early. That would be the third period. Don't do it. So second period, you showed a chump and see. Can you show me this zebra and give the child does this or says this is the Seabra. Anyone without speaking or with speaking? You know the child understood what you want. What do you want? Teaching. And now and only now you go to the third period and you ask, What's that? And if now the jazz are is answering zebra or this is as Seabra. Anyone is fine after one thing can be act Steve Lee named by the kids. You can introduce a second thing when you after two things. Yes. Show me the zebra job. One point to this. Show me the juror off when the child can distinguish us. What's that? Seabra Once then zero and said to her So first period zebra. This ISS as zebra naming second period Recalling Can you show me the sea breath? Yes, that's the zebra. So period recognition. What is this Zebra? Yes, that's a zebra. You can do it with three things. Whatever you want. The Chancellor. The child is learning so fast. You can use five, but generally don't do more than five at a time. it will be too much a burden for the kids. And then also remember, we're doing this three period lesson with very small Children so they cannot concentrate for a long time when sitting down. So you want to have maximum five on, then you're allowed a child to go and play the now with that, if the child is not so fast learning very, very fast, you use movement, we said many times movement is some part, and so you use movement and here's the movement. In the second period, you let the child play, especially also when you have shy Children using music. Can you put the zebra close to the flower part? And then she had put this temperatures sort of lower part. Can you put the gear off close to the book corner and the child carried is that you're after. And while the child is having that animal in the hand, the child will remember Zebra, zebra, zebra, zebra, one year after year. Richard. Be sure if and the world way stay in his mind as he moves so you can use it, Um, an action game where the child is putting the things in different cornice. Please don't forget. You have to call the child to bring the things. But can you bring the zebra front, the X Y said Corner. Can you bring the general from the ex wives that corner or place? Said the and you have all those things again in your hand. When you do like an action game, you can do it with two or three kids also at at the time, so it will be even more fun. And these three period lesson is wonderful for learning vocabulary, either in the first language or in a second land, which you want to get to learn. So if the know already, let's say in your zebra they might want to learn French and it's Zabel, and I wouldn't make it a language lesson. I can teach them a second language. Zieba de Belleville is there, but the key is in on the Children carried that zebra into the kitchen. Whatever the language, you want the kid to learn and that the language lesson. And you can use this repaired lesson also for teaching a second language. And that's a very powerful toe 37. What are Human Tendencies: for the next topic. I will use my notes a little bit, so I don't forget anything I want to tell you. The next thing I want to tell you is what Maria Montessori called instincts. Her son, who was her assistant during her lifetime and to continue the work of education and training courses after her death, called it human tendencies. But it's just the same. Human den minces means what every child is inclined, um, to do or wanting to do now. Why to do are wanting to do, because that depends on the opportunity and very often we as adults and especially now very modern and digitalized world. We deprive Children off the opportunity to do things and to be defined themselves. So there, after we don't see them, exercise those tendencies even though they are within them. We have toe really consider that our world is already very, very unnatural, and it's actually not child friendly. But if given the opportunity, Children would be doing those things by themselves. And if we know what are the instincts, the natural instinct of Children, what they would be doing if only they had the chance to do it? that means for me as a teacher. I bear it in mind when I prepare the environment for the kids because if I have it in mind , have in mind what they will need to do, what they will want to do, I'll prepare the space. I prepare my everything so that they have the chance to do it by themselves. And in this way I enhance the transit motivation for whatever they're doing. Because if they do it from themselves as we have discussed before, it would be so much more effective. So the first, uh, instinct are human tendency is orientation. Where do I fit in? Where am I? And this has a lot to do with a structured environment. So Children who are growing up in in structured environment and then no, this is the kitchen. This is the bathroom. This is the play room. This is the kitchen garden. And this is the play garden. This is the playground. This is the street. Um do. It was so much easier for them to follow rules. But when it's not well structured, it will be so hard for them to follow the rules because because they don't have orientation . Children always want orientation, orientation in time, orientation in space, orientation concerning rules. This is what was the Children asked. Are we yet there when we're driving with them? Some work Children need orientation on the wanted, and they look for it. So let's try to give them this orientation and something that I've really, um, become very much aware off with my own Children. I don't just a stand of Let's let's do this. I'll tell them ahead of time in order to give them orientation in a few minutes for in 15 minutes you will need to stop playing because he will need to dress up and we will go wherever we're going. So I give them orientation. So when I go there and tell them now you have to dress up, they are ready for it. The second human tendency is order, um, inward or no outward order leads. Toa inward board is a very well structured environment and orderly and need