Understanding the A-Z of 3D Printing | The Learning Hub | Skillshare

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Understanding the A-Z of 3D Printing

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (39m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. General explanation of 3D printing

    • 3. 3D printing procedure

    • 4. SLA - Stereolithography

    • 5. DLP - Digital Light Processing

    • 6. Laser Sintering

    • 7. Extrusion or Fused Deposition Modelling

    • 8. Inkjet Binder Jetting

    • 9. Inkjet Material Jetting

    • 10. SDL - Selective Deposition Lamination

    • 11. EBM - Electron Beam Melting

    • 12. 3D printing materials

    • 13. 3D printing applications

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About This Class

In the 20th century, no other invention affected the mankind more than technology did. With the advent of computers in 1950s and internet in 1990s, the fundamental way of doing things has through a massive change. These technologies made our lives better, opened up new avenues and possibilities and gave us a hope for the future. But it generally takes decades for an ecosystem to be built across a particular technology to take it to masses and achieve the truly disruptive nature of that technology.

It is widely believed that 3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM) has the vast potential to become one of these technologies. There is a lot of coverage on 3D printing across many television channels, newspapers and online resources. Now What really is this 3D printing that some have claimed will put an end to traditional manufacturing as we know it? Revolutionize design and impose geopolitical, economic, social, demographic and environmental and security implications to our everyday lives.

What will you learn - General explanation of 3D printing, 3D printing procedure, Various types of 3D printing processes, Materials & Applications.

What this class does not cover - How to 3D print.

No prior experience is required since this is an introductory class to 3D printing itself. No software requirements as well. Just a kin & curious mind & you are good to go.

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The Learning Hub

The stuff of life.


