Understanding Music Theory Concepts for Conveying Emotion | Will Edwards | Skillshare

Understanding Music Theory Concepts for Conveying Emotion

Will Edwards, Artist. Creative Problem Solver. Musician

Understanding Music Theory Concepts for Conveying Emotion

Will Edwards, Artist. Creative Problem Solver. Musician

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14 Lessons (46m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Building Major Scales

    • 3. Relating Major Scale and Major Harmony

    • 4. Building Minor Scales

    • 5. Relating Minor Scale and Minor Harmony

    • 6. Examining Rhythm and Tempo

    • 7. Harmony and Context

    • 8. Options for Cadences

    • 9. Defining and Exploring Melody

    • 10. Color/Timbre Explained

    • 11. Register Explained

    • 12. Range Explained

    • 13. Timbral Character Explained

    • 14. Final Thoughts

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About This Class

This course explains important music theory concepts that help during the composition or songwriting process.  You'll learn how major and minor scales are built and you'll learn how and why chords relate to major and minor scales so that you can make better, more informed choices when you're writing chord progressions (harmony).  You'll become familiar with patterns in scales and chords and learn how composing using numbers (numerals), rather than notes, is the best way to go!

You'll also learn about rhythm, cadences, register, range and timbre.  If you have a background in these topics then this course will provide some perspective on how these concepts relate to the process of writing music that conveys specific emotions.  This course is helpful to any student looking to learn about music theory and the fundamentals of compositional theory.  However, this course is specifically designed to support my other course: Film and Game Music Theory: Conveying Emotion.

Meet Your Teacher

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Will Edwards

Artist. Creative Problem Solver. Musician


I am a full-time professional musician who has broad teaching experience with guitar & bass students in rock, blues, jazz and many other genres. I perform live on bass, guitar and keyboards.  In addition, I perform live electronic music improvisation.  I've devoted over 26 years to my own well-rounded musical education, focusing on a mastery of all aspects of modern music - from music theory to ear training; from live performance to composition and practice routines.

I specialize in bridging the gap between music and technology, focusing on using modern tools to demonstrate all aspects of music.  I compose and perform with Ableton and Push 2 and I have experience with Cubase, ProTools and Logic.  I'm extremely comfortable using web-based to... See full profile

