Ultimate Sound Design Complete: Mastering Sound Design | Jason Allen | Skillshare

Ultimate Sound Design Complete: Mastering Sound Design

Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

Ultimate Sound Design Complete: Mastering Sound Design

Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

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105 Lessons (7h 7m)
    • 1. Welcome!

    • 2. My Approach To Sound Design

    • 3. Tools You Will Need

    • 4. Physics Of Sound

    • 5. What Is Timbre?

    • 6. Harmonics And Partials

    • 7. Overtones

    • 8. Waveforms

    • 9. The Sound Generator In Synthesis

    • 10. Oscillators

    • 11. Waveforms - Sine Waves

    • 12. Square Waves

    • 13. Triangle Waves

    • 14. Sawtooth Waves

    • 15. Waveshapes Under Spectrogram

    • 16. Noise Generators

    • 17. Other Sound Generators

    • 18. Subtractive Synthesis

    • 19. Filter And EQ

    • 20. Gain And Q

    • 21. Low Pass

    • 22. High Pass

    • 23. Band pass

    • 24. Notch

    • 25. Looking At Devices

    • 26. Sound Generators And Filters

    • 27. Deeper Into The Oscillator Section

    • 28. Deeper Into The Filter Section

    • 29. Signal Flow

    • 30. Why Two Amps

    • 31. The LFO

    • 32. The WubWubs

    • 33. Quick Routing

    • 34. What are Envelopes?

    • 35. The ADSR Format

    • 36. More Than Just Amplitude

    • 37. Applying Envelopes

    • 38. Other Ways Envelopes Can Look

    • 39. Preset: FatEric

    • 40. Preset: SadnessPad

    • 41. Think Or Thin?

    • 42. High Or Low?

    • 43. Short Or Long?

    • 44. Motion Or Stillness?

    • 45. Moving On...

    • 46. Other Types Of Synthesis

    • 47. What Is FM?

    • 48. Musical Examples of FM

    • 49. What Is The Same?

    • 50. Installing FM8

    • 51. The FM8 Browser

    • 52. Building Your Own Patch in FM8

    • 53. Getting To the Default Patch

    • 54. Add A Modulator

    • 55. More Modulators And Experimenting

    • 56. What Is Additive?

    • 57. Music Examples Additive

    • 58. What is the Same?

    • 59. Setting Up Operator

    • 60. Simple Additive With Waveforms

    • 61. The Overtone Series

    • 62. Additive With Oscillators

    • 63. Apply Filters And Envelopes

    • 64. What Is WaveTable Synthesis?

    • 65. Music Examples

    • 66. What Is the Same?

    • 67. Setting Up Serum

    • 68. Serum Basic Layout

    • 69. Wavetables in Serum

    • 70. Warp Menu

    • 71. Unison Settings

    • 72. Making Your Own Wavetables

    • 73. What Is Physical Modeling?

    • 74. Music Examples

    • 75. What Is the Same?

    • 76. Electric Setup

    • 77. The Model

    • 78. Mallet Section

    • 79. The Fork Section

    • 80. The Damper Section

    • 81. The Pickup Settings

    • 82. The Global Section

    • 83. What We Find In Analog Synths

    • 84. My Analog Synthesizers

    • 85. Device: Monotribe

    • 86. Device: Moog Mother 32

    • 87. Moog Mother 32 Controls

    • 88. Recipe Books

    • 89. Bass: Deep House Bass

    • 90. Bass: Dirty Dubstep Bass

    • 91. Bass: Pluck House Bass

    • 92. Bass: Growly Opening Resonant Bass

    • 93. Bass: Warm Foundational Bass

    • 94. Lead: Plinky Little Wavetable

    • 95. Lead: Buzzy Wavetable

    • 96. Lead: Sinewave Based Lead

    • 97. Lead: Aggressive Operator Lead

    • 98. Lead: FM8 Drive Lead

    • 99. The Ableton Drum Rack

    • 100. Drums: Kicks

    • 101. Drums: Hats

    • 102. Drums: Snare

    • 103. Drums: Toms

    • 104. Thanks and Bye!

    • 105. Bonus Lecture

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About This Class

Welcome to the Ultimate Sound Design COMPLETE class!

This class is for anyone who has wondered what sound design is all about. Especially:

  • Producers: If you are making tracks that rely on presets, and you want to learn how to craft your own sounds, this is the course for you.

  • Aspiring Producers: If you are just getting started with music production, this course will be the swiss army knife that you will keep in your belt forever.

  • Musicians: If you have wanted to improve your compositions by understanding how the physics of sound and partials work, this class is for you.

  • Songwriters: Improve your compositions by understanding how to make unique and memorable sounds to use in your songs.

In this class, we start with the very basics of sound design and work all the way up to working with complicated plugins like Xfer Serum, Native Instruments FM8, and others. I'll walk you through every step of the process and explain the logic behind every decision I make.

The goal of this class is for you to learn how to make original, compelling, and memorable sounds for your music.

This course is NOT specific to any DAW program.

I'll be using Ableton Live Suite 10 in this course as my main DAW, but if you are using any other program you will be able to follow along just fine. That includes Logic, FL Studio, Pro Tools, Reaper, Reason, Cubase, or any of the others. My method in this class is to teach concepts, so whatever I do, you will be able to do it in your own software.

I'm best known for working with electronic music, but I've designed this course to be as inclusive as possible when it comes to genre. We will talk about sound design techniques for all genres, sounds, and styles. All genres are welcome here!

Topics Covered: 

  • The Essential Tools of Sound Design

  • Physics of Sound

  • Timbre

  • Harmonics

  • Partials

  • Overtones

  • The Oscillator

  • Sine Waves

  • Square Waves

  • Triangle Waves

  • Sawtooth Waves

  • Waveshapers

  • Noise Generators

  • Subtractive Synthesis

  • Filters

  • EQ

  • Low Pass Filters

  • High Pass Filters

  • Bandpass Filters

  • Notch Filters

  • Signal Flow

  • Envelopes

  • ADSR

  • Building Thick or Thin Sounds

  • Building High or Low Sounds

  • Building Short or Long Sounds

  • Building Motion or Still Sounds

  • The LFO

  • FM Synthesis

  • The Native Instruments FM8 Plugin

  • Modulators

  • Ableton Live's Operator

  • Additive Synthesis

  • Wavetable Synthesis

  • Xfer Serum Plugin

  • Wavetables

  • Creating Wavetables

  • Physical Modeling Synthesis

  • Analog Instruments

  • Moog Mother 32

  • Sound Design Recipies

  • Creating Bass Synths

  • Creating Drum Synths

  • Creating Lead Synths

  • And much, much more!

If you are ready to start making professional sounding tracks, this is the class that will start you on that journey. Get started today.

Dr. Allen is a university music professor and is a top-rated online instructor - with nearly 100 courses and over 300,000 students.

In 2017 Star Tribune Business featured him as a "Mover and a Shaker," and he is recognized by the Grammy Foundation for his music education classes. 

** I guarantee that this course is the most thorough music mixing course available ANYWHERE on the market - or your money back (30-day money-back guarantee) **

Closed captions have been added to all lessons in this course.


Praise for Courses by Jason Allen:

⇢  "It seems like every little detail is being covered in an extremely simple fashion. The learning process becomes relaxed and allows complex concepts to get absorbed easily. My only regret is not taking this course earlier." - M. Shah

⇢  "Great for everyone without any knowledge so far. I bought all three parts... It's the best investment in leveling up my skills so far.." - Z. Palce

⇢  "Excellent explanations! No more or less than what is needed." - A. Tóth

⇢  "VERY COOL. I've waited for years to see a good video course, now I don't have to wait anymore. Thank You!" - Jeffrey Koury

  "I am learning LOTS! And I really like having the worksheets!" - A. Deichsel

⇢  "The basics explained very clearly - loads of really useful tips!" - J. Pook

⇢  "Jason is really quick and great with questions, always a great resource for an online class!" M. Smith


Students who register for this course will receive ongoing exclusive content and discounts for all future classes in the series. 

