Ultimate guide to Watercolours for Beginners | Geethu Chandramohan | Skillshare

Ultimate guide to Watercolours for Beginners

Geethu Chandramohan, Colourfulmystique - Watercolor Artist

Ultimate guide to Watercolours for Beginners

Geethu Chandramohan, Colourfulmystique - Watercolor Artist

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
44 Lessons (6h 59m)
    • 1. Welcome to the Class

      1:52
    • 2. Part 1 - Class Project

      0:52
    • 3. Watercolour Paper

      7:53
    • 4. Watercolour Paints

      9:19
    • 5. Watercolour Brushes

      11:23
    • 6. Watercolour Swatches

      3:50
    • 7. Tonal Value

      6:12
    • 8. Wet on Wet Technique

      19:58
    • 9. Water Control

      11:45
    • 10. Wet on Dry Technique

      2:25
    • 11. Wet on Dry Washes

      5:30
    • 12. Dry Brush Technique

      6:54
    • 13. Wet on Wet Splattering

      4:12
    • 14. Wet on Dry Splattering

      3:38
    • 15. Lifting Technique

      11:14
    • 16. Negative Painting

      6:24
    • 17. Multicolour on Brushes

      6:21
    • 18. Softening Technique

      4:33
    • 19. Layering Technique

      3:52
    • 20. Layering - Glazing

      5:06
    • 21. Layering - Glazing II

      5:10
    • 22. Using Masking Fluid

      8:22
    • 23. Watercolour Textures

      2:27
    • 24. Watercolour Texture - Using Salt

      4:59
    • 25. Watercolour Texture - Using Sea Sponge

      1:05
    • 26. Watercolour Texture - Using Cotton Buds

      4:35
    • 27. Watercolour Texture - Using Kitchen Sponge

      1:11
    • 28. Watercolour Texture - Using Cork

      1:13
    • 29. Watercolour Texture - Using Cling film

      3:50
    • 30. Watercolour Texture - Using Melamine Sponge

      2:39
    • 31. Watercolour Texture - Using Bubbles

      4:29
    • 32. Welcome to Part II

      0:55
    • 33. Materials and Taping Paper

      2:40
    • 34. Class Project I - The Sunset Dessert

      24:34
    • 35. Class Project II - The Cloudy Green Landscape

      23:50
    • 36. Class Project III - The Sunset Tree Landscape

      30:07
    • 37. Class Project IV - The Red Yellow Half Moon

      24:16
    • 38. Class Project V - The Purple Pink Moon

      26:24
    • 39. Class Project VI - The Layered Mountains

      20:27
    • 40. Class Project VII - The Galaxy

      24:25
    • 41. Class Project VIII - The Rainbow Technique

      24:50
    • 42. Class Project IX - Northern Lights

      24:40
    • 43. Class Project X - The Winter Scene

      17:51
    • 44. Thank You

      0:36
32 students are watching this class
  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels
  • Beg/Int level
  • Int/Adv level

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.

886

Students

21

Projects

About This Class

Watercolour is one of the most satisfying mediums to paint with. Understanding the nature of its uncontrollability, and watching the colours blend magically on the paper is what makes this medium so addictive.

Watercolour techniques is one of the most widely requested topic, so this class is all about the basic building blocks of watercolours. This class contains everything you need to know as a beginner to master watercolours.

This class is going to be in two parts:

  • The first part will focus on all the watercolor techniques, different watercolor materials, watercolor textures and everything under the sun that you will need to know to begin your art journey. 
  • The second part has several painting projects which we will be painting using the techniques that we have learnt in the first part. 

Attached, in the resources section is a free eBook written by me which collates everything discussed in this class. The ebook also contains several tips, tricks and suggestions that will help you in mastering the basics of watercolours.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Geethu Chandramohan

Colourfulmystique - Watercolor Artist

Teacher

If you have ever wondered how to be a pro with watercolours and wanted to be consistent with your painting habit, then check out this new class - 100 Day Project with Watercolours.

Your Day 1 could be any day! The class covers one new topic each week and the whole class is designed to suit your busy schedule. Each day's painting is going to take you less than 30 minutes! 

Join this class to explore watercolours like never before, learn every tip and technique with watercolours and develop a healthy and lively painting habit!

Explore these topics with watercolours:

Skies - clear, clouds and rainy day Night Skies - magical night skies with different colour combinations  Mountains - winter mountain, spring, sunset, volcano, Arizona mountai... See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • Exceeded!
    0%
  • Yes
    0%
  • Somewhat
    0%
  • Not really
    0%
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Your creative journey starts here.

  • Unlimited access to every class
  • Supportive online creative community
  • Learn offline with Skillshare’s app

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.