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1. Introduction: welcome to this course. This is gonna function as a great primer for music theory. If you're getting into composition of any kind, is designed specifically to go along with another course that I offer called film and game music. Conveying emotion on that course, I outlined three different queues. There's an urgent Q A com que and then a spooky kind of creepy que and we talk about conveying emotion. But of course, it relies a lot of music theory concepts that this course is really going to dive into. So this course is focused on how to build major and minor scales, the cords that come out of those scales and understand a little more deeply about things like Tambor and rhythm, harmony and melody. So in the next few lectures, you're gonna learn a lot about building scales, building chords, you know, learn to talk about court progressions in terms of numbers. So let's get started 2. Building Major Scales: We've been talking a lot in this course about one cords and five chords and that sort of thing giving cords numerals. Whereas most musicians usually think of courts as being like a G chord or a C court, something like that. So in this lesson here, I want to talk about where all that comes from and when I explain it in depth because it's one of the key pieces of information that I use whenever I'm composing music. And I've actually come to think of numerals is almost representing emotions, so it really, really feeds into the topic of this course. So the first thing I want to talk about is the chromatic scale. Okay, Now the chromatic scale consists of 12 notes and this is a western scale. So this really only pertains toe Western music, and what I've got up here is well of individual notes. Now I'm going from a to B flat. I want to point out that B Flat also has what's called an harmonic equivalent. Another note name that is exactly the same pitch in. That would be a sharp OK, so you could write a a sharp here. I've written B flat because in my experience, B flat is just a more common note. Let's just listen to those 12 notes in order. So if I start with A and I go to B flat, then up to B C D. Flat which is also C sharp de ive flap, which is also the same as D sharp E yeah, f sharp, she and then g sharp and the next note after g sharp would naturally be okay. Okay, so you have wrestle hoping again on a which would be the 13th note, but it would be a repeat of a note that we see already here. So this is called the Chromatic scale. And we're gonna use this when we're talking about really just about any scale but certainly major and minor, which we're gonna be talking about in depth in this course. So, obviously most people aren't playing melodies that sound like this. So what are they doing while they're distilling these 12 notes down into a scale and the most common scales are major and minor, and by far the most common is major major and minor scales are built out of what we call half steps and whole steps. So as we go from a to B flat, we call that 1/2 step. Now, as we go from, say, B to D flat, that would sound like this. That's what we call Ah, whole step. Now, if we combine a collection of whole steps and half steps together, we get different kinds of scales. So if we start here from A to B is a whole step two d flat as a whole. Step two D is 1/2 step, another whole another whole another hole, and then finally 1/2 step brings us background to the active. Then we get these notes a B defect or C sharp de e F sharp G shirt coming back to their octave A. Now if we take away all the notes in the chromatic scale so that we're left with only the ones that we retrieved using our whole whole whole whole whole half pattern. Then we wind up with seven unique notes, and it's always advisable. Teoh, make sure you're either using Sharps or flats, not using both in the same scale. So I'm gonna go ahead and replace de flap with C sharp. So now what we're left with are these notes, and that is a major scale. What you're looking at here is a major, and it consists of the notes A, B, C, sharp, D e, f sharp and G sharp. So that's how we build a major scale. In the next lesson, I'm gonna talk about how we build cords out of these notes and how we arrived at having won cords or four chords or five quarts of that sort of thing that's coming up in the next lesson. 3. Relating Major Scale and Major Harmony: In the last lesson, we built a seven note scale. This a major scale a p c sharp, D e f sharp and G sharp. Now if we were to go back to our original chromatic scale and we would have start that same hole half whole whole whole half pattern. But we were to start on, let's say the note de then we would wind up with a different set of notes. We wind up with D E F Sharp, G A, B, C sharp and coming background to D the octave, so we'd wind up with seven different notes. And that's what we call the D major scale. So the whole whole half whole whole whole half pattern that does not change it always produces a major scale. It only produces a major scale. If you want the a major scale than you, apply that pattern to the chromatic scale. Starting on A. If you want a C sharp major scale than you apply it starting on C sharp. But for our example, we're just looking at thes seven notes in a major. I just wanted to point out that the whole half whole half pattern can be used to retrieve all 12 major scales. So now we want to look at building cords. Well, this is an a major scale, and it won't surprise you that it is fundamental to creating an A major court. Now. The way we build cords, for the most part, is what's called Torshin Harmony, and it involves retrieving thirds from a scale based on some origin point for the sake of simplicity. Let's start by assigning some identifies to each one of these seven minutes we're gonna call a The Root B is going to be the second C Sharp will be the third