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jason Allen

PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

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1. Welcome!: Hey, everyone. Welcome, Teoh. My sound design class. My huge sound design class. This is the biggest class I think I've ever made. I know I say that every time, but they keep getting bigger in this class. We're going to start by going over all the key elements of sound design all the basic building blocks. And then from there, we're gonna build and learn how to make mawr and more different types of sounds using different techniques. We're going to start off just looking at subtracted synthesis. We're gonna go into additive synthesis, and then we're gonna really dive in and go into wave table synthesis, physical modelling and more. So this will be a lot of material in this class. You're going, Teoh, really go through the wringer, and by the end, you'll be able to follow along and watch as I make sounds from scratch. Ah, that are you know, big bass sounds, lead sounds, pad sounds, drum sounds, all of it. And we kind of close the class with this big Siris of of what I call recipes. So just tons of different videos saying, Here's how you make this sound family have ever been Here's how you make this sound and we just rocked through it. We'll be using a lot of different software in this class. You can use whatever you want, but the tools that I'm going to be focusing on to show you the different techniques of sound design. Our Native Instruments FM eight will be looking at experts Serum will be using some of the built in stuff and able to. We'll talk a little bit about some of the the ah reason synthesizers and a whole bunch more . We're gonna bounce around because the goal here is not for you to learn different software applications, but to learn sound design and the physics of sound and how to manipulate any software or analog gear, which we're also gonna look at to do exactly what you need to do in order to make the sounds in your head. That's the goal of the class. I'm really happy with how the class turned out. I'm really excited for you to take it, so let's dive in. Okay, So for the next four, maybe five videos, we're going to be focusing just on this just on oscillator. A. The amplitude level is also the modulation level. Okay, Not so much here because this is going to the output. If someone walked up to you on the street and said, Draw me the shape of an envelope, this is what you would draw. This is what it looks like. Okay, You can ignore the kind. OK, the fourth element that I think about is motion or stillness. Okay, So when I'm talking about motion in that sound, like right now, we have not here. I just have one filter. And when we talk about gain, what we're really talking about is this function called decibels per active. Okay, so it sounds confusing, and it is a little bit, so I want to spend a little extra time. Okay, So we really like the mother. 32 for baselines, Right? Because it is a model phonic sense. We can only play one note at a time. Um, it's got some nice big sap so I can adjust the frequency a little bit here. This is a monstrously huge class, the biggest class I have ever made by far. So there is not a moment to lose. Let's dive in and get started. 2. My Approach To Sound Design: All right, let's get started with sound design. So what I want to talk about first is kind of how I like to approach sound design. Um, I'm not a big fan of Matt. However. There is a lot of math and sound design, or there can be We should say there can be a lot of math and sound design, but what I like to do is understand the primary principles of sound design and then experiment in play. So we need to know some of the basic things that are happening. We need to know what happens when I turn and telephone up if you see it now. But says LFO on it, what does that do? We need to know the basics of what that does, but we might find that cranking it up to extreme levels does something really fun or applying it in a different way. Does something really fun that we didn't expect. So I always look forward, Teoh those extreme situations that we didn't expect, and I'm sure we'll play around with many of those throughout this class. So what I like to do is understand the basic principles that are happening and then give us time to play an experiment and create with those There's no right or wrong way to do this. Yes, there's a right way. If you want to create a big, wobbly Web Web sound, there is a way to do that. But you might find that just by experimenting with it you you create something different and much more interesting to you. So that's the way that we're gonna do this course. We're gonna learn the principles and then we're gonna play around with it, and we're gonna have some fun while we do it. We're going to keep the math to a minimum. Although this first kind of big section that we're heading into is on the basic physics of sound, although it's not gonna be very math heavy. So don't worry. Um, there's just a couple things we need to make sure our under our belt, and we really understand how those work. So that's how we're gonna go forward in this class. Keep that in mind as you're learning everything, um, throughout these lessons, that that's my frame of mind when I'm approaching it. Okay, let's move on and talk about tools that we're gonna use in this class 3. Tools You Will Need: Okay, let's talk about tools that you're gonna need. Now, in order to do sound design, we need some things we could use. Physical hardware. We could use software. Um, we could use, you know, analog synthesizers. But what I want to do is try to make this class as universal as possible. So it shouldn't matter what tools you're using, whether you're using analog modular synthesis or you're using, uh, plug in, You know, some plug in that you got it shouldn't matter, because what we're gonna do is we're gonna learn what happens when we, um, apply a filter to a square wave. That's universal. It doesn't matter what software you're using. A square wave with the filter on. It is going to do a certain thing in all software and in all synthesis software, you're going to be able to find a square wave and a filter. If they're in there, you might have to search around to find what it's where it is because it's laid out a little different, but it's always gonna be there. These are universal things that all instruments have. Now, when we get into some of the more advanced stuff, there might be things that some synthesizers have that others don't. So I will tell you that I am primarily going to use able to live for this class. I think I'll jump over to logic for a couple things, but those are going to be my main tools. I might move over into serum a little bit, too, just because that's really popular right now, and I think a lot of people want to check that out. That's a plug in. So those are the tools I'm gonna need use. But you don't need to have those tools if you'll are a pro tools user. If you are NFL studio user, you're gonna be just fine in this class because these principles are universal. You're gonna have to find that LFO knob when I say turn the LFO knob, but it should be pretty obvious, and it's in there somewhere. It's all the same. Even if you're working on a hardware unit, I point over here. This is where my hardware synthesizers are on. I'll pull those out eventually. Even if you're working on hardware synthesizers, it's still the same, Uh, for the most part, you know, if I say turned that l A phone up, We can find it in the software or we confined it. Ah, on a physical nut if we're working with, uh, physical synthesizers. So long story short, it doesn't really matter what software or hardware that you're using as long as you've got something to use something professional. I wouldn't recommend garage band That doesn't really have the kind of synthesis that we need. We need, like, a professional kind of tool. So any pro level, um, audio software? Certainly anything that could take a plug in those will all work just fine. Cool. I'm going to use able to live, but you don't have to. 4. Physics Of Sound: Okay, So like I mentioned, Ah, minute ago. First thing we're gonna do here is go into the physics of sound. So why do we care about this? Um, all sound design is really based in wave forms, partials, overtones, and all of that means how sound is constructed. Okay, So we really need to understand what those things are that I just said. If those words that I just said didn't make any sense to you Ah, partials, overtones, harmonic. Siri's things like that. That's great, because we're going to cover that right now. I don't expect you to know those words if you do know those words. And you know how this stuff works. Uh, you could skip over if you want, but I would encourage you to to stick with me on it. I might say something that ah is unfamiliar to you. Um, so just hear me out. Uh, so we're not gonna get into the real math, heavy stuff of how this works as much as possible, but we have to understand this stuff if we're going to start shaping sounds to do what we want to do. Because remember, all sound design is about crafting these wave forms to make them sound exactly how we want them to sound. Quote. So that being said, Let's dive in, do a little bit of physics on sound to get it started and then we move on to make its noise . 