phone

Transcripts

1. Welcome to the Class: Watercolor is one of the most satisfying mediums to paint with. Understanding the nature of its uncontrollability and watching the colors blend seamlessly on the paper is what makes this medium so addictive. Hello all, I am [inaudible] , I'm an aerospace engineer by profession working here in the UK, but from the heart, I'm an artist, an artist who loves to play with this beautiful medium that is watercolors. To know more about me, head over to my Skillshare profile. Today, I'm here to teach the most widely requested topic, that is the basics of watercolors. I will be explaining all the techniques that you would need to master watercolors as a beginner and fall in love with this medium. This class is going to be in two parts. The first part, we'll focus on all the watercolor techniques, watercolor materials, paper, paint, brushes, and literally everything under the sun that you need to know of when beginning your art journey. The second part will focus on several different paintings that you will paint using the different techniques that we have learned in the first part. To make things easier, I have collated everything you need to know as a beginner into an e-book, and you can download this book from the resources section of this class. This e-book contains all the watercolor techniques that is explained in this class and also contains additional pro tips and suggestions that will help you in mastering watercolors. So without any further ado, let's jump into the next video. 2. Part 1 - Class Project: This is part 1 of the Skillshare class where I will explain right from the materials you need as a beginner to start your watercolor journey to all the watercolor techniques and different watercolor textures. The class project for this part of the class would be to try and practice all these watercolor techniques and master water control with your brushes. Additionally as a fun exercise after you have completed all the lessons on watercolor textures, you can try out any new exciting watercolor texture using any material that I have not mentioned here, and you can upload your findings and the paintings that you have made with that new watercolor texture to the project section in Skillshare here so that we can share your new findings to all the others. 3. Watercolour Paper: The most important thing when it comes to watercolor painting is watercolor paper. When we are starting out, we feel that, "Okay, I'm not going to invest much in watercolors. All I need is a brush and color," and we overlook the fact that the most important thing that you need to start as a beginner is watercolor paper. Yes, of course, you need paint and brushes and we think that once we get a brush and a set of paints, we think that, "Okay, now I have enough paper at home, I have my notebooks, I have my sketchbooks, I have A4 paper, and I'll just paint and try and learn on them." But no, if you want to start, even as an ultimate beginner, watercolor paper is of utmost importance. Because if you want to get all the effects, all the techniques that you have in watercolors and if you want to learn them, if you want to experiment and see how the paint moves on the paper, if you want to master those techniques, you need watercolor paper. So even if you invest in a cheap quality paints and brushes, you can't compromise on paper. Paper is the most important thing when it comes to watercolor painting. Let me tell you one thing that is overlooked by everyone I know. They think that, "Okay, I have enough paper and all I need is brush and paints." No, watercolor paper is the most important thing that anybody needs while starting out, and I know that it's a huge investment, but you can go ahead and get smaller sizes and cheaper brands that are available out there and start your watercolor journey with them, but don't start on a very low quality A4 size paper that's already there in your house because you will only be frustrated that, why am I not able to achieve all the techniques? Why is my paper bending? Why is my paper warping? Why is my paper tearing off? Why is the paint not spreading? You might have your paper torn off. All of these can be avoided if you just invest your first little tiny investment in watercolor painting if you want to start out and learn to be a pro. There are various things when you consider to buy a watercolor paper, and the most important fact is the thickness of the paper. The thickness of the paper simply means the weight of the paper. A paper's weight is usually measured in terms of grams per square meter, which is called as the GSM. You will find this value written in front of the different kinds of papers that we get. So the printer paper or the paper that comes in notebooks is usually like around 90-150 GSM, which is very less for a watercolor painting because it will not withstand all the water that you're going to use with watercolors, which is why you need a thicker paper which can actually withstand those water. When you apply water onto the paper, what actually happens is it goes into the fibers of the paper. When it gets into the fibers of the paper, if your paper is not thick, it's going to come into the bottom fibers and it's just going to bend and your paper is going to get all torn off. But if your paper is really thick, even if you apply water on the top surface, it wouldn't reach all the way down, and your paper will not tear off while painting. I would recommend for watercolor paintings a minimum of 270, although, I would say 300 is really the best. I mostly use chitrapat paper which is 440 GSM. It withstands all of my heavy washes. I can apply multiple layers of water and paint on top of this and this doesn't tear off or bend. This is 440 GSM paper. This is chitrapat, this is an Indian brand. I got it from India when I went last year. The next thing about watercolor papers is the cotton content in it. Watercolor papers can be made using different materials; can be made from wood pulp, or it can be made from cotton, and I recommend 100 percent cotton paper because your paper stays wet for a longer duration of time. The amount of cotton in your paper is what determines how much longer your paper is going to take to dry, or how much longer it's going to stay wet or moist, and 100 percent cotton paper stays wet for a longer duration of time as opposed to other paper which has lesser cotton content. For example, this is arches 300 GSM, 100 percent cotton paper, and I also love this arches paper because it's 300 GSM and it's 100 percent cotton paper and it's a really good brand. I went ahead and invested in a paper roll of arches so that I can cut out any shape that I want. But I wouldn't ask you to do that. You can buy cheaper papers but with good quality, such as this Brustro paper. This is from Creative Hands and this is available in India. This one is 25 percent cotton that I have here. But Brustro also has 100 percent cotton papers which you can use and if you're a beginner, you can start out with this, and if you're not from India, you can invest in artists' 100 percent cotton papers, which are also really great. The only thing that you need to look for when you're starting off with watercolors are; if you're going to paint landscapes and such, I would recommend cold pressed or rough paper, and if you want to go into flow rows and detailed versions of painting, then you might need to consider hard pressed paper. So for landscapes, cold pressed or rough, minimum 300 GSM, 100 percent cotton paper. This one is chitrapat paper, and I also have this one from Saunders Waterford. This is also really nice and good-quality as Arches. This is also 100 percent cotton and 300 GSM NOT. NOT is the same as CP, CP is cold pressed, so some companies refer to it as NOT and some companies say cold pressed, so don't be confused. NOT is the same as cold pressed. The important lesson is, watercolor paper is the most important factor when it comes to watercolor paintings. We shouldn't overlook that factor and always consider watercolor paper first before brushes or paints. 4. Watercolour Paints: Watercolor paint is available in various forms. The most common forms are watercolor cakes, tubes, and liquid watercolors. There are also watercolor pencils, watercolor sticks, but I will focus on these three today. This is a watercolor palette from Art Philosophy group. As you can see, they come in these small pans. These pans are called half pans because this is half size. This one would be full size. You can compare and see. This is the half size of the full pan, which is why this is known as the half pans, and there are 12 half pans in this palette. This is the Woodlands palette and this is the Currents palette. I have all of their palettes because I am an ambassador for Art Philosophy brand, but let's leave that to it. So watercolor cakes and then we have watercolor tubes. They come in these different sizes for different brands, so different brands may release them in different sizes. For example, the most common ones are five ml, 10 ml, 15 milliliters, and also sometimes seven milliliters, but it all depends upon the different brands that they come in. This one is probably one of the largest that I have, this is 15 milliliters and this one is also 15. This is from Art Philosophy and this is from Mijello Mission, they're gold class ones. So there is much more to a watercolor tube than we know about. There are lots of things that are done on this tube that is of very importance to an artist if you want to learn about the colors. For example, if you take any of the shades, let's say if we take this one, there will be the name. The first name is the lemon yellow, which is the brand name. The brand Mission calls their colors in various names, this lemon yellow, for example. This lemon yellow may not be the same as the lemon yellow in another brand. How do we know which color matches which? That is where the importance of this pigment number comes in, PY3. This is PY3, which means that this is pigment yellow three. I'm not going to go into details about all these pigments because that's like a whole big world of colors; there is a lot to each pigment. But what I mean to say is that from the information on the tube, you can learn a lot about colors. You can understand what is the color that you have in your hand. For example, if this is PY3, and you have another lemon yellow from a different brand, you can cross-check them and you will see that this is not PY3, but maybe it has a mix of some other color in it as well. For instance, here I have this lemon yellow from Sennelier and this is from Mission. Let's check. This is PY3, so both of these are PY3, which means they are the exact same pigments. There's no change in it, only the formulas used by the different brands might be different formulas, as in, the ratio of paint to gum arabic, which is the binder that is used to bind the pigments together. That might be different and only the manufacturing process might be different, but the pigments that they have used in both of these paint tubes are exactly the same. That's what we can learn from these tubes. There is also other information such as the lightfastness, and I think this might have more. Yes, this one says it's semi-transparent. So it also tells about the pigment, that is, whether this color is transparent or opaque and whether it is staining. This says that it is semi-staining. Then your watercolors can come also as liquid water colors. This is mostly made using dyes rather than pigments. That's what liquid water colors are. These ones are from CrafTangles, and this one is from Art Philosophy. These are the liquid watercolors and you'd have to paint them using droppers. They're really vibrant and very concentrated. As you can see, it says, concentrated liquid water colors. They're really concentrated, so we'd have to dilute them and use them, so don't directly take from the dropper and apply onto the paper. But this is in general about different watercolors. Watercolor cakes, you can use your brushes directly on them and take your paints from them and use on the paper, but I always prefer to use full pans rather than half pans, purely because of the size of it. If you have a set of tubes and you want to load them into your pans, I would recommend getting full pans because it's got a bigger size. For example, if I'm using the size 12 brush and I'm loading my brush with paints from here, you can see that it doesn't actually fit the whole of the pan and it's going to rub against the borders of this pan, and eventually, it might damage my brush. I prefer to take extra care of my brushes, so I always prefer these full pans. That is what I have done here with my travel palette. This is my travel palette, the colors that I chose myself that I wanted to take with me, and these are mostly from White Nights. What I did is I bought full pans and I filled the colors in. It's also easier for my brushes to load paint. See, this whole brush fits in it and it doesn't do much damage like the half pans. Otherwise, you can use palettes. You would use your palettes like these. This is a plastic palette where I have filled in all the colors. This is from PWC ShinHan brand. All the colors I've put in this one, in these wells. This is also easy to take it on and travel with because it closes like this and it becomes easy to take around. If you're using watercolor tubes, remember you might need a ceramic palette or a plastic one, so that you can load your colors onto it because, obviously, you can't directly take the paint from the tube and paint. Let me tell you one important thing about watercolors, you don't need all of these brands or all of these colors. You only need very few shades out of which you can mix thousands of shades. Trust me when I say that. All of these paints that I have are accumulated over years and not what I bought in a single day. I've been painting for a long time now and these are my collections from various collaborations and what I have bought. Some have been gifts from friends and family, but what I mean to say is, all you need is just one set of colors from which you can mix all the different colors that you want. For example, I chose this color palette for me, and it has these number of colors. I think there's 14 or 16 in this, now I can't remember because I added two or three to my original collection. But this is all I need when I'm traveling and when I'm outside because I can mix every color that I want with just these number of colors in this one. What I'm trying to say is, don't be worried that "I don't have all those colors that she's saying or I don't have all the colors that the other person is having." Just don't compare yourself and we will try to paint with whatever colors we have, and trust me, you will create wonders. People also actually learn a lot of color mixing from this process because you're trying to achieve a color that you don't have and you'll eventually end up mixing two or three colors and you'll find that, "I made this color. This is so beautiful." I strongly believe that having one set is really good enough to start, and also if you want to go a long way and you want to just continue using one single brand, that's perfectly fine. So, happy painting. 5. Watercolour Brushes: Let us talk about watercolor brushes. They come in different forms, and shapes, and sizes. It might be a lot confusing as to when you're going to invest in a new brush as to what is all these different sizes, what are all these different shapes? Which one should I invest in? Let us discuss about watercolor blushes? Break and booth. This is the most common shape which is pointed round, so my hairs are dry at the moment that's why it's all loose. But if I dip it in water, you'll see that it comes to a pointed tip and this is the pointed round, and so is this one, and this one. I have more of these, but let me tell you one important thing. All you need for watercolor paintings is a large round brush, a medium-sized brush, and a smaller sized brush. These three are actually the main brushes that I use for almost all of my paintings. These are from Silver black velvet. This is size 12, size eight and size four, but size four one is slightly too bigger, so if you want, you can go for a smaller size, such as this one, which is size one or a size zero, and that would be all you need for your watercolor paintings. That is, a larger size, a medium-size, and a really smaller size. What is the purpose of all these other brushes? Well, if you are growing from a beginner artist into an advanced artist and you want to invest in brushes then you would slowly get all these other blushes. This one is called as a one stroke or flat brush. You can see the bristles are flat and this is called as a flat brush, so it's really good for making flat washes and covering large surface area of the paper with paint. Because as you can see, it's got really flat, and then this is called a mop brush. It's also good for making washes and this also actually comes to a point, but since this is a very large size, the point is going to be really not that pointed but as you can see it also. But the main difference between a mop brush and a round brush is that the mop brush has a bigger belly as opposed to a round one. If you can see here, the belly of this brush is thinner as opposed to this one. I'll dip it in water and show you, so there I've just dipped it in water and you can see how the belly of this one is thicker than this one, so that's the main difference between a mop brush and round brush. Then there are these brushes. This is almost exactly the same as flat brush and it can be used for that purpose as well, but some companies or brands call them mottler brushes, so they are flat, again, can be used for washes, for applying water onto your paper and such uses, or you can even paint a whole painting with only this, just that you need to twist your brushes and do the right strokes. I have even in fact made a painting with only this single brush and I had posted in my Instagram page, and then this one, this one is a fan brush. As you can see, its bristles are span out like a fan. These are mostly used for different textures, for example, you can make grass textures with this one and various uses, so if you start experimenting with brushes, you'll see that there is a lot of use for all of these brushes. Then there's this one. This one is called a foliage brush because it's really good for making tree foliages. As you can see, it's got like a hard bristle and pointed. If you dip your brush in paint and then just tab onto your paper, you'll get small, small lines and textures, which is really good for making foliage. That's why it's called a foliager brush. Then there are these brushes. If you look at the shape of it, it's somehow oval in shape. It can be both called as oval wash or some companies call it as cat tongue, but I think cat tongue brush would be more similar to this one. This is a cat tongue brush just because the shape of the bristles looks like a cats tongue. Then we have smaller flat brushes. This is a small flat brush that I have from Silver black velvet, and then are rigger brushes. These two are rigor brushes that I have. This one is from Silver black velvet, and this one is from Daler-Rowney. With the rigger brush, it's got longer hair and thinner longer hairs. They come in varying sizes as well, so the largest sizes would have more longer hairs and would be a bit more thicker here. It's really good for making thin and very thin lines. It's called a rigger brush because earlier on, these brushes were mostly used by water-colorists to make the rigger lines and the ships. You know the lines that mass of the ship. Advanced watercolor artists they usually used to use this rigger brush, but that buffers and that's how the name came, rigger brush. But as you can see, Silver black velvet names it as the script series brushes, so it's also called as the same. This is a lighter brush, so you see the different companies might call it different names, but they are all the same. This one is a rigger, liner, or script brushes, and then we have this one. This one is another shape, so it's a dagger brush. It's mostly used for making different shape patterns for floral artists. Like for example, you can make leaves or flowers. You just need to master the different angles of this brush so it's really, really, really beautiful. If you finally learn how to use this brush, it comes to a point at one corner after it's wet or damp, I'll just show you. I've just dipped it in water and you can see it's got a nice point here and then like this. It's really good. You can start with a point and then if you press your brush down, you get the shape of the leaf. These are the main brushes. But as I said, you don't need any of these. All you need is a large sized brush, a medium sized brush, a smaller sized brush, which comes to a really nice point so that you can make tiny details and maybe a flat brush as well, which would be really helpful. Oh, and yeah, I almost forgot about this one, which is a spotter or detailer brush. You can see the bristles are really small and then when I dip it in water, it's barely visible. This is for making tiny details, very tiny small details, like even really small dots or the minor details in a painting. That's why this is called spotter. The spotter brushes come in a variety of shapes. I don't have them with me right now, but these are most of the shapes that brushes come in. Then there is another category of brushes, not category, but I would call it travel blushes. These are travel brushes which are made especially for traveling. If you are traveling somewhere and you're worried that your brushes may be damaged, the brush hair because if you just put it in a purse or something, they would rub against other surfaces and it will damage the bristles. For that purpose, this brush was made. You can see, it's got a metal cap like this and it detaches off from the middle, and you can put it back inside and see. This becomes like a capsule or tube, which makes it easy to travel and the brush hairs are prevented from any damage. These are from Eskoda and they have the best travel brush series. If you plan on traveling and you want to become a travel artist and you can invest in these travel brushes. These traveled brushes also come in all the different shapes and sizes that we just mentioned. They would easily just be like this where it would go back into the tube and capsules. I actually was traveling ones with these like this in my bag and they stopped me at the airport asking me, what are these cylindrical type of things that they found during the scan, and was like, is it some medicine? Then I had to like open it up and show them that these are watercolor brushes and they're really surprised as to oh my God brushes, and they never knew about it. But I was happy to show them. Also, at the same time, frustrated that I had to be stopped at the queue and, take out everything from my bag. Lastly, another brush that I use is this Princeton hockey brush. I call it hockey brush and it's got these nice long hairs and you can see it almost similar to a flat brush. I mostly use this for applying water onto my paper because it's so large, it covers a lot of surface area of my paper, and if I'm painting on an A5, I think three strokes would cover the whole of the paper, so I love this brush for applying the water on to the paper. This is also great if you're going to paint on a large paper and you want to apply the paint all over or to a very large surface, then this is really great for that purpose. This is that, and that is all about brushes. 6. Watercolour Swatches: Let us first understand what are swatches. Swatches are basically nothing but samples of your paint on a paper so that you know what's inside the pan or what's inside the tube. We drag out two pans you can already see the color as it appears on the tube, but for example if you look at this shade this is violet but you can see that it looks almost like black because it is really highly pigmented inside the pan. How do you know what the shade is exactly? That is why you need to swatch it on a paper so that you know how it appears on the paper. I will show you how we can do a perfect swatch of colors. Usually for swatching what you would do is you would pick up the paint on your brush so there I have a wet brush and I'm picking up paint, and you would apply it onto the paper. You can see here and gently slide you brush across the paper towards the bottom, and you can see it get lighter and lighter towards the bottom. Make sure to put all the darker shades towards the top so in this way you will understand what are the different tones of a color. I will explain tones in detail but just bear with me for now. Then you can dip your brush in water and just apply a bit more so you get a lighter tone. See that. You can just see how we know now what's in the pan of violet shade this is entirely different from what we see on the pan. Let's do the same for another color. This is almost finished but I'll take it. This is Indian gold. It looks like a brown shade in here, but let's see how it appears on the paper. It's a really nice golden shade. So there you go. See it's starts like a brown shade, but then as you go downwards it is becoming lighter and lighter. Let's wash it off and just use a wet brush now and see it's become almost as a very light yellow. This is how you would do the swatches. Swatches are ideal for finding out what the colors are exactly. Whenever you buy a new set of paints before you jump straight and start using them in your painting it is always the best thing to take out those tubes or pans, and to just swatch them out on the paper and see the different tones that you get from that single shade. All of those colors swatch them. There are different ways you can swatch as in you can do them beautifully cut out a piece of paper, swatch every colors, write each of the names down, and there are people who stick it to their walls so that you know what are the colors. I can show you right here some of my swatch sheets so these are from my philosophy goal, and then these are individual pans I receive from friends so I swatched all of them and I put it up on my wall so that I can see what are the shades in it. Then this one is the swatch sheet of my Sennelier watercolors. This is the set of 98 Sennelier watercolors that I proudly own. I swatch them onto this paper and I have hung it on my wall as you can see here. 7. Tonal Value: Let us now understand the tonal value of a color. Tonal value means how light or dark a single shade of color can give you. That is what is known as the tonal value. I'm going to be using this shade over here. This is Payne's gray. It's exactly same as in this pan. This is a pan of Payne's gray, but you can see it looks really black over here. We need to understand what are the different tones that we can obtain from this single shade. I have taken the Payne's gray into this palette bowl over here. Let us see how we can do with the tonal swatch of Payne's gray. For the first time when you're doing this swatch, remove all the excess water from your brush and then pick up the paint in nice darker consistency, and then apply it onto the paper. You can see that this is a really dark and this is the darkest version of Payne's gray that you can obtain from that tube, from this one. Now, let us see how we can lighten this. I have not dipped my brushing water yet, I'll show you. I'm just going to dip my brush a little. Now, I have some water on my brush. There you go. Let me see if I can adjust the frame, there. I have dipped my brush into water and picking up paint and then we'll do the swatch. You can see that this is lighter than the previous one. It is lighter than this one. This is the next tonal value of this color Payne's gray. Now let us pick up more water on our brush. I've picked up more water on our brush and then I pick up paint again. See, you can see that it has got a lighter value than the previous one. The tonal value is basically simple, just keep adding more and more water to your paint and you will get lighter and lighter values of a color. This is the same for almost every colors, but although it'll be very hard to see the tonal value of lighter shades, for example, yellow or white, for example. For the final ones you need little pigment and lot of water. See, I added more pigment here so that's why this is darker than this one. That's all right, but you get the point. So there and more water. Finally, in the last stages you will be more water and maybe like 10 percent pigment and just 90 percent water. You see? This is how you would do the tonal value of a color that you own. It is always better to understand every color that you have, understand what are all the shades that you can obtain from that single tube of color. Which is why all these kinds of exercises are really important to understand your pigments and your colors. Now, there is something I would like to bring to your notice about the tonal value of a color. For example, this is really important in our paintings to depict the effect of depth in our paintings. The darker colors that this is darker, and this is lighter. The lighter shades will be used to paint objects that are far away, such as a far-off mountains in the background. This will be where the background is, and far away objects and the objects that are closer to the viewer, that is, closer to the viewer, and the details in a painting would be made using the darker tone. So this is the foreground. This is how you would represent the background and foreground in a painting. As you go further away from the paintings, your tone should go lighter, and as you words the viewer in the painting, your tones would get darker. It's also the same with details. The details in your paintings will be using a darker tone while if you want to depict something with a very less detailed, then you would use a lighter tone. So this is less details. To summarize, the details would be depicted using darker tones and the lesser details with the lighter tones, and the background of any painting with the lighter tones and as you come closer to the view, all the foreground details would be in darker tones. This is the importance of tonal value of a pigment. This is also the basis of a monochromatic painting. So when you're painting for landscape or any abstract landscape which only involves a single color. This is how you would be painting a monochromatic painting, because let's say you want to have a mountain range and that's all you're painting is going to be. So the mountains that are far away will be using the lighter tones and as you come closer, the mountains will get darker and darker, and the first foreground mountain will be the darkest, which will be in this dark shade of paint screen. 