environment needs toe in word order and in what order is also peace. So that's a normal human tendency. Every tenancy, every instant can be destroyed. Uh, it can be shut down. Closed down. If we're educating Children contrary to their instincts, that's possible. Very possible. Even I don't wise there wouldn't be any messes in the world. But this is natural, and if we know it's not sure we will help the gym to develop what it's natural. For them. The 3rd 1 is something which burn off the appearance do not like and they're often periods of being ashamed off its exploration. Children want to know the environment and the one to explore it by himself. One. Um, the thing we see little Children doing is even if they're not working, they're crawling, crawling around wherever they are because they want to explore the environment. If they are able to work, they will walk and they will run the ones explorer, the environment, the want explore the world around and Children us so curious. If you stop them, you make this natural instinct to die down. And then you have People are maybe traveling to Egypt, but the only thing they have ever seen Waas the pool in the hotel on and the buffet in the hotel and a lot of people are there. They are in beautiful, interesting countries, but they never see anything off the country because their sense of exploration has bean shed, though the next human tendency is communication, communication can be verbal and non verbal communication can be also written, and this is a human attendants in natural human tendency. We want to communicate. We're listening to our kids. Are we having time to listen to them? Do we give them answers to the questions? Do we give them signs that you have heard them? This is how we can help the Children to develop this tendency ever more and people who are able to communicate very well. They can get very far in their life because they will also have people to connect. The will help with group dynamics in wherever they are. So this is a very pardon, human tens and very important for many jobs, especially for mothers, especially for women, especially for teachers. For many, many other things, communication is so, so, so important. The next one is activity. People want to be active. Activity is a sign off life. People who are inactive I did that's so hard. But corpses are inactive. They don't do anything, they're dead. But as long as we're life, we need to be active. That's natural. And that's necessary. And Children want to be X. Parents want to turn to be passing the one them to sit down and be quiet. The school system wants Children to be passive. Sit down, keep quit. Listen. But that is against the nature of the child and this depressed child Off the opportunity to learn, we have to burn in the mind that shouldn't have to be active. My knee deep relation Don't that stuff? That's what we tell kids very, very often. Don't touch it, but you don't need toe patch. It is natural for people to handle things. So when you have something in your in your hand you want handling, you will touch it. You will have it in your man in your hand and do something with it. This is why you see people who are playing with a bullpen they have in their hand, for example, are people who are doing something with their hands on. Their bodies are in the pockets all the time because people need to many pally, so naturally, people want to use their hands to do things, not wanting to do their to use the hands is completely entirely against how we human beings are being made. We should bear in mind if you want to educate Children, they need to be active with their hands. That's an absolute must. The next one is work through work. We construct ourselves. We develop ourselves and we gain self confidence for what we do. This is why Maria Montessori quote all the play of Children worked. Playing is the work of the kids, she said. We human beings, we construct hours of through work. Um, honestly, I became a teacher through teaching, and that's just a matter effect. I started teaching because before long before I started to train as a teacher, I constructed myself through that, huh? And many other people do that, Um, they love doing things, and then they become what they love doing. And that's good. Not always. We become what we love doing. My mother loved to net, and she didn't become a professional knitter, but she loved to do it, and it was part off her personality to do that for us. So work is important and, um, one word about work. It's like X T V T. People want to work as long as their life and when they don't want to work anymore. Old people. I mean, we should be very much worried for them as long as they left, work and handle things and do things and clean up, even though they're not very successful because they already very weak. No need to be worried about them there, alive and well. If they become tired of working, then we have to start being worried. For our senior citizens, it's another human tendency is reputation. Children are especially keen for that. They repeat and repeat and repeat and repeat the same thing all over again. On there is a very famous story where Maria Montessori observed the little girl and was doing the same activity, Uh, so many times. And she wouldn't want to be disturbed no matter what Maria Montessori tried, do disturb with together with the other kids. Repetition makes mastery. That's a saying. We say So repetition is important now. You might want to say, I don't like repetition. Actually, we all do. If there's something we enjoy, we want to repeat it. For example, I enjoy eating whether people I want to repeat it again. Of course, I don't want to repeat dressing up because I'm doing it every day without thinking about it . Already. Master it, but for other things. I love to repeat it and you're reading, so I want three again tomorrow. Repetition is very, very important for kids, for kids is what will make them to master whatever they are doing. And now there's something you will also wonder about a lot. It's exactness, perfection, Um, exactness. We don't want it to do it more or less as human beings who want to do it really do