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1. Introduction: Hello and welcome. In this introductory class, you'll get to know about the E to G of 3D printing. The class approach is divided into five ms or milestones. First is the general explanation of 3D printing, which will focus on establishing the fact that 2 D printing is indeed an additive manufacturing process. Second is the 3D printing procedure, which would involve 3D design, slicing and 2D printing. Third is the types of 2D printing enrich. Various popular types of 3D printing processes are discussed like steed only tomography, DLP are distant light processing, FDM, fused deposition modeling, and many more. Fourth is the 3D printing material discussion. Here, we will get to know the different types of 3D printing materials used in the market. What are the future prospects and which type of material is apt for various processes. And lastly, 3D printing obligation from medical sector to automobile, to clotting and fashion through the printing is almost everywhere. The only thing that is not covered in this class is how to 3D print. 2. General explanation of 3D printing: In the 20th century, no other invention affected the mankind more than technology did. With the advent of computers in the 1950s and internet in 1990s, the fundamental way of doing things has gone through a massive change. These technologies made our lives better, opened up new avenues and possibilities and gave us a hope for the future. But it generally takes decades for an ecosystem to be built across particular technology to take it to masses and achieve the truly disruptive nature of that technology. It is widely believed that 3D printing or additive manufacturing has the vast potential to become one of these technologies. Now, what really is this 3D printing that somehow clean, we'll put an end to traditional manufacturing, as we know it, revolutionized design and impose geopolitical, economic, social, demographic, and environmental implications to our everyday lives. The most basic differentiating principle behind 3D printing technology is that it is an additive manufacturing process. And this is indeed the key because 3D printing is radically different manufacturing method based on advanced technology that builds up parts additively in layers at the sub-millimeter scale. This is fundamentally different from any other existing traditional manufacturing techniques. Traditional manufacturing process has evolved a lot over time, from hand based manufacturing to the automated processes such as machining, casting, forming, and molding. Yet, these technologies all demand subtracting material from a larger block, whether to achieve the end-product itself or to produce a tool for casting and molding processes. And this is a serious limitation within the overall manufacturing ecosystem. For many applications, traditional design and production processes imposed a number of unacceptable constraints, including the expensive tooling, fixtures and the need for assembly for complex parts. In addition, the subset to manufacturing processes such as machining, can result in up to 90 percent of the ocean or blog or material being wasted. In contrast, 3D printing process can create objects directly by adding material layer by layer in a variety of ways, depending on the technology used. 3d printing is an enabling technology that increases and drives innovation with unprecedented design freedom. While being good to less process, that reduces prohibitive cost and lead times. Components can be designed specifically to avoid assembly requirement with intricate geometry and complex features created at no extra cost. 3d printing is also immersing us an energy-efficient technology that can provide environmental efficiencies in terms of both the manufacturing procedure itself, utilizing up to 90 percent of standard material Throughout the products operating life to lighter and stronger design. In recent years, 3D printing has gone beyond being an industrial prototyping and manufacturing process. As the technology has become more accessible to small companies and even individuals. Previously, only big corporate used to own 3D printers as the scale at economics or owning 3D printer make it private you for smaller companies to own one. But with the rapid decline of the printer cost, that technology has become even more affordable. Nowadays. It's smaller and less capable 3D printers can be acquired for under $500. This has opened up the technology to a much wider audience. And as the exponential adoption rate continues, on all fronts, more and more systems, materials, applications, services are merging. In the coming lectures, we will discuss about various 3D printing processes in greater detail. 3. 3D printing procedure: The entire 3D printing technology can be divided into three steps. 3d design, slicing and 3D printing. 3d distant model is the starting point for any 3D printing process. This distal model can be created using various 3D design software like Fusion 360 and solid works, or can also be created using 3D scanning. Once the 3D model is created, it is then flies into layers, thereby converting the design into a file readable by 3D printer. This slicing is done by exporting 3D model to another software like ultimaker Cura. 3d printer will then pin this PHY layer by layer using the material given as input. The different types of 3D printers each employ a different technology that processes different materials in different ways. It is important to understand that one of the most basic limitation of 3D printing in terms of material and application is that there is no one solution fits all. For example, some 3D printers processed powdered material, which utilize a light source to sinter or melt layers of the powder together in the definite shape. Other process requires polymerase in material and again, utilize a light or laser to solid define the reasoning. Ultra thin layers. 