8. Wet on Wet Technique: Let us go through the first technique. But before that, I'm going to tape down this paper onto my board. I have a wooden board underneath, and this is Arches 300 GSM paper. Here is my masking tape. This is just a normal masking tape that I got it of Amazon. I don't remember how much it was, maybe I think it was a pack of three for seven pounds or something. Let us tape down this paper onto the board now. It is very important to tape down your paper to the board if you're going to paint landscapes or similar paintings. This is because taping down your paper will prevent the paper from bending. As you can already see, this was a paper that I cut out of a roll of Arches. It came as a roll, so it still has got some bent. The masking tape will help to keep it in one place as [inaudible] , to prevent it from warping. Warping is basically when the paper starts to bend, when you apply a lot of layers, so it'll prevent that as well. There you go. See. We have to be very careful around the edges as well, because there is a possibility that your paint might seep through the edges onto the sides, so very careful with the masking tape. But don't worry, even if seeps outside, because I have a solution for that. I always prefer to paint using a board or something, so that whenever I want I can lift off my paper. Otherwise, if I stuck it on the table, I'll be stuck there, and while it's drying, or whatever other techniques that we're doing, it would be quite difficult for us to handle that on the surface of the table. This lesson is entirely based on watercolor techniques. I have divided this paper into six different sections, and I've put a masking tape in-between. This is actually another masking tape that I have. You can see it's slightly different. It's this thinner one that are used to separate different parts of the paper, so that's why. But don't worry if you don't have a thinner one, you can just use your normal masking tape, separate your paper into six different sections. For this lesson, we will learn the first technique, which is the most important technique in watercolors, which is known as the wet-on-wet technique, so with regards to wet-on-wet technique, what it really means is that the first word wet, refers to the wet paint on the brush, so that means your brush has to be wet, and you are taking wet things. The second word, wet-on-wet, refers to the paper. That means your paper is also going to be wet, and your brush is also going to be wet. This means that we will have to apply water on the first square here. I'm going to show you how it is. You see I've taken water, and I'm applying it onto the paper. There you go. I'm applying only in the first square here. This technique, because it's called wet-on-wet, that's why we are applying the water onto the paper so that the surface becomes wet. Make sure that you apply the water evenly on all the four corners, and every part of the paper, or the area that you're going to paint. There you go. Now I have applied the water. I'm just going to take some wet paint. You can see my brush is wet. I'm just going to load up some color, let's say I'm going to load up some pink shade. You can see what will happen now when I touch the brush onto the paper. You can see how it spread. See that. This is basically what is called as wet-on-wet technique. It has a lot of applications with regards to watercolors, and is one of the most important technique in watercolors, so we have to really master this technique to get into watercolors. This is the first basics of watercolors. See how the paper is blending, or how the paint is moving on the paper. Now, there are a wide variety of applications for the wet-on-wet technique. The most important of them all is the washes. We will go in to different kinds of washes now. Let's see that. The first one is again, it's called flat wash, and it's again a wet-on-wet technique, so remember that we have to apply the water onto the paper. I'm applying the water onto the second square now. To make your water on the paper to be even, slide it from left to right using your brush like this, and if there's any extra water, just sweep it off your paper, like I'm doing now. You can see some pool of water here, because I've just slide it off and removing the excess water from my paper. There you go. I'm going to just pick up one of the colors. Let's say I want to take a bright blue color. Using that, let's do a flat wash. Flat wash is basically nothing, one single color, the whole area covered with your paint. It's just flat wash of one single color. Wash is basically just applying a whole large area with one single color. I'm just going to apply paint. Use the swift left and right movement to get an even blend on the paper. Remember just that this water on the paper will blend the paint. You can see how you're getting a nice even blend. This is basically what is called flat wash. There you go. That's flat wash. Now, I'll show you the next one. The next one is called as graded wash. This is also, as its name suggests, a wash technique. Wash technique is basically when you are applying paint and water onto a large surface area. I'm going to apply to this whole big square over here. Let's apply the water first. I'm just going to be a bit careful over here, because I have paint on the masking tape. If I go and apply it, this paint will come over to this side. I'm just going to prevent that now. Not going to touch that area, but still I'll apply water in the corners. There you go. I've applied water. Now, for graded wash. It simply means that your wash is going to be graded. So it's going to create a gradient. A gradient is basically when you have a darker tone off the color on one side, and a lighter tone as it goes gradually down. I'll show you that now. Let's use a different color. I'm going to take soft green, and I'm applying it at the top. With regards to graded wash, that are different ways that you can achieve it. First of all, if you have stuck your paper onto a board or something, you can bend it like this. Your paper will start to flow down as you can see. It starts to flow down, and keep applying darker colors at the top. When you pick up paint, and you pick up dark tone of paint on your brush, applied on the top. As it goes down remove the paint from your brushes by washing your brushes, and then tap it so that you remove any excess water. Then just keep blending like this. At the bottom side, it should be lighter, which is what we're trying to do. You can see what has happened here, we have a lighter tone at the bottom and darker tone at the top. This is what is called as a graded wash. But, let's now imagine that you did not stuck your paper onto a board, but rather on a flat surface and we want to do a graded wash. Let's try that here. I'm going to be applying water on this box over here again. There we go, so I'm applying water onto the whole of the box for the graded wash. Let's now take another color. I am going to go with some turquoise blue shade, and let's see how we can achieve a graded wash. There you go. Starting at the top, we will start applying a darker tone. You can see it's really dark and then as you move down, remove the paint from your brush and then dab off any excess water, then just keep blending it downwards. You see this swift left and right movements that I'm doing, so that's really important when we're trying to do a wash. There you go, you could see. You can see there isn't much difference between this and this. We have achieved the same thing. This one was by lifting the board and this one was by just keeping it flat on the surface. So it doesn't really matter whether you have a board or not actually for this washes. That's what I wanted to tell you. Now, next what I'm going to be showing you is what is called as a variegated wash. Variegated wash, as the name suggests again, it is a wash technique, wet on wet technique. So we want the paper to be wet. I'm applying water onto my paper. There you go. I've applied the water onto my paper here. Now, variegated wash is where you do the flat wash with two different colors, two or more actually. You can do a variegated wash where one color will seamlessly blend into another color. That is what is called as a variegated wash. Let's try to do that. I'm going to be taking some Indian yellow paint. I'm going to start from the top and just do, just like with the flat wash and all the other washes, the swift left and right movements. There you go, you can see. Then what I'm going to do is, I'm going to take a bit of pink shade and start applying from the bottom here and towards the top. You can see, and then as I reach the yellow, just keep doing the left and right motion. You can see how they have blend well thickly together. See how here they have blend perfectly together. This is the key to getting a perfect blend. A blend between two colors, wash technique that is called as the variegated wash because you have two or more colors that you have blend together. Now if you want to darken this, you can just apply more dark paint, but remember to do the blending properly. If you've taken yellow first and then I'm going to go with a darker color of the pink. See that? Keep blending it, keep moving your brush upwards. You can also do the same downwards. So let's see if you take more yellow, start from the top and then just keep doing this all the way up to the bottom. You see that? That's how we get a perfect blend or a variegated wash. Now, in this again, I will show you a variegated wash, but with three colors. Let's see how we can blend three different colors. I will apply water onto my paper again. There you go. I've applied the water evenly. Which three colors should we blend together? We are going to start with yellow again. Let's take some yellow paint and I'm going to start at the top, you see that, and then I'm going to take some green. I'm going to mix it under the yellow. You see that? Then I'm going to take some blue color and add it to the bottom. Now I have three colors. Let's see now how we can blend this. There you go. Once you've added the colors onto the paper, keep doing this with left and right movements and blend it. I would stop here because as you can see, the green is a very dark color as opposed to yellow, so it will overpower the yellow from the top. In order to blend this smoothly and to see some yellow on the paper, it would be ideal if you can take more yellow and go from the top to the bottom. Otherwise, as you can see, if I had continued all the way upwards, this green would overpower the yellow and it would turn into all green. So that's why I'm going to load my brush with more yellow and start from the top and then move downwards. Yellow is not going to overpower the green, so it's fine. But as you can see it has overpowered the blue. But that's alright because we can apply more blue at the bottom and just blend it. You see that? Right here, consider of taking more yellow. If you want, you can just remove the paint from your brushes, dab off any excess water and then just keep doing the motion with your brush. See, now we have a perfect blend of three colors. There you go. This is basically all of the most important technique of watercolors, which is wet on wet technique. This one was to just show you how the paint spreads on the paper. This one is a flat wash. This one is a graded wash and so is this one but this one we tilted the board and this one we did it by just keeping the board on the surface. These two in fact are variegated washes, where we have blend two colors and three colors simultaneously. Even after this, you might be doubtful as to how much water should we apply onto the paper. As in, how do we know how much water to apply onto the paper? How do we know how much paint you want on the brush? How do you know how much water you need on the brush? For all these questions, I will be answering them in the next lesson, which is about water control. That is again, another very important lesson when it comes to watercolors, that is controlling the amount of water on the paper, on the brush, and also when you pick up the paints on your brush. 9. Water Control: The next most important thing is what to control when using watercolors. We need to know how much water to apply onto the paper, how much water do we take on our brushes, how much water do we take from our paints and all of this. So for the wet-on-wet technique, I told you that we would be applying water onto the paper, but how much water do we apply on the paper. I'll just show you that. I'm starting to apply water on my paper. Here you go, I've applied the whole surface with water. You can see here, I'm applying the whole of the surface with water. Let's add some more water on the paper. See, you can see closely here in this angle that this is too much water. See here, there's a puddle of water here and its form like a blob of water. This is too much water on the paper, we don't want this much water on the paper. Ideally, always look under the light or under the sunlight obviously, to see how much water is there on the paper. Because if you look from the top, it'll not be easily visible. So I'm just moving away the water from my paper, there you go. I'm just going to dab this off with a tissue at the sides here. There you go. If you observe now, it's a bit more clear, isn't it? You can clearly see the texture of the paper and not the puddles of water. Unless you're doing this for a specific purpose and you do want a lot of water on the paper like for example, in the techniques such as pouring technique or the water technique, then you'll only need this much water. So this is the right consistency of water. Now, let us understand how much water and paint should we be applying onto this. Let's say, I'm going to take some paint, I'm going to take some pink color again. So I'm just mixing them in my palette here, I'm just going to dab my brush in the water and I'm taking a large amount of water. I just want to show you how it will be if you take a large amount of water, so there you go. Have taking a large amount of water, there's a lot of water in my brush. When I apply it, see it's got a lot of water and it's already forming pools here, I'll just blend more outwards. This is ideal for first washes, as in if you're doing the first wash and you just want to blend it together, it's fine. But now imagine that you're going to take more water and just going to introduce it here. See, it would just spread out and has created a blob of water here. This is not something that we want or imagine, I'm going to introduce a bit more water onto the paper here. See, so you can see how the paint has spread away at the point where I have applied the water. This is actually what is called as blooms. So unless you want blooms for a specific textures or specific techniques, this is too much water. This is a main reason why water blooms are formed on the paper, because of too much water. So then how do we know how much water to apply? That's the question, isn't it? I'll just tell you, see all the blooms has spread the paint and it formed a blob of water over here. I'm just going to spread it out and blend it evenly now. Because this is Arches paper and it stays wet at all the places evenly, I'm able to move it out. But imagine that this was not 100 percent cotton paper, some of the sides would have dried and this would have been a really hard process to explain, but I'm going to explain how we can control the amount of water. This is the first important point regarding water control, that is the water control 101. That is, if you want a perfect blend or the best wet-on-wet technique, the water on your brush should be lesser than the water on the paper. Let me say it again. The water on your brush should be less than the water on your paper. You can see here now, you have water on your paper. It's wet. So now we need to apply paint onto the paper using a brush. But if you have more water on your brush than on the paper, it will form blooms. But if you have less water on your brush than on the paper, it'll not form any blooms, but will give you the best wet-on-wet technique, I'll show you. This is already very diluted and it's lot of water, so I'm just going to pick up more paint. You can see how I'm picking up more paint. My brush, I'm removing all the excess water by dabbing at the sides like this, sliding across the sides of the bottle. Now I've removed all excess water and then I've loaded the paint. See, I've loaded onto my brush, going to take some more. There. This is now, you can clearly tell that the water on the brush and the paint, that is the water paint consistency on the brush is lesser than on the paper. So when I apply now, see, it doesn't spread out, it doesn't form any blooms, it just stays there. This is how you can form clouds and all the other wet-on-wet techniques that you can do. See perfectly how it is blending together. Now the same technique, I'll show you with more water. I've just dipped my brush into the water, now I have a lot of water. I'm just going to apply. See how all of this has just spread forming blooms, you could do more. See. I hope you can see from this angle here so when I apply, see how it is spread. This spreads the paint and creates unnecessary blooms on the paper and unnecessary blends and destroys all our wet-on-wet methods. This is not how much water we want on the paper, so it's basically the simple thing. Water on your brush should be lesser than the water on the paper. If you have that, you will get the best wet-on-wet technique. I will show you the same thing with regards to how when variegated washes, that is a perfect blend. See the water blob that was here has seeped into this side, but that's all right. You can see I've applied an even coat of water onto my paper, there you go. Taking Indian gold, applying on my paper. We're applying from the top to the bottom and then I'm going to take some sap green, then start from the bottom then go upwards, there you go. Now I've created a perfect blend, but let's imagine that you're taking sap green, there you go. I've now taken sap green onto my pallet, but let's imagine that you're introducing sap green with a lot of water into this blend here. So I do this, I do this and then I'm going to take a very less amount of Indian yellow and apply it. This is just to show you how the whole thing can be ruined if you have more water, so more water and more sap green, let me just apply it. You can clearly see that this is already too much water on the paper. It's just going to bleed and not going to create perfect blend, but let me still try and see if I can fail with this and create a very bad blend. The thing with this is that this is Arches paper, it still creates good-quality washes or blends. So it's really difficult to obtain failures on this paper, which is why I always say go for the best quality paper. Arches is a really good one, you can also go for other 100 percent cotton papers such as Brustro, is a really good one. I mean, for beginners, you can go for Brustro 100 percent cotton paper or you can go for Chitrapat paper. Chitrapat is an Indian brand, so if you're not from India, maybe you can ask some of your friends from India to get it for you, it's really cheap. I guess even if you include the shipping cost, it's not going to be as much as Arches. I'm still not able to get the failed effect on this, but you see what I mean, if there's more water on your paper. You can see that this point here is not that really perfect because you have a lot of water. Let's see, there you go. So I've spread out the paint now. This is like a really bad blend. In order to get the perfect blend, you need the correct amount of water. See over here, in the first set that we did, the water is still formed up like a puddle over here and hasn't dried yet. This is all a large amount of water, so we need always the correct amount of water on the paper, correct amount of water on brush and its just basically the most important thing when it comes to water colors. 10. Wet on Dry Technique: Now let us look at the next technique, which is known as wet on dry. So wet on dry obviously is the first word wet, implying that your brush and the paints are wet and your paper is dry. So any dry surface when you apply wet paint on top of it, that technique is called wet on dry. So there you go. I've dipped my brush into the water and I'm draining any excess water, and I'm just going to pick up any paint. Let's say I pick up some blue shade, and then applying on my paper. So you can see, this is known as wet on dry technique. There you go, I'm applying on my paper. This is known as wet on dry technique. You can also use it in different ways. Let me pick up some different blue. So you can use it to paint mountains or any technique where you are applying your paint onto a dry surface is called as the wet on wet technique. So you can understand how important that is. You can draw lines or figures or whatever you want with the wet on dry technique. Always whenever you are applying a wet paint on the paper, it is called as wet on dry technique. Wet on dry method can be also applied to a paper that has dried paint. So you can see this box over here in which I have painted yellow shade, and it's dry now. This surface is now dry, which means it qualifies for wet on dry technique. So let us take some shade. I'm going to go with sepia, so taking a bit of sepia shade. You can see I'm applying it on top of the dry paper using a wet paint. So this is wet on dry technique because the paint has already dried underneath and you're adding another layer on top of it. 11. Wet on Dry Washes: You can also get a flat wash using the wet on dry technique. Let us see how we can make a flat wash using the wet on dry technique. Dip your brush in water and pick up nice juicy consistency of water, so this time, remember that you want your brush to be really wet and you're loading up nice consistency of paint. See this. You're loading nice consistency of your paint and your brush has now is wet and you apply the stroke. Slightly lift the table like this. It would be really helpful. You're lifting the table. See that? You can see that the color has flow down towards the bottom side here and that's really important because we need that part of the paper to be wet so that when we apply the next stroke, it doesn't form any dark edges. Pick up more paint and then just right where it is ending, we will pull it down more like that. See now we have a new place where that is, where the lump of water is and then we load up paint again and sweep across again. Each time you make a stroke, we just sweeping the previous stroke together with it as in just at the edge of it, so that we are basically forming like a wet on wet technique because the area above is just wet. There you go and you've pulled out. You can see now how you have applied a flat wash using the wet on dry method. But as you've held it up the gravity has acted on this and it has pulled down all the paint but the other whole thing is still wet. You can just go ahead and apply your flat wash and blend it. See. Now you have perfect a flat wash on your paper but we did this without wetting the paper first, so it's a wet and dry flat wash. It is also possible to blend two colors using the wet on dry technique. First, I'm going to load up some yellow paint. Nice consistency of yellow paint and then applying it onto my paper. You'll need not lift it off if you don't want because your paper's still wet and when you apply the previous stroke it would just blend nicely. There you go. I have applied the wet paint onto the dry paper and then I'm going to pick up nice consistency of this green color and I'm just going to do it right to where yellow is ending and then just mix it together and you can see how we have obtained a perfect blend of the yellow and green using the wet on dry method. See that. That's again a perfect blend that we have here. Look at that guys. Look how perfect the blend is. What I'm trying to say is it doesn't really matter whether your paper is really wet or your paper is dry. All you need to understand is controlling the amount of water and paint that you put on your paper so that you can see how they blend together. Because just remember if a previous stroke had dried, when you apply the paint on it, it wouldn't spread and blend together, so that is why you need to be working really fast and also the importance of good quality watercolor paper to achieve that blend between two different colors. This blend that we just learned is really important because let's say for example, you want to paint something and you want to do it using a wet on dry technique and you want to just continue doing that. Let's see. I'm going to start with green and I'm going to do it in an angle so that I show you. There I have applied my wet paint in this direction. Your blends can be in any direction. It doesn't have to be in a horizontal manner or even in a vertical way. You can have it diagonally. Next, I'm picking up yellow and I'm going to apply it right where it ended. You see that. This method is really helpful if you want to blend stuff on the paper rather than on your pallet or even when you want to not to use the wet on wet technique. You see that? I really like this perfect blend that we have here. 12. Dry Brush Technique: The next technique that we're going to learn is known as the dry brush technique. This means that your brush is going to be dry, that is why it is called as the dry brush technique. Let us remove all extra water from the brush. You can see I'm diving along the sides of the jar to remove any extra water. Then I'm going to pick up some paint on my brush. I'm taking indigo shade. I've loaded up nice indigo shade on my brush but our brush is still wet. So we have to remove all the water on our brush for this technique. You just want the brush to be only damp and not wet. Use a tissue and using a tissue, just remove all excess water from your brush. Now you have only paint on your brush. Now, for the dry brush technique what you need to do is, holding the brush almost horizontal to the surface like this at an angle, and then using the whole of the hairs of the brush, you're going to slide across on the paper. So you see? You're not actually getting any spreading colors or really nice amount of paint onto your paper, just the texture. So what is actually happening is, when you're doing the dry brush technique, you see the paper has a texture, so the paint only stays on the top layer and doesn't go in between the dips and depressions of the paper. That is why we get only on the top areas but your brush cannot be really wet or it cannot be really dry also. You need it to be like an in-between consistency which is known as the damp. So just dampening your brush remove all excess water. I'll show you if this is too much water or not. You see, we get some areas where there are more paint, that is because that is the first stroke when you applied, you had a bit of water on your paper, but now it's gone. No, it's still there so we can just dry it more. This is how you do the dry brush technique so you can see, you just need your brush to be really dry. See that? Yes. So this is how the dry brush technique is. How do we know if our brush is damp or it is still wet before we apply onto the paper? If you have a painting where you need the dry brush technique to be working, first, when you are trying it out, do not do it on your main painting, but rather take a different piece of paper and just ensure that your brush doesn't have a lot of water and that you're not getting these kind of strokes. I'll show you once more. Since we've already ruined this one with a different kind of not really dry strokes, let's try on that and keep doing. When you start getting the perfect dry brush strokes, that's where we'll move on to the next one. I think we're getting good strokes now. So let's see. See? Yes. Try it on a different paper first and then move to your main painting. It can be done in any direction. You can do it like this, upwards, sideways. It just depends on how you're sliding your brush across the paper and the thing is, it doesn't have to be on a dry empty part of the paper, it can be also on a dried-up paint. Let's see how we can get it on this one. Taking up paint, we're going to ensure it's getting nice and dry. Yes, it looks good. Then, you just slide. So you can have it on a piece of dried paper where you already have a dried-up layer of paint or on an empty paper. Like I said before, the texture of the paper is what makes the dry brush technique work. It would not work on a paper that has a really smooth texture or another, like the hard-pressed, which has the smooth texture. This is [inaudible] paper and as I said before, this has got a very rough surface than the arches. So the dry brush technique should work perfectly on this one and I'll just show you that. I'm just going to pick up some darkest blue shade. Load up my brush nicely and I'm going to dab off all the extra water on my brush and also I'll try it. See, its still got water. A lot of water. We're going to dry it on the masking tape and it's almost gone now. Yes, see, now we getting it. If you do not deep your brush back into the water, you can simply pick up paint and it will be dry because you're pen is dry. But if there's a lot of water on your pen, then you should definitely dab it off. You just want a damp brush. You see? The dry brush technique is more perfect on this paper because it really has a rough surface and it will not allow the paint to get into the dips and it has more texture. That is why you get a really good texture. We did our brush technique on a rough surface paper. Also, I have observed that a synthetic brush is much more better than a natural head brush for this technique in particular. So if you pick up paint, tap it off on your tissue. Your color more darker as opposed to this natural head brush. This is a synthetic hair brush. You can see you're getting a much more nice texture than a natural hair brush, but it's alright if you have a lot of these because I mostly do all of my dry brush techniques with this one itself. I rarely use this synthetic brush. It's actually all right but I was just letting you know that this technique works perfect with a synthetic brush. 13. Wet on Wet Splattering: We will learn wet on wet splattering. For that, because it's wet on wet, I'm just going to apply water on the whole area. There you go, just quickly applying the water. Now I have applied water on the whole area. Let's see, I'm going to show you with a lighter color. I'm going to take cobalt blue. There you go. It's there. I have applied cobalt blue on the whole of this square. Now, I'm going to show you how we can do wet on wet splatters. With regards to splatters, what we have to understand is that there is no control over where it is going to fall. If you want your splatters to be only in a specific area, you need to cover the rest of the areas. That is why I'm going to cover the rest of the areas with a tissue, so there. I'm going to use this tissue to cover up the other surfaces where I do not want the splatters to be falling on, so here. Yeah, you don't need to do it that side. For splattering, let's say I'm going to splatter with a dark shade such as violet. My brush is loaded with the paint. Now in order to do the splatter there are different ways you can do the splatters. The main would be, I do it. This method is more controlled and you can know where your splatters are going to fall. That is, if you want it to be only in a very short surface and you do not want them to spread away, then you can use this method. That is, holding your brush like this. This is how I hold it, I hope you can see it. Using your index finger, you would tap on the brush and your paint will fall down. I'll show you. See that? When you tap, the paint falls. See how the paint has spread. This is because your paper is wet. When the paper is wet, wherever the paint falls, it would spread a little. This nice texture that we have received, we can see here, is what is called as the wet on wet technique. The wet on wet splattering. See that? It's really good for various landscapes, and everything where you want show the texture on the grass or, for example, on a beach where you want to show the texture on the sand. This is really ideal for that technique. I just showed you wet on wet splattering. Wet on wet splattering can also be done on a paper surface which already has a bit of a different layer of paint. For example, you can do a wet on wet splattering on top of this. You would just apply another layer of water on top of this, and then you would do the splatters. Or, you can also do wet on wet splattering while the paper is still wet, when you have painted the first layer. For example, when I was doing this blending, while the paper is still wet, you could do the wet on wet splatters. It doesn't really matter what kind of underlying layer you have when you're doing the wet on wet splatters, the thing that matters is that your paper should be wet. I'll show you how we can do wet on dry splatters. Obviously your splatters are going to be wet and it's on a dry surface. This is a dry surface. I'll show you how we can do wet on dry splatters on this one. 14. Wet on Dry Splattering: Again, do get the splatters correctly. If we have two, hide the other areas where you don't want the splatters to be falling on. I'm going to use this tissue and mark off all the other areas. Now we need three tissues there. This is the only place where I want my splatters to be. Again, I'm going to use violet shade to get the splatters. Let's see. Now my brush is wet. Again, holding my brush like this, I'm going to do the splatters. Here you can see I have got the splatters, but they do not spread just like in the wet on wet splatters. This is wet on dry splatters. Now, there is a different way that you can do the wet on dry splatters. You can hold your brush in one hand and using another brush in your right-hand, just tap it. So you see this is spit more uncontrolled and my paint is actually falling even here and here on my table. This would spread it a bit more and you can get very small, tiny splatters with this method. This one would be a bit more controlled. See I got it just there. If you want it to be on a very small surface, this is how you would do, and for the sky when you want to do stars, you would use this because then you want the stars to be really spread out and tiny stars. See that? See how you're getting those tiny splatters. This is how you would do wet on dry splatters. Another splattering technique is with a toothbrush. If you have an old toothbrush, you can achieve wet on dry splattering. I will show you how that can be done. I'll show you in this square over here. I have some paint. What you need to do is, you need to wet your brush by dipping it into water, but you just want it to be damp and not wet. Dry it off like this on a tissue, and then deep your brush in the paint. See that? Then all you need to do is, using your fingers, hold it like this, and using your thumb, you're going to do this on the bristles of the brush, so then it will splatter the paint. Just note, see that, see the splatters. This is really good if you want to get splatters at one area and you want it to be really thin. Obviously there will be paint on your fingers, but that's all right. Do you see that? I think it's best if you don't want other areas to have the splatters cover the rest of the areas, and then, you see that, just do the splatters. This is one really fun method. I use this to create the form in oceans and also for creating some concentrated stars in a galaxy. Like for example, if I want the stars to be in a line, so what I do this. See you see that? I've got this line of stars. So that is what I usually do. Obviously, it makes your hands dirty, but it's happy dirty. 