5. What Is Timbre?: Okay, so the first thing we need to do is talk about this word Tambor. Okay, so this is spelled T i m b r e, but it is pronounced timber, not timber. Camber means color that quite literally, it translates as color. But what it really means is the thing that makes two sounds sound different. For example, here I have two different sounds. So here, let's just hear this one. Okay, Now, let's hear this one. Same note. Okay. Same note, same volume, same pitch, same everything. But these are two different sounds, right? What is it that makes them sound different, right? It's not the pitch. It's not the volume. It's the Tambor. The Tambor is what's different between the two of these. The characteristics of the sound are just different. What causes to sounds to sound different? It's a matter of these other waves that are not the note that I'm playing. For example, here, I'm playing middle C on both of these two different scents. Okay, let's take a look at what's actually happening here. So I'm going to add in, um, spectrum so I can see the spectra of what's happening here. Okay, so Let's go to this one. So low it okay the Tambor's created by all of this stuff up here. This is almost like a key, right? Like like a key in terms of like a key that unlocks the door. There's a very specific pattern here that's giving us that sound, that bussiness, that particular sound. That's all this stuff up here. This is called the Fundamental. This is the note we're actually playing. It's usually the lowest note. Not always, usually. And then all of these things that happened up here are called harmonics, overtones, partials, various things. We'll go over those terms in just a minute. Okay? So let me do this. I'm just going to take a quick little screenshot of this. Okay, Now let's do the same thing on this one. Let's turn that off. Let's look at this one, okay? You see a similar thing here. You see a fundamental with a bunch of stuff above it, right? But there's a big difference here. Let's take a screenshot of that one. The reason I'm taking these screenshots so that I can put him side by side. Okay, so there's one. Then there's the other one. Okay, so let's look at these. These air different, right? You see how this one has Alternating high, low, high, low, high, low Here. This one doesn't have it. If we really zoomed in here, we will be able to see there's a There's a different amount of space in between each one of these. Actually, you can see it pretty clearly. The pattern of how it starts is a little different and how it ends. Look at this weird little gap here. This all has to do with what makes the sound, uh, timber. What makes it sound the way it sounds. And this is what sound design is all about, right? It's not about crafting the fundamental. The fundamental down here is just what note we play. That's music composition That's not sounded. That sound design is how to get all of this stuff to do what you want in order to make a very specific kind of sound. Okay. And this is true not just in synthesis, but in any audio file. You have all of this extra stuff up here, right? And they make different patterns. And those patterns are what make the sound sound different. cool so that, collectively, is the Tambor of the sound. The Tambor is the result of all of this, and it gives us the quality of the sound. Now let's go a little bit deeper and let's talk about harmonics and overtones. And for that, let's go to a new video. 6. Harmonics And Partials: Okay, so let's talk a little bit more about harmonics and partials there if we really want to get in the weeds. There is a difference between these two terms. However, most people use them synonymous Lee to mean the same thing. So when we talk about harmonics and partials, we're talking about all of these bumps up here above the fundamental. Okay, that's the fundamental than that we played. These are all harmonics above it, or partials about it. Technically speaking, they are all partials above it. But only some of them are harmonics. It depends on the harmonica is kind of like specific ones, um, at specific frequencies. But, um, I don't want to get bogged down in that, Uh, that's a term that a lot of people aren't even using anymore. The distinction between those two things in common ways of talking. So let's not worry about that too much. Let's use those two words to mean the same thing. Harmonics and partials are all of these things above the fundamental Another is such a thing as a sub harmonic. That would be if we get any of these little notches below the fundamental okay, and we can't do that. There are ways that we might do that. Um, we'll talk about that later, but those would be called sub harmonics. Sub harmonics. Any harmonics under the fundamental harmonics. Anything above partials? Anything about? 7. Overtones: Now there's 1/3 word that we use, sometimes to to talk about harmonics and partials and let his overtone so overtone is slightly different. Um, although a lot of the times you hear people using it Ah, the same as they use harmonics and partials. But overtone does kind of mean something a little bit different. Overtone is a little bit more of a musical term than a kind of sound design kind of math kind of term, Um, and it has to do with a specific sequence of notes that just to make things even more confusing, we call the harmonic Siri's or the overtone series. So when we talk about these things in terms of a Siri's, we're talking about this specific pattern of notes. Now, if you don't know how to read, music doesn't matter. Um, the important thing here is that the overtones Siri's is really a pre described pattern of notes that goes up much higher than this. It starts just going up and up and up and up and up. This is like how a brass player plays their instrument. So if I say um oh, it's a good example. Well, a good example, would be like a bugle. Okay, like imagining Bugle Bugle is like a trumpet, but with no valves right, there's no things. The only way to play different notes is to, uh, move your lips in just the right ways. So what they dio is, they say, here's a fundamental and then they know the overtone Siri's so they know if they do something with their lips, they can play the second note second note in the overtone series. Or, if they do something a weirder with her lips, they can play the fourth note or the fifth note of the overtone series. So they moved between notes by changing their lips in order to move between this Siri's because that's how they get the notes. Now that doesn't really matter for us. I just want to describe the overtone, Siri's and how it works. This is really kind of built into all notes. So when we play a note as a fundamental here, a lot of the times, what comes out is something similar, and we get this pattern an octave of 5th 4th a major third, a minor third, another minor third. But it's a little attitude another major third. And it's a little attitude are sorry, a major second, and it's a little lot of tune major, another major second. And then it goes up dramatically from there. So keep in mind moral of the story When we talk about overtone Siri's, we're talking about this pattern of notes we won't deal. I don't think too much with the overtone series here in this class, but I wanted you to know about it because it does get used, Um, with harmonics, partials and overtones. Those terms get used to being roughly the same thing when they're kind of a little bit different. Okay, we've got. 8. Waveforms: okay, Before we get too far along, I want to talk about wave forms for just a minute. If you've been working with audio already, which you probably have, you've worked with wave forms. What's the difference between this thing we have here that we just looked at and a wave form which is what we're looking at under neath I point this out because I want you to, uh, be sure you know the difference and not be confused by the two. Okay, there is a very distinct difference here. You can kind of tell they look different. Um, in the patterns that are happening there is there is a lot of different. The main thing that's different between this which is a spectra graham. And this, which is a way for him, is the the graph that it's drawn on. Okay, so what we're looking at here in the spectra Graham, we're looking at volume this way and frequency this way. Okay, so that means this frequency right here is loud because it's sort of the top. We go over here. This frequency is loud. This frequency is quieter and it goes from low to high. Okay, so lower left is going to be a low frequency sound. That's very quiet. Upper right Is gonna be a high frequency sound. That's very loud. Okay, So low to high This way. Left to right and quiet. Toe loud. This way. The difference here is in a way form. What we have is volume this way and time. This way. Okay, so we don't have frequency in a way for an away form, you can't see frequency. Okay? And in a sonogram, you are a spectra. Graham, you can't see time, right? Ah, this is showing us one instance one millisecond of sound actually smaller than that of sound. Uh, this is showing us, you know, roughly 2.5, I think seconds of sound across. Okay, So just note the difference between a spectra Graham and a wave form, okay? And know when you're looking at one or the other. Main difference again is that in the spectra, Graeme, there's no time represented. And in a way, for him, there's no pitch represented primarily when we're doing sound design. We need to see the pitch because we need to see our overtones, right? We don't see overtones down here. Even this stuff. These are not overtones. These are This is a low wave form. So this is just volume going over cool. 9. The Sound Generator In Synthesis: Okay. So for the next couple, big sections were gonna be focusing on the essential tools that we're gonna need when I'm talking about tools I'm not talking about, um, a Bolton or F L O R. Um, Hardware modular. Said this. Is there anything we're talking about? Um, the general idea of these few things that we need that drive all synthesis. Those things are oscillators, filters and things like that. You will find these things in any kind of synthesis. Okay, so we're talking big picture. Um, as soon as we learned how to find the oscillator, then we'll know how to make music With any synthesizer you're using, there's going to be some kind of oscillator in it. There has to be. So, um, let's get into it. Um, now, for this 1st 1 we're gonna talk about sound generators. And so when I was just talking about oscillators, that's what I'm talking about. An oscillator is a type of sound generator. There are a few different types of sound, generally generators. So when I just said, there's oscillator in everything, that's not exactly true. There's a sound generator in everything, and most types of synthesis have oscillators. We'll talk more about that in a second. Now, One thing I like to use throughout this class when I'm talking about synthesis is this little guy. This is Ah, Corrigan. Mono tribe. This is an analog synthesizer. It's got a little It's kind of those speaker built in. It's tons of fun, that parties. Um, I really enjoy it. So what I'm gonna show you here is, uh, this first thing we're gonna talk about is the oscillator, and that's right up here. So Ah, if I just play a note way go, I can control the active. I can control the type of oscillator it is with this switch, and I have a couple other parameters that I could do here. Now this says V c o. It stands for voltage controlled oscillator. We'll talk more about that in a second. But whenever we're looking at a synthesizer, um, in most kinds of synthesis, there's an oscillator somewhere. Here's another one on my screen here. If we go over to right here, this is our oscillator section. There's a second oscillator down here which is currently turned off to see where it says osk one. That's an oscillator. It gives us the shape which will talk more about in a second and then a little bit a couple different ways. We can tune it active semi tone and then weaken de tune it a little bit. Okay, so sound generators in synthesis there has to be a sound generator to get things started. Most of the time, it's an oscillator, so let's dive in on. Let's go through how oscillators