4. SLA - Stereolithography: Now, let's discuss about some of the very famous 3D printing processes. First is SLA stereolithography. Sla stereolithography is widely recognized as the first 3D printing process. It was suddenly the first to be commercialized. Sla is a lizard based process that works with photopolymer. The reasons that react with the laser and cure to form a solid in a really precise way. It is a complex poses. But simply put, the photopolymer reason is held in a vet with a movable platforming side. A laser beam is directed in the x, y axis across the surface of the reason. According to the 3D data supplied to the machine. This 3D data is in the format of dot STL file, whereby the reason hardens precisely where the lizard hits the surface. Once the layer is completed, the platform within the vet drops down by your fraction in the Gen Xs and the subsequent layer is traced out by the laser. This continues until the entire object is completed and the platform can be raised out of the vet for removal. Because of the nature of the SLA process, it requires support structures for some parts is specifically those with or hangs or undercuts. These structures need to be manually removed. In terms of other post-processing steps. Many objects to do printed using SLA need to be cleaned and cured. Curing involves subjecting the part too intense light in our own life machine to fully harden the resin. Stereolithography is generally accepted as being one of the most accurate 3D printing process with excellent surface finish. However, limiting factors include the post-processing steps required and the stability of the materials over time, which can become more bitter. 5. DLP - Digital Light Processing: Lp or visitor Light Processing, is a similar process to exterior photography. In context, that it is a 3D printing process that works with photopolymer. The maser difference is the light source. Dlp uses a more conventional light source, such as an arc lamp with the liquid crystal displays panel, which is applied to the entire surface of the red of photopolymer reason in a single pass. These generally makes that DLP or digital light processing faster than stereolithography. Also, like SLA, DLP produces highly accurate parts with excellent resolution. But it's similarities also include the same requirement for support, structure and post curing. However, one advantage of DLP or SLA is that only a shallow that offer is him is required to facilitate the process. We generally results in less wisdom and lower running costs. 6. Laser Sintering: The next process is Laser Sintering. Laser sintering and laser melting are interchangeable terms that refer to a laser based 3D printing process that works with the powdered materials. The laser is traced across a powder bed of tightly compacted powder material. According to the 3D data fed to the machine in the x, y axis. As the laser interacts with the surface of the powdered material, it centers are, fuses the particles to each other, forming a solid. As each layer is completed, the powder bed drops incrementally and a ruler, it's moot, hence, the powder or the surface of the bed prior to the next path of the laser for the subsequent layer to be formed and fused with the previous layer. Once finished, the entire powder bed is removed from the machine and the excess powder can be removed to leave the printed parts. One of the key advantages of this process is that the powder bed, so as an in-process support structure for overhang and undergirds, and therefore, complex shapes that could not be manufactured in any other possible V can be manufactured with this process. However, on the downside, because of the high temperatures required for laser sintering, cooling times can be considerably high. Furthermore, porosity has been unhistorical issue with Moses. And while there have been significant improvement towards fully dense parts, some applications still needs infiltration with another material to improve mechanical characteristics. 7. Extrusion or Fused Deposition Modelling: 3d printing utilizing the extrusion of thermoplastic material is easily the most common and recognizable 3D printing process. The most popular meme for the process is fused deposition modeling. The process works by melting plastic filament that is deposited via a heated extruder one layer at a time onto a build platform. According to the 3D data supplied to the printer. Each layer hardens as it is deposited and bonds to the previous layer. The most common material for entry-level FDM 3D printers are ABS and PLA. The FDM process require support structures for any obligation with all hanging geometry's. For FDM. This entails a second water soluble material which allows support structures to be relatively easily washed away once the print is complete. Alternatively, breakaway support materials are also possible, which can be removed by manually snapping them off the bat. The process can be slow for some part, geometry's and layer duly at adhesion can be a problem, resulting in parts that are not watertight. Again, post-processing using acetone can resolve this issue. 8. Inkjet Binder Jetting: Binder jetting is a process where the material being jetted is a binder and is selectively sprayed into a powder bed of the part material to fuse eater layer at a time to create or print the required part. As is the case with other powder bed systems. Once a layer is completed, the powder bed drops incrementally and a ruler or bleed, it smoothens the powder or the surface of the bed. Prior to the next pass of the jet heads with the binder for the subsequent layer to be formed and fuse with the previous layer. The advantage of this process include the fact that the need for support is negative. Because the powder bed itself provides this functionality. For the moon, a range of different materials can be used, including ceramic and food. A further distinct two eggs at one pace of this process is the ability to easily add a full color palette, which can be added to the binder. 