15. Lifting Technique: I have this box here where I have applied Sap green, and I have just applied it so it's wet. You can see it's still wet and I'm still achieving the blending parts of it, there. Now, I'll show you how we can lift off paint of a surface. For that, what you have to do is you have to make sure that your brush is dry. You only need it to be damp, so remove all the excess water from your brush using a tissue and then just slide your brush across the surface and blow off paint along with it. You see now I have lifted off some paint over here. But obviously because the paper it's still wet, it would blend in. You would have to do this multiple times to get the perfect lifting off technique. Make sure that once you're lifting off, do dab it off in a tissue. Otherwise, the paint that you lifted off is still there in your brush and you would be applying it back. See that? We don't want that. Occasionally, wash off the paint from your brushes, dry it off on your tissue and lift off like that. See, when I'm driving it off on the tissue, this is the paint that I just lifted off. Let's see. I'm just going to do it again. See? Now I have an area where I have lifted off paint. The lifting off technique is a really good technique because you see that when you have lifted off paint, you don't have any dark edges formed. But rather the area of separation between the lifted area and the parts where you have paint is really smooth. That is the reason why we can use lifting technique. There you go. See, I'm lifting off more paint. See? This is how we can do the lifting technique. But one thing to remember is that the lifting technique solely depends upon the pigment, that is the color of the paint. For example, this green was a very non-staining pigment. Staining is when it would stay in the paper and the pigment gets into the fibers of the paper. This pigment was easy to lift off, but in the case of some colors such as phthalo blue, it's a very staining pigment, so it really gets into the fibers of the paper and it will be really hard to lift off. I will just show you here now. I'm going to take this turquoise blue, which is really phthalo blue. Let's see that. I'm just applying it randomly for now. I've applied the pigment onto my paper. But this is going to be really hard to lift off. See, even after I've lift off, you cannot see the white of the paper. It's really hard to get back the white of the paper. This is because this color was indeed staining and it has gotten to the fibers of the paper. So no matter how much you try, you're just going to get a lighter version of it, but you would not get the white of the paper back. That is why you have to be really careful about the lifting technique and understand the properties of the colors when you're doing the lifting technique. But it's all right for now. When learning the techniques, this is the most important exercise, learning that you can actually lift off paint from the paper using your damped brush. See, if you do it multiple times, you can try getting back the white of the paper, but it's really hard with a staining pigment. Now, I will show you some of the most important uses of the lifting technique. I have this square that I have covered in yellow paint. It's still wet, you can see that, the paper is still wet. I'm going to show you how the lifting technique can be really helpful. Let's say I want to make a sun. I'm just going to lift off paint in a circular motion. See, it's already getting lighter. Remove the paint from your brush on the tissue. See that? You can also get a smaller version if you want. There, I've lifted off paint, keep doing that. Your brush needs to be really dry. It only needs to be damped, so after you've washed off the paint, remember to dry it off in a tissue, and then keep doing that. See now, I have a very good circle which looks like the sun. It's also useful in making sun rays. Let's say you want some sun rays from this portion over here, so slide it outside. See that? Let's do it in all the directions. See, when you lift off paint in all the directions, you get the sun rays. This technique is actually perfect when you want to achieve sun rays on a paper. Otherwise, imagine how you would be doing it. You would first draw using a color like yellow and then you would have to paint white on it. But it wouldn't give us the perfect blend that we're looking for. This lifting off method is actually ideal and would give us a smooth look for our sun. See that? I really love this technique for painting sun rays. This is really getting amazing. Wow. See that? That is why this technique is really important. Once the paint has dried up, it will be really difficult to lift off paint from your brush. There you go, I have removed all the water. But see, nothing is happening, you can't lift off. But what if you tried to lift off with water on your brush? My brush is now wet. See, you would just be applying water onto it. So you've wet the area now and then you're trying to lift off. You can achieve it to some extent but obviously, not on this pigment because this is a staining color. Let's try it on this green over here. I'm going to apply some water on top of it. Obviously, you need the paper to be wet in order to achieve the best lifting off method. There you go. But you see, we still can't get it to this level. This is because now once the paint has dried, it has gone into the fibers of the paper and it has really settled in. Then even if you leave at that, you wouldn't be able to lift off much of the paint. Lifting off paint can also be done with the help of a tissue, I'll just show you. I have this area here which I've applied with blue paint. You can see I've just applied it, it's still wet. How can we do with tissue? Using tissue is just you would be using the surface of the tissue, then you can just dab it on the paper. See, now I have lifted off paint and the paint is here on the tissue. You can do the dabbing. This is particularly useful when you want to make clouds in the sky. You see, I'm dabbing paint off the paper and I am able to achieve. If you just keep dabbling in different shapes, you will be able to get these clouds. See that? This is especially why I applied blue pigment because I wanted to show you how we can make white clouds with this dabbing method. Just keep dabbing and removing any paint in the shapes of the clouds. You can also actually remove it in thin lines if you want. All you have to do is use the corner of the tissue and then make it really sharp edge like this. See that? Then just using the corner, slide it. You see, the thing that we achieved earlier without brush by sliding like this, we did the same with the corner of the tissue. But the problem with that is now this corner is wet. Now you'd have to use a different corner, otherwise you would put this paint back onto the paper. So using the next corner again, see that? You can achieve all these different kinds of techniques with the lifting technique. You can also lift it off with your finger if you want. Dab off your finger and then use your finger to lift off paint, but it's somewhat really hard. But you can still achieve it to some extent. See that? You would get your fingerprint mark on the paper. But you can still use these techniques to achieve different effects in your paintings. You see, I've lifted off and then this area where my finger was touching the paper has got a dark spot, but the area around it has gone white. It looks like an eye, so funny. What I was telling was you can achieve different kinds of techniques with all these different lifting methods. You can also lift off paint using a sharp object like this, for example. This is a paper cutter. The lifting using a paper cutter would be slightly different. You would be actually scraping off paint from your paper. For example, I'm going to do over here, at an angle, I'm going to scrape off. You can see at this point here, I have scraped off some paint from my paper. It's actually removing off the first layer of the paper fibers. But let me tell you one thing, you have to be absolutely careful because this is a sharp object and please don't hurt yourself. See, you can do it in different directions. This is, again, a good method if you want to achieve sharp lines as you're lifting it off. See this? You get sharper lines from the paper. 16. Negative Painting: Next, I will show you negative painting technique. Negative painting is basically when you want to paint something by not painting it. Let us say for example, I will show you the example of a leaf. Let us do that with green color. You want to paint something. But what do you will do is you will paint around it rather than painting that thing. Then the whiteness of the paper or the brightness of the color underneath it will depict that thing. I will show you that. I have picked up Sap Green. What I'm going to do is, I'm going to make the shape of a leaf. This is just to show you guys. I've made the shape of a leaf, and instead of painting inside the leaf, what we will do is, we will paint all around it. I'm just going to pick up, and paint, I should've painted it like that. Anyway, there. I'm painting all around it instead of painting inside it. This technique of not painting something by not painting it is known as negative painting. I have painted this leaf by not painting it. This is basically what is called as a negative painting technique. I will show you more. First, I have to wait for this layer to dry. But for now, I'm just going to use my hair dryer to dry it off. Now, I have dried this layer. Let us draw another leaf on it. I'm going to take more of my green paint, and I'm just going to make the shape of a leaf. But what I will do is like I said, I'll paint around it rather than inside it. So there I'm painting all around the leaf, and we will also be careful not to paint our first leaf because we want it to be there. I painted the other areas. Let's say I'll add one more leaf here. Then I'll paint around it and not inside it. Remember that's the key, so we will be painting things around and not inside. This is just for the sake of showing you guys. Otherwise, we would be doing it perfectly by carefully applying water and all. But I just want to show you how we do this, so there. Now, we have two more use. Now, we have to dry this layer. This layer has now dried, I'm going to pick up some more darker green and make another set of leaves by the negative painting method. Let's make a leaf here, and then paint around it. Each time you add a new subject, what you have to remember is, you will not paint the first subjects that we have painted, but rather keep it the same, there you go. I'm going to add another leaf over here and keep painting all around it. There I have added three more leaves using the next layer. This is basically what it is. You can see how the negative painting has turned out the first layer, the first leaf is wide, and then there are two leaves that are lighter, then there are three more leaves. This is just basically how negative painting is. It is very useful when you're painting objects such as the clouds. Because imagine that you want to paint the clouds, but you want to leave it white, the clouds. How would you do it? What you would do, is you would paint the sky, by not painting the sky with the clouds. My water has turned into green, so I'm just getting an underlying green here. But that's all right right now, but I'll show you the clouds. I'm going to take up some bright blue and I want to paint the cloud by not painting it. I'll make the shape of a cloud using the wet on wet method. See that? This is how there, I want another cloud over here. I've painted it by not painting it. There I have formed clouds in the sky. You see that. I've put a lot of pigments, so let's just spread it out. Let's see, this is how we can form clouds in the sky by not painting it using the wet on wet method. 17. Multicolour on Brushes: Now, I want to show you how we can create a rainbow with a flat brush. This is a flat brush I have. This is a one-stroke flat brush from Daler-Rowney. It's three-quarters of an inch, and you can see it's got synthetic hair. What I want to do is, I want to wet my brush in the water nicely. So there, I have wet my brush. You need your brush to be really damp. Then, what I'm going to be doing is, now I want that rainbow to be made with this flat brush. So we need the paint on it. I'm dipping some yellow paint in another brush, and what I'll do is, I'll brush off all the yellow paint to this, to one side. See that? Now there's yellow paint on this one. Then, I'll take the next color. Let's say, I'm going to take some orange shade and I'm going to add it to the next place. There I've added some orange. Then, I'm going to take some red, and I'm going to add it right next to the orange. If you feel that your orange has gone away, you can add more of it and I have added. I'm going to add some more of yellow. Then, I'm going to take some pink shade and add it after the red. After the pink, I'll add some violet at the end. Now we have all the colors that we want, what I'm going to do with it is I need this paper to be wet. So I'm just going to wet the paper. There I have wet the paper, just pull off any extra paints. Now on the paper it is nice and wet. Now, using the flat brush, we will start and we have to make an arc for the rainbow so put your flat brush, but I think I should wait a bit more because, I don't know if you can see it, I'll just show you, there's a bit too much water, I want it to sink in a bit more so that this doesn't spread a lot. I'm just going to wait a bit more for the Arches paper to absorb the water. My paper has now absorbed the water. I'm going to apply the stroke in the shape of an arc using my flat brush. So from here. I shouldn't have pressed over there, but it's all right. But see we formed almost like a rainbow. Imagine if I had applied more colors of the rainbow onto this one, what we would have got. See that, that's a perfect mix, isn't it? I'm going to try this on a flat paper without the wet surface, on a wet or dry surface. Let's try it on this one. The brush is wet. Oh my God, look at the beauty guys. This is really beautiful, isn't it? Don't you think so? Just imagine if you can do this and add the background sky and other elements into your painting, this would be really beautiful. Now, you can also use monolithic colors on your round brushes. I will show you how we can do that. I'm going to take up some yellow paint, and I'm going to make sure that the whole of my brush has yellow paint. This is what I had mentioned that if you have a smaller band, it would be harder for you to get the paint on your brushes on a large brush like this. Because also you can observe that my brushes are brushing against the walls of the band and it would eventually damage them, so we have to be really careful. I have loaded the whole of my brush with yellow paint. Now, what I'm going to be doing is I will dip only the tip of my brush with some green. The tip of my brush has some green now, let us see what that will do. See, I'm starting with green. That's nice, isn't it, guys? See the multi-color that you are able to obtain with your brushes, it's beautiful. The kind of magic that you can obtain with your brushes. I'd love playing around with watercolor brushes and your brush strokes. See, I'm starting around with a green and then it goes on to make the yellow because the hairs of my brush at these areas have yellow paint, and I only dipped the green at the tip. So there, again. Oh my God, this is so beautiful. See, so all ways you can experiment with your brushes. You can even using a different brush, apply one color here, apply another color here, another color here, another color here. Then just try rolling your brush on the paper, and you can see all those different colors that you applied, you will be forming in a layer on the paper. 18. Softening Technique: The next technique that I'm going to show you is called as opening up or softening the edges. I call this opening up, it's mostly known as softening the edges. I'll show you how it is. It is basically opening up the edges of a wet on dry application. Let us say, I'm going to pick up some paint, and I'm going to paint this corner here. You can see that because I've put a wet on dry application at this corner, I mean this edge over here, we will have a dark edge when it dries up. In order to remove the dark edge what you can do is, dip your brush in water, dab off any excess water so you have a wet brush now, and then just sweep across the edge and you can see that the paint has spread now. So you have softened that area. You can just keep repeating this until you get the white of the paper clear. You see. So I've just softened that edges. Now, when you are mostly getting very similar tone as to what the paper is, just dab off with a tissue and remove the water on the paper. You see now I've softened the edges. It looks as if it has blended perfectly on this part of the paper over here, but obviously you know that you can achieve this method with a better wet application and you just apply the paint until here it will just automatically stop blending around somewhere there. This softening method is mostly used when you want to do this on a wet on dry application. I mostly use it for achieving shadows in different objects. Let us say I am just going to draw something here. Let's say I'm going to draw something. That maybe it's a rectangular box sitting on the floor. Now I've got this. I'm just going to wait for this to dry now. This has now dried, I'm just going to make a shadow of this object here onto the paper. What I usually do is, you can have the shadow let's it in this direction. There we have the shadow, but I feel that the shadow is quite dark and I want to soften the edges. What I do is, I take my red brush and sweep across the edges slowly so that you soften the edges. You see we have softened the edges. I know that the first shadow looked better but all I'm trying to explain is there are times when you want your shadows to not have a sharper edge and that's when you would use this technique. It is basically really simple. You'll have something with a wet on dry application and you do not want it to have a sharp edge. Just see this blue circle over here will leave a sharp edge once it has dried. So in order to avoid that, all you have to do is sweep across all the edges and remove that sharp edge such that it blends into the paper. Why do I keep saying bend for blend? Oh my God! There you see, now it has blended into the paper. It has got a soft edge. This is why this method is called the softening the edges. 19. Layering Technique: The next technique that we're going to learn is called layering. So that means we will have multiple layers on top of each other on a painting. I'm just going to apply water onto this square over here and then let's apply some paint on top of it. Let's say, I want to first start with a yellow paint, so I have applied yellow on top of it. There you go. I've applied yellow, now I have to wait for this layer to dry before I can apply the second layer. Now, our first layer has completely dried. There are two main methods of layering that I'm going to show you today. One of them is adding multiple layers on top of each other to get a vibrant painting. As you can see here, I applied a darker tone of yellow, but it has gone into a lighter shade after it has dried. So always, the watercolors will look more lighter as opposed to when it is wet on the paper. After it has dried, it will be very light, so in order to make this more vibrant, I'm going to just add more water on top of it, so let's just apply another layer of water on the top. Then we are applying a second layer of water. We have to be really careful because we do not want the bottom layer to be scraped off with your water, so just be very careful. There, I have applied water now. Now, I'm going to take more yellow. I'm going to apply on the top. There, applying yellow on the top. Now, I have applied the yellow. Now, we'll wait for this layer to dry and let's see what color we are getting. My second layer has now dried and you can see it has gone lighter than the one when it was wet, so if you want to make this more vibrant, we will add more layers to it so there you go. I'm going to apply some water onto the top of it. You can already see when I'm applying water it becomes a bit more darker, isn't it? So there you go. I've applied water on top of it. Now, I'll take some more yellow shade and I'm going to apply on top of it. I think that there's very little paint in the middle, so I'm going to apply nice consistency of yellow paint here. As long as your paper can handle all these multiple washes, you can keep adding many layers. I've heard of artists doing more than seven layers, 10 layers, and all, so it totally depends upon the quality of paper that you have, all these number of layers. There you go. This is my third layer now. Our third layer has dried and you can see now, it's more vibrant. You can add as many layers as you want on top of this if you want to get more darker tones. This was the first method of layering. Now, I'll show you the second one. 20. Layering - Glazing: The next type of layering is called as glazing. This is what many artists usually use when they want to do multiple layers on the paper, but they use a technique called as glazing. Glazing is basically applying multiple layers on top of each other using a transparent pigment. For this technique, basically, you need to know the properties of the paint if you want to use glazing because your pigment needs to be transparent. If you're using opaque watercolors, you will not be able to achieve the glazing effect. Here, again, I'm just going to start with yellow, so this is Indian yellow, which is a very transparent color, it's transparent yellow. So there, I'm just applying the wet on wet application for making it really quick, there. I've applied the paint all over the paper and I've blended it nicely. Now, I have to wait for this layer to dry to show you the glazing technique. Now, our first layer has dried, now I'll show you what is known as glazing. If you apply a second color on the top, which is also a transparent color, you will be able to see that some parts of the yellow will be seen through the second color that you apply. That is, when you apply a second color on top of this, you will be able to see that the underlying yellow is affecting how the color appears on the top of this. I'm going to pick up some sap green. I'm just going to dilute it first because I want to show you more layers, so I'm taking a diluted version of sap green, and I'm going to apply on top of this. This is not the sap green that I've picked up, I have a more darker version of sap green on my brush, but when I am applying on top of this because of the underlying yellow you can see the yellow shade through the sap green. This is what is known as glazing because you can see through it, see the underlying color through the green that you're applying. This is the first layer of glazing, the other was the underlying layer, so now we have applied the second layer, which is the first layer of glazing. There you go, our layer has now dried. You can see here that through this green, you can see some of the yellow, and this is what is known as glazing. This happened because this green was a transparent color, that is a transparent pigment. It is really important to know the properties of pigments before you can use the glazing method, but for now, I will just show you. On top of this now, I'm going to apply the next color. Let's say I'm going to take some bright blue color, and I'm going to apply a lighter tone of the bright blue on top of the green; so I'll show you how the green will affect the blue shade. You see that? I am applying a blue shade, but this is the blue that I'm applying, I'll show it to you here so you see? This is the blue that I'm applying. Let me take it more on my brush, there. This is the blue shade that I'm applying, but what I'm getting is entirely different, this is because of the underlying green that is affecting our top layer. So this, you are getting a darker shade of green instead of blue. This is what is called as glazing. This is most effective when you want to blend your colors on the paper and you want to add multiple layers but using different colors. Let's just say that you wanted to paint this green on top of this, so instead of putting this green actually on the paper, you could have just taken blue and painted it just like I did now. So you see? You get the color that you want, but by using a different color. This layer has now dried and I'm going to add another layer on top of it. Let's say I am going to add a violet shade on top of it, just want to see what I will get when I mix both of these together on the top. I'm taking violet, which is, again, a transparent violet, it's a transparent pigment. You see that? I'm getting close to gray, this is because when you mix both of these together, you should be able to get a gray color. Because green and violet, when you mix together, you should get a darker shade. So there you go. You see that? This is what is called as glazing. 21. Layering - Glazing II: I will show you a glazing again but using a single color. Glazing can also be achieved using a single color, using the different tonal values of a color. First, I'm just going to apply water on my paper. There you go. I'm applying water. Remove all excess water. I still have that violet pigment on my brush that's why you can see some of it. So I'm going to take a very lighter tone of queen rose. There you go, queen rose, and I'm going to apply a very light tone. That violet was a very staining pigment. This is the reason why my brush still holds traces of that violet because it's really stained my brush and you can see it's mixing to form purple here but that's all right. I'm just going to show you. I have applied my first layer of pink. Now, we will wait for this layer to dry before we can apply the first layer of glazing. I just dried this up quickly with my hair dryer, but obviously, you can see that it has made the paper absorb almost all of the pink shade. But that's all right. It's good enough for me to show the next layer of the glazing. So I'm going to take the queen rose shade again, and I'm going to dilute it with water to get the next shade. That is the next tone after this, next darker tone. So it's still going to be lighter. I'm going to apply on the top. You see that guys? This layer was lighter and I've applied a darker tone of this pink on the top of it and I'm just going to blend it together now. See? You can glaze using the same colors and even though I took a very lighter tone, the underlying pink contributed to the darkness of this layer. So if there wasn't this underlying pink, this second pink that I applied would have been a bit more lighter. But because there was already pink on the paper, I added more pink and it's just affected it and made it a bit more darker. Now, this has dried and let's apply the next layer again. So I'm taking the next tone of pink. Even if I take the light of tone of pink, it's still going to be darker than the one already there because the underlying layer will contribute to the additional value to it. There, see that? I've applied a really lighter tones of pink, but even then, it's contributing to the darkness. You can see this is lighter, then again, a bit dark and again darker. But all I'm doing is I'm applying almost the same value of pink on top of it and yet I'm getting darker and darker values. This is because of the glazing where the underlying layer is contributing to the darkness of the topper layer. Did I just say topper layer? I mean top layer. So the underlying layer is contributing to the darkness of the top layer. So let's now wait for this to dry again. I've loaded up a similar tone of pink again on my brush and this has dried. So let's apply on the top again. You can see that I'm not applying a very darker tone of pink. See, this is all still really light. It's almost the same as what we used in our first layer, and yet when applying onto this paper here, I hope you saw that. See, this is still the lighter tone. So when I'm applying that onto the paper here, it's darker than this, right? This is because of how each of these layers adds to the tone of this one. See, this is not the same as what we see here. It is definitely darker and this is because of what is known as glazing. I'm going to add another layer on top of this one now. There using another pink. See, I'm still using a lighter shade, but we are getting a darker shade on the paper here than what we see on an empty piece of paper. This is because of the fact that each of these layers is adding up. I hope you get the sense of it now. This is what is called as glazing and it's a really useful technique if you want to get a darker value on top of each other and for drawing mountains. This does look like a mountain range where the far-off mountains are lighter and the closer mountains are darker, right? So this is very useful for painting mountains and far-off subjects like that. 22. Using Masking Fluid: Let us look at masking fluid. Masking fluid is a fluid basically just made up of a rubbery liquid and is used to mask off areas in your painting. So if there are areas where you do not want your paint to fall on, then you would use a masking fluid. So I have this masking fluid from Winsor & Newton. You can see it is colorless, so it's basically white, and you can use a masking fluid applicator to apply your masking fluid on the paper. I bought this masking fluid applicator from Jackson's art and I have filled masking fluid from this bottle into this one. I'll show you. So this one has a really pointed tip, so you can see the needle like tip that this one has. It'll be really easy to apply your masking fluid on the paper, see that. How you can apply, and make shapes using this one. But don't worry if you don't have this applicator. You can always use a masking fluid brush or you can use your old brushes. Remember to use any old brush that you have because masking fluid is a brush killer. That is your new brushes, the brushes that you use in your daily paintings. No, never use them with masking fluid because it would just ruin it. You will never be able to use it again after you use it with masking fluid. This is why I'd use one of my very old brushes for using with masking fluid. You can see what has happened to the tip here. The rubber has stuck onto the surface, you can never get it back. But it's all right, I keep using this one for applying my masking fluid. So you can just use one of your old brushes. You can see it's already somewhat dried up in there, so this is why I said it's like a rubbery liquid. That would mask off areas of your painting. I will show how we can work on it. So I'm just going to put a bit of masking fluid into this cup, and how you would apply it is you would take the liquid in your brush, and apply it onto the paper. So you can use your brush, and apply it in whatever shapes that you want. So let's say I'm just going to make few lines. You can see clearly in this angle, I'm just making some few lines on my paper using the masking fluid. There you go. Now, with regards to masking fluid, you have to wait until the whole thing dries. So you cannot apply paints now because it is just wet, and moreover, your brush will touch those wet masking fluid, and it will ruin your brushes. So you have to be really careful that you wait for the whole thing to dry. It takes quite a while. You cannot dry this with a heater or anything. Because using a heater on top of the masking fluid would only make the masking fluid stick to the paper longer, and it would be really hard to pull it off. At the end, it will tear off the paper. So do not use any hair dryer or any heaters with masking fluid. Let it dry naturally. You just have to wait, and endure it. That's all you have to do, there is no way around this. So just let's wait for this to dry. The masking fluid has now completely dried. So I'm going to apply paint on top of it. Let's say I'm going to take some green shade and apply on top of it. I'm just going to go with the drawing technic now. You can see that the areas where I have applied the masking fluid, I'm so sorry, it was out of frame. So you can see that the areas where I have applied the masking fluid, you are getting it as white and the paint is not appearing on top of it. We'll just keep on adding some darker color, and make it a bit dark. There you go. So it's dark. Now, we have to wait for this thing to dry to understand what the masking fluid is done. So we'll have to peel off the masking fluid. I'm going to now wait for this layer to dry. My layer has now completely dried, let's remove the masking fluid. You can use an eraser to rub off the masking fluid or you can use your fingers. I mostly use my fingers, and just scrape it off using my fingers like this. So you see it's being scraped off. You can use your eraser or your fingers to scrape off masking fluid, just like I'm doing now. Oh my God, it's shaking the camera a lot because my table is shaking a lot. There you go. So now I have removed the masking fluid, so you can see what we have achieved using a masking fluid. There's some more over here. There you go. This is particularly useful when you want to mask some areas of your painting, and you want it to be left white, and you don't want paint on top of it. This is a good example when you want to depict sunrays in water or the ocean or when your painting ocean, and you wanted to paint the foam in the ocean. So these are really good when you want to mask those areas. So masking fluid helps in a way that you just apply the masking fluid, and then you do not have to bother about all the other areas that I want to leave white or I shouldn't have applied paint there. I shouldn't have applied paint here. So none of these things that you have to worry about. Once you have applied the masking fluid you can just paint freely because the areas that you want left white would've been masked by the masking fluid. Masking fluid comes in different packaging. Like for example, I said this Winsor & Newton masking fluid for which I used the masking fluid applicator, but there are also masking fluid that comes in this packaging itself where the masking fluid is already in it, different brands. Then there is this masking fluid. Then, this is from Molotow. So it is also easy because it's got a pen like nib, and now you can just draw surfaces with this, make shapes with the masking fluid, and it is fluid in this so it will make shapes as you draw with it, and later on you can just rub it off. So with Molotow, I have observed that it's really hard to rub it off with your hand, but you need an eraser to rub it off. So these are various kinds of masking fluids. Alternative to masking fluid, if you do not have one and you need something in your home to try out masking fluid, you can use wax. So if you have some set of the wax from the candles, you can use that. So melted wax, dip your brush and use them. But be very careful as you know, it's hot and also it's the same as with the masking fluid brushes. It will damage your brush if not used properly, so be very careful. Another tip I would like to share is that if you do not have an old brush like for example, you're someone who just started, and you don't have a set of old brushes to apply your masking fluid, and you do not want to ruin your new brushes. You can use the other tip, so the tip of your brush, the other tip of your brush. You can dip that in masking fluid, and draw with that. So then it prevents your heads for masking fluid, and you can use the other tip for the masking fluid. 