D, the fourth, even fifth have sharp the six and G sharp the seventh. If we take the route the third in the fifth, we get what we call an a major triad. If we add in G sharp. So we have a C sharp E and G sharp. We get what we call an a major seven chord. Now a tryout only consists of three notes. A seven court typically consists of four notes, but let's return to this concept of a triad where we just have a root third in 1/5 and let's recognize that we can start that same pattern of root third and fifth from any point in the scale. So, for example, if we were to start on B and we were due to call B R Route, then D would be the third and F Sharp would be the fifth, and we'd wind up with B, D and F Sharp. This is what we call B minor Triad. So so far we've produced an A major triad and a B minor. Try it. And it's very common in music study, music, academics and music theory to refer the cords using room and numerals. The reason for this is that Roman numerals have upper and lower case is, and we use upper case to relate that we're talking about a major court and we use lower case Roman numerals to indicate that we are talking about a minor chord so we would call a cord built off a in this key, a one court and we would use an uppercase Roman numeral to indicate that it is a one court . But it is also a major court because its upper case, we would use a lower case, too, in Roman numerals to indicate that accord built off of R B is. First of all, it's the two chord. It's based on the second nude anarchy, but it also turns out being a minor court. Now there are patterns throughout music, and one of the most useful to understand is that when you go through this process and you build a cord off of each of the seven scale degrees here, you build a court off of a and then B and then see sharpened someone self with you. Wind up with seven courts and there's a pattern because 14 and five chords will always be major, where 23 and six chords will always be minor. The court built off the seventh degree is unique because it creates what we call a diminished triad. And if you add the seventh to that, you get a minor seventh in a diminished triad, you get a G sharp in this context of B and A D, and then the seventh would be f sharp. So you wind up with what we call 1/2 diminished court or a minor seven flat five chord. We haven't really talked about using this cord very much in this course, and although it's a useful cord and it's very musical, it also sort of justifies its own set of topics. So I'm not gonna address it a whole lot here, but I want you to recognize this pattern of major, minor, minor, major, major, minor and then half diminished. And these are the cords you're always gonna get in any major scale. So going back to our chromatic scale, if we would apply the whole half whole half starting on the note G, then we would wind up with G A, B, C, D, E F, Sharp and G. A totally different set of seven notes. There's no C sharp in there. There's no G sharp in there. But you'd still wind up with one court being major, the four and five being major and then the 23 and six being minor in the seventh, corn being half diminished. So we're exploring discovering here that there are some useful patterns for building scales and then again, useful patterns for recognising and understanding what chords are available to us within a key. So now what we see is when we talk about a one chord, we know what we're talking about. When we talk about a five chord or to ward, we know what we're talking about. We recognize that in the context of major A one cords always major in a two chords, always minor, for example. So it's really elegant way to talk about cords because Owen Court is a one court. Whether we're in the key of a major or G major or C major, it's always going to be a major chord as long as it's a major scale we're going to see in the next couple of lessons. It's slightly different if we build a minor scale instruct building cords there, but we're still going to see that there's a pattern of major and minor chords that applies all majors. Justus. There's a pattern of major and minor chords that are built from all minor courts. So let's move forward now and talk more about how to build minor scales and then subsequently had a build courts in those kinds of keys 4. Building Minor Scales: in this lesson. We're gonna build a minor scale and we're gonna start from the same place we're going to start with our chromatic scale, which consists of a B flat, B, C, C, sharp, D, flat de de Sharp or e flat. He if f sharp or G flat and then g and then, of course, finally g sharp, which is also the end harmonic equivalent of a flat. And then we can bring around two days. We have 12 notes. 123456789 10 11 12 Coming back to our active. Now, if you'll remember from the lesson on major scales, you can build a scale out of half steps and whole steps. Now, in building a minor scale, we're gonna follow a slightly different pattern. This pattern is gonna be whole half whole, whole half and then whole whole. So what we're seeing here is that it's a different pattern of hole in half steps than we used when we were building the major scale we're following. A lot of similar principles were using a pattern of only hole in half steps. We've chosen a note to start with. Here are context is a We started the pattern on a but you could start it anywhere in the chromatic scale and retrieve that appropriate minor scale. Any time that you use whole, half, whole, whole, half whole you'll get a minor scale. Whether you start on a or you start on E or any other note, the next step is to collect together the notes that you get. The next step is to retrieve the notes that you get from using the whole half whole, half whole whole pattern. And then you wind up with these notes A, B, C, D, E, f and G. And it sounds like this. Now, this is what we call an a minor scale. So now that we built