it. And this is why there are many people say I don't want to do that. I want to focus on what I'm doing because what they do, they want to do it very way. For me that was assigned. Why? Why many people, um, enjoy accounting? Because accounting is something exactly me. I don't enjoy accounting, but other things I'm doing, I want to do it really, really, really well. And do it precise when I'm cutting something, I wanted to be well cut. I don't want to do it. Do it to look, Look, I want to look it. It's to look good. And many, many people will try toe teach to address how to do things in a precise way. And Children are greatly disturbed when things are not really right or really straight. Children put things in line. They put things in order. They like the sort things. All those are signs for their instinct for exactness. Another human tendency is obstruction, obstruction. That's a lot about sinking. Um, it's a lot about planning obstructions above. I have something in mind, a plan for it. I do it. That is what is being meant. So obstruction would be for Children when the one child would say to another child, Let's play X Y sent and then get a chance, Yes, but we need someone else. We need to be three or four. They're planning together in their mind on what they have been planning and imagining their mind. They're now put it into practice. That's obstruction form, For example, this online course I'm doing, I've been thinking about that. I've been imagining it, and I have tried to find out how I could be doing it, and now that's what I'm doing. And then perfection. We wants to do our best normally, and this is also a lot about industry. Intrinsic most motivation. When we do something from extrinsic motivation better after we don't do it toe the very best can. For example, when is it? Oh, really? I have done a lot of worker than a lot of teaching and now I'm a home. Let me take time to do my garden. I do it from my heart because I want toe enjoy doing that. I'll start doing and doing and doing. I will not look at the time. I wonder when the sun set sets and it's already dark. I do it with enjoyment because off the action and do it perfectly. I wanted to be perfect and I will try again and didn't do it. Well, what can I do to make it look better? But often when we do our homes, oh doesn't look well like this. Let me do it again. Let me try another one. Let me try another one. Like the last time we were pushing around some furnitures in our house and my husband chairman, like this said No, let's try it again and we pushed and reports. And we pushed until both of us were happened. It was perfect the way you wanted it. Generally, people want to be perfect. This is why we repeat. This is why we practice pieces. Why we learn. So those are all of them are natural. Human tendency is a want of chest, um se no one but one again so that you can remember them very well. We have orientation, order, exploration, communication, activity, manipulation, work and repetition. We have exactness, obstruction and perfection. 38. Development of the Senses , as an example taste: taste as an example for the development off the senses. When Children are born, newly born babies, their senses are there. They have all their senses. They have a sense of touch to have the sense off, uh, seeing vision. They have the sense of smelling, tasting, hearing. All senses are dear and they are ready to be used very working there, ready to be used. But they're not well developed enough. The abilities off perception how well a child can distinct or a person can distinguish sounds or shape or patch depends on the training. And here I first give an example that we all know and we all wonder about. Have you ever tried to go with your fingertips over Bry, right. Think I have because I wanted to know. How do blind people read? And if I go over it, I feel something rough. But I have found out I will not be able to read it. Why? Because I'm relying on my eyes in spite of my very strong eyeglasses. I said, remember, rely on my eyes for reading, and this is why I never trained my fingertips to be so sensitive. In order to be able to read right writing the blind person. But the person is born blind or is applying to to sickness Or next Student cannot rely on his eyes for reading anymore and has to train his fingertips in order to read. If a person is doing that, he's able to do what I can do. So training the senses really works and can bring about wonderful results. Now about the Bry writing, there's something else. If the chart. If a child is blind, let's say from birth or at the very early age, the child will find it very, very easy to learn how to read and write in Bry writing very easy. If it happens to the person later in life, it might be impossible for a person to learn it because, uh, the development of senses already accomplished. This is why there are so many for your libraries for elderly people who lose their eyesight and they're not able anymore to develop the senses to such an extent. And this is what makes the whole issue so serious for us. Children need to develop their senses very, very early in life, and if they develop the senses early in life. It will stay with them for life. If they don't, you will never develop them again. But naturally from birth, we all have the same possibility. Off development. Some sensory training is ethnic, and I want to give an example from colors. Did you know that there is a people which lists in the South American jungle, and they have 37 different words Names for green? We have green, my printer coring on the screen, four quarts that greatness and blue. I'm not sure so have missing five words. Six. Work seven words for green and when I'm not even sure whether something is like our dark are early, but they have 37 different words and a C green, and they call it by its really proper name, because the Children who are born dear, grow up with training their eyes to distinguish different shades of green in such a marvelous way as we can't even imagine. Now, in another part of the word I live in people who see a lot of snow and snow is white, and these people have more than 30 different