23. Watercolour Textures: Next, I will show you various watercolor textures that we can achieve. In different kinds of paintings, we might be able to use different kinds of texture on our landscapes or galaxies or abstract art even. There is literally thousands of different kinds of textures that you can achieve with watercolors. Watercolors is a really diverse medium. You can create wonders with it. What I'm going to show you right now is just one-fifth of all the techniques maybe. You can just invent techniques of your own. You can use whatever materials that you have in your house. You can use leaves, you can use twigs to paint them. It's really something that you can experiment yourself and find out all the things that you can achieve. It's really a beautiful medium. You will fall in love with it, definitely. Some of the textures that I'm going to show you here today, I'll show you what other materials that I will be using. First of all, this is table salt. This is just a normal kitchen salt that we use. Using salt, then using cling film. This is cling film, the one that we use in the kitchen. You can use this. Then I will be using this, q-tips or ear buds, a cork stopper, sea cork, and then this is called sea sponge. It's a different kind of sponge. It's especially used by watercolor artists and other artists to achieve texture on their paper. You can see this. It's really got this already a texture on the paper, sorry, on the sponge which you will be transferring onto the paper. I will show you that. Then this is the normal sponge that we use in the kitchen. You can experiment and play with watercolors yourself and create standing abstract paintings, or even find a way to use them in your own landscapes or even galaxies. I don't know why I keep saying landscapes and galaxies, because that's actually what my genre is. But you can experiment yourself and try to find how you can use them in your style of painting. 24. Watercolour Texture - Using Salt: Now, I will show you the first technique which is going to be using salt in your watercolor paintings. Using salt in your watercolor paintings is a nice way to achieve really good water bloom texture that you want. I'm just going to wet this paper before I apply any paint. There, I have wet the paper and now, I'm going to take some Quin rose shade and apply it. I'm going to apply the whole area with, I'm going to apply a flat wash. There, now, I have applied a nice even flat wash onto my paper. Now, do this, you will be adding the salt and let us see how that will affect this layer of paint. There you go, I'm going to take some salt here. I'm going to drop some salt into it. I'm going to drop it at random places, just going to sprinkle it at different places. You will see what I'm talking about once the salt takes the action and how we get in the end. We will have to wait for this layer to dry in order to understand what the salt has done to the paint on the paper. So while that dries up, let's try another one over here that I will show you, how we can sprinkle salt in a different way. I'm just going apply paint to the whole area again. I have wet the paper and this time, I'm going to take some darkish blue. I really love this darkish blue color. It's simply amazing. I just love it so much that is why I keep using that one. It's so bright and vibrant. There, now, I have applied paint on it. Let us use some salt. Instead of spreading it all over, I'm going to to apply it only at some places focused. So you can see, I'm applying it on this side and lets also apply towards this center area and maybe some towards here. I'm applying it focused on one area. If you actually want larger chunks of effect with salt, you might have to use rock salt, so bigger rocks. I don't have them with me, which is why I'm using it this way but obviously, like I say it, you can keep experimenting with salt and see what is it that you can achieve. I'm going to leave it at that and when it dries, let's see what happens. See our salt texture has now dried. You can see this is what salt does to watercolors. It just spread soft paints and creates these nice borders. It's actually much better than blooms. After your paint has dried, you can just, using your fingers, scrub off any extra salt. My texture looks beautiful, isn't it? This is really cool when you want to use them in your paintings. Then look at this one over here, where I had applied the salt at one place, so then it just led the whole thing spread as one. That's also really good. It's still not dry but that's all right. I'm just going to rub it off with a tissue. It's not dried yet, but I'm just impatient. There, see? That is the texture that we are getting. With salt, there is lot of thing that you can actually achieve. You can control the amount of a way you are putting the salt or you can, if you sprinkle from just like this flattering technique, cover it with the tissue, the area where you do not want the salt to be, and then really sprinkle it from the top so that it would fall at random places, and then it would create these kind of blooms at really random traces. 25. Watercolour Texture - Using Sea Sponge: Using this sea sponge for texture. The sea sponge came like a huge ball like this. From which, I cut out a small piece like this for me to use in my paintings. What you need to do is, if you have sea sponge or anything that you're going to use for texture, dip the sea salt in pigment. So you can see, dip it nicely in pigment and then put it onto the paper. Do you see that? See the texture, what we are getting. This is what we will get. It's really useful for painting trees with watercolors. If you have different colors of green or different shades of green, you can use this method to create nice texture on the trees. This is what a sea sponge can achieve. 26. Watercolour Texture - Using Cotton Buds: With Q-Tips ear buds or cotton swabs, we can achieve nice texture that is required for trees and leaves surfaces. For example, in the landscape you wanted to make the surface of the ground, you can use Q-Tips. You can use three or four Q-Tips like this together. Let's say I want to take four of them, put them in one single file to make sure they're inline. Then hold them together. We're going to dip them in paint. I'm going to be dipping them in blue paint. Then what you can do is you can dab it on your paper like that. You see, it has absorbed most of the paint, but you get this really nice texture on the paper. Let's do it one more time. You would need a darker pigment of paint to achieve darker colors. But let's see how we can do that. I'm taking paint. Yes. See, the more you apply, the more texture you can get. My pigment is very less here, but if you load more with it, there you see that. You can get nice texture with this one. Imagine how this would be helpful. I actually feel this can be used to make the scales on the body of a fish. Maybe you're doing some underwater paintings and you want to do the scales on top of the fish. This is really nice. I really love this one. I like how we just form these small circles. That's one way you can use Q-Tips. But another way in which you can use the Q-Tips is for the lifting technique. That is really important. I will show you that, how will we can use it for lifting off paint. Let me just paint this box over here, and I'm going to put some paint on it. There. Now I have added some sap green. The Q-Tips are really helpful when you want to lift off paint. I have one single Q-Tip in my hand. What you can do is you can dab at certain places and it would simply, oops, just fell off my hand. It's all right. What was I saying? Yes. If you just dab it like that, see, it has lifted off the paint. See, this is because there is cotton in this one, and this is also going to absorb some of the paint from them. You can use this to make light or fireflies. Actually, I think even you can use this to make a tiny moon or a tiny sun in your paintings. See that? You've absorbed the paint, and now my cotton swab is saturated. Let's use the other end. See, I think this is really nice if you want to get a good texture. I think you can also use this two, swab off and create. Yes, you can also use this to create some, I'm going to replace this with a new one. Let's say, let's make some sun rays and see if it works. See that. Yes. Actually, yes, you can make so much. This is also very good for lifting technique in case you don't want to do it with your brush. Actually, it's easy with this one because for the brush, you would have to continuously dab it off on your tissue and remove the excess water and the excess paint. But with this, you just need are probably like three or four Q-Tips, and you would be able to achieve whatever you want. 27. Watercolour Texture - Using Kitchen Sponge: Let us use this kitchen sponge to achieve another type of texture. This is just you are going to be painting with the sponge so it's going to be pretty easy. All you need is a pallet with your paint and then what you will be doing is dip your sponge in the paint so that it absorbs the paint and then all you need to do is do this. It totally depends upon how you are dabbing onto your paper, and see I think these are really useful when you're doing some abstract art. Dab it. Easy. This is another way of using it. Sometimes I use this in my landscapes for creating the texture on the ground. There are various ways by which I use the texture on my ground. It can be using this splattering method, or even you can use this for the trees, or actually this method for the ground, or even you can use a sponge for the ground. 28. Watercolour Texture - Using Cork: Another interesting texture that I found, is with this cork. Using this, dip it in the water to just make it wet a bit, and then dip it in the paint. There, it has absorbed the paint and then it's like a stamping method. But what I really like about it is, consider this as a moon. What I mean to say is think of this as a moon. Like for example, imagine you had a background and you wanted to paint a moon on it, but you wanted to get the perfect circle. I think, if you were to dip this in white paint, on a dark background, and a new way to do this, you would in fact get a circular shaped exactly like this and the exact texture that you would expect to get them on. I really like this method. You see that? Well, this is really nice. It's just basically stamping with the cork. 29. Watercolour Texture - Using Cling film: Let us do the next technique, which is using this cling film or cling wrap. First, I will need to paint something on to this square over here. We're just going to apply water over the whole surface and then let's put some color on it. I'm going to take ultramarine blue, and I'm going to paint on top. There, I have painted the whole box with ultramarine blue. Now, what I'm going to be doing is, I'm going to take take the cling wrap. There, I have a piece of cling wrap. What we will do is, we will stick it onto the square where we applied in any way that you want. There you go. I'm just clearing out this square. Let's leave this to dry and we will see what happens. In the meanwhile, I'll show you in one more box how we can do. There, I will apply some water evenly and I'm going to put some indigo shade. There, I've painted with indigo shade. I'm just going to pull out any extra water. So that now I have dark indigo shade on my paper. Then using another set of cling film, I'm going to try stick it. What I'm going to be doing is, I'm going to stick it horizontally. Wait. It's already stuck. A bit more horizontally. There you go. This was totally random and I've tried to stick it horizontally. Let us see what will happen after this has dried. Our two layers have now dried. So let us try removing the cling film to see how it has been created. See that guys? See this texture that we obtained with that cling film. It's basically where the cling film sticks on, it absorbs something. So here is the paint that was absorbed and you see what it has made. All these beautiful textures. I think this is really good for painting on rocks. If you want to draw some rocks on a landscape painting, you can use this method. Let's see how the horizontal one has turned out. Oh yes, the granulation of the indigo paint. This paint has granulated, but you can see how it has, in-between these, it has created the nice lines and texture that we want. I was thinking that if we can apply this cling film in a horizontal manner, such that they form lines on the paper, you would actually be able to achieve the lines in the oceans. 30. Watercolour Texture - Using Melamine Sponge: I want to show you the use of this sponge called melamine sponge. It is really good to soften any watercolor edges. I will show you. Let us see, we'll just going to cut out this small piece from the sponge. Using this, what you need to do is dip the sponge in water and then drain off any excess water, and using the edge of the sponge, rub off against any areas that you want. You see I have rubbed off paint from here. Let's try one more time. I'm going to show you how I'm going to rub off from this area. If you look carefully, you can see what is happening. The edge gets softened and some of the paint gets absorbed. I'm doing this a bit faster, which is why I got a bigger one. But let's say, you wanted to do this really careful and really slow, and if you were to remove this harsh edge. You can see now, different this one, the harsh edge has really vanished. This is really useful when you want to paint oceans, for example, as in the sunlight in the oceans. Let's say you used masking fluid to paint the light reflected by the water, that is the white of the sun rays being reflected or the lines. But then, those lines when you remove the masking fluid, will be really sharp. So in order to soften those edges, you would use this sponge. For example, on this painting here, I can show you. I have used this sponge here to soften the edges where the sea is meeting. I could've used the sponge to soften all of the masking fluid lines and it would have been more better. But obviously, it requires a lot of patience, which is why I didn't do it, of course, but you see my point. You can soften all of the edges of the masking fluid with this sponge. This is called as melamine sponge. Melamine, I don't know how it's pronounced, but anyways, I have them all written down in the book which you can refer to. 31. Watercolour Texture - Using Bubbles: Now I will show you how we can use bubbles to our advantage. So this is just basically, I have mixed in this bowl some water and some hand-wash soap. So it's just nothing, just a combination of the normal household soap that we use and some water. But we need to mix it very nicely so that we get some bubbles. But this is also not enough. So what I am going to be doing then is I have this straw and I'm going to blow air into it so that it will form bubbles. We have a large number of bubbles. What we will be doing is; you can use anything to apply the bubbles onto your paper. I'm just going to be using this or you can use your hand and apply it onto the paper. I Just don't want my hands to get dirty. I'm going to take this and take some bubbles and I'm going to apply onto the paper. There you go. See that? All the bubbles, apply as much as you can. Now, I have applied the bubbles. Then what I'm going to do is I'm going to add a color into those bubbles. So I'll show you how we can do that. So before the bubbles crack up, we have to add the color. I want to take light blue, and I'm going to just touch those bubbles. See that? You can see in this angle here. What I am going to do is I'm going to touch then insert my brush into it, with paint. Now there's paint on my brush, and all of these bubbles. From this side, you can wash-off in between. There you go. We will just wait for all the bubbles do crack open. While this set dries, what I'm going to do is I'm going to add some paint into this mixture. I'm going to pick up some yellow color from my water colors, and I'm going to mix it in this. We need more. Do and remember to wash off your brush and not touch the soap into your pan. That would be a disaster. So, be careful. A lot of water here, so I need to dilute it with more paint. As in concentrate it with more paint. There I am picking up more paint and I'm adding it into the soapy mixture, you can see here. Once you are confident that it has turned into a yellow shade, you can stop. Now, I have diluted enough of the yellow paint in this one. Let us now put it onto the paper. There. I've applied. This is where more yellow is. See that? Now we have applied the foam onto the paper. This is really, really important to get nice texture. Now let us wait for both of these layers to dry. Guys, look at this one. Our bubbles has now dried and look at that bubbly texture that we have got. This has a wide variety of applications in water colors, for example, you can use this to paint foam in the ocean, or you can use this to paint rocks. Also maybe you can use this to paint the scales on animals, the skin of certain animals that have similar texture. I think maybe a snake. But you can see how these tiny bubbles are formed. It is impossible to form these tiny bubbles with a paintbrush. So with this way, the bubbles work and you can use this in a wide variety of applications. 32. Welcome to Part II: Welcome to part 2 of the Skillshare class. In the next following lessons, you will find several different paintings which you will be painting using the various techniques that we have learned in part 1 of this Skillshare class. At the beginning of each lesson, you will get an insight into the various colors that is used in that specific painting so that you can be prepared with your paper, paint and brushes to start with that painting. You will also get an insight into the different techniques that we will be learning in each of these paintings so that you are well aware of what is the technique that we have used in that specific painting. I'm sure that after this class you will be a pro with watercolors as you would have mastered that one thing which is most essential in watercolors, that is water control. Let us now jump straight into the various projects. 33. Materials and Taping Paper: For all the class projects and the class exercises, I will be using these papers. This is Arches 300 GSM cold press paper. I have cut them into size A5. Apart from that, we will need brushes, so I will be using size 12, size 8, size 4. This is a small flat brush and this is a rigor brush. Then obviously some tissues, pencil, and eraser. Then I have two jars of water over here. Watercolors, I will be using these, this is PWC Shin Han paints. I have filled them into this palette over here, so all the colors are in here. Apart from that, I will also use some of my paints from White Nights brand, which I have filled into these full pans over here. I will tell you all the colors that we will be using, so don't worry about it. First of all, I'm going to take down this paper onto the board. Using some masking tape, I'm going to tape it down carefully onto the board. Make sure that you have taped it down carefully. Run your fingers along the masking tape. Take care, especially around the corners because that's where it is most likely to bleed out the watercolors. If you want, you can run your ruler or scale on top of it so that it fixes more onto the paper and if there's any gaps that has been left out, that would be fixed as well. There you go. 34. Class Project I - The Sunset Dessert: I'm going to wet my big brush using this brush. This is a Princeton hockey brush, but don't worry if you don't have this brush, you can use another flat brush that you have or even a larger brush. Simply it's just going to take a longer time to apply water evenly onto the surface of the paper, that's all, so don't worry if you don't have this brush. I use this brush because it covers a large area and it's easy to do so. I'm just going to take water and apply to the whole surface. There you go. You can see I'm applying the water evenly onto my surface. Make sure you apply the water evenly. We do not want any large blobs of water on the paper, this is why a flat brush would be really useful, but really don't worry if you don't have. Just use your largest size brush and apply water onto the whole of your paper. There you go. I've applied the water. Now I've switched to my size 12 brush, I'm going to take some Indian yellow. There you go. I've loaded up some Indian yellow, I'm just going to mix it up on my palette, and then let's apply onto our paper, so make sure you apply from the left and the right, but I'm going to leave a slight gap here. The gap is going to be in this area. This is where the sun is going to be that's why we have left that area white. All the other areas, you can go and paint with the Indian yellow. You can use any yellows that you have. I'm just using Indian yellow here then I'm going to take up the next color which is quin rose. Quin rose is a nice pink shade, so I'm going to mix it up in my palette again, and then I'm going to apply on top of this like that. One thing is that when you mix a pink shade with yellow, you will get a red shade which is why I'm not using red but using a pink, but don't worry. If you don't have it, you can go and directly use a red shade from your palette. So there I'm going to take some Indian gold. This is a darker shade of yellow. I'm sorry, if you do not have this, you can use yellow ocher, but yellow ocher would still be lighter. In case you do not have that, you can use a mix of brown and yellow that would give you a slightly golden shade. So towards the whole upper area, we're going to be painting and blending it together. A small Indian yellow and just adding small lines like this and then next, I'm going to take venetian red. This is a nice dark red, so if you don't have venetian red, you can use any dark red shade that you have. Using the venetian red, I'm going to apply on top of the red area and add small shapes in the form of clouds. You can see that the paint is bleeding and spreading downwards, but that is all right. Remember about water control, not to introduce more water onto your paper. As you can see, I'm not adding any more water onto the paper, so your brush and just picking up paint and applying onto the paper. This way you are not introducing any more water, so you will not get any beads or dark edges in your paintings, so this is what you have to be really careful about. Remember the Water Control 101. It's just no more water on your paper than that is already on it. So if you introduce more water, it will create these, so that is why we are not going to introduce any more water. I'm just going to add a few more shapes in the form of clouds, towards the bottom, and this is with Indian gold. Remember, you can mix Indian gold by mixing a brown and yellow shade, but I'm going to make this even more darker towards the top to give it a sense of depth so I'm taking some burnt umber and I'm going to mix it on my palette. Taking burnt umber and then paint it towards the top. We get the sense of depth when we add more and more darker shades and there is a contrast between the lighter and the darker shades, so this is why I'm adding burnt umber on the top. You can see already how there is a darker contrast and we're getting good shades. You can add more contrast by adding even darker shade, so I am going to add a bit more sepia on the top, this is a really really dark brown, and more Venetian red, Indian yellow. Now, let us paint the bottom part. Here, I am going to use burnt umber. Mixing up burnt umber on your palette and you can apply. This is still wet, so you will see that it spreads, but that's what we want because we want to get a sense of depth on our paintings, so let it spread a bit. There you go, we are going to let it spread. Towards the middle here, I want a lighter tone, so I'm going to add Indian yellow and then back to burnt umber. Keep adding those lines and blending towards the Indian yellow, we want it to be lighter here because that's where the reflection of the sun would be. Towards the left side and the right side it would be darker, so mix the burnt umber towards the Indian yellow but leave it lighter there. I'm going to add even more darker shade to the top of it, so I'm taking sepia and I'll add from the right towards the left side and from the left towards the right side. You can see, I'm getting a nice contrast of color towards the right and the left but lighter shade towards the middle. You can see your paint has spread here, but that's what we want because we want to get the sense of depth in our ground as well, that is, some far off trees and twigs there. You can add more to it. What you can do is take a small brush and load up your brush with a burnt umber shade and draw these small shapes in the form of twigs. Because your paper is wet the more it spreads, so it's okay because that's what we exactly want, we want it to spread and create far-away objects. When you approach the middle, switch to a lighter shade, Indian yellow, so I'm switching to a lighter shade. Here, I had a lot of water in my brush when I picked up the paint, so I'm just going to dry it off. You see, there was a lot of water, but I don't want that much water because I will just introduce more water onto the paper than there is already on it, so that's why. There you go, just going to leave that area as it is for now, but if you want, you can add a tinge of even lighter, that is, yellow, but see there, it has a lot of water, so my brush has a lot of water now, so we have to dry it off and then paint, there. You have done that. Let's paint the sides a bit more darker, so I am taking sepia, I've loaded my brush with sepia. You can see here, this area is a bit more wet, so this much water is fine. Made this row so you will remember that you're going to leave this area lighter, so that's why we'll do this. If you feel that the area immediately towards the left here and towards the right of the sepia has gone lighter, you can add more burnt umber to that area. I'm mixing burnt umber and I'm going to apply there. Now, we have to wait for the background layer to dry, once it is dry, we will add foreground elements in a desert, some foreground desert plants. While you wait for your background layer to dry, what I usually do is I start with another painting so that I can save up time, and once I want to leave that painting to dry, this one would have dried and I take this one back. That is how I usually manage my time while painting. If you still have time and want to continue, you can go on to the next lesson and learn the other techniques or go on to the next class project or class exercise. Our painting has now completely dried, so let us add the foreground desert plants. I'm going to load up my brush with sepia, this is what I'm going to be using for the desert plants. So I'm loading up my brush with sepia and I'm going to add some plants here. It is basically just a desert plant, so it's not any rocket science, it's just a simple line like that and then paint inside it. Once you reach the bottom here, we want it to blend smoothly into the background, so just take another brush and just blend it. You can see I have blended it. Let us add some smaller plants here. Then we'll paint the whole area using sepia. You can see I'm painting the whole area with sepia. But remember the area here, we had adapted white for the sun. So what I'm going to do is I want to use my brush and I'm going to take up some Indian yellow, mix it on my palette, and then I'm going to lend it and mix it with the sepia. You can see I've created a mix here. Then just let your lead lead onto it and then let your Indian yellow mix. You see that, that's what I'm going to do now. I've taken more of sepia and add from the right side. I have switched to the size 8 brush now. Let's add some plants. Take in some Indian yellow and make it blend here. So you can see how I've blended it. But I'm going to mix the Indian yellow to the top underneath layers. There you go. Now, we cannot physically distinguish between the two. Then taking more of sepia, we'll finish off our desert land. I accidentally touched my finger with my hand on that, that's why it had to repaint that. It's all right, just be careful. Accidents do happen, so it's really all right. We can always correct those accidents, you do not need to worry and think that your painting is ruined. We have added some things on to the plant, some more branches. That's our desert plant, one of them. Now let's add smaller ones. I've added a smaller one there. I'm going to add another one over here, another bigger one towards this side, and the one accompanying that one. There you go. Now, let us add some in the middle for that. As you know, because the sun is here and we have a lighter tone here, so we need to have a lighter tone in the middle. That's why I'm going to take bond amber. That's a very lighter brown sepia. Using bond amber, I'm going to add some in the background. Here, this would be lighter. As you can see, this is lighter. This branch towards the left, you're going to make that darker because it's towards the left. There you go. But the bottom part here, we have to blend it in. There I'm using my brush and blending it in to that. We do not see that as if it is standing there alone. There you go. This is our painting. There is one thing I wanted to remind you. Before taking off the masking tape, let's wait for this thing to dry because I had applied water here. This part over here is still we, so when you peel it off, there is a chance that your paints will bleed on to this spot, so let's wait for this to dry. Our painting has now dried all along the sides, so let us now peel off the masking tape. While removing the masking tape, remember that you have to peel it off at an angle. 