the scale in the next lesson, we're get you gonna look at building cords and I'm gonna discover some new patterns for the kinds of triads and the kinds of qualities that we get 5. Relating Minor Scale and Minor Harmony: So we still have a scale that consists of seven notes and we still want to look at building triads primarily, and also the context of seventh in courts. So let's label each one of these notes accordingly. We're gonna call a route just like we did with the major scales. And then 234 56 and seven. And we're gonna say, OK, we're gonna take the route the third in the fifth and that becomes an a minor Try it. It is an a minor try. It's the definition. However, we can also build accord, for example, off of R B, in which kids you wind up with B, D and F. If you were to build a cord off of the third scale degree C, you get C, E and G. We're still going to use a room and numerals like we discussed earlier when we were looking at harmony in a major scale. But this time we get different upper case and lower case numerals. So are a cord. We're gonna call it a one, but it's gonna be a minor one because it produces a minor court. You always gonna find the one court is a minor. Try it. So we have a minor one that we have 1/2 diminished to. Then we have a major three, a minor for a minor five that we have a major six and a major seven. So this is a very different pattern of minor and major chords than what we experienced with major scale. But it's still gonna be true of all minor scale. So even if we were looking at the key of D minor, which contains a different set of seven notes, we'd still find that in the scale of D minor, if we would build accords, the one court would be minor. The to court would be half diminished, three chord would be major and so on. So the relationship of minor and half diminished in major chords and how they correlate and they're identified by Roman numerals is exactly the same for all minor scales, just less. There was a common pattern for all major scales. So let me play a couple of these examples if we haven't a a C in an e way, get what we call an a minor chord. If we add the G, we get a name under seven way play the cord rooted on B. We get be the F on. If we add the seventh, we get a So both of those cords are in the key of a mind, and it's just listen to them just using the triads here a minor on, then the Be diminished Try and C major D minor e Minor, F major and then g major. So now we've talked about how to build Major and minor scales have talked about how building cords from these scales produces a pattern of major and minor and sometimes half diminished chords. And we've also correlated those cords to Roman numerals now. So you should understand very clearly what we're talking about when we talk about using a one chord or a five chord or a two chord and so on. As you work on your own progressions and you're building your harmonies, you want to think about chords in terms of numerals, primarily because it's makes it very easy to move a court progression from one key to another. So, for example, if we to play a 145 progression in the key of a major have something like this a major D major on then e major. So one for five can also be played in any other key. So 145 the court progression of harmony doesn't have to change in terms of it being won four in a five court. But we can migrate that to another key, like see where we still have a 145 However, we're playing three totally different courts. So the nice thing about using Roman numerals is that we can start thinking about patterns. But those patterns don't have to change. During the process of our compositional work, the pattern can remain the same, and we can move it through different keys and see which keys, maybe a more playable on the instrument that we're trying to use for that particular performance. So I highly recommend that you get used to always thinking in terms of numerals rather than individual court. You still want to understand the notes that are in these tribes. You still want to recognize what Keir in and be able to use the letters. However, understand there are certain flexibilities to using numerals that you just don't have when you are tied toe one key or one set of courts using their Roman numeral equivalent starts to kind of unleash some more creative direction, some more creative ideas and allows you to flow around in the sort of larger scheme of music a little more fluidly. All right, so that's it for our discussion on building scales in chords. So in the next lesson, we're going to start exploring cadences. 6. Examining Rhythm and Tempo: in this lesson. I want to talk about rhythm and explain a little more clearly what rhythm is and what tempo is because the two are related. So I've got a very straightforward beat here, and I just want to play its. We can hear what it sounds like when you have the simplest rhythm following your tempo. Now our tempo, set at 100 and 14 beats permanence. When I play this, you're hearing a kick drum played on each, Pete said. This is following a tempo of 114 beats per minute. The fact that there's a pattern here does technically make it rhythm. But this pattern so simplistic that it doesn't really do a great job without some other kind of rhythmic element to help delineate the rhythmic pattern here. But you can hear most easily with this kind of simple example how tempo influences your rhythm. So if I increase the tempo, it doesn't change the rhythm at all. It just speeds it up, or if I slow it down again, it doesn't change. The rhythm doesn't change the pattern. It just changes the pace at which the pattern happens. So what you have in tempo is kind of a pace oriented value in which haven't rhythm is kind of a groove oriented value, and the group is really based on some kind of pattern. So now I'm changing the stop a little bit, and now you have a different feel. There's a little