work on the different kinds of them. 10. Oscillators: Okay, So the oscillator is the sound making thing in a synthesizer. So every synthesizer you look at, it's gonna have an oscillator in it somewhere unless it's a different kind of synthesis, which will talk more about in just a minute. So the parameters that we get with an oscillator are typically the shape of the oscillator , and that is the the shape that it's creating will come back to that just one second and then some tuning parameters. So what octave it's in. And, uh, if we want to de tune it in any way with semi tone de tuning or, uh and he got him d tuning by sense, so semi tone would be like one step on the keyboard. Like one note on the keyboard, I should say and and sent D tuning would be, um, by individual sense in between the notes. So this is just like literally pulling it out of tune. This is adjusting it by a step hair, a semi tone or by whole active. So if I e play, change the way lower, so if I want a basic way low, okay, so the shape let's talk about the shape so what an oscillator does is it oscillates, right? It goes back and forth, back and forth, back and forth over and over and over and over the speed at which it oscillates gets translated into a pitch. So the faster it oscillates, the higher the pitch, the slower it oscillates, the lower the pitch, and the pattern that it oscillates in is what determines the overtone frequencies here. Okay, so let's look at a little bit easier. Way to see this is with the program called Audacity. Okay, so I'm gonna use this program called Audacity. This is a really simple program. It's totally free. Um, and it lets us generate tones. Actually, audacity does a lot of really great things. Uh, so I'm gonna generate a tone, I'm gonna say a sine wave. So this is an oscillator. OK, so we're going to make a sine wave. That's the pattern that this oscillator is going to do frequency. And that's the speed of the oscillator. Amplitude is the volume and duration. For how long do I want this to go? 30 seconds. Sure. Okay, So here's what I just made a brilliant right now, the reason I like to use audacity is because it lets me zoom way in. So let's zoom in farther and farther and farther, and there we go. Okay, so here is our sine wave. It's going up and down and up and down. That's the oscillation part. That's the oscillation of an oscillator, right? It's going up, down, up, down, up, down, up, down. So now it's doing it at a speed that generates this pitch that we're getting right. So it's doing it very, very, very fast. And that's what generates this. When I was in grad school, I found in, ah, cabinet somewhere these these old oscillators from way, way, way back in the day. And there were these big things. They were like the size of a refrigerator. And that's, you know, in early early days of computing, they had these giant things and they were oscillators and you could dial them in. They had his these huge knobs on them. Ah, that you could dial in Teoh, you know, ramp them up to get to the pitch that you wanted. But that's what it used to take to make these. Now we can make them digitally or we could make them analog with one of these. This has a circuit in it that isn't us later and just oscillates back and forth. And that's what generates pitch. Now, when we get deeper into this, what we're gonna do is we're gonna start crafting these sounds. But for starters, let's go back to live here and let's look at this shape thing, right? So what I just made was a sine wave that looks like this one. But that shape is very important to an oscillator because that generates the overtone Siri's that gets us started on making the sound that we want. So let's investigate oscillators a little bit more by looking at the different wave forms, the most common wave forms that an oscillator makes. Um 01 other thing I didn't explain yet. When we look at oscillators, we often see the letters V c o. Next to the oscillator. That's what we have on this one. V C. O v. C O stands for voltage controlled oscillator. And in our case, what voltage controlled means is that we're going Teoh, speed it up and slow it down, effectively raising the pitch or lowering the pitch by giving it different amounts of voltage. That's how these have always been used. It's not anything you need to worry about unless you're doing, uh, modular synthesis, where you're moving chords in and out of something. Then you're gonna actually care about the voltage you're sending this stuff. But if you're working completely digitally, you don't really need to worry about the voltage. Um, aspect of oscillators Very much you can if you want, but that aspect of it is already kind of handled for us in the digital world. But when you see V. C o, that means voltage controlled oscillator, we're pretty much talking about the oscillators in our city. Okay, let's go on and talk about these weight forms. 11. Waveforms - Sine Waves: Okay, let's start with a sine wave, which is what we made here. Okay, so the sine wave is the smoothest of all of them. It sounds the smoothest, uh, and why does it sound smoothest? Because it makes the least amount of overtones, right? This is a very smooth sound if we go over able 10 and just make a sine wave So I'm gonna turn everything off here, have to leave the amplifier on, but let's go zero make a sine wave No filter. Now I have just a sine wave going. It's very quiet. So let's take a quick little look at what a sine wave actually is. You might remember the sign symbol s i n from, you know, uh, your high school algebra class, Uh, and you know that a sign is basically a circle. So how does the how does a circle get turned into this thing? Here is a little complicated, but it's kind of fun to explain if we look at a circle and we try to apply a timeline to a circle, what we do is we have to move around it this way. So we call this spot one. We called this line zero and we call this spot negative. One to go 10 Negative 10 would be the path around it, and that's the same thing that's happening here. We have one appear 10 negative, 10 So that makes one cycle of the way for Actually, we have to go all the way back to one again now. Typically, we would measure that from zero. So let's say 010 negative 10 That's the more common way that we would do it. So that's one cycle. Okay, so whenever we're talking about wave forms were thinking about cycles. How many cycles per second means the pitch right? The more cycles per second means the faster it's going, uh, the less cycles per second, the slower it's going. And that makes a lower pitch. Okay, so if we look at the frequency of just a sine wave, what we would see in the spectrum of just a sine wave is, ah, fundamental and not much else after it. Ah, couple little things just because mathematically, this isn't a perfect sine wave, but really not much. There's nothing in there that's gonna add a lot of weird color or anything like that. We'll see in some of the other way forms that we get a lot of overtones in the other wave forms. And that's what adds a certain amount of fuzziness and color to the tambor of the sound all words that you know. No. So let's take a look at those other ones. 12. Square Waves: Okay, let's stick with audacity for just a minute and look at the other way forms. So I think what I'm gonna do is I want to be able to compare these way forms in a minute. So I'm gonna go to start with a new file, you go to generate tone. Let's do a sine wave at 4 40 0.8 amplitude, and let's do five seconds of it. Okay, so now we have five seconds of that. I'm gonna go to the end. We know what that sounds like. Okay, so now I'm going to go to the end of it. Now, let's generate tone. And this time, let's do a square wave. Okay? So this is a different way for what we're gonna do. The same pitch, same amplitude, same duration. Okay, now we have a square wave here. Okay, So here's our sunlight. Right. Nice and clean. Nice and pure. Here's our square with a right mess. Really brittle sound that zoom way in on that. We can see why we call it a square wave. There it is. Let's go out. One more. You see? A little bit better. Okay, so we call us a square wave because we basically have squares were going up and down and up and up and up. And that's the oscillation pattern is the square. Now why does this one sounds so harsh While the other one sounds so smooth, right. If we go back to our sine wave, this one sounds so smooth and square wave sound super harsh. The reason is that to square wave pattern generates just a lot more overtones. If we look at this in a spectrograph, we're going to see a lot of overtones happening. And we will look at it just a minute, trust me. So, in general, generally speaking, the more kind of sharp angles you have an away form, the buzz easier it's gonna be on the buzz. Easier it is is because it has more overtones that are generated. Okay, so whenever you have the sharp angles and makes buzzing, this square waves are about as buzzy as we can get. So let's zoom back out. That's one more time here. The difference. I'm gonna play. I'll play the full five seconds of sine wave and in five seconds a square wave we owe you hear all those overtones come in. Okay, so that's a square wave. It's really it sounds buzzy and abrasive, but actually really, really useful to us and synthesis. We'll get into how we use it later, but I just want to introduce these way forms now. Okay, let's go out and talk about the next one Triangle waves. 