35. Class Project II - The Cloudy Green Landscape: All the pencil sketch of this one, I'm going to mark a line in almost below the center portion of the paper. This is what is going to be the separation of the sky and the glass area. That is all. Let us now paint the sky area. To paint the sky, I'm going to apply water towards the whole of my sky. Remember that we have to apply the water evenly. Along all the edges. When you swipe your brush from the left to the right, what you will have water on your paper evenly. For the paper to stay wet a longer duration of time. This is where the importance of good-quality watercolor paper comes in. I think my brush has an underlying tone of yellow from my previous painting, which is why you can see a slight ink of yellow in the water. But I guess that will be all right because we're going to spread it out. I think that was Indian yellow and that does really staining pigment, that's why it stayed on my brush. There I have applied water evenly. I'm going to load up my brush with paints gray. There we have nice consistency of paints gray, and we will add to the sky area in the form of clouds. So observe closely how I'm going to do it, I'm going to start from this corner, and going to form these shapes. So you can see they're forming the shape of clouds. I will do the same from this side. So you can see, that as soon as I dash my brush on the paper it is spreading. This is because this is wet on wet technique and the paint would spread because there is water on the paper, so Here I apply straight lines. We'll do the same here. I touched my brush very lightly as I was doing here. As soon as I picked up paint I did it on the top areas and I did not put my brush over there because I have a lot of paint in my brush. Make sure you don't apply a lot of paint at the bottom area. You can have some darker clouds in between. Slide your brush in certain places. Now rinse off your brush. Just dip your brush very lightly in your palette so that you get a very lighter tone of paints gray, and that is what we are going to apply towards the whole bottom area. Remember, it should be very light. So you can see, you can actually, if you are in doubt, check it on a different piece of paper to see whether you have a light tone before you go and directly apply it to your paper. So this is very light. There we have our sky area, it's a stormy night. That's why it's really dark clouds. That's what we see and white area that we see behind, underneath is where the original sky is. These are dark, stormy clouds. There that's it. Now we have to wait for this sky region to dry before we can paint the bottom layer. Otherwise, when we apply paint here, because this region is wet the up paint would seep in and also paint from this area would seep into the sky region. We have to wait for this layer to dry, so let's wait for that. Our sky has now completely dried. So let us paint the bottom part. First, I will apply water to the bottom part. I'm using my larger size brush, size 12 brush to apply water to the whole area. This time we have to be careful not to cross over into the sky area where we have painted the sky. There I have applied water to the whole area. Then I'm going to pick up some yellow paint. I'm going to start with yellow paint and apply it onto the glass. As you can see, I have applied and also I'm going to apply it at some random places. Now I'm going to switch to sap green. I'm going to load up my brush with sap green and mix on my palette before I apply onto the painting. I'm mixing sap green and we'll make it blend along with the yellow that we applied. I'm dropping sap green onto my painting now. Keeps some yellow. Be visible, so do not paint on top of the whole of the yellow areas. I'm dropping in soft green paint. As you can see, I'm trying to slowly blend it in, and you can see it bleeding on top of the yellow. So slowly we have to blend it in, you can take most up green and blending it. I'm going to make it straight. Make sure you make straight line here. If you feel that your yellow has vanished, you can add more yellow on top of that. I'm going to add a bit more yellow paint. There you go. Now I'm going to add more darker dawns to our foreground so it give it a sense of depth. I'm going to add a dark green. I'm mixing dark green now. Adding it on top of the sap green but towards the decide. Make straight line strokes like this. I've dropped dark green on top of the sap green and I'm making random straight strokes like this. You can see that my dark green is blending evenly with the sap green. You can add an even more darker green on top of this. To get an even more darker green, I'm taking my darker green and then I'm going to add a bit of indigo, do it so we get an even more darker shade. After that indigo, it's very, very dark. I'm using that and making this. You can see how I blended it, taking more of a bit of green so that I can mix here. More dark green mixed with indigo at the bottom and little bit more sap green here. Keeping the paper wet or moist is the key thing to apply in each of those strokes on top of each other. Remember to work fast and that is what there on the beeper. It is really easy to blend the colors because as soon as you apply the paint on top of it, it would just blend evenly. The water will do its work. We don't have to do anything. Now I will wait for this layer to dry on the chrome test drive. I am going to add some finer deals. I'm picking up some darker green shade. A dark green shade on my brush and we will add some mountains towards the end of the field. So using your smaller size brush, make a small bushy area towards that side. So there. That's it. Now that area is done. Now what we have to do is, let us add another element here in the foreground. I'm going to be using sepia or a darker brown sheet that you have. So let us first do it with a brown shade. I'm going to use band amber and mix of sepia so that I get a lighter brown shade. Using that light brown shade, we will add a small part of a fence here, like that and we'll paint inside. Then I'm going to stick a darker shade now. I'm going to take a sepia or [inaudible] brown. Take the darker shade of brown you can get, so you can make some brown and black together. This is the darkest brown you can get. Using that, we will apply towards the left side, so that we get a really darker shade. To get an even more dark, you can take Payne's. Load up your brush with Payne's gray and you can mix it with brown, and you will get an even dark shade. You can see you are getting closer to black. So the more amber or sepia and beans gradient mix together, you will get black shapes. So there, I have received getting almost a shade similar to black. This one, I will again apply towards the left side. This depicts the shadows. Now, at the bottom here, we want to have shadow for a fence. For that, I'm going to load my brush with a darker green again. So there now we have darker green on my brush. Starting from the bottom here, I'm going to draw this. You can see, we don't have any separation between the two just that it continue as a whole. Then now we have added the shadow of the same. That's it, and now we will add parts of the fence on top. For that, I'm going to use paint scree again. Dry your brush nicely because you do not want a lot of water. Using pen scree from the middle area. You want to be using the tip of the brush in doing this, there. Now we have and at some point, we will have the barbed wire off the fence. Now we need the reflection of the wire. We'll build a print and is going to be here. That's it, maybe we'll add another branch at the back. For that, load your brush with sepia again, and make a small one. This one is further away, so it's a bit smaller, there, and we will use paint scree to join the wires, like that. Now we need to add the reflection. Load up your brush with green and draw a small line from the bottom like that. Remember both of these has to be in the same direction, then using your paint scree you can draw the reflection of the wires. I'm going to add some more smaller ones further away, there, and I will join each of them with the wire so they won't be as visible as the other ones. We need to add reflection, so they would be smaller than the first, so there you go. That's it, or you can use your smallest brush to add some foreground elements. I'm picking up some dark shade of green, there, now I have dark green. Using the dark green I'm just going to add some grass to the front area. We can add the whole of the area, the area where even there is the wires. Let us show more of the tape. There you go. I want to show you one thing. For example, let's say in our painting, some of the paint has bleeded outside into these areas. You see here some of it has bleeded outside into the masking tape area. I have a way where we can fix this. What we can do is you can use some whitewash paint or your white watercolors. I use mostly this whitewash paint from Winsor & Newton, which I have in this ballet. What I do is, pick up the paint in your brush in a nice consistency, and then in your paintings, in the areas where it has bleeded outside, just draw on top of it so that it seems as if there was no bleeding. If you're posting this to social media or any other places or if you want show it to friend. This is how you can. It looks perfect. You can have a perfect border. This is my trick, how I do it. I hope that now all of us will have a clean border in our paintings, because we will be doing this trick. See that, so that's what is called as perfect. Now if we look at our painting, look there is no part of the paint that has bleeded out. Oh no wait there's some there, I'm going to add to that as well, the tiny speck there, now it's going. See, now it looks really beautiful, isn't it? 36. Class Project III - The Sunset Tree Landscape: Let us first quickly make the pencil sketch. It is going to be really easy for this one. Just a small hewed up like this. That's it. Let's have a tree here. It's going to have branches all the way up, and few branches to this side. Some from here. It's just totally random. There is no specific way as to how you do this. This is the main tree trunk. I need to erase this part, and the extra lines here. There. That's it. Let us have the Sun over here, so the Sun is going to be there. Now what we will do is we will have to mask the Sun. What I'm going to be using is the taping method. Before that, I'm going to use my masking tape, cut off a portion of my masking tape and then now we have to make a circle on it. First, I'm using this small circle maker to make a circle, but you can just draw a small circle onto your masking tape. I know the hardest part is that we have to cut this out, so let's do that. There you go. So I have cut out my sun and I'm going to paste it there, in the circle there. I have masked out the Sun. You can either use a masking fluid for this, that would be the most easier solution because it's just a small area and you can use your masking fluid, but I was showing this method in case for those people who don't have a masking fluid and if you don't want to invest in a masking fluid, you can just use your tape to do the masking fluid tricks. I'm going to start with applying the water. I'm going to apply the water on the area on top of the hill. There you go. Once you have applied the water, we can start with painting our first layer. For that, I'm going to be using permanent yellow light, and I'm going to apply it in the middle area where the Sun is. Applying the permanent yellow. I'm starting in the middle just to show that we don't always have to start from the top. It's really all right where we were to blend these colors even when you start in the middle and I will just show you that. That was permanent yellow, and then I'm going to take permanent rose. I'm going to apply it below. You can see I've just made it cross over to the yellow region and how I've blended it. The trick is just to continue painting on to the region where you want to blend. Now I have my permanent rose below, and then I'm just going to do this. I stop there because if I continue, my yellow paint would turn all orange. Now I take more yellow and I start from there and I go down. Now you can see how I have got a really nice blend of these two colors. More pink to make this more vibrant. That's it. Just keep adding the colors, blending it smoothly on the paper and then now we'll add the next color from the top, and now for the top layer, I'm going to be using ultramarine blue. I'm loading ultramarine blue in my brush. I'm going to start from the top. Ultramarine blue. But I will not let it cross over onto the yellow because otherwise it would turn green. In order to prevent that, I will not paint on to the yellow region but stop it just before the yellow, so there. Ultramarine blue at the top region and then I'm diluting my brush by dipping it into the water. I'm just going to do this. There you see, now I have preserved the yellow region and prevented it from turning green there. If you feel that you have lost color, you can add more to get that vibrant look. There you go. Now, I'm going to add few lines of paints, there. Now We have blended it smoothly by leaving a slight gap of white where it has to blend into the yellow. There you go. Now we can paint the ground region. Ideally, we'd have to wait for the thing to dry, but here I'm not going to wait for the paint to dry because it's all right. Even if some of the paint seeps in, it's going to be fine. But all we have to be careful is that the green does not seep into our sky region. So you can lift your board like this and place something under it. I'm going to take this masking tape and place it under my board so that I have gravity and my board will have now a direction towards this side and all the paint would flow down. I'm going to start with sap green. I'm just going to apply the sap green directly without the wet-on-wet technique, I'm going to use the wet-on-dry technique, but this is going to be wet-on-dry where I combine it and change it to a wet-on-wet method. You can see my strokes are still wet and so when I apply the stroke, it just blend automatically. There. Let's add towards the sky. You can see now my pink is seeping in, but that's all right, there. This way we get an even blend. That's it. Let's add some darker shades on the top. I'm loading my brush with dark green. If you don't have this dark green, you can make sap green with a bit of indigo. I'm just painting at the bottom part. What I'm going to be doing is, I'm going to add some random dots here and there. This would represent the texture on the ground area like this, and then dropping my paint. You can see how my sky has sieved into the ground region and you can see more pink now, but we can load up our brush with more of the sap green and just cover that up, so we get a nice olive green or yellow green shade over there. See that? Then let's add back our dark green for the texture. I'm going to also drop in some indigo paint on top of this, so it gives them even more darker shade. Now, this is the background done. Now we have to wait for all of this to dry. The sky region has now almost dried. If you look closely, you can see the granulation of ultramarine blue, it looks really beautiful. But if you don't want to get this granulation on your painting, you can also replace this with cobalt blue and then you would not have the granulation. Let us now paint the tree. For that, I'm going to be switching to my size eight and size four brushes. We will start with a darker color at the bottom, and then as we reach towards the sun, we will have to make it lighter. I will also show you a technique known as controlled lifting. Before that, let us reveal our sun, so I'm just going to remove the masking tape. See that? Now we've got a perfect, nice bright area over there. Taking my brush, I'm going to apply paint. I'm going to be starting with burnt umber. I'm going to load my brush nicely with burnt umber and I'm going to paint on the tree. You can see there. Keep painting. But one thing to observe is that, as you reach towards the sun area, we have to lighten our colors. I'm going to be using, this is Indian gold. It's a golden color shade. It's very light, so we will mix it with the burnt sienna. You can see how I've mixed it with the burnt sienna, and I've applied the lighter tone there. Again, towards the top area we want burnt umber, and also towards the side we want burnt umber, and we're going to paint all the way up for the branches. Remember, the bottom part has to be burnt umber, and then we have to make the bottom part even more darker so we're going to be using sapphire paint. This is a bit more darker brown, and in case you don't have this, you can mix your brown with black. Burnt umber, more burnt umber and then Indian gold. I'm going to take more sapphire paint and I'm going to apply for the other branches. We can apply darker shades for the other branches because as you know it's further away from the sun and it can be really dark, so it's fine. You can see I'm using the tip of my brush to draw the branches. Then using the tip of your brush. Remember that your tree branches will always be thinner as you go away from it. There you go. Loading paint and make dimness of the lines possible with your brushes. Small branches., we don't want a lot, so it's all up to your wish how many branches you want to add. Now I'm going to add branches to this part. That again should be lighter because it's closer to the sun. I'm going to be loading my brush with Indian gold and painting that area. Now, I'm going to do something known as the controlled lifting. That means lifting only certain areas and not going out of the painting. I'm going to lift off some paint from here because I want to to be really, really light. Using my brush and I'm going lift those paint, but I will only touch the area of my tree, because if I lift off paint and I move outside of the branches, it's going to add a tiny bit of Indian gold over outside of that tree, which I don't want. I have my tissue in hand and I'm going to lift off paint. You see it's a nice yellow shade that we have received, and then dabble off your brush, wash your brush. Now we have to blend in smoothly because we don't want it to be looking weird. There. Now I have lifted off paint, but we can add some more to it. Using burnt umber just added a darker shade. I'm going to take a bit more Indian yellow and I'm painting on top of it because I want it to be even, it had dried. Now when we lift off, it will be perfect. See that? That is now perfect. Slowly lift off along the branch. Only the tree branch, follow along the line. This is what is known as controlled lifting because we're not lifting, like forming in a certain direction. We're not lifting it off like that, and we might want to do the same thing to this side to make it lighter. There. That part is now lighter, and now we can paint the rest of it. I'm loading my brush with burnt umber. Let's just draw the branches. At the top, you can have or mix it with sapphire, the darkest of the drawings here. You can see. We will have overlapping branches because obviously the branches would overlap in the tree and the branch here continuing on from the Indian gold. But you see that there is a separation between the bond amber and the Indian gold. I'm going to be correcting that by adding a bit of Indian gold towards this area and just blending it. See now, we have prevented that separation and then you can just lift off enough paint also there. Let's get back to adding the branches. Using the tip of my brush, you can see here how I've made the branch that thicker. Now I have to make the whole portion of it thicker all the way to the bottom there. That's it. This is all how it's going to be. But if you want you can add more tree branches. I'm going to switch to my script liner rigger brush because it's easier for me to make these smaller branches. I'm loading my brush with [inaudible] and I'm going to add smaller branches to my tree. It gives me more pointed tip, which makes it easier for me to get the tree branches. Now we need to paint yellow for the sun. It's just going to be bright yellow. I'm going to load up my brush with Indian yellow. What a bright sun there. But you can see since there was water on it it has sipped into the tree region. But always we can use a tissue to dab off any excess water. There now we have a perfect sun and the lighter brown next to it. Now let's add some bits into the ground region. I'm going to just extend and make sure that my blend is even and adapt some texture on to the ground region. I'm going to be using some green paint and adding some grass. I'm making smaller strokes upwards. I'm done. You can add some splatters if you want. I'm going to be adding few splatters but for that I have to be careful about my tree which is still wet and sky region. I'm going to mask that away with this paper and add the splatters. You can see now my ground has nice, beautiful splatters. Now additionally, I'm going to draw a fence here because I think that would look really beautiful. So what I'm going to be doing is I'm going to be loading my brush with paint gray, which is the closest to black I have in this palette. I'm going to draw straight lines. Remember, even though that this hill region is slanted, we want our fence to be straight, just like this three is standing straight. I'm going to draw my fence there. Let's have one close to the tree. Remember we have to have the old fences in the same line. So taking that straight line which should start here down. Let's add some more all the way to the side. They needn't all be in the exact same sizes because as you know fences can be made of wooden planks. They can be in different sizes. This is the reason why I made this one fat there and one last one over here. That's it. Now we need to have some lines joining the fences. For that, I'm going to switch to my rigger brush again because that gives me the thinnest of the lines. Then loading my brush with nice paint gray or black, whichever you are using. We're going to be having lines like this. They're just going to be joining your fence. Remember your tree is on the other side of the fence, so this is why we have to re-run on top of the tree and there. This is all that is to our painting but if you want, you can add some blending into the fence region so that they don't look odd on the ground. What you can do is, using your brush, just make the paints gray and the green. Just blend them using your brush so that they don't stand out. If you feel that you've pulled out a lot of paint, wash off your brush and then use just water to blend it there like that. I want to do the same to this one. That's it. See, this is really beautiful, isn't it? This is all there is. I think only the paintings in the inner region are wet. All the outsides are now dry, so we can pull off the tape. I really love how this one has turned out. Isn't this beautiful? I have to be careful because my splatters and this part of my tree is still wet. That's alright. Oh, I love this one. 37. Class Project IV - The Red Yellow Half Moon: For this one, again, we won't shape in the center, but we will not be using masking tape. So I'm going to use my circle, again, to draw the outline of a moon. But I'm not going to complete it, I'm just going to do three quarters of a circle and just keep some gap here because I do not want that white space to be seen later on with our pencil marks, so we're just going to leave it at that. Now, for the whole of the paper we'll apply water. So let's apply water to the whole of the paper. There, I'm applying water. I have now applied water to the whole of the paper. Now I'm going to start painting. I'm going to paint with Indian yellow. I'm going to load up my brush nicely with Indian yellow, and I'm going to drop Indian yellow onto my painting. There, I have dropped in Indian yellow. I'm just dropping the paint very randomly onto my paper. I want the bottom area to be with Indian yellow as well. There, I've painted the whole of the bottom area with Indian yellow. Nice dark and consistency of Indian yellow. We want a very darker tone, and I'm going to add a bit to the top area as well. So there, some towards the top. Then I've rinsed off my brush and I'm going to load my brush with Queen rose and I'm going to apply the Queen Rose onto my paper. You can see it's a really dark, nice consistency of Queen Rose, and I am applying it on top of the Indian yellow. You can see that it already blends really smooth and the areas where it's touching the Indian yellow, it's turning into a nice scarlet red shade. So that is with this Rose and yellow, mixed together will give us red. This, by itself on the paper, will blend together and give us a nice red shade. We're going to paint all over the moon, we do not want to leave any white space because we will paint the moon later on with whitewash. I'm just going to apply on the whole Indian yellow with Green Gold. Now, I'm going to pick up some darker rose. You can see it's a bit darker than the Queen Rose, and I'm going to apply it at the top areas. There, nicely. I have applied it at the top. Now I'm going to pick up some violet. I'm going to add it towards the top. Some violet shade. I've added violet to the top. Now is where I want to mix everything properly on the paper and blend everything to a smooth consistency. So I'm taking more of the Queen Rose and I'm going on top of the violet because I want it to turn into a nice bow shade. So pick up more of the Queen Rose and mix it, and you can see it's turned into a nice purple shade. Now we'll take some more yellow and mix it on the paper. More Queen Rose. So wherever we have applied violet, I'm mixing the Queen Rose. If you see any extra drops of water, just move it outside like I'm doing now. There, now we have mixed it. The violet and yellow is mixing together to form a brown shade, but don't let it turn muddy. So we won't mix much of the violet with brown, we'll just mix it slowly. You can see that the areas where there is Queen Rose, it's turning into a red shade, so that's what we want. Then more of the Queen Rose, and we will apply it nicely on the paper. You can see how beautifully we can blend it. The same with the bottom area, we'll blend it evenly. Now, we'll take more of the yellow, mix it nicely, and try to blend it smoothly with our Queen Rose. You can see it has blended smoothly here, and in the areas where it has not blend smoothly, we have to blend it. When we go over to the rose area with our brush, we have to rinse off our brush because now our brush has queen rose in it. If we go and paint over the yellow areas, we will cover the yellow with rose. I washed off my brush and picking up more Indian yellow and then I'll work on the top. You can see I'm working with my Indian yellow and the areas at the borders, they mix together to form a nice orange shade. See, it's blend together forming a nice orange shade. We let it blend and blend together nicely. Don't let it form any dark or harsh edges. I see that this has turned into different colors. I'm just going to sweep off any extra water and blend it. You can see it's blending and this area seems a bit odd. I'm going to paint it with queen rose. This area is well, then we're going to load up my brush with the Indian yellow. We have to blend this area. Use your yellow paint and apply it on top of the pink sheet then rinse up your brush when it has gone over the pink, otherwise, the whole thing will turn to orange. Remember to remove any excess water from your brush because we do not want to introduce any more extra water onto the paper. This way we have blend these things smoothly. Sometimes making these more lines on the paper is really beautiful. Now we have finished with our background. Now we have to wait for this layer to dry. Let's wait for this to dry now. Our wet on wet layer has now dried up. I'm going to paint the moon, but for this, I'm going to be using the opening up or softening the edges method first and then convert it into a wet on wet method. I will show you, I'm going to be using my white wash paint. Don't worry if you don't have the white wash paint just use your white watercolors, it would act the same way as it would. I'm using white wash paint only because there's more vibrant and I don't have to achieve putting more layers. Don't worry about it if you don't have it, just use your white watercolors. Loading up paint on your brushes. Why do I keep saying brushes? Brush. Load a paint in your brush. Nice creamy consistency. You can see this is nice creamy consistency. Remember we have this circle that we made? Along the lines of the circle, I'm going to be painting very carefully. You can see just there and then I'm going to rinse off my brush. Now I'm going to do the opening up method. Opening up, I have water on my brushes and I'm going to sweep it across the border. You can see I've opened it up so you can see my paint is flowing into the area where I applied the water. This is basically the opening up method. I'm just going to use that method and then I'm just going to apply more water towards the base of it and parts of the moon inside the circle area, there. I need some here. Use the opening up method and apply water. There, now I've applied water to all of these areas of the moon but we won't be painting much on this side. We just want it to be only the moon which is visible only in few certain areas. We have this paint. You can make this area little bit more whiter. You can add more layer to it and then we will start by adding few patches of white here and there, so that it resembles the texture on the moon. That's why we wet this area. Remember how we started? What we did was you could have easily applied water into that circle first and then just painted inside it. But I wanted to show you the opening up method. That's why we did this. But then once after you did the opening up or softening that edge, we applied water to the rest of the area so that you could do wet on wet on it there. I'm using the wet on wet method. Just make these random shapes on the moon which is going to add it towards this side between. We have to be very careful along the edges because if we go even a tiny bit outside, we're going to join the shape of the moon so we want it to be a perfect circle, so be very careful. We can see here my water has dried, so I'm just going to soften the edges of that one. Just take more water and just put it on, see that. That's how you can soften an edge. If your paint appears to be forming a wet on dry method, all you have to do is just quickly wash off your brush, take water on your brush, and then just apply it. You see that, I've softened that one and that's it. I'm just going to leave my moon like this for now. We have to wait for this layer to not dry so that we can now add something on top of it using the wet on dry method. Our moon has now dried, I'm just going to add a single lone tree on top of this. This is mainly going to be very similar to many of the techniques that we learned, many of the class projects and exercises that we did. All you have to be doing is load up your brush with nice black paint, and I'm just going to draw a tree somewhere here on to the side of the moon. So there and I'm making it thinner as I go towards the top. That's it, and the areas where I have got the bottom part to be not thick as it is. Let us just to correct the mistakes that we have made. If you have a thicker part at the top, just make the rest of the bottom part of the tree thicker than at the top area, and that's how we can fix the backs of trees there. Now, for the branches, you can use the tip of your brush and add some branches. You can see we're going to have a branch towards the top of the moon. You see here now I have this branch, which is thicker than where it is originating from. So I'm just going to join this. Now, we fix that, so I'm switching to my rigger brush here because I want to get really thin lines, but don't worry if you don't have rigger brush. As I said, use the smallest size of brush that you have and just draw the lines. What I'm going to be doing is loading up my brush nicely with the paint and then I'm just going to draw my branches from this tree. You can see. That's it. I'm going to add another branch from here as well for the tree. Here you see I made an extra bit, but by accidentally touching. So I'm just going to adjust just that, and see, now we have fixed our mistakes. Now, for this one, we will add the stars on the top. So load up your brush with nice creamy consistency of white paint and move away all your other stuff where you don't want white paint to splatter on. There we go. Just add the splatters on the top. You can see that it forms on top of the trees, but I'm just going to ignore it. In the end, nobody will notice that. So this is why you might want to paint the tree first, but it's all right. Did I say to paint the tree first? I mean, this is where you might want to put the stars first and then the trees. Oh my God. There, that's it. Now, what we can do is, some of those styles on top of the moon, we can just pick it up as soon as they drop on and that would be prevented there. There you go. Our painting is done, let us now remove the tape. Correcting my edges now. This is how we get the perfect blend and the perfect moon on our painting. 