9. Inkjet Material Jetting: The next process is material jetting. It is a 3D printing process whereby the actual bill material are selectively jetted to multiple jet heads. However, the materials tend to be liquid photopolymer, which are cured with a path of ultraviolet lies as each layer is deposited. The nature of this process allows for the simultaneous deposition of a range of materials, which means that a single part can be produced from multiple materials with different characteristics and properties. Material jetting is a very precise 3D printing method, producing accurate parts with a very smooth finish. 10. SDL - Selective Deposition Lamination: Sdl or select 2D position lamination is appropriate Terry to the blending process developed and manufactured by Angkor technologies. The SDL 3D printing process builds part layer by layer using standard copier people. Each new layer is fixed to the previous layer using an address you, which is applied selectively according to the 3D data supplied to the machine. This means that a much higher density of adherence you is deposited in the area that will become the part. And a much lower density of adenosine is applied in the surrounding area that will serve as the support. As DL is one of the very few 3D printing processes that can produce full-color 3D printing parts using a seaway MK color palette. 11. EBM - Electron Beam Melting: The last 3D printing process that we are going to cover in this course is electron, the man-eating our EBM. The heat source is an electron beam rather than a laser, which makes it necessary that the procedure is carried out under vacuum conditions. Ebm has the capability of creating fully dense parts in a variety of metal allies. And as a result, the technique has been particularly successful for a range of production application in the medical industry. What eagerly for implants. 12. 3D printing materials: The materials are labeled for 3D printing have come a long way since the early days of the technology. There is now a wide variety of different material that are supplied in different states. Specific materials are now generally download for specific platforms performing dedicated applications. An example of such dedicated application would be the dental sector. In this lecture, we shall look into the most popular types of January materials are labeled for 3D printing. It starting with plastics. When it comes to plastics, we have nylon. Our volume might, which is commonly used in powder form in the sintering process or in filament form in the FDM process. It is a strong, flexible and durable plastic material that has proved reliable for 3D printing. It is naturally white in color, but it can be coloured pre or post printing. This material can also be combined with the powdered aluminum to produce yet another common 3D printing material called an amide for sintering purpose. Abs is another common plastic used for 3D printing and is widely used as an entry level FDM 3D printer filament. It is a particularly strong plastic and comes in a wide range of colors. Abs can be bought in filament form from a number of non-profit elif sources. This mean the filament, very popular in the market. Pla, on the other hand, is a biodegradable plastic material that has gained traction with 3D printing for this very reason. It can be utilized in raising format DLP process, as well as in filament form for the FDM process. It is offered in a variety of colors, including grasp rate, which has proven to be useful for many applications of 3D printing. However, PLA is not us Dremel as compared to abs. The next material is the medal. A growing number of metal and metal composites are used for industrial grade 3D printing. Two of the most common metals, or ammonium and cobalt. One of the strongest and therefore most commonly used metal for 3D printing is stainless steel in powder form. This is generally used for EBM process. It is naturally similar. But can we plated with other materials to give a gold or bronchi, effect. In the last couple of years, gold and silver have been added to the range of metal materials that can be 3D printed directly. And hence, the obvious application of golden silver is the duality sector. These are very strong materials and are processed in powder form. The nice material would be ceramic. Ceramics out of literally new group of materials that can be used for 3D printing purpose. The particular thing to note with these type of material stead, both printing the ceramic parts needs to undergo the same process as any ceramic part made using traditional method of production. The next material is paper. Standard A4 copier paper is a 3D printing material employed by the SDL process, developed by AMP core technologies that we have discussed earlier. 3d printed models made with paper are safe, environmentally friendly, easily recyclable, and requires no post-processing at all. The next material for 3D printing, our biomaterials. There is a huge amount of research being conducted into the potential 3D printing bio-materials for a myriad of medical applications. Leaving D shoes is being investigated at a number of leading institutions with a view to developing applications that include printing human organs for transplant, as well as external tissues for the assessment of body parts. There next, 3D printing material is food. Experiments with extruders for 3D printing food substances has increased dramatically or the last couple of years. Chocolate is the most common one. There are also 3D printers that work with sugar and some experiments with the past data and meet are undergoing. 13. 