13. Triangle Waves: Okay. Next way for we're gonna look at it. The triangle weight now audacity only lets us generate a few different kinds of wave forms And try and go is now. What about right? Sawtooth and square? No alias. So we can't generate a triangle wave here, but I still want us to look at it. So what I'm gonna do is it's gonna important audiophile of this triangle wave. That's move it to where I wanted to be. Yeah. Okay. So I need Teoh make the volume of this the same. Okay, so here's our triangle E o. So we zoom way in. We can see why it's called the triangle Wave, right? Pretty self explanatory. It's a triangle. Now you see this little David here? That's odd. I don't remember. I just downloaded this from audio file. So I don't know how this triangle way was created, but it's an in perfect triangle way. And you see that in a lot of weight forms. We're looking at such small amounts of time here, like milliseconds is what we're looking at here. So it's not abnormal. Tau have imperfections. We saw in the square wave too, right? You go back to our square wave. We see that these lines should be straight up and down, but they're not. It's just an imperfection of the math that it takes to generate these. It's not very audible in any real sense, So let's compare the two. Let's compare a square wave and the Triangle ways Theo from something. That pitch is different, so these are both supposedly the same pitch. When I download this file, it said it was at 4 40 which is what we created. These that, but probably in the compression and things of uploading and downloading files, This one a little sharp, but that's OK, so it's a slightly different pitch. But listen to the overtones. That's what we really care about Super buzzy here. Less buzzy here, Theo. Right? So the triangle wave is less abrasive than square wave, but more abrasive still than a sign way compared to assign with sine wave. Here's your triangle, right? A little bit fuzzier but smoother, less of those right angles and straight lines in the way form. It doesn't have a lot of straight lines, but they're similar to the straight lines of a sine wave. If we took a signing away from basically made it with straight lines. It would look like a triangle. So somewhere in between, Okay, next, let's look at a Sawtooth wave. 14. Sawtooth Waves: All right. So if we go to generate, we can generate sawtooth wave. So what? People are setting the same. We'll go to salt. Okay. No, Sawtooth. Looks like the kind of teeth on the blade of a saw, which is why it's named that way. We was your way in. There it is. That's assault, right? So it goes. So we have a straight line here and then a diagonal line, Another straight line. We don't have any of those right angles that square wave has. But we do have sharp edges, right? And that's gonna create some bussiness. So let's hear it, Theo. Quite buzzy. More or less buzzy than square way, way different kind of buzzy, right? The overtones are different there. So here's square things were very different sounds. It's the same pitch, same amplitude, everything. So this just kind of shows you how the wave form effects that Tambor, right? So what we've been talking about so far, Um, let's compare all four, noting that this one's a little bit attitude from the rest, which is a little maddening, but kind of fun. So very different sounds in each one. Okay, let's actually take a moment and look at these in a spectrograph 15. Waveshapes Under Spectrogram: Okay, So what I've done here is I took that file in audacity that had all the different wave forms in it, exported it as one on your file. So we've got the three way forms just as an audio file, and that's here. And then I put a spectrograph on it, so we'll hear each one. And also, I took a moment to tune this triangle wave. So it is accurate mail. Okay, so let's take a look. Look at what these look like under the spectrograph. So here's r sine wave. OK, notice. Here we have being huge, fundamental. Just the other side, actually, being huge, fundamental than a tiny bit of other things happening back over here, right? So if this was a perfect sign, way we wouldn't have anything up here, but just the way that audacity created it. There is a little bit of artifacts up here, but these are really too low for us to hear. And for it to effect our, uh, the tambor of r sine wave. Let's go forward to square way, Theo. Here, notice. Here we have a big fundamental and then other big partials sticking out in kind of a pattern, right? It gets, you know, there's a big win here and it gets about half about half, about half, about half about half. We will see later that there is a science to these. It's every other partial eyes. What starts to stick out? We'll talk more about that later, but basically you can see that there's this big Siris of partials sticking out. And that's what makes that fuzzy Theo. Okay, let's go on to our tuned trying. So what we see here, we see a big partial. We are a big fundamental way. See, other big partials is well closer together, especially as we get up here, and they're actually louder as compared to the fundamental thing. They weren't square way, but a different pattern. Different pattern generates different tamper and last, it's good or sawtooth. Think fundamental. So different pattern of partials makes for different temperatures 16. Noise Generators: There's another kind of oscillator that I haven't talked about yet. So let's go back to audacity and make one this one doesn't generate. Oh, we have formed in the way that we think of so far with a sine wave a triangle wave, it essentially generates a random way. We're just gonna go all over the place all the time and we call that noise. So if I say generate noise, there's a couple of different parameters that we can say about how it does this. So let's just say avail are named after colors. We'll talk about colors of noise later. White noise. Let's dio five seconds, not 30.5 five seconds. Okay, so here is nice right now. If we zoom way in on that and look at it, what it iss is really random oscillation, right? It's going all over the place. So it's going up. Down, up, down. Crazy melts. That's what makes noise. It's random. So why would we care about noise? Why would noise be announced later? That we need to think about isn't the goal of a lot of this to get rid of noise? No, actually, for sound design, we like noise. Noise is hugely useful to us. Think about um, let's say you wanted to make drum sounds. If you're making drum sounds, you care a lot about noise. Annoys oscillator because imagine your crash, your craft symbols, right? That's a little higher pitch the next. That's a lot of noise that's in that right. There's some other things in there, too. But there's a lot of noise and that. Constable, think about your snare hit. That's a big old amount of noise. In fact, we could simulate a snare hit much this. Let's just do it really fast. Just in case you think of lying getting my noise here. Okay, let's just do this. There is I'm just going to separate this out. And if we shaped the sound a little bit still just noise there, right? We've got the beginnings of a stair drug, right? So that's just noise shaped. So the next thing we really need to learn how to do is shape these things. Let me do that. Using filters and envelopes, which will talk more about in the next section, I want to talk one more thing about oscillators before I move on and that's the different types of sound generators for the different types of synthesis. So let's go on and do that, then we'll get into filters. 17. Other Sound Generators: okay, Before we go any further, let's talk a little bit about the different types of synthesis. So, um, so right off the bat we have the most popular types that will start off with that. Is these three Sub attractive is what I'm looking to spell there. It's attractive, so attractive synthesis, FM synthesis and additives offices, all three of these. The oscillator. The sound generator is, and also so those oscillators we just looked at. That's the thing that generates sounds in these three types of citizens. Okay, well, look at all of these Texas emphasis throughout this class. Another type of synthesis is simply so. In that case, there's not an also eager there's a sample is the sound generating thing is a sample, but it's still a type of synthesis, so we'll get more into that later. Another type of synthesis, it's called physical modelling. This is probably my favorite, um, and the newest generator, in this case, physical modelling super fun. But it's pretty math. Heavy will spend a good amount of time near the end on that one. Another kind of synthesis is wave table synthesis, and in that kind of emphasised, the also the sound making thing is re sin. His re synthesized samples doesn't know that word C. S Y and fist sized samples. So in wave table, what we do is we start with a sample and then we use it to generate weight forms. Uh, it's rather complicated, but door look into it in the last thing, the last type. I just want to point out granular synthesis and this is the sound making element. And this type of synthesis is samples chopped up into grains, which is lead anybody, many samples. So the reason I'm pointing all of us out now is that every type of synthesis has a sound generating component, right? That's the take away that I want you to remember in the majority of synthesis that we're gonna be working with the sound generating component is the oscillator OK? That's the main thing. So that's what we've been looking at so far with different types of oscillators. In these other types of synthesis, the sound generating element is a little bit different. It's either a sample or its algorithm or it's other kind things done with samples, and we'll look at all of this stuff in this class, but we're going to start with these types of synthesis in particular. Subtracted. Um, this is the most common thing for you to come across when you're learning synthesis. Okay, so that said, Let's move on and let's start talking about the filter. 18. Subtractive Synthesis: Okay, so the next main tool that we need to talk about is the filter. Now, in order to do this, I really want to. Let's let's talk a little bit about the type of synthesis that we're going to start off with First, we've already mentioned the different types of synthesis, but we're going to focus first on subtract IBS, and this is now. Here's what that means. That means we're going to start with a complex sound. So one of those wave forms that's got a lot of buzzing this to it. In other words, it's got a lot of overtones. It's got a lot of partials, things like that. And then we're going to chip away at that sound to make the sound that we want. Right? So the filter is the thing that we usedto actually chip away That sound. We filter out certain frequencies, so think of it like ah strainer, right you've got you know, you're boiling your rice. You've got ah, pot with water and cooked rice in it. Maybe you didn't do it. Well, that's about example. Let's say you still got water in your pod after you make your rice so maybe you dump it into a strainer that separates the water, goes through it because that's allowed to go through and the rice stays in the bowl. That's kind of like a filter. We're gonna let some frequencies go through and really gonna stop some frequencies from going through. Weird analogy, but I think it kind of works. You get the point filter is gonna fill throughout some frequencies, right? So it's attractive synthesis we typically don't use as often things like sine waves because they don't have a very rich wave form. You know, we want to start with something that's very rich and then apply filters to it to thin it out. Noise, however, is very good force. Attractive synthesis. Okay, so with that said, um, let's go into looking at how filters work, the different kinds of filters and how to apply filter. And then we'll come back to subtracted synthesis later. But I want you to have this idea of subtracted synthesis in your mind while we're looking at filters. Filters are used in all different kinds of synthesis, so they're not just for some proactive synthesis. They are hugely important tool for all synthesis. But keep them in mind as we move forward with subtracted synthesis. Okay. All right. So let's talk about how filter works. 