38. Class Project V - The Purple Pink Moon: This one is going to be in portrait mode. I'm going to make a circle on the center of the paper. This is what I had saved from masking tape and it had finished. That is what I'm using. But you can use a compass or any material that you have to make a large circle on the paper. Now, we have a large circle on the paper. I'm going to fill this with masking fluid because this is what the moon is going to be. We want the whole area to be covered in masking fluid. I'm going to use this masking fluid applicator in which I have built this masking fluid from Winsor&Newton. You can use your brush to apply masking fluid, or you can use the backside of your brush to apply the masking fluid and in case you do not have masking fluid, you can skip this step. The only thing is that when we are painting on the top, you have to be really careful that you do not paint on top of the moon. That's all. Let's now apply the masking fluid. Applying the masking fluid is a really long process. It takes a lot of time. We have to be really patient with it and apply the masking fluid, and we have to be really careful along the edges. Make sure that it does not go out onto the other areas, only in the circle that we have drawn. I have applied the whole moon with masking fluid. Now we have to wait for this masking fluid layer to completely dry before I can stop painting on top of it. I did not record the whole process of applying the masking fluid because when I'm applying masking fluid on such delicate areas, what I usually do is I have my head, at least on the paper to about this height, so I was covering the whole of the cameras, so I had to cut it off. Our masking fluid layer has now completely dried. One important thing to note with masking fluid is that do not use any heater or heating devices to dry your masking fluid because that would eventually lead the masking fluid to stick onto the paper and while trying to remove the masking fluid, it would also tear the paper, so let it dry naturally. I know we will have to wait for a longer time, but that's how it is. Let us now apply water on top of this. I'm going to apply water to the whole area. You go apply water to the whole of the painting. We are applying water. Once we have applied water, now we will stop painting. I'm going to first paint with Queen Rose. I'm taking Queen Rose, and I'm going to apply on the paper. Because there is masking fluid, it's so easy to paint because we don't have to worry about the area where the moon is supposed to be. I'm just going to take the Queen Rose and just paint it. Here because there is water, I'm directly applying from the pan onto my paper. It's all right. Now, I'm going to take violet and apply it on top of the Queen Rose. You can see how our paint is mixing nicely. We want darker towards the top area. With this technique, we really have to work faster. So when I'm mixing Queen Rose, now you can see that it mixes with the violet to form a different shade. But it's all right, that's exactly what we want. We want to get that dark purple shade using the Queen Rose. Now, we have a purple shade at the top and use the Queen Rose, you mix. It's all right when you go over the moon area because there is masking fluid, we do not have to worry about how it's going to turn out. These areas blend it nicely with the Queen Rose. Now, we have a nice blend of the Queen Rose and the violet. You can see the [inaudible] flown down towards the bottom. Now, at the bottom area towards the whole of the paper, we will add the Queen Rose. I'm adding Queen Rose towards the whole of the paper. You can see, as I said, the most important key thing when we're painting is do not introduce any fresh water into the paper than that's already on it. You can see there is already blobs of water here. Spread that around, do not bring more water onto your paper. I'm just using a paper that I'm just using. I'm just using the water that's already there on my paper. So, there you can see how I've blended it nicely. You can see here that some of the Violet is seeping down. I'm going to take more Violet and just move it around, and blend it, and the same to this side. I'm taking more Quin Rose, blending it, so I do not want it to be feeling as if there is a separation between the Violet and the Quin Rose. So there you go, blending it evenly. Now we have achieved an even blend. Now towards the bottom of this painting, I'm going to add some Payne's Gray to get a dark shade at the bottom. My paper is still wet so my Payne's Gray will blend evenly, and that's why I'm adding it. So my Payne's Gray will blend with the pink at the bottom, and will blend evenly. So I've just added it as a small ground area. I've dropped the Payne's Gray paint onto my paper, and it's now just blending evenly. If you don't have Payne's Gray, don't worry. You can use a black shade. You can use a black shade, so I am using Payne's Gray, but just use your black paint to draw the ground at the bottom part. Now, once this is done, we feel that there is a large blob of water here, so I'm just going to spread it around, so that it does not dry unevenly, because if you leave a large blob of water on your paper, it will just dry unevenly, and one positive thing about masking fluid is that if you have any large blobs of water, just pull it over on top of the masking fluid, because it will not affect the painting. There were some large blobs of water, so I've just moved it outside, and you can see that my Payne's Gray moved upwards. So I'm just going to clear it with my brush. You can take more of the pink and just add it. I want a bit more darker shade towards the bottom, so I'm going to add it. There, I have added it. Now let's wait for this whole thing to dry so that we can add the moon and the fore. So now this has completely dried. Let us peel of the masking tape. It's quite tricky, but you can just run your fingers along like this, and remove the tape. Let us remove the tape. It takes a while, but it's really worth it. We have to just keep doing it. Because I'm doing this, my camera is shaking a lot. So I'm just going to turn off the camera, and remove the whole of this tape. Now I'm going to paint the moon. So what I'm going to do is, I'm going to apply water on the moon area, because we're going to do the wet-on-wet technique. I'm adding water onto the moon area, so very carefully. Using a small brush, apply water onto the moon. We have to be really careful along the sides. You can see here very carefully we will apply the water. You have now applied water over the whole area. So I'm now going to take some permanent red shade, and using the permanent red shade, I'm just going to drop in paint onto my moon area at random places. The rest of the areas I'm going to leave white, and I will just drop the paint at random places. You can see here, I am applying it at random places on the moon. Make such tiny shapes on the moon. Towards the bottom, I'm painting a bit more, and the sides. This is wet on wet technique. I'm just dropping my paint, dropping the pigment at random places, and I'm letting the water do the job. It'll just flow around, and that's exactly what we want. Now, I'm going into a darker shade of rose and applying it at certain places. You can see applying the darker shade at certain places. We don't want all the places to be in light, so only some dark spots here and there. Then using a lot of water and a very light tone of pink, like you can see here, I'm going to add towards the rest of the area and just blend it because I don't want a lot of white, so just blending it. You can see only some areas we need to have it white. The rest of the areas just blend it smoothly so that it's a very light shade of rose. There you go, that's it. Let us leave this to dry before we can add our final details. Our moon has now dried, so let us go ahead and add some trees in the front of it. This is going to be using the wet on dry method. That is, when all of this layer has dried, we will do on top of this existing paint that has dried up so it's called as the wet on dry technique. For that, I'm going to be using paints gray. You can go and use your darkest paint, black shade. I prefer to use paints gray for my paintings because, I don't know, I have to say that you don't use black in your paintings, but rather you mix black using different shades and I like to follow that rule, which is why I don't use black directly, but I try to make black using my colors. I'm going to mix paints gray and a bit of sepia. That will give me a very dark shade. You can see I have reached a black dark shade, which is what we want. For painting the trees, there's nothing that is, I can't get the right word, it's all right. What I mean to say is for painting the trees, there is nothing that is too difficult, all we need to do is you need to get your smallest sized brush. This is the smallest I have of the Silver Brush brand, but if you don't have the same brand, you can use a different brand. I actually have this one from Craftamore, but I still prefer my Silver black for other brushes. We're going to load up my paint nicely onto my brushes. It's basically simple using your pointed tip. The branches will be thicker, that is, the trees will have a thicker branch at the bottom. Then just basically, so it's fine. Obviously, we want it to be over the moon, so just keep adding randomly, totally random, there is no specific goal. I'm just making these random strokes with my brushes, brush, why does it have to be plural? This is my first time that I'm shooting a glass without giving voice over but rather speaking along with painting. So it's really tough for me, but I just wanted to achieve that goal. I'm just going to continue and I hope you guys bear with all the stupid stuff that I'm saying. I'm loading paint there and more of sepia so that I get black. There you go. It doesn't have to be a single tree, so I'm adding multiple tree box. We will add smaller branches too. It's just basically simple. You can see you just add the box. What we have to be careful is you try to use the tip of the brush mostly, otherwise you would end up making very thick branches. Even if you have thick branches at the bottom, all you need to be careful is as you go towards the top, try to make it as thin as possible. You can see I'm using the tip of my brush, so I usually, just keep your brush like that and use the tip of your brush. You can see what happened here. This branch looks thinner than what is that below it. We have a way to correct that. To correct that, what I would do is just make the rest of the portion thicker than at the top. You see now this doesn't look any weird anymore because this is thinner and this part is thicker. If you make a mistake and add a thicker portion towards the top, all you have to do is make sure that you make the rest of the areas thicker too at the bottom, thicker than what you made. That would solve your problem. I'm going to add more. You can see just based on the principle that I just explained, if you accidentally make something thicker, make the rest of it at the bottom of that trunk thicker too. But actually with regards to the trees, in some cases, it is fine like, for example, look at this one. I want to correct this. I'm just going make it thicker, and there it goes, thinner towards the top. Let's add a bit of thickness to this there. Just add as many branches as you deem fit, you can stop right here. People always say don't overwork on your paintings, I tend to do that a lot. You should know when to stop. I don't, but sometimes it's all right. You can just keep adding as many branches as you want like I am adding. There you go, maybe some more here. Now see, so this part here is now thicker than the bottom, this part here. So I need to make it thicker so that it makes sense towards the top. I need it as that thicker. Now this doesn't look weird anymore. You really need a thin brush. I'm trying to work fast here, which is why I'm getting all these random thick strokes. There you go. This is how our painting is going to look like. I'm just going to add some tiny branches. That's it. I'm just going to let this be, this is what our painting will be. You can add some foliage, not foliage, sorry. Just a bit of ground at the bottom there, that's it. This is our final painting. We can remove the masking tape now because there's only a bit at the bottom here, which would be fine. There's no other red paint sticking out, so let's remove the tape. Careful here. As I said, the paint is wet, so pull it away from your paper. See, I have a bit of bleed here, which I want to correct. I'm going to take up my white wash paint, load my brush nicely with the white wash paint, and I'm going to cover it up. This is how you can cover up any mistakes of bleeding onto inside the taped area. In case you just want to clean it up, this is how you do, there. I accidentally went into that area, but it's all right, it's not that really visible. There you go. 39. Class Project VI - The Layered Mountains: Now, for this painting, I'm going to be showing you different layers. For that, first I'm going to wet my paper. We will wet the whole of the paper, even though I'm only going to paint the sky at first. I want to wet my whole part of the paper because if I stop somewhere around midway, it might create unnecessary edges on my paper, unnecessarily watercolor edges, which is why I'm applying water all over my paper. There you go. Then we're going to be using only a single color in this painting. The single color that I'm going to be using is this cerulean blue. I'll show you that shade. It's this color, cerulean blue. You can see that. Let's first start with the sky. I'm going to load my brush with cerulean blue. But I want the paint to be really diluted for the sky, so I'm mixing water with it, you can see. Then we're going to take a very light tone and apply to the sky, starting from the top. You can see like that, just swiftly move your brush from the left to the right, load your brush with paint again, and very lightly, as you can see. That's it. Now, the important thing is, now we have to wait for this layer to dry before we can add any other color. I'm just going to add a bit more color to the top area there. That's it. Now, we have to wait for this paint to dry. It's all right. I've just rubbed my brush and that's really fine. We're making these straight lines of color there. Now we'll have to wait for this to dry. The sky region has dried. I used a hairdryer to dry it off. You can also use a hair or you can prefer to wait. Now we'll start with our first layer. For my first layer, I'm switching to my size 8 brush. Since it's our first layer of mountains, it's going to be a really lighter shade. Let us pick the lighter shade of cerulean blue. We are only going to use cerulean blue for this painting. That's why this is going to be known as a monochromatic painting, because we are only using a single color. Let us start. I want to start my mountains somewhere around here, and it's going to be very light shades, so you can see it's a very light tone, lighter tone of the cerulean blue. What we will do is, we will just randomly make the shape of some mountains in the distance, you can see, and follow along. Ideally use another brush, keep another brush in your hand ready, and just sweep across the borders so that you prevent any hard edges there. Keep the other brush ready in your hand. We're going to draw the mountain, so we're just making smaller shapes. In your paper, if you're not using 100 percent cotton paper, it might dry off more quickly, so you need to do this faster than I'm doing here. As you can see, I do quite a bit, and then come back and do it. But in your case, you might have to do it sooner, because if your paper is drying quickly, so you'd have to be careful on that. Just rub off any sharp edges if you want. But the lighter it gets, it looks like a misty effect, which is exactly what we want. We want to feel like there is a mist on the mountains that are far away. Just blend them. You can see? There. Now we have to wait for this layer to dry, but I'm going to use my hairdryer to dry this off quickly. I've dried it. Now let's add the second layer. More cerulean blue into the mix. But now it's going to be one shade darker. Remember, it shouldn't be very dark, just one shade darker, so loading my brush with cerulean blue, keep your other brush ready. I'm going to make the mountains. So you can see, it's one shade darker. Use your brush to sweep it off there. What I'm going to do is, I'm going to stop it there, and I won't continue. Let's continue this mountain from this side. Continuing it from here. Now use your second brush to just sweep off and create that beautiful angle, create that beautiful misty effect. I said angle because I was just sweeping my brush in an angle. That's what came out of my mind. Now I need to wait for this to dry, or you can use a hairdryer. I'm going to use my hairdryer. I've dried it. Now I'm going to take one shade darker of the cerulean blue. Adding more cerulean blue into this mix, you can see now it's really one shade darker. I'm going to start my mountains over here. So here what I will do is, I'm going to cross over into this region that we left behind, so that it looks like the other mountain part is behind this mountain. Do you see what I did? I'm going to keep my other brush ready, keep it in hand, pull down those paint, open up, soften the edges, and there. Let's add it to here, and then let's continue all the way to the right side. I'm going to open up and soften my edges of the mountains. If you want, you can add more paint. But remember, do not introduce any more water, because water is in the area that you've already painted, because it would create blooms, because the paint would spread away. We don't want to introduce any more water, but rather just trying to blend it nicely into the white region. There you go. You can see. This is dry. Now let's take the next shade of cerulean blue. For that I've added more cerulean blue into that mix. Here what I'm going to be doing is, I'm going to make the mountain somewhere in the middle. Let us do that. There, and let's paint under it after I did the borders, and I'm going to use the other brush to soften the edges. As I said, you might want to do it quickly if your paper is prone to drying off quickly. Just remember that point. Whoops, see I accidentally dabbed the other brush, but we can correct it, just make a small mountain there. Now, that's fine. That's it. What I'm going to do here is, I'm going to add another mountain right below it in the center. So more darker cerulean blue, there. Now, I have really dark, not really dark as in the next shade of cerulean blue, the next stone. This mountain would have a bit more details because it's getting closer to the viewer, that is imagine the viewer was standing here and looking at the picture. That means that any things that are closer to him or her would be detailed and can see it nicely. I mean, you can see it more clearly. That's why we are now going to add more details into our mountains. What I'm going to be doing is using my brush now. You can switch to a smaller brush if you feel that your brush doesn't have a nice pointed tip and you can't make those tiny details. But I'm going to stick with this. I think mine is fine. What we will do is, using a smaller brush, we will add more details. So it's going to be like this in our mountains, you see that? Like that. It doesn't need to go all the way around, but it's just that we will start seeing the troughs and dips of the mountains more clearly in this case. I'm just going to go up, and I don't want it to dry, so I'm going to sweep and add my color. I'm going to stop here because that's where I want the mountain to stop. There, I'm going to open that up, soften the edges. I've so often the depth, but I think I should add more color because I want my mountain to be a bit more visible. Now, I'll soften it a bit more. There. This is all right, ignore it because you'll understand it in the next step when I'll do the next mountain which will go on top of this. This is no fine. Let's wait for this to dry or let's try it using a hairdryer. It's dried. Now, I'm going to add the final mountain at the bottom, and this one is going to be using the darker shade of cerulean blue so we want it to be really, really dark. I'm loading up and as you can see, we will be taking the final last ordinal value of cerulean blue, and I'm going to start somewhere around here. Remember, this mountain has to be more detailed. We just want a switch to my smallest size brush because I want to add more details, but it's pointed tip, keep adding and I've added more here. For this one we do not have to soften the edges because this mountain is going to go all the way down. I'm just going to add my details. We need smaller strokes here. Imagine these are the trees or things that are visible sticking out off the mountain. As in when you look at a mountain that is really close to you, you would see these trees or texture on the mountains. This is what is going to be more detailed. In case you miss out, you can just add lines like this, like I'm doing here. This is why I said that this is going to be okay because I'm going to apply darker tone on top of it. There. Now, next keep adding the darker tone onto the whole of the mountain. You see that? I think that's the two big areas. Now we've made the boarders that we want, so I'm going to switch to my larger brush because that would make it easier. Switch to my larger brush and we're going to load very dark concentrated cerulean blue there, I know it's lighter here, we'll make it darker. There, and very careful around the edges because we do not want to paint over the small lines that we've made. We do not want to ruin them, so we'll just be very careful when we are painting along the line that we made. You can see how much paint I'm taking one my brush because there is very little water, which is why I'm getting like a dry brush technique here. It's 90 percent paint and 10 percent water, because I really want it to be dark shade of cerulean blue. That's it. I'm going to leave it like that. I know that this other mountains are really far away, so that's why they're going to be really, really lighter. As as you can see, it gets lighter and lighter as you go outside. Everything is dry now, so let us remove the tape. We have clean edges. It's only a slight potion over here but I'm not going to bother about that. But look at this. We got clean edges all around. I love this. 40. Class Project VII - The Galaxy: Let us do a simple galaxy tutorial. For this, I will be starting with applying the water onto my paper. This will be wet on wet technique first. There, I'm applying water onto my paper. There you go. For this one, I'm going to wait for a bit for the water to settle into the paper. Then I'm going to apply a second layer of water so that my paper is stretched and I would get enough time to work on the wet on wet technique. Let us do that. I'm going to wait for a few minutes now. I'm now going to add another layer of water on the top. This will make my paper stay wet for a longer duration of time. You can see even though this is Arches paper, it is bending in the middle, but that's all right. Now we have enough water on the paper to make it stay wet for a longer duration of time. Let us now start painting our galaxy. I'm going to be starting with my size 12 Silver black velvet brush. The first color that I'm going to be starting with is Indian yellow. I'm going to start with Indian yellow. I'm just going to apply on the paper totally randomly so we can see in it. Just like that, totally random. Now, we will move on to the next colors. The next color I'm going to be using is this. This is cerulean blue, starting with cerulean blue. That's the lightest of the blue that I have. I want to start with a lighter shade. You can see that here, your blue is mixing with the yellow to form a greenish shade, and that's what we want. Cerulean blue I'm going to apply all over the side along the lines of the yellow area and the rest of the paper. You see there is extra water on my paper, so I'm just going to move it around and make it flow to the outside of the sheet. That's what you can do if you have too much water on your paper. Just try to absorb them with your brush or you can move them outside of your paper like I'm doing now because I don't want my yellow area to vanish. But you can see it's already gone. Let's fix this now. Remove all of the extra water to the outside of your sheet. This is what I'm trying to teach about the water control and how to control if there's too much water on your paper or if there's too much water on your brush. Because we've stretched the paper, there is enough water on it, and it will not form any blooms. I'm taking away all those extra water that was there. I'm just washing my brush occasionally because there is paint on it, and if I go and apply this on the top, again, I would put this blue paint onto the area there. Now you can see the whole of the yellow has vanished. Now, we can add some more yellow. It would form a greenish shade, which is what exactly I wanted. Let's take more yellow and slide your brush across. I'm trying to show here what are the common mistakes that we all do and how we can avoid that. There. Now when I have applied more yellow, I'm pushing away the blue with my brush. You can see now I've got an area of yellow paint that I wanted. This is how we can control if there's too much water on your paper and you need to move away paints, there. Just moving away the green and the blue pigments. I did not apply any green. It was all blue which mixed with the yellow to create green shade. But we can move it away, and we can gain back the yellow on the paper. You see, now I have a yellow there on the paper, which is exactly how I wanted it. There. Now, we can go back and apply the blue to the rest of the areas. This is cerulean blue, and I'm going to apply it for the galaxy. There. Now we have a beautiful mix of yellow and the blue which has created green shade. Just painting along the borders here because I want to retain that yellow. There. But you can already see that the blue is again seeping into the yellow, so wash your brush thoroughly in water, and then load your brush again and apply paint and make sure you move your brush to the outside of the yellow area because we do not want to be pushing the blue paint in towards the yellow. There. I'm pushing it outside. I will create more greens towards the outside rather than if you push it towards the yellow area, you'll be making more greens, which we do not want. More yellow and push outside. You can see how I've retained that yellow space that I wanted. There. I think it's formed like a flower now. Now let's add the second shade. We can take Prussian blue. That is the next darkest blue. So adding Prussian blue. That's another darker shade. So we're applying the next dark shade on top of the peacock, serene blue. You can also use peacock blue if you want for the first color that we used. Adding Prussian blue to the outside areas because I wanted the outside of my galaxy to be darker. We have to make it as dark as possible. I'm picking up more and more Prussian blue and applying paint. Remember, occasionally you might have to wash your brush. Load up yellow paint and keep moving the greens away from the center region because there's actually a lot of water here on the paper, which is making it flow back and form green again. We have to probably keep doing this along the process, there. Let's get back to adding our peacock blue. Did I say peacock blue? I meant Prussian blue. Let's get back to adding our Prussian blue. You can see that I'm applying a very concentrated amount of color onto my paper because I want my edges to be dark, and then you can go into a darker shade of indigo on top of the Prussian blue to get an even more darker shade towards the outside, like here. I'm using indigo now. As you can see, I'm painting from the outside towards the inside. But you can see the clear separation here between the other pigments. We have to correct that, which we will do in a while there. Now we have made the color all around. Wash your brush and we will pick up some more Prussian blue and add towards the border here, so that they mix and blend perfectly. This is what is known as adding multiple layers one-by-one and adding on top of each other to get vibrancy for our painting. So there. I'm going on adding Prussian blue onto the top. Now we want a bit of peacock blue or serene blue to give the lighter shade as it reaches the center, there. It's just a matter of just tap your brush and then mix along. You will see that they blend nicely. If you see there's a separation between the paints, you can just add them. There you go. Now I want to take some more yellow paint and push away all those greens a bit more yellow, push away as much as you can in whichever direction you want it to go to, there. You can see here there is some water that I introduced. So I'm going to push it away slightly more, and then tap it off on my tissue. More yellow paint. I'm going to make some towards this side. All of this works if your paper is 100 percent cotton paper, which is how you can work multiple layers on it without the paper tearing off. You can also use chopard paper, which is a really good quality, 100 percent cotton paper and it can really endure so many layers, and I really love working with the chopard papers. So there now. Now I think it's really good, isn't it? I feel that it's a bit lighter this side. So I'm going to take indigo again and add it to this corner here. Make sure your corners are dark because that's where mostly the paint tries to seep away. There you go. Let's add some more peacock blue, there. Our galaxy has known dried. The background layer is totally dry. Now we can add the stars. I'm going to be adding the stars using this. This is permanent white from Winsor & Newton. I have it in here. I'm going to load my brush nicely with the paint, white crush paint in a nice creamy consistency. Load your brush with a lot of white paint. Don't worry if you don't have wash because you can use white watercolors. I'm going to be using the splattering method like this. Be careful as to move any stuff where you don't want to paints to fall on because it's highly risky. That your table is going to be covered in white paint because this method actually makes all the paint splatter everywhere. If you have your phones, or laptops, or anything nearby, just try to move it off. Let's start. See my hands already. This method gives really nice tiny stars. There you go. But I feel this looks empty. Let's add few stars into this one. I'm going to be using my silver black velvet script liner or a go brush because you can see it's got a really nice, very pointed tip. All you have to use is the smallest size brush you have. For example, I have this size one brush aircraft demo and it also has a very pointed tip. For the start, all we need is a pointed tip so that you can get the thinness of the lines as possible. Let's try to make these stars all at one specific angle. For example, I'm going to have a star here. So for all of these, I'm going to have it vertically downwards because we don't want it to be haphazard. Or if all the stars look the same way, it attracts the painting. I'm going to have read vertically down, a thin line vertically down, and then across, a slightly smaller one, and then even smaller ones in the center. That's how I usually do it. Now we'll add the same thing all around at random places. I go and add one here. You can add them in varying sizes, so I want to make a smaller one here. Then we can add some cross that's also smaller stars, but make it really small like these, small crosses. Now we can add some shooting stars to this so that it becomes more interesting. So load your brush again, we still need a thinner line, so make sure you use the smallest size brush you have. I'm going to make one here. What I do is I choose one star that's already there because the shooting stars have, they are basically asteroids or comets that are flying. They have a stop point and then they have a tapering tail. So I'm choosing this star over here. Then from there I'm going to just use my brush and slide outside like that, so that I'll get a tail for that. See that? So that when you do that motion, you would get a thinner line as you are lifting your hand off the paper. I'm going to add few more here. Let's say I wanted to use this star and then I'm going to do the same motion, same brush stroke. See that? That's really good, isn't it? I'm going to add one down here. If there is no star for you to choose, you can add one. For example, there isn't one, I want to make a dot first there, and then I'm going to do the tail of it. Still small, so you can do the same thing along the same line again. It didn't have a tapering