bit more to hang your hat on in terms of understanding the pattern that's happening right. So each of the changes that I'm making is helping your ear kind of track down what's happening in the pattern. Of course, I could make this pattern twice as long if I wanted, so let's see if we do this kind of thing. So if I were to do this kind of thing here and just double my measure length, then I could take all of that quickly. Duplicate this. Now I have a longer pattern, and it's a little easier for me to start changing it up in creative ways. Let's just look at a few options, so now I haven't even more complex, longer pattern Aiken still speed it up or slow it down, and that would be a temp of adjustment. But basically the rhythm element has to do with the pattern, the regular repeating pattern, and it conveys a certain kind of group. So it could be a really static pattern. Or like this most recent version that I created, it could be a bit more frenetic. So to conclude, while tempo is definitely related to rhythm, it really is different from rhythm because the tempo has to do with the pace. Only whereas the rhythm has to do with the repeating pattern and whether or not it sort of conveys something lazy or conveys something frenetic and how much of a groove there is, So rhythm is really essential to giving your music cohesion and also conveying emotion. 7. Harmony and Context: said Later on. In the course, you'll learn how to build specific major and minor scales and, for example, looking at the harmony of our urgent and triumph. And Q here. All of these cords aren't within the key of B flat major, and there's this nice 7 to 1 authentic cadence at the very end here, and you're gonna learn why these cords can all extra be extrapolated from the key of B flat major later on. But what I want to set in your mind right now is a clear understanding of what harmony does in music. So there's certainly the question of how is it built in where do these notes come from? But that's sort of the less interesting thing. The most interesting thing is the way in which cords set contexts. If we just look at example here, I'm gonna play a C major chord, and I've gone ahead and just muted all the other channels. Now, when you look at the screen, you can see that I'm playing A C and E and G. Now this is a C major triad, but more importantly, it sets a specific context. You see, this cord makes this note here sound dissonant. Now there are other contexts, for example, in this context, where this note sounds nice and musical, but in this context with a C major triad, that note sounds dissident. So what harmony really does, and something to think about as you're choosing cords and putting courts together is realize that your choice of cords also sort of implies which notes are gonna sound, quote unquote right and wrong. And that's a really the very interesting part about harmony. Of course, there's Anak, a dem IQ study of how are these cords built? But the more interesting thing is, what context is these cords set for the listener? And how does that context to make certain notes either wrong or right? So that's what you want to think about as you're creating cords. And later on, when we talk about building major and minor scales and the courts that are constituent within those kinds of scales, you want to realize that as you use that information, you are constraining the notes that'll sound right or wrong in any context. 8. Options for Cadences: in this lesson. I want to look at cadences and a really good example of an authentic cadence, which is kind of a classic cadence is right here where we have an a diminished riot going to be flat. This is also called a 7 to 1, and that will make a little more sense later on in the course when we talk about how to build cords out of the major scale. Now, if I go ahead and I solo this channel and I play these notes and then I resolved to that chord, you can hear how this chord here is tents and resolves nicely to that court. That's what's happening here. We have a diminished triad, which is a seven chord in the key of B flat major, and then we have a B flat major court, which is our tonic court. It's gonna be the most resolved. All of these cords consist of notes within the key of B flat major, so when we get to the beef that major chord we feel totally resolved. Let's listen to another example in a different key where the B flat chord does not feel like the ultimate resolution Let's listen to these cords, for example, not exactly the same resolution there, because those cords were not in the key of B flat major. But as we have here, the a half diminished chord, which is our seven chord arriving at that total resolution with B flat that is an authentic cadence. Now, Another example of a cadence besides, authentic cadences would be 1/2 cadence. Now, in this context, instead of going from a seven chord to a one chord, we would actually go from a four chord to the one court. So let's keep our one core the same B flat major. And if any of my references to ones and fours and sevens doesn't make sense later on in the course, I'm gonna explain how I get those numeral values and how you can learn to build those numeral cords and recognize them within any key. But for this example, I want to show just cadences. And instead of having a seven chord that resolves upward to our one court here, inauthentic kings, I want to talk about 1/2 kids. Half kittens is when you have a five chord as the final chords instead of resolving to a one chord like that you resolve to a five court, and typically it would sound something like this. That would be a B flat, major chord to a five chord. In that key, which is F major, that would be 1/2 cadence. There are a couple of other kinds of Caden says that's looking at Playgirl. Cadence of Playgirl Cadence is one in which you go from a four chord to one court. So if we keep our one chord B