19. Filter And EQ: Okay, so I have your some noise that have generated an audacity like we saw before. Cool. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to render that as a way file, and I'm just gonna pull that into able to hear so that I can look at the filter, an infinite amount of noise, because we're just gonna loop a little bit of it. Okay, so let's apply a filter to it. So I'm gonna go to my audio effects, and what I'm looking for here is actually an e que. Now, what's the difference? Creating E Q and a filter and e que typically is a number of filters. K and e que is a group of filters. Um, if we look at this e Q three and whatever software you're using, you have some kind of e que I promise you. So you may have seen any Q like this on like your stereo. Maybe your car has won your car stereo has one. Basically, what we have here is what's called a three band EQ. You. So we have a dial for lows, a dial for mids and a dial for highs. Okay, I'm going to use noise because it's really easy to hear what we're doing. Okay, so if I say let's turn off, it's this way. Let's turn off the mids And the highs were only getting lows. That's what we hear. Okay, just the lows. Let's turn up the mids. Turn down the lows. Now we have nothing but mids. Okay, turn down the mids now. We have nothing at all. Right at the highs. Okay. Made. So when all of these are up the same amount, we hear everything. When they're all down, we hear nothing. Essentially, what we're doing here is chopping all of the frequency spectrum from the lowest stuff to the highest stuff into three big buckets, right? And then we're just kind of turning them up or down. Now, this is a very kind of crude way to, uh, filter something right, because this e que Which, uh, let me just reiterate this here. Each one of these is a filter. OK? Together they make Aneke, you and e que as a group of filters. Each of these is dividing the entire frequency spectrum into 1/3 right. But when we're working with sound design and we're really trying to craft a sound. We need something a little more precise. So that isn't gonna quite work for us. So I'm going to use a filter that looks more like this. Okay, this gives me a lot of control. Now, technically, what this is is similar to what we just had, but it's an eight band eq you because I have eight different points on it, right? The bigger difference here is that I can really adjust where each one of these points are in fact get this much bigger and really get down into it. Right? So I could say Here's one K I want to pull out sounds at one K, and I can make that really narrow if I want. Let's I want to really focus in on one K boom could pull out Sounds that at one k, I put him all the way out. Right, So here I've got a scalpel right before with the E Q. Three. I had a butter knife, you know, something really flimsy to do a job, but with an EQ you like this. I can really get specific, right, and I could make all kinds of different filters do things. Okay, so and that's how filters work. Um, now what we're seeing here, let me just make sure we're on the same page here. What we're seeing here is frequency going this way across the bottom. So these air low frequencies, these air high frequencies, okay. And then volume going up and down, Sort of. Okay, so if you look here, you see, this is zero. This is six, and this is negative six. And this is 12. Mrs. Negative 12. So what we have here is when the blue line here, which is my actual filter, I was right on zero. That means we're doing nothing. Okay. Zero means we're not affecting that sound at all. So if I move everything back to zero, we're not doing anything. Okay? If we're above zero were boosting those frequencies. Okay, so here's 100 hertz. That's very low, but 100 hertz, I'm boosting 100 hertz and a lot of this stuff around it. Okay, here, I'm under zero. So I'm pulling away 100 hertz. Okay. Very important to realize that right in the center. And no matter what software you're using, they all work this way. right in the center is not affecting. The frequency means we're boosting that frequency down. Means were taking that frequency away the majority of the time in sound design, especially in subtracted synthesis. We're gonna be pulling sounds away. We're not going to do very much boosting. And in fact, it's generally something you want to avoid in all kinds of EQ. Ewing is boosting sounds with an e que. We tend to want to avoid that. So even this it's when you boost sounds with an e que you run the risk of distorting the sound very quickly. Okay, so with that, I'm going to scale this back. I'm gonna turn all the bands off except for one, and I want to focus on a single filter. OK, I just have one filter going here, and in this configuration it is doing nothing right. Everything is just passing through. I'm not boosting anything and cutting anything away, But what I want to look at in the next couple videos is this symbol. Here are these symbols, I should say, because they did not different kinds of filters. And then we'll also talk about the gain setting, uh, election. Actually, let's do the gain setting in the next video 20. Gain And Q: Okay, Next thing I talk about is gain and Q thes air. Weird settings that happened with the filter that are gonna be important to understand. So here I just have one filter. And when we talk about gain, what we're really talking about is this function called decibels per active. Okay, so it sounds confusing, and it is a little bit so I want to spend a little extra time on it. So the gain is really just what we're doing to those frequencies right here. We're pearl pulling them down, and oops, here. We're pushing them up, right? Nothing funny there. However, if we look down here at my game, this just gives me a number. Negative. 10.6 is what I'm at now. What does that actually mean? What is negative 10.6 means you might have a filter that says something like 12 db or uh 60 b. That's a common one that we find, Um, this one is just a dial. But your if your says 12 db or six TV, it's the same as if I If I just dial this in at 12 or six. What it means what this number means is decibels. Proactive. So let me, Let me just set it to 3.1. Okay, So what that means is this slope Okay, the angle here. So each one of these vertical lines is an octave. Okay, So how much down is it going in the span of each octave? In this case, three decibels per active. It's reducing it every active. It's going down by three decibels. So decibels its volume. So it's getting quieter slowly. If I increase that number now, it's 9.7 decibels. Proactive. That means a steeper slope. Okay, If I go all the way to negative 12 or negative 15 we have this steepest slope that it will give us. Right? That means from here to here, we're going down 12 decibels. Right? Because this is from here to here is one octave and we're going down 12 in that space. There's AR 15 in that space. Okay, let me look at let me show you how this looks in a synthesizer. Okay, here I have an analog synthesizer, and here's my filter. Now, don't worry. We're going to go over all of the settings here shortly, but I just want to point out this filter. So here's our filter. And it says L p 24 or we have LP 12 or some other options. We're gonna go over these other options. What? That L p stands for low pass. But we're gonna go over that in just a second. The actual next video. But we have 12 decibels proactive and 24 decibels. Proactive. Are our choices here? Okay, so we don't have a fancy looking graphic like we do here to tell us what that means. But now we know, right? 12 decibels. Proactive. It's gonna be about like that. Okay, 24 decibels. Proactive is going to be this one maxes out at 15 so it won't let me go to 24 but it's going to be almost a straight line, right? It's gonna be very fast going down. So, um, just remember, it's the slope of this that we're talking about when we're talking about that game right now. Another thing I want to talk about. Well, we're here. Is this weird que thing? Okay, let me normally put my gains somewhere normal here. Okay? You switch my filter to be this just because it's a little easier to explain. We'll talk about this shape of a filter in a minute, but what the Q does Jew doesn't stand for anything. As far as I know, I've tried looking that up, and I think it's really just like a variable in an algorithm. So it's not standing for anything or perhaps quality. Um, I think I read that somewhere. But what it really is is the width of the filter case. You see all filters, give us a point, and then, you know, it starts filtering from about here, kind of ramps up to that point and then ramps down the queue is gonna be the width of that filter. If I turned the Q down, it's going to be very, very wide. If I turn it up, it's gonna be very focused. Okay? So if I want to get out, if I want to focus right on one K, do something like that with a very narrow Q, so doesn't affect anything else around it, or as little as possible. If I want to. Generally take out, you know, frequencies around one K. I might broaden that a little bit so that we filter out things around one K a little bit. So that's what the Q does you think of it is the width, the width of the filter. 