tail, so I'm going to add the tapering tail to it. Load up my brush, and then all we have to be careful is that we try to draw it on the same line as we have done before, in case you lifted your hand off while we're doing this line and you did not get the thin line as before, all have to do is follow along the same line. There you go. See that? So this is how we can do this. I am just trying to explain all the different methods by we can do, and in case if we do these mistakes, how we can solve them. So there you go. Now I have the thinner line for my shooting star. I think this is enough for now, so I'm going to remove my tape. So we have a lot of bleeds but remember how we can fix it? I'm going to use by white gouache paint. So I'm going to load up my brush, bit the white gouache, and let's correct all the places where it has bleeded into the areas of the tape. Here also, you have to use your thinnest brush because we want to be careful to draw the line along the edges such that we do not go in towards the painting. There, I think that side is good though. When you're doing this, if you're using your white watercolors, you might observe that your watercolor is mixing with these darker paints already on the paper but that's all right. All you have to do is first apply coating and then wait for this to dry, and then add multiple layers of white on the top, which would eventually wash out all the blue shade. For example, here I have indigo which is slightly mixing with the white to form lighter blue. But if I keep adding more layers on the top, it would just overpower the indigo and the white. There you go. So this was the first one that I did. I don't know if you can see it closely, but if you look here, there is still a blue dinge to that, so I'm just going to add another layer on the top. That should do it. A tiny bit here. Now I think my painting is complete and I have clean borders. Or we can say we have clean borders because we've corrected all our borders, now it looks perfect, isn't it? 41. Class Project VIII - The Rainbow Technique: Now, this painting is going to be really simple, but really, really fun. We're going to have a rainbow, some clouds, and the ground, that's all. For that, I'm going to be using this compass, but in case you don't have a compass, use anything that is circular, so you can use your dinner plate and just put it to get an arc. It is just for our brush to follow along when we are doing the rainbow because we don't want to be making haphazard lines or making any mistakes. That's all. I'm going to be starting around somewhere here and then making an arc all the way. I'm going to do it very lightly because I don't want the pencil marks to be clearly visible in the end. That's it. Now I'm just going to add the horizon line for the ground. It's going to be below here. While we're at this, I would like to tell you something about horizon lines. Imagine we have our paper and we draw the horizon line in the middle. But this is not really attractive in a painting. To make it more attractive, it is always best if you can shift the horizon line slightly towards the top or towards the bottom. Two and three are really more attractive than the first one, because it's somehow, when you look at it in a painting perspective, there are more things visible on the ground area here and more things visible in the sky area here. This is equal, but somehow in a painting it doesn't look that beautiful. Always try to keep this in mind when you're trying to draw your subjects. It's better if you have your horizon line somewhere at the top or at the bottom. The split always is like one is to two, that is if you divide your paper into three portions, then you can say that you can have your horizon line either at the top, or either at the bottom, but not in the middle. But if you really want to go ahead and pain in the middle, that's all up to you, it's really all right. That's it. This is all our pencil sketch is going to be. First let us paint the sky. We're going to wet the paper. There I am applying water to the sky region. That's it. Now, using my larger size brush, I'm going to paint the sky with Payne's gray because I want it to be like a rainy sky. I'm going to load Payne's gray in my brush, so that's Payne's gray. Loading Payne's gray and then just forming these small shapes into the sky in the [inaudible]. It'll just blend automatically and spread automatically to create the nice cloudy texture that we want. Just apply the paint directly. Don't bother about the rainbow line now, that we will be adding on later. To this, we can also add a bit of indigo. There you can see now it's a bit darker, adding indigo paint. This gives us the really dark, nice, the raining clouds that we want to achieve in our sky, so Payne's gray. Smaller lines, and I'm going to make smaller dots and lines towards the bottom here, and just blending it like this. There is some color but also there isn't. You can see it's a very lighter tone of the Payne's gray. Then just going to add bits of indigo here and there randomly. I want the darker tones to be towards the top which is why I'm adding it like this. We want lots of white areas. Remember that, to leave white spaces, we don't want to paint the whole thing with Payne's gray or indigo. If you feel that you have applied a lot of paint, you can push them off away from you paper. This is another reason why masking tape is really helpful because it would help you to push paint or water on top of it. But obviously you could also do this on to yourself or anything if you didn't have the masking tape. But I prefer it this way. There, I'm going to leave it at this. Let's now wait for it to dry. Our Payne's gray has now dried. I'm going to paint the ground now. For that, I'm going to be using Indian gold. Using Indian gold, I'm going to paint the whole of the ground with Indian gold. You can see I'm blending the Indian gold on the paper itself as in creating a flat wash of the Indian gold on the paper itself, there. That's it. One thing about paintings that we need to understand is to understand the concept of depth in AMP painting. So all the things that are towards the bottom of the painting in a landscape would be the areas which are closer to the viewer, so that needs to be in the darker tones and this is why I'm adding more darker tones and always the details towards the bottom of the painting because that's where the depth is and this horizon line area that you see is actually very far away. We only see minute details and the color tones will be lighter. Keep adding darker, darker tones towards the bottom like I am doing. I will add more dark tones towards the board now. I'm going to load my brush with burnt umber and I will add to the bottom like this. All this is happening even though I did [inaudible] on dry wash. My paper is still red, so I'm able to add in additional colors. Now I'm going to add some more depth, so I'm going to add in sepia to the bottom. That's an even more darker shade, adding sepia and burnt umber to the top of it and blending with Indian yellow there. You want to leave it at that. No. I don't have to wait for this to dry, so let's paint some greenery farther away, so I'm going to load my brush with olive green. If you don't have olive green, you can mix a little bit of brown and green or pink and green and you will get olive green. I'm just going to add some things farther away. This means these smaller, smaller strokes in the form of some foliage. I think I would switch to my smaller size brush. It's easier, so I'm switching to my size 4 brush. You can leave some white spaces, it adds onto your painting. Some gap over there, and add more bushes and foliage towards the right side. Now we need to add some shadows, so I'm going to be using dark green and adding towards the bottom. It's a mix off olive green and dark green, so that's all our foliage is going to be. Now we have to wait for this to dry. But while that is drying, we can make our rainbow. That is the most interesting part of this painting. For the rainbow, we will use a flat brush and we will load colors onto it. We're going to follow the curve that we made to get the perfect rainbow, so let's see how we can do that. On a flat brush, I have picked my flat brush in water, and then remove all the excess paint from it. Now my brush has all the hairs are now joined. Now we need another brush, a smaller size brush, so what are the colors of the rainbow? It's red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. That's the VIBGYOR, that is the seven colors of the rainbow. First, we need yellow paint, so I'm going to be taking red paint on my brush, and I'm going to load that red paint on this brush towards the side. Then the next color is orange. Taking nice orange, I'm loading the next shade. Wash off your brush. Now we need the next shade which is yellow, so loading Indian yellow onto my brush. Next I'm going to be loading is, so where did we red, orange, yellow, green, so I'm loading green onto my brush there. Then the next color is blue, so violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, red. Next color is going to be blue, so I'm going to be loading light blue on my rainbow colors there and now the darker indigo. Lastly, violet.. Now you have all the colors of the rainbow on your brush. Before you put it onto your paper you can experiment and see whether you've got it right and then you can reload the brush with paint. See that? Oh my God, it's perfect. I like the colors. What I'm going to be doing is because I want some water on my brush, I want to load water on it, so my brush will absorb the water, so there is enough water. Just in case, we used up all the paints, I'm going to load my brush with the colors again. This is where we have applied the paint. Make sure that we touch all the parts of our brush. Let's do that, and we're going to follow the arc. I'm going to touch my paper and follow the arc, I'm loving this, this is too perfect. Oh my God. Now we have our perfect rainbow. But before it dries now we have to do something. We have to make the borders correct. Let's do that to blend the borders. I'm just taking my brush and pulling the beam down there. Just keep doing that all those shades down. We still haven't got that perfect blend. What we're going to do is we're going to take more of the shades that we used and blend it along, too much water? That's too much water, just lift off, I'm lifting it off. You can see, I'm trying to blend it but my brush is wet so it's all getting cranky, and the last bit, violet here. I love this nodes, isn't it perfect that rainbow looks so beautiful, isn't it?. Now, once this is dry, we can add some details onto the ground. I would call this painting done because I don't want to work anymore on it. My whole point of this painting was just this rainbow. Let's wait for it to dry. Now. If you want, you can actually blend this rainbow, do the sky so that you won't get this harsh edges like you see here. What you need to do is if you take your brush and slide along the edge so that the paint spreads and you're avoiding any harsh edges. You can do that. But right now, I don't want to touch this painting because I feel that I love this rainbow. If you want to avoid the harsh edges , all you have to do is use water, run your brush along the line, and keep removing that dark edge. My ground has now dried. Now I will show you how we can add some grass on to the front area using a flat brush. This is going to be interesting. Load your brush with paint, I'm loading it with a burnt umber. We're going to be loading it with nice star burnt amber along the side. You can see. Then I'm going to hold my brush like this and slide upwards. They're going to be upwards and I'm going to lift it off, don't make it like this. All you need to do is do these motion, so you see we already get some foliage, some grass on the paper we just did. Let's see, load your brush and then I'm going to do, see that? But it's not just going to be this, we'll add more to it, don't worry. But this is just the beginning, that's it. Wash off your brush. Now what we're going to switch to my favorites small liner rigger brush so that I can add more details. I'm going to add more details with sepia and burnt umber. Those places just add more grass. Add them in different directions. We don't want all of them to be in the same direction. But the initial texture that we want that we can achieve with the flat brush, which is what we just did. We're going to use my sepia paint, and we're not going to leave it like this because this place looks odd without any grass. I want to add some smaller lines with the burnt umber. This very lightly towards the sides as you can see, and some towards the center, but and using very lighter tone. Not in all the places just randomly. Now we can add some slathers with burnt umber. I'm going to load my brush with nice burnt umber. I want to hide my rainbow region because I don't want my slathers to get fair. Some towards the sides and this side. Loading my brush with more burnt umber, and there, that's it. To make this a bit more interesting, if you want, you can add some white grass onto it, I'm just taking up my white gouache and I'm going to add some few lines using my brush. Not in all the places, just randomly. Where is my rigger brush, my small thin brush, it gives me thin lines. I think that's it for this painting. Now I have to wait for this bottom region to dry before I can peel off my masking tape. I love this one. 42. Class Project IX - Northern Lights: This method is called as pour method. It's basically using a lot of water. We're going to apply water onto the paper. This time, like I said, it's not going to even, it's going to be pour method, pour as in pouring water, a lot of water onto our paper. We need a lot of water onto a paper. Just drop as much water as you can, but don't put the the whole of your jar into it. It just means that we need a greater consistency water than you had it before. That's it. You can see the consistency of water. That is a lot of water on my paper, and I want it to be on the surface of the paper. While the paper is still wet, obviously, we want a lot of water. If there's not enough water, you just keep adding more towards the corners. That's where most likely it starts to dry. Now we have a lot of water on our paper. I'm going to load my brush with Indian yellow and just going to mix it up in my palate. Then I'm going to drop this engineer low onto my paper. I'm dropping this in a horizontal manner, like this, just drop more. We wanted to be really vibrant. That's why I am taking a very dark consistency of the yellow paint. Once you added the yellow, wash off your brush. Then we now want some green. I'm going to add green. I'm adding green to the top of the yellow. You can see I'm adding green. Let's also add some green towards the bottom. I've added green there. Now we want some pink shade. I'm taking green rose for the pink shade. Nice pink shade. This is where we want to have with water. We're going to blend all of these beams together with the help of the moving water. We'll just keep building up boards in direction that we want to blend it. Now, I want to bend it in this direction. That's why. Any excess paint or water that comes towards the side, wipe it off. Otherwise, you will make your table dirty because all of this will flow outside. Just keep wiping it off. This means you'll be wiping off all of the extra water that comes onto the site. Now you can see a perfect blend there. I'm going to add some more green because I feel that it's lost the vibrancy of the green. Some green towards the bottom as well, then you can add some yellow, if you want to keep yellow vibrant. Towards the top, I'm going to add violet shade, so I'm picking up violet, and I'm adding towards the top, here on top of the pink, as you can see. Then the rest of the areas, we will paint with indigo. I'm loading my brush with indigo and painting on top of the violet. I've blended it together, the same for the areas at the bottom. We want to paint with indigo. We have to be working fast and we make sure that we blend the paints. Updated my board, I'm applying indigo paint to the bottom. We also want to put the indigo paint to the areas in between. These are the sky areas, this area in between the northern lines lights. Now we have to blend the yellow properly. We're going to take water and yellow paint and blend them. Obviously, when we are bending and we have a lot of green or indigo mix on our brushes, we have to keep washing the brushes and take up yellow paint. Otherwise, we will be mixing the indigo with the yellow, and the whole thing will turn into a green sheet. Like here what I've done now, but it's okay, I'm just going to mix it up. I'm going to take green colors and add here. I've accumulated water over here. Again, I'm going to take it up with tissue, absorb it. Then I can take more green and I'm blending on top of the indigo, all of it. When you feel that there are places which has not blend, just keep rotating your board to get that correct. Here I have some area which are not blended. I'm just going to add more pink shade. Then I'm going to just hold my board like this so that it will blend. Then because it was forming lines, so I tilted it to this side so that it would blend towards this side. Now I want some darker violet towards the top. So I'm adding them. Some darker indigo for the sky, for the night sky. This is what the night sky is, and rest of it is what we are getting, the northern lights so that is what we're blending. Keep adding a darker tone towards the bottom. You can build your board downwards so that it creates end lines and then towards the side. This is basically a fun method. We are making use of water and letting the water colors flow by itself and create its magic. This is why it's so much fun, this method, because we are not doing anything, we're just letting the watercolors flow by itself. We have no controllers as to how they're going to fall on the paper. It's just totally random. We just let it blend on its own. Can you see how we are letting it blend on its own. We just let them blend occasionally. We'll just move our brush on the top so that we can let it blend. I don't know why I don't finish my sentences. I think I'm just focusing on the paintings, so then I don't finish my sentences. I know, I'm so sorry. I'm forming lines there, so I'm going to take up more yellow and more lines, just blend. I'm just going to tilt my board and let the paint flow by itself. Sometimes I might have to hold it a bit lower so that they blend easily. You can see how I've blended it. This area looks dark all of a sudden, so I'm going to use some indigo paint towards the left side as well. There and to the bottom [inaudible] sky, night sky, indigo and then I'm going to tilt my board downwards so that they blend with the green a bit sideways. One thing to note with this kind of painting is that because we are tilting the board a lot around, they bleed a lot. I'm sure they must have bleed a lot into the area between the masking tape over here and here. I'm pretty sure of that, but it's all right. We're just here to have some fun with this technique. So don't worry about it. If you see that there are any blobs of paints just try blending them and then use your board and effect of gravity to spread them around. Like here, we're letting gravity do the job. Gravity will move the paints around and let it blend on to the yellow. You see that. That is really, really, really beautiful, isn't it guys? Well, I love this technique a lot. That's it. Now we have to wait for this layer to dry. Let us wait for that. Don't use a hair dryer because I feel that hair dryers will make your paint much, much, much lighter than you want it to be. So just let it dry on its own. Our modern lights backgrounds layer has now dried. All I'm going to do is I'm going to add some stars and a tree onto this one. Let us do that. First, I will add the stars, because I do not want these stars to appear on the tree after I've painted the tree. I would add the stars towards the top first. So I'm going to be using my wash paint to add the stars. We will load up wash paint on our brush in a nice, creamy consistency there. Then I'm going to tuck my brush. You can see how I'm getting those beautiful stars. Then I'm going to use the tuck method too. This method actually ruins all of your table and your hands, see I'm already having these white spots in my hand. If you have anything that you don't want to paint on, like for example, your mobile phone, your laptop or anything, move it away because this is going to ruin it. Now we have our stars. Let's wait like five minutes, so that our tiny little stars dry off and then we'll add the tree on top of it. Our stars are dry, so let's add a tree in front of it that I am going to be using my Payne's gray paint. This is what I use for blacks. I'm going to mix black with my Payne's gray. You can use your black Payne's [inaudible]. Mixing Payne's gray and [inaudible] brown, now I have a really black color. I'm just going to add a single lone tree to my painting. I'm going to start from the bottom. As I go towards the top, I'm going to decrease the thickness of my branches. That is what we need. More often the reason why your branches end up thick, like what happened to me here is because there might be a lot of water on your brush. When you touch your brush onto the paper, it just appears to drop all that water and pigment on to wallpaper, which makes it really thick lines. If you want thinner lines, decrease the water on your brushes, that is the paint should be more, make it more concentrated that way you'll get thinner lines. If you do accidentally make thicker lines at the top, just make the whole thing thicker towards the bottom so that it looks like properly like a tree. Then now my paint to water ratio is less. That is, my water is very less in my brush. That is what we need if we want very thin lines using our brush. I'm just going to add smaller and smaller branches. There, now I have my branch. Now I'm going to add some little bit of foliage to the tree. What are we using? You can use a small brush and just slowly dab on and make these tiny dots on the tree. They don't have to be clumped together. Leave some gaps so that they look natural. You can see I'm just making these tiny dots. Now, this one is a bit time-consuming process. But it's just the same thing that you have to do. Just keep on adding these tiny dots here. Because the process is fairly simple, I'm going to be speeding up the video here a little, because it's exactly the same. There, now I have added the foliage. But let us now add some controlled splatters onto our tree. I'm just going to load up my paint brush with paint. Very carefully, we don't want it to be in the rest of the areas. So I'm just going to block the rest of the areas here. Then just going to do some splatter so that I get these tiny drops of black paint on my tree foliage. We have to be very careful and we don't want black spots in the sky. It's not going to be clearly visible, even though there are some black spots in the sky. This is what is called as controlled splattering. If you hold your brush like this and do the splatters, it'll fall on a specific area rather than to a larger area. Remember when I was doing this splatters, it almost got into all of my fingers and hands. So this is really a controlled method. I can do tiny splatters. There. Oops, I almost forgot, I want to thicken the tree branch, because it looked really odd here, really thin at the bottom. So I'm just going to thicken here so that it really looks like a tree there. Now, it's thick, and to give it some originality, let's add some tiny branches. It can have some bulges. It doesn't have to go straight. Now it looks much better. This is it. That's all, our coal method Northern Lights painting is now done. Let us peel off the masking tape. Let's see how much of it has bleeded to the outside because this method actually really makes the paint bleed towards the outside. Okay. Not bad. You can see it's just a few bits in the corner, which we can now correct. Just going to load up white wash paint on my brush. I'm just going to correct it. If you don't want to correct it and you want to just leave it like that, that's also fine. What I'm saying is these things definitely do happen to every artist. You don't need to be worried that why is your masking tape doing this. Your masking tape might not be good and might bleed a lot, but there is a fixed for it, which is the most important thing. How is this, guys? Did you like it? 43. Class Project X - The Winter Scene: This one is going to be in portrait mode. There is no pencil sketch. First, I am going to apply water to the whole of my paper. Applying water to the whole area of the paper. Remember, we want the water to be applied evenly. Now, I'm going to take some paints gray. I'm loading my brush with paints gray and I'm going to apply it onto the paper. I'm going to apply to the whole of the paper. You can see that even though I took a very darker shade, because of the water, it's spreading. It's all right. I want the whole area of my paper to be with paints gray. You can see I have a slightly larger consistency of water in here. This is because I wanted the paints gray to be spreading all over the paper so it's all right. Normally, this would not be all right If we were painting something that had to be like only water at some places. But since this is for the whole area of the paper that we need one single color so it's all right. Just apply to the whole of the paper and you can see now I've applied paints gray to the whole of my paper. Now, I want a bit of more paints gray. What I'm going to be doing is, I'm going to be dropping paint at some places, just at some places, and a bit towards this side. That's all. I'm going to be switching to my size 8 brush. Then I'm going to load sepia on my brush. You can see, I'm loading sepia on my brush. What I'm going to do is? I'm going to draw a tree trunk. It's just a straight line from the top towards the bottom, all the way down. It's all right. You can see the paint is spreading and that's all right. Obviously, it will spread because there is water in the paper. I'm applying more sepia to make it a bit darker. You can see that. Then make it go all the way towards the top, maybe add a branch like structure, and then we will add some more, but thinner right next to it. This is thin, thinner lines. You can see I've added some more thinner lines. Now is the interesting part. What I'm going to do is, I'm going to load up my brush with Indian yellow and I'm going to mix it on my palette, you can see, and I've mixed it up with water because I needed extra water and I've loaded up my brush with nice Indian yellow. What are we going to do is, we're going to splatter this Indian yellow onto the paper. Holding my brush like this, I'm going to splatter using this finger because I want the splatters to be in this area. There you see, I've splattered the paint. Just looking nice and beautiful I've splattered the Indian yellow. Then clean off your brushes. I've taken some water on my brush so there's no water on my brush. What I'm going to do is, I'm going to splatter some water. So you can see that where the water falls, the paint is spreading out, and that's what I want so we create these white areas. There. We have added some wet-on-wet splattering. This is without any paint, but my brush was wet and the paper is bad and you're adding splatters. There's no color but this would just form water bloom. Instead of going and touching the paper, you can just splat that paint and it would spread out paints and create these nice blooms that we see. Here, I have some salt. I'm going to add it on the top. But remember, we need only very little. Take as little as you can and drop it from a height because I don't want it to be spread in some areas. I'm going to drop it from around, I hope you can see. I'm going to drop my salt from around this height so that it falls onto the paper. I've dropped the salt at certain places. Now it will act the way it should. We won't be able to see it until it is completely dries. Now let us wait for the magic to happen and for this layer to dry. Before we keep this aside to dry, I'm thinking we should add a bit more branches. I'm going to take up sepia again, going to take up nice consistency of sepia. There, I have nice consistency of sepia. My paint's spread a little here so I'm just going to darken this up, and then loading more. There, now we have added the trees in the background. Let us wait for the salt to act. All of the salt layer has now dried and this is what we have. Look at this, look at this beautiful snowflakes that we have on our paper. It's really beautiful, isn't it? If there are any salt crystals that are remaining, just push them away with your hands out off the paper. Now we can go on to add the finer details onto our painting. First, I'm going to be using my size 8 brush. I'm going to sprinkle some more of foreground yellow on top of it. I'm taking Indian yellow, and I'm going to mix it on my palette there. Now I have mixed it on my palette nicely and my brush is loaded with Indian yellow. What I'm going to do is, I'm going to do some more splatters to this area, which is why I'm using this hand method. There now. Let it dry. While that is drying, we will add some foreground elements in a painting. I'm going to be adding some foreground elements. Let us take a darker brown, so I'm using sepia here or you can use and I gave brown or any darker brown that you have, and if you don't have a dark brown, you can make some of your brown that you have with black shade to obtain this. Using the darker brown, now we will add the foreground elements. I'm just going to be starting from the outside and I'm going to draw branches of the tree. It's just simple. Use the [inaudible] brush to draw these kinds of lines on the top. You can see how I've done this. Just use the tip of your brush and make small lines. You'll add as well, another branch there, then we'll add another branch here and then one towards the bottom. I'm adding small branches to this main branch. Remember that you have to use the tip of your brush or you can use the smallest size brush that you have. The smaller size brush I have of silver black velvet is this, that is why I'm using this size. Otherwise, you can also use other smaller sized brushes, such as I have this size number 1 from [inaudible]. I'm adding more branch to the foreground. Remember it doesn't have to be in an even manner, it can be totally random because these are branches of a tree, and as you know, there is no specific way in which they grow, so you can make this totally random. There you go. That's it. It's done. Now what I will do is I will add some more splatters so that they fall on top of the tree as well. I am taking Indian yellow and I'm going to add splatters using my fingers. These are tiny spatters now. That's it. Now we have to wait for this to dry so that we can add some snow on top of it. Our trees are now to now dry, so let us add some snow to it. For that, I will be using this whitewash. This has been said a Newton whitewash. But don't worry if you don't have whitewash, you can use your regular watercolor paint, that is, white watercolor paintings. I am going to be adding this white onto my palette and this is what we will be on top of the branches to get snow effect. I am taking the white paint. We don't want it on all of the places, just at random places. I'm going to add a large blob of snow here on top of that, there, then some over here. Eventually, we will be covering some of the areas that we have painted with the salt and spattering techniques, but that's all right. On this one, we can add small, tiny dots of snow as well. I'm adding tiny drops here and there. Add the snow onto your branches totally randomly. There needn't be any specific way as to how you are doing it, or where you want, just add them at random places. I'm adding the snow at totally random places, and I'm also adding some dots hidden there. Always remember that we have to paint it towards the top side because that's where when the snow falls it's going to lay on the branch on the top. That's it. Lastly, we can add some splatters with white. I'm loading my brush with white paint, and then let's just spatter. That's it. Our painting is now done That's it. I really love how this one has turned out. I know it looks dull but this is really how we can make snow paintings. Let us remove the tape. See how beautiful our winter painting is. 44. Thank You: I would like to thank each and every one of you who joined this Skillshare class. I would also like to remind you about the e-book that is available to download from the resources section in case you haven't downloaded it yet. Please upload your class projects here onto Skillshare and you can also share them onto your Instagram profile and tag me. I would be happy to see it. My Instagram profile is colourfulmystique. Once again, thank you for joining me. Until next time. Bye bye.