flat, then the four chord would actually be an e flat major court. So that sounds something like this. People often call this an Ahmen chord because it sort of sounds like a congregation singing on a man in a church, and it's a 1 to 4 chord progression. It's a Playgirl cadence. So in this context we're playing in e flat major chord, which is the four chord in the key of B flat major, a four toe one, which is a B flat chord. In this key, the last kind of cadence that you want to be aware of is a deceptive cadence. Instead of resolving to a one chord, you typically resolved to a six court. Let's take an example here where you've got what that traditional, authentic cadence, which were also using in our urgent acute. But now let's change it to a deceptive kings. Instead of resolving to R B flat, which is a one court we're gonna resolve to a six a six chord, that is, which in this key is a G minor. That's a deceptive cadence. So there's four kinds of kids is an authentic kids, which is a 7 to 1 or five toe. One court progression. 1/2 cadence, which ends on a five chord. A Playgirl cadence, which is typically a 4 to 1, and then a deceptive cadence, which is typically a five or seven Gord resolving to a six chord. As I've said, I'm going to go over the numeral explanation later on the course where we build major and minor scales and look at the harmony that those scales create, and it should make a lot more sense. But essentially just in case you want mawr input on that right now, a one chord is built off. The first note in the scale of four chord is built off the fourth note in the scale and so on so forth. So when you build a court off of the third scale degree or the third note in a scale, you get what we call a three court. You kind of work it out for yourself. But I'll also walk you through that later on in the course. 9. Defining and Exploring Melody: in this lesson. I want to look at melody and specifically, I want to help you understand what Melody is doing in music. Okay, a lot of people just think Well, if I put together a handful and notes any handful of notes that I have a melody and in a certain way, that's correct, you can certainly make any Siris of notes into a melody. But what a melody really does a great melody, a strong melody, a melody that's memorable, influential and conveys real emotion is it articulates a character within a situation. It helps the listener to identify a specific character. I think that's a great way to think about it. That's the first thing a good melody does. A second thing a good melody does is it reinforces the harmony. And later on, when we talk about how to build major and minor scales and then build the cords within those scales, you'll see that these chords and the ones that I have on display here, which is the harmony section in the French horns, for conveying an urgent sort of emotional context. If I use these specific notes during these specific chords in my melody, it's going to make the melody effectively reinforced the harmony. So there's a connection between the chords being played in the harmony and then the notes that are being playing the melody. And the more that those align, the more memorable and the more grounded a melody tends to be. So what I want to do is just look at our piano channel here. I'm going to go ahead and solo this now if I go ahead and I play a series of notes all by themselves. That Siris of notes sounds pretty good, however, if I play that same Siris of notes, but I play it over a diff post, but I play it over a specific cord. It'll change the context of whether those notes sound right or wrong. So let's listen that has a certain emotional flavor versus this. So a good melody is happening here with my moving notes where I'm staying within the context of this court. However, if I am in the context of this cord, then those notes sound different. They have a different emotional meaning. So good Melody has some kind of roots in the harmony in the chords being played now Of course, you could convey tension, and you can convey curiosity and interest in different range of emotions by choosing chords and melodies that sometimes depart from one another. Melodies air typically made up of other chord tones. Color tones. Chromatic sor All three court tones are literally notes that air in the cords that are being played and then color tones or notes that aren't in the cords. But they're in the scale. They're in the home key, and then crow Matics are all the other notes notes that aren't in the key, and they're not in the cord being played, so you can use those to construct your melody. There are no notes ever that aren't one of those three in some context, and you can experiment when you're writing your melody. But a great grounded melody that's captured and people will he find it easy to remember and digest is almost always going to reinforce the harmony very, very effectively. So typically, the harmony is written to support a good melody, and the melody is designed to reinforce the harmony in order to make a really catchy, memorable melodic line. And then in contexts where you really want to create tension, then you're specifically designing to make your melody in your corns depart from one another in some kind of meaningful and structured way that conveys a specific emotion. 