21. Low Pass: Okay, Next, let's talk about the different filter shapes. And we saw these here, here in the scent when we looked at this pull down. We have low pass band pass notch high passed, something called for mint. So let's look at what each of these are will leave off for meant for now, because that's ah, little specialized. But I want to talk about the main ones that you can you will encounter in just about everything. And that's low pass, high pass, band, pass and notch. Okay, so let's just make one here on our filter so we can hear it. So let's start with low pass. Uh, probably one of the most common filters. Okay, so if I go down here, I have these different symbols. Low pass. Is this one? Okay, so this is a low pass filter. What this means is that it goes infinitely down and it lets low frequencies passed through , okay? And it cuts off high frequencies so called a low pass because it means low things passed through it. Um, even if it's all the way up here and primarily, what we're doing is filtering out high stuff. We still call this a low pass filter this shape where it's cutting off everything above a certain frequency, is called a low pass filter. Okay, now we have two options for a low pass filter. Here we have this one that I have selected, and this one Look. This one has a much steeper reduction per active right, so this is still a low pass filter. But this gives us a lot thicker, and you'll a lot steeper cut off. And you'll notice that when I selected this, my gain no turned off because it's not gonna let me select the speed and or not speed the gain amount. Because in this particular filter, it's the steepest it allows. So this is called a low pass filter. Okay, let's look at another one. 22. High Pass : Well, we should probably hear this. Right. Sorry. So here's a low pass filter still, and let's hear it with noise waken see what's happening here, right? We're cutting off all the high stuff. I can pull this more closed that we're only hearing low stuff, right? And you've actually heard this kind of effect a lot, right? We use a low pass for a lot of, like filter sweeps and things like that. If I put in Ah, a drum loop here. Okay, let me just throw in a random drum loop. Okay, so here's a drum loop. I'm gonna put that filter on it. Solo it. Okay, So here's our drum loop. And let's say we wanted Teoh a big filter sweep, right? This is a sound you've heard before. Okay, Now, let's do the same thing with the high pass and see what happens. So high passes as you could expect, the opposite looks like this. So we're gonna let high stuff through, and we're gonna cut off low stuff, going back to our noise. It sounds like this. Oops. That's so right. Just high stuff. So we're pulling out the low. Okay, Now, you might have noticed that I could do this. If I push it up, I get this little hook here. This is called resonance Residents means a little bit of a boost right off at right at the cut off frequency. Okay, so this dot is the cut off frequency. That's where we're going to start to affect everything. So when we're using resonance, I'm gonna boost it a little bit. And that makes this this bump here. And it makes a an interesting sound. We'll look at residents more later, but really, what residents does is it gives it kind of like a laser gun sound. Theo. It's hard to hear it with just noise, but it could be a cool kind of. It could be a really cool effect. We'll talk more about residents as it comes up. So with a high pass filter, we can also use the more extreme version of it here. Right now, we're letting a whole bunch frequencies through, but they're too high for and that is the high pass 23. Band pass: Okay, so we know. Low pass, and we know Band Pass. What if we did them at same time? If we did them at same time, So I'm gonna turn on another filter. I'm gonna set this one to be low pass and this one to be high pass. What we have now is what's called a band pass. Okay, so what a band pass does is it says we're going to allow a certain band to pass through. Que In this case, it's right here around 500 Hertz, uh, is going to be the center? No, in a lot of synthesizers, you have the ability to just select band Pass and give it a center point in this particular e que I need to make a band pass by using two different filters. A low pass in a high pass. Ah, but that serves to happily illustrate the point that a band pass filter is essentially a low pass, and a high pass filter could make it as wide as I want. Um, other. Typically, when we're using one of these, it's a bit more narrow. So I could say maybe I want to get rid of the middle of this sound. Right? Okay. I want no lo stuff. No high stuff could make it even more extreme by using the more extreme versions of both of these. Right? So we have a lot of reduction. Proactive. Oh, alright. And we're just hearing this middle stuff, right? We're on Lee letting through the specific band that we're allowing to pass. That's why it's called a band pass. It can be low. It can be high right now. We're just letting high stuff through, and we can do it just letting low stuff through. But regardless, because we're chopping off the the upper free, the frequencies above it and the frequencies below it, it's called a band pass. Cool. Okay, we can also do the opposite of this, and that's the last one that will cover of the kind of Big Four filter types for now. So let's go to a new video and talk about that 24. Notch: okay. If I do the inversion of this the opposite. I'm gonna turn off one of my filters. I only need one to do this. And that. Is this one here. Now, what we have is what's called a notch filter. Okay, This means we're going to take out a specific band. Okay, so if I set this to, let's say 1000 hertz, what we're gonna do is eliminated 1000 Hertz. We're gonna notch it out. Think of it like I don't know your woodcarving, and you're gonna hit a certain notch with a hammer and knock it out of the weird analogy, but we're gonna notch it out. So it's called a notch filter. We could have a bunch of these if we wanted. Right. I have two notches. If I lower the queue on those, right, I can be very specific. About what? I'm notching out. I could do this kind of thing. I wanted to pull out very specific frequencies. This is a good way to do it. A notch filter is very good at kind of fine tuning your you're sounding pulling out very specific frequencies. Okay, so those are our main filter types and how filters work. Cool. Now we're going to be using filters. Ah, lot in this class. Filters are a huge part of sound design. No matter what you're working on, subtracted synthesis or any kind of 25. Looking At Devices: okay up next. What I want to do is put some of this into practice. Right? So we've been talking about these kind of theoretical things. Sound generators and the filters. Let's look at how to actually use them. Ah, how they're implemented into software and how to start actually making some sound. So the way we're gonna do this is I'm going to start with able tunes Analog instrument, and then we'll look at, ah, another instrument, a different piece of software. I don't want to focus exclusively unable to, um however, Mableton does make this really easy to relatively easy to understand. The, um the way they lay things out, it's really easy to see the signal flow and things like that. So, um, I'll go over what that means in just a minute. Um, but I also want to look at some other devices as well. So, uh, I'm going to assume that you already know how to set up a midi track in your software. Now, remember, if you're not using able to that's totally okay. What? I want you to get out of this next section. Actually, these next few sections is understanding kind of how to dissect a device and by a device, I mean a piece of software. Um, So whether you're looking at a Bolton or not all instrument, most instruments really kind of work the same when it comes to this basic stuff. So follow along and you'll see kind of how to find the main elements of the synthesizer. So you already know how to set up Amidi track in your synthesizer. I'm going to use the Mableton analog instrument. Someone load up one there and this is the device we're going to look at. OK, I have a midi keyboards set up so we can hear what it's doing. If you're using able to and you don't know how to set up a mini device, jump back and check out my A built in classes that walk you through how to do everything you could possibly imagine enabled. In the meantime, I'm gonna assume you know how to do that. So let's move on. And let's talk about finding the sound generators and the filters in this mess of knobs and things. Here we go 26. Sound Generators And Filters: Okay, so we've loaded up the analog instrument and able to, and you're looking at it and you're thinking I see a whole bunch of knobs and weird things , and I don't understand what any of them do but you Do you Do you understand what a lot of this does, actually, because it's doing a lot of the same things that we've already covered twice. So first of all, before we get too deep into this, let me just do a little vocab here. So when I say instrument, what I'm talking about is a piece of software that makes sound right. Just like a real world instrument, I might say device, I might say instrument. They're the same thing to me. Um, a built in calls, them devices other. Sometimes they call them instruments. I use them interchangeably. So that's what we're talking about is, uh, anything kind of like this? Okay, so, first, let's kind of look at the basically out of this. So let's ignore this dark box for just a minute, okay? The inside of it here, we're gonna come back to it. Don't worry. But for now, let's just leave that out and let's just look at the outer parts. Okay, So what do we have? We have right here, You see OSK one. So Oscillator one. Okay, so this box is our oscillator. Okay, we've got volume for it. We've got a shape, right? And we've got some tuning. We could move it up or down by an active semi tone. Or we could just be tune it a little bit. Okay? If we go down to here, we have oscillator to Okay, it's all the same. So we have to oscillators in this device. Okay? To oscillators. They're doing the same thing. Okay, if we move over to this box Phil one, OK, we have filter one. So we have Phil one. We have some settings for it. We have frequency, which is going to be our cut off frequency. And we have resonance. Now, if you remember what residents Waas residents was making that little peek right at the cut off frequency, right. Uh, we'll come back to residents in just a minute, okay? And then we have amplifier that just controls are panning in the overall volume case. So these three things oscillator, filter and amplifier are doubled again. Uh, Oops. Oscillator filter amplified. Okay, so we have the same thing twice. We also have another sound generator here in a noise generator to have separate bit of noise that we can add if we wanted to. And, uh, point, I want to point out these little yellow boxes with the name we can turn them off. Right. So here's I'm gonna do I turn oscillator to off because I want to hear just oscillator one . Let's set it to be a sine wave. Nice and smooth. Let's turn off filter one. And we have to leave amplifier one on if we want to hear it because it needs some volume. I'm gonna play a note. Okay, Move down an octave. So now I'm playing a note. All I'm doing is playing sine wave. It's not d tuned or anything like that. No filter on it amplifier a little bit. Um, just to give it some juice. If I turn off the amplifier and I play, we just don't hear it. You can see me playing a note here, but no volume coming out here, so it needs the amplifier or to make actual sound. So all I'm hearing is this filter, I can change to a square wave, right? It does just what we expect we can add in the filter. It's not really doing anything right now, so Well, it's It's hard to hear because we have such a simple wave form here, let's to go to a square wave doing that filter off square wave. Now, between the filter on right now, we really hear it. A laser gun kind of effect that you hear is their residence to the residents all the way off. You won't hear that way. We could see with just a filter. You can hear that. Doing a lot of stuff. Okay. So I can turn on a second oscillator. That's Turner. Filter off. So what if I did this to oscillators both with sine waves? What are we gonna here? Basically, we're gonna hear a slightly louder sine wave. Um, nothing too crazy. But what if I adjust this one by an active? It's going to make the 2nd 1 octave higher. Right now I'm starting to get fairly interesting sound. What if I d tune it just a little bit? Oh, you fear that you feel that like a wobble that's a tuning effect. Go a little more now. It's like, like fast. So if it's just, you tune a little bit, you get a little bit of motion in the South, we'll explore that a little bit more. So now I'm just hearing to sine waves. Let's change it to sawtooth. Wave one of them to a sawtooth wave, one of them to a sine wave, Still separated by an active and de tune a little bit. What if I went way low with this? All right, that's kind of a cool bass sound, actually. Okay, enough. 