names for what Now that's odd because we have just white. There's no dark white. There is no light whites there is. Cream is actually not white. We have just one color and whites, whites tow us. But to then White has many, many different names because they see different qualities off white and in name the minute different name. Whether we learn from that training, the census has toe happen very early in life. It has to happen until maximum five years of age. It is connected to training and education, which means that it's our responsibility. Has educators so training the senses we have to provide for it. We have to guide it on. We have to purposefully plan for it. I will now give an example. And how, uh, is the inboard says. And how does Sense has to develop? And that would give an example from Paste. We do that with our mouth with our tanks generally, huh? We develop taste very early in life, and I can prove that that's very easily because if you meet Chinese people anywhere in the world, most of them we prefer Chinese food to let's say European food because they have learned to appreciate it early in life. Um, Italian people will prefer Italian food. Turkish people prefer Turkish food and so on, because I have learned to appreciate these types of food because I have learned to like it . If you took siblings or twins and had them abducted in different parts of the world. Where there's different food, one will come out liking or loving. It's Italian food, and the other one Chinese food pace is being learned, and we know it No to get on board with being able to taste different tastes like sour, bitter, salty and sweet. But they're naturally inclined to prefer sweet toe any other taste that is, uh, put into the Children at birth because mother's milk is the best food for newly born babies . That mother smoke iss sweet. So the food, which is best for the kids by nature. The child prefers this taste toe any other face of the world that is put into the child's genetics every Charleston and everywhere in the world. In order to make sure that the child laughs the food, which is best for the child for grown up people, Mother Smith is not the best food, so we have to grow out of thes pace. And as Children are all born to parents into societies and inter families, Hiss families have the responsibility to try the pace of the Children in order to love what is best for them when they grow out of the age off the best. For them being mother's milk, we have to teach them to grow out of the edge off preferring sweet toe other tastes. We have to teach the Children to love different types of taste. Children who appreciate hula, who enjoy different tastes off different foods and sure to enjoy a variety of foods which would provide them with a healthy lifestyle concerning food. Because if we trained Children to love and enjoy different types of fruits, etc. Bananas, apples are ng's coconut and so on they will have enough white means. If again, we helped him to enjoy a number of different vegetables to make those paprika cucumbers, kill me a squash and so on. This is providing with a lot of other nutrients and cereals and nuts and legumes. If we don't take up this responsibility, the Children will go on loving sweet every child would in this world, and this can have very, very bad results in the life of the child because eating more sweet than other foods is very harmful to health. So the sense off taste must be developed and it must be trained. Now. How long does it take? Uh, research. Just tell us that a child has to try any type of food at least six times before the child will enjoy it. Thank it means you want the child to enjoy spinach. The child has dry. It's a little bit at least minimum six times before the child will enjoy. Test the same with bread, paprika, black bread, brown bread, whatever. A child has to try it for many times before being ableto eat it and enjoy it. So now what is through foot? Taste its three. True, for seeing colors with mentioned that that you have to train the child, the child has trained seeing colors. Uh, it is something that child has to do by himself because it's not your senses. It is his senses, So the child has to do it. It's about seeing shapes. It's about seeing sciences links. It's about different others. Being able to perceive others is about patch feeling the surface, different textures, off surfaces. It's about feeling shape that's called stare a plastic sense being able to detect whether it's a prison. Oh, are. And you have the shape or acute. It's about weight. Is how heavy is it? Is this heavier? Is this heavier? This is also a sense pressure. How much pressure to toe apply more or less anything which is being perceived through senses must be trained, and this is the condition for any ever and all other learning later in life. What has not been in the senses will not be in the brain and cannot be learned. So Children were not being trained toe. Appreciate Matt. Compare flowers, leaves, threes, birds. It will be close to impossible. Impossible. Formulate them, lying to learn about those birds and trees and flowers and so on. Biology will be hard for them. The same with any other things. Which arm? It'll be perceived through the senses. So sensory trailing sensory education is the condition for our learning later in life. 39. The Importance of Rules: rules should there be rules? Are rules important to Children? Needles? Yes, rules are very, very important for a safe natural balance. Goods development off Children It's silly, Grant. I'm not having rules to follow. They will keep on provoking the teachers, the educators, the parents, whoever they are with. We're tryingto break what they think might be a rule in order to find up. Where is the rule? I want to explain this more closely. Rules give safety, security and orientation to Children. Rules apart off order on orderly life. An ordered life and order justice orientation are basic human needs off all human beings. We need those rules. Help us to organize our lives, our relationships. I work and the society. So we need them. We want to know what is the rule Listening to the news when near rules