10. Color/Timbre Explained: in this lesson. I want to talk about using color and tampering. I want to show you how keeping the melody and harmony and rhythm and all of those elements exactly the same. But changing Tambor's and sound color can actually transform the meaning of your musical ideas. So in this example, I'm gonna be looking at our urgent example here the urgent, triumphant que and we're just gonna listen to the harmony here. And then the French horns kind of follow this court progression and I'm gonna see well, what would happen if instead of French horns, we were to use some other kind of instrument, something to create some new sounds here. This analog synthesizer is gonna radically change the quality of sound that we're hearing. Somebody go ahead. I'm going to go put that here. And instead of using French horns now we're going to hear this synthesized sound. Let's give that a listen. That's radically different from our original French horns. Now, if we go ahead and change our drum meat as well from the temp unease, we'll hear that we again get a totally different Tambor and color to our rhythm. So now if I take that new rhythmic timber and I added to my new harmonic Tambor. Then we still need to come up with new Tambor's for our melody and this sort of rhythmic harmonic cello solo that we have playing gonna put my melody into this percussive, sort of xylophone sounding instrument here. Now I'm gonna look at the cello and I'm gonna replace its Tambor. Now, I think this is all going to sound a little crazy and kind of nonsensical because I've got synthesizers and some very digitized drums and then some melodic bells and some melodic percussion. But the point is that I haven't changed my harmony or my rhythm or the melody at all. All I've done is I've changed. The Tambor's have changed the instruments that are executing these, and suddenly it's gonna have a totally different sound where our urgent, que before and this sort of regal royal French horn quality. Now we're gonna find that with these new Tambor's it takes on a totally different flavors. Let's see what this sounds like. So friends sound. There's really almost nothing in common except that we are technically using the same notes in our harmony and the same notes in our rhythm, the same notes nor melody, etcetera. If we take these elements and we move them back to their original spot, then we wind up with our original Tambor's and colors, which have that really regal kind of royal, said cinematic. Feel changing color. And Tambor is radically gonna have an impact on the emotional impact off your music. So be careful which Tambor's you choose and understand that you can use tambor and sound color very, very effectively to put your compositional ideas your musical ideas into the right context . This will come in handy if you want to experiment after the next lesson, which is all about themes and variation, because one of the great ways to explore taking a theme and putting it into a new variation is to keep all the elements the same, but change the colors and Tambor's. So let's go ahead to the next lesson and talk about introduction of themes and variations, and you can get started exploring ways to create characters and situations and use color and timber to provide for a whole bunch of different situations for your themes or characters to kind of residing operated 11. Register Explained: I want to take a moment now to talk more about what register really is. So at the simplest level, register is just a question of evaluating whether an instrument plays in the low register or the high register. If we look at our tubular Bells Channel here, you can see my MIDI input is creeping up the scale here, and at some point you're gonna hear a note. There you go. So essentially that note is within the register of the tubular bells. Where's that note isn't which is why we're not hearing it. The instrument that I'm using is pre configured and kind of smart enough to understand that that note is not within the range off this instrument, and you'll run into this often. Of course, a piano has an enormous range, so you probably won't run into it if you're playing a keyboard. But tubular bells, those notes and anything lower they can't participate in this particular instrument. But from here on up, you can. The benefit of considering register is not just about making sure, notes commander instruments, because, of course, sometimes you might load up an instrument, try and play something in it. It doesn't play notes, and you wonder why your software's broken. It's really just because the instrument does not serve that register. Aside from that very sort of technical practical problem, you want to think about a low in mid and high register instruments as conveying emotions. So a lower instrument, like a cello or double bass, for example, is capable of conveying the emotion, power and strength. But it's also, of course, capable of conveying the emotion of threat. Ah, higher register instrument, like the glockenspiel or even a violin, is capable of conveying a sense of tenuousness. They can also make the listener feel diminished. They cannot become a diminutive affect where they make the listener feel small. And that's one of the reasons I've used the Bells and the glockenspiel in the spooky Q is to make my listener feel diminished and small so that they feel psychologically mawr in a disposition of weakness. One of the tricks that we use in the red channels here, where I'm demonstrating the calm and melancholy Q is that we're using instruments that really demonstrate a middle register and by choosing middle registers, we're not dealing with threat or diminution anymore. We're dealing with stability and familiarity. So if you use instruments that only have a middle sort of register, then they're going to sound unthreatening. Which, of course, what we want in calm. And they're also going to sound strong and grounded, which we want in the context of our column Q. As well. So Register does have implications in the individual instruments, but it also could be used very effectively to convey emotion, so choose instruments based on their registers wisely. 