3D printing applications: The origins of 3D printing in rapid prototyping. We're founded on the principles of industrial prototyping as a means of speeding up the earliest stage of product development. Prototyping is still probably the largest application of 3D printing. The development and improvements of the process and the material since the emergence of 3D printing for prototyping saw the processes being taken up for applications. Further down, the product development, process chain. Tooling and casting applications were developed utilizing the advantages of the different processes. Again, these applications are increasingly being used and adopted across industrial sectors. Similarly, for finally manufacturing operations, the improvements are continuing to facilitate uptake. In terms of the industrial vertical market that are benefiting greatly from industrial 3D printing across all of these broad spectrum of applications. We are going to make a basic breakdown of major 3D printing applications. First being the medical sector. The medical sector is viewed as an early adopter of 3D printing. It's also a sector with huge potential for growth due to the customization and personalization capabilities of the technology. And the ability to improve people's lives as the process improve and materials are developed. Technique, medical greatest standards. 3d printing technologies are being used for a host of different applications. In addition to making prototypes to support new product development. For the medical and dental industries, that technology is also utilize to make patterns for the downstream metal casting of dental crowns and in the manufacture of tools, all of which plastic is being vacuum form to make dental aligners. Technology is being used to directly manufacture both the stock items such as hip and knee implants. And B spoke. Patient specific products such as hearing aids, are thought to be in source for shoes, personalized prosthetics, and one of implants for patients suffering from diseases such as osteo, arthritis, osteoporosis, and cancer. 3d printed surgical guides for a specific operations are also an emerging application that is aiding surgeons in their work and patients in their recovery. Technology is also being developed for the 3D printing of skin, bone, tissue, pharmaceuticals, and even human organs. However, these technologies remain largely decades away from commercialization. Like the medical sector. The aerospace sector was an early adopter of 3D printing technologies in the earliest form for product development and prototyping. Another general early adopter of the rapid prototyping technology was the automotive sector. Mainly automotive companies, particularly Formula 1, have followed a similar trajectory to the aerospace companies. Not only using the technologies for prototyping applications, but also for developing and adopting their manufacturing processes to incorporate the benefits of improved materials and, and results for automotive parts. Many automotive companies. Now also looking at the potential of 3D printing to fulfill after sales functions in terms of production of spare parts. Now for the dwellers sector, 3D printing has proved to be particularly disruptive. Traditionally, the design and manufacturing process for Fortune has always required high levels of expertise and knowledge involving specific disciplines. Each of these disciplines evolve. What many years and each required technical knowledge. Just one example is investment casting, the origin of which can be traced back more than 4000 years. There is a great deal of interest and uptake based on how 3D printing can and will contribute to the further development of this industry. Artists and sculptors are engaging with 3D printing in myriad of different ways to explore form and function in ways previously impossible. Whether purely to find a new original explanation or to learn from old masters. This is a highly charged sector that is increasingly finding new ways of working with 3D printing and introducing the results to the world. There are numerous artists that how now made a name for themselves for working specifically with 3D modeling, 3D scanning, and 3D printing technologies. Architectural models have long been a stipple application. 3d printing processes for producing accurate demonstration models of fun. Architects. Vision. 3d printing offers a relatively fast, easy at economically viable method of producing detailed models directly from 3D CAD. Bim or other distill data that architects use. Many successful architectural forms now commonly used 3D printing as a critical part of their workflow for increased innovation and improved communication. More recently, some visionary architects are looking to 3D printing as a direct construction method. Research is being conducted at a number of organization on this front. 3d printing houses is not a dream anymore. 3d printing accessories, Including shoes, head pieces, heads, and begs, have all made their way onto the global catwalks. And some even more visionary fashion designers have demonstrated the capabilities of the technology. For heart culture. Dresses keeps full length gowns have debited at different fashion venues around the world. Ids when helping should get a spatial dimension. As the leading pioneer in this sector. She has produced a number of collections modeled on the catwalks of Paris and Milan that incorporated 3D printing to blew up the normal rules that no longer apply to fashion design. Many have followed and continued to follow in her footsteps. Although a late comer to 3D printing, food is one emerging obligation that is getting people very excited and has the potential to truly take the technology into the main stream. 3d printing is emerging as a new way of preparing and presenting food. Initial forays into 3D printing food there with them, chocolate and sugar. And these developments have continued with specific 3D printers hitting the market. Some other early experiments with food include the 3D printing of meat at the cellular protein level. More recently, pasta is another food group that is being researched for 3D printing. Food material. For 3D printing. The holy grail for 3D printing vendors is undoubtably consumer 3D printing. There is a widespread debate as to whether this is a feasible prospect in future. Currently, consumer uptake is low due to the accessibility and application issues that exist with entry-level machines. There is headway being made in this direction. By the larger 3D printing companies, such as 3D Systems and MakerBot, as did try to make the 3D printing process. And the ancillary components like software, contains and materials more accessible and user-friendly.