or new laws are coming up, people are asking questions. How exactly do I have to do that? How exactly will be survived. Those are grown up people. Those are rules of society. But people want to know how exactly, to follow how exactly to do it. So rules are giving safety and rules are helping us to work together very well. So Children need rules. Schavan neither rules more than we do because we've grown people. We have a lot of rules in our lives which we learned giving childhood, which are laws of the country. We have to observe which maybe maybe orders by our boss how to do things, what to do and so on. Um, maybe we have some rules for our own lives that say, every day I'll go jack him for 20 minutes Could be my own personal rule. But Children don't know about laws. They have no past where they could have acquired rules and the if we're not giving them rules, they don't have orientation and they're not feeling safe. So if you want to turn to be safe, give them roots and give them rules which are being obsessed all the time. If the rules are to many and if the rules don't make any sense, then you as appearance or you as a teacher will not be able to secure that These rules are being kept. Always drop them. It's just too much think about which rules are really important for the child. And even if the charges only one year old. Imagine if the child is five years old and asked to Mommy, Why did you give me this rule when I was one? You should be able to explain it in a reasonable way to the kid. Why that rule was important for him. The rules must make sense. Don't give them out of because you want to have peace. A rule can never be because somebody needs peace or somebody needs quiet. That's not a role that's useless, because the rule has to make sense in the life off the person for who the rule applies. Um, it must provide more safety and a better life for the person for who the rule applies. Otherwise, people will not keep those goods. Um, a lot of rules. Too many rules are confusing. So limits the number of routes, Merima Disorders said. Everything that will harm or hurt and not any person or another person that's myself or another person must be forbidden and stopped. So that's a very easy way to remember which rules could be making sense. Whatever is harming myself or another person was ever is harming anybody or hurting anybody is entirely and totally forbidden on that's low. Those rules are about health. Best time dressing up well enough for the way them, um, food. Don't eat chocolate for breakfast, lunch and dinner because it's harming. It's hurting you, but it's also about behavior. Don't say bad words don't beat. I'm losing the negative language to make you understand in a very easy way. So in this way, because I was the rules that we can easily explain my wife, I have Jack let for lunch. I can explain it. Maybe my tell is too slow to understand. I will explain in simple ways. Eating chocolate for lunch will hard your body, and I want you to be well and healthy. This is why we're eating broccoli. Positive, simple, childlike. Much of the 16 say I want to chocolate for for lunch and said Yes, stirring the problem if you want to have pancreas cancer and diabetes, if you want to go over weight, no problem. But I think as long as you're living on the my birth, I am responsible for your health, and this is what we are eating broccoli. So that's a much more complicated and sophisticated explanation. Same rule different explanation. Um so rules are preventing people from hurting themselves and others. People are grownups or chicken. Um, Maria Montessori also said have rules as few as possible, but have every rule you need as many as needed as few as possible. That is, to make it simple for Children. If you're 1000 rules what to do, what what not to do? The child would forget wouldn't haven't over here, It's too much, and it doesn't make sense. That's also not good. Make sure rules are being followed and make sure that consequences for not following the rules are connected with what is not being filed. And such consequences could be very easy. You don't need drama for it. You don't need screaming for it. You don't need shouting at your kids. You just need toe carried out. Let's say I cooked the spinach court a spinach and let's see rice on. The child doesn't want to eat the finish, but only the rest. Being the mother. I know the child needs vitamins and then some other stuff, which is in the spinach. So I said, Darling, I haven't given you much spinach because I know you don't like it. So much for the little I've given you. You need to eat for the well being off your body. Child refuses to eat. OK, if you're not hungry, that's not a problem. I'll keep your spinach, but this Take this plate with the spinach, cover it depending on the weather. Put it in the fridge or put it on the covenant. Cover it well, so no flies or something will get getting. And then, Chuck, I'm Suzy. Mommy, I'm hungry. You give exactly the same plate to the kids, so ever since being Henry means I have to finish my lunch food first, let's say the chanson not hungry and dinner is coming along. Maybe you'll have bread and foods for the other change, but this chance. Since it didn't finish the lunch, you will give him a spinach. Say you'll get your dinner after you're finished. Your lunch so easy of the child is still refusing. In one of the cases, just cover up the food again, Say okay, I can see you're not really hungry. We're just having some appetites. That's not a problem. Happens to meet you, but we don't have to follow our appetite we eat when you're really hungry, take the food away again, I assure you. 100%. There was no child in this world which will start after the third time trying out to get something else but the spinach. Chocolate, the spinach with great appetite. There's one condition. The food you give the Children must be tasty. Why prepared and look appetizing? If it looks at Leigh, don't expect Children to eat if it's not well prepared in 1000 taste. Well, don't expect to Children to it. Two. That's your mistake. Another mystic off the kid so every rule. Think it over very, very well.