12. Range Explained: Thea second aspect of tone color that we talked about is range in the examples that I'm using. Throughout this course, you'll find that the French horn in the piano, for example, have a significant range. They go very low and they go quite high, whereas instruments like the glockenspiel and the tubular bells do not go high. All synthesized sounds generally sounds that come from some kind of synthesizer they'll generally have arrange that goes far beyond any other instruments. Because, of course, they're not acoustic. They don't actually require a physical body that's capable of resonating at all of those different frequencies. A synthesizer is capable of creating pitches across an enormous range from so low we can barely hear it to so high we can barely hear. So synthesised sounds tend tohave whatever range we want to give them. In the world of acoustic instruments, pianos, some kinds of horns are are examples of instruments that have a lot of range. In our case here we're using, the glockenspiel has got a really small arrange. That cello, of course, has a quite small range. The only concern for a range is making sure that your music sounds riel. Oftentimes you'll find that your instruments range is limited to its riel world range. When you buy a software instrument, generally it's been pre configured toe have the range of the rial instrument, as I showed in the last example with my tubular bells. But in some cases you can get a glockenspiel to play out of its natural range. If you do that, it won't sound really so. Maybe that's a aspect you want to look for. You want to find an instrument, re sample it and use it way out of its range. And that would convey a certain kind of context to disorienting context to a listener. But many times you're choosing an instrument for the way that you know it affects people, in which case you want to stick with his natural range. Do you want to be sensitive? Toe what the instruments ranges? Don't try to play bass lines with a violin, for example. Range is very straightforward, but it is something you want to be cognizant off. Now let's go forward and look at Tambor's character a little more deeply 13. Timbral Character Explained: We've already talked quite a bit about Tambor. You've seen some examples of using different Tambor's in the variation that we did. But it's also important to understand that Tambor represents perceived quality. Perceiving a sound as weak or strong is really going to have to do with its Tambor. And as a result, when you're conveying emotions through music, you're trying to write music for a game or a film or TV score. Tambor is one of the most important elements to consider. Do we think that it's strong? Do we think that it's grounded? Do we think that it's brutal? What's the emotional reaction that people have that perceived quality that's going to be tied more to Tambor than just about anything else? Now, in my variation that I represented earlier on actually moved the melody of my urgent cue from the French horn over to the oboe because I liked the way that the oboe sounded a bit more and lonely, a lot more melancholy. So it conveys that effectively just by changing the tambor of my melodic instrument from something regal like the French horn to something a little more frail, like the oboe. Now that We've discussed a lot of these elements in great detail. We're going to move forward and really do step by step analysis and look at the urgent, the calm and the spooky mood in the examples for this course. If you have any questions throughout this course, please reach out to me. I'm 100% invested in making sure you get a good experience, and you come out of this course feeling equipped to convey emotions effectively and quickly in the musical compositions that you're making. So reach out to me directly and always feel free to use the discussion boards as well as a way to post questions either to me or to the collective group of students as well. 14. Final Thoughts: So congratulations on completing this course. We've talked about a lot of music theory here, So we've talked about building major and minor scales, and I'm also explained how harmony is built out of those scales. So you should understand now better when people talk about core progressions as being like a 145 progression. And you should feel comfortable building those scales as well as building cords, triads understanding a little bit more about sevenths and then talking about your own court progressions in that context of numerals. Now it's time to apply what you've learned. So I'm gonna recommend that you record either some acoustic instruments or maybe composed something enmity within a d. A W that you are familiar with. But create a piece of music that's 10 seconds to 30 seconds long and explain why you used the Tambor's and instruments that you chose. Talk about how maybe the color in Tambor are part of your creative decision making, and then also explain the court progression the harmony that you're using anthem melody but especially explain the harmony in terms of numerals. Also, consider trying to find some music either in popular music world or maybe film or game music world that uses your same court progression. Or maybe model your piece after a game or film or a TV show theme that you know. So you can start to relate some patterns that there are usually very similar court progressions being used time and time again. Looking at other pieces of music and comparing it to what you're creating will help make that more clear. One other thing to do is check out the student portal that I've created on my website at music protest dot com. Forward slash emotion theory. This is going to present a lot of the same material that you could download with this course, but there's also some additional things they're like able to project some of things that are too large for me to share through this current format. So I want to invite you over there. You can also check that out for free and gain a little more insight into maybe some tools and resource is that can help you progress. But congratulations on completing the course. I wish you the best and always feel free to reach out to me. If you have questions