20 and around. So what I wanted to point out in this video is that most of this we already know this is an oscillator section. This is an oscillator section. This is a filter section. This is a filter section amplifiers new, but it's pretty simple. It's just gonna give us juice and control panting a little bit. And this is the panic. So all of that, you already know how that works. Um, now there are some more things here in the oscillator section and in the filter section that we haven't talked about yet. So let's go a little bit deeper into the oscillator section first 27. Deeper Into The Oscillator Section: Okay, so let's zoom in just on our oscillator section and take a peek. So I'm gonna turn off oscillator to I'm only gonna look at oscillator one for just a minute here cause I want to go over all our parameters here. Okay, so this button turns it out enough. This controls air volume. This is just a volume slider. It's just, um a little hard to really kind of see, because it doesn't look like this kind of a volume cider, but that's effectively what it is. So here's a note. Make it louder. Right. So just volume for this oscillator, you might think Why? How is that different than this amplifier? It's different in this signal flow, which we'll talk about later. Um, actually, in just a few videos. But also note that you can adjust oscillator twos, volume independently of one. So you might wanna set something up where oscillator one is a little bit louder than two or something like that. Okay, this filter one slash filter to this is an interesting little parameter. You won't see this in every synthesizer, but you will see it in a lot of synthesizers. This has to do with routing. So what these air talking about its filter. One filter to Okay, so jump over to filter one that's here. Filter to is here. What this is saying is, how much of this signal do you want to go to filter one? And how much do you want to go to Filter too? That means we could send this oscillator to this filter, which is the default. Or we could send it down to this filter. Or we could send it a little to both if I went 50 50. Oops. There we go. 5 50 50 That means half the signal is going to go into this filter and half of it's gonna go into this filter. Okay, So you can think of this as like, here's the sound. And what I'm gonna do is now I'm going to split it to go into both filters at the same time . Let's see what that sounds like. So if I go just filter one and I turned on filter one. Let's go to a square wave so that we really hear this filter. Okay, through this, give it a good amount of residents. Ah, Okay. Now let's turn filter to on when I just turned filter to on. We're not gonna hear anything different because there's no less later two on and nothing is going into filter Teoh So I could pull this all the way down and send all the signal to filter to. Now it's gonna go to filter to entirely and not to filter one at all, because this says filter too. Oh, we're not hearing anything. Why are we not hearing anything? Because after filter to the signal is going to go to amplify or two, which is off. Wait fire to on in order to complete the signal. Okay, so now the sound is going from here. It's going down to here and then over to the amplifier. Okay, Sound that we have for filter too. And this is that we have filter. What? Ah, OK, so let's go 50 50. Ah, now we're getting a little bit more interesting sound. We have one oscillator, but we're really getting to signals, right? Because we're splitting the signal and sending it to the two different filters, right? Pretty interesting. So that's what this filter one filter to does now. Just because we're using both filters doesn't mean we can't do the same thing for this one . This one, we could send a filter one or two filter to or to both. Also. So now we're if I do this. So 50 50. What we're going to hear now is this oscillator which is in octave separated and a different wave form. It's gonna also go to filter one and filter to were effectively hearing four signals now, right? So now we're starting to get a pretty dense sound, Uh, just with to oscillators to filters. But we're maximizing the signal by singing to both. This isn't something you should do. Every time you do something, It's just an option. This we would call routing. There's a lot of routing built into this instrument. We're gonna look at routing more in just a minute. So this is kind of the simplest way that it's done. Okay, so this just lets to split the signal and send it to one or both of the filters. Cool. Ah, One other thing I want to point out is here in the tuning section. This will shift us by octaves. Right. This will shift us by semi toned semi tone is like one key on the keyboard. Eso I'm gonna play the same note on my keyboard. Right? So this is one key on the keyboard d tuning. There are So for everyone on the D tune, that's one semi tone. Okay, so this note would be the same as playing the note. One semi tone, higher, one key on the keyboard. Higher. Right. So that's typically not what we do, because it be the same as doing that. So what we do here is something around here where we're just gonna pull it out of tune a little bit? Yeah. Ah, it's just a little out of tune if I go around here, I turned the other oscillator back on. You get that kind of chorus effect from them being attitude. So again, we'll talk more about tuning tricks, Leader. Um, but that's how that's the difference between these three. This is big shift little shift, an itty bitty shift in in tuning. OK, uh, let's move on and go over some of these other elements in the filter section 28. Deeper Into The Filter Section: okay. Looking at the filter section. So first we have our button here that turns this filter on and off. Then we have our type of filter. OK, so we've looked at these. You know what these mean? You have low pass, 12 db per active. That's gonna be kind of a steep one. But we have low past 24 DVR per active. It's gonna be a very steep filter. OK, We don't have the big, you know, graphical thing to really adjust the filters exactly how we want, but we do have the ability to just select them here. Okay, Well, look at for mint soon. Don't worry. Uh, so let's say low pass filter 24. So pretty deep, one frequency is going to be our cut off frequency. So let me actually throw a filter An e que? On here. Okay, I just want to use this to demonstrate what this is actually doing. So if we say low pass 24 so we just have one filter. So what this is actually going to give us is a low past 24. So a steep hoops steep, low pass. We're letting the low frequencies passed through. If I set the cut off frequency at 2.2 K here's one K. So two K is gonna be here. It's gonna be a hair higher than two K. So it's right about here. Okay? And that's what this this filter is doing. Right now. Let's assume there's no residence for the moment will come back to residents. So it's tricky because you don't get anything graphic like this. It's a lot easier to see what's happening right when you see it like this. You know, these frequencies air getting through these frequencies or not. But you have to get good at kind of imagining what this looks like. Low past 24 at 2.2 kilohertz. Ah, cut off. Okay, now, remember that. That doesn't mean that means the cut off frequency is at 2.2. So that means there's still a couple other frequencies above it. That air coming through right? Right here. Um, so we're getting a little bit, okay? The residents, we can crank up our residents don't remember residence. Is this blink? This little bit is residence. So if we say 67% residence, that's kind of a lot 100% residence is going to be right about there. Okay, zero residence is gonna be there. So a little bit of residents adds a little bit of that, That kind of sparkle to it. I always call it Shimmer. Sparkle. It's weird. Let's hear it. Let me turn off oscillator to filter too. Set this all the way back to filter one. So we just have one oscillator. Let's retune it. Ah, turned off this e que Because I don't want to hear that I just want to hear this week. You this filter, residents all the way down. I'm gonna slowly turn residents up so that you hear it what it's doing. You hear that? It's adding that bussiness if I turn this up a little bit higher way don't have any frequencies up there. It's good about their See, we don't hear it because the note I'm playing is down here and our residences up here. So let me play a higher note, right, Because what this doing? What this is doing? Residences always boosting the cut off frequency. So the cut off frequency is 1.6 K right now. Okay, So what? That means is 1.6 k That's right about here is getting boosted. So whatever this number is is what the residents is actually boosting. It's boosting right at the cut off frequency. That's what residents does. Whenever you see residents, that's always what it's doing. Okay, Now, uh, moving up down here, we have another one of these little routing tricks, so it has to filter to. That means we can send this filter down to filter too, right, so we can route it. It's going to go out to the amplifier, but it could also go down to filter to which it is doing. So we're saying send 100% of the signal down to filter to also filter to is affecting this signal. Also, oscillator to is off, So now we're splitting the signal again. Now our signal is going out oscillator one into filter one and then through filter one to the amplifier. It's also going from filter one splitting here, going down to filter to and out the other amplifier. Right? So that means I could do something like set this with a totally different, uh, setting. So this one, I have a lot of residents. This one? I have a little, uh, okay. And let's do two different things with the panning. Let's send this filter all the way to the left and this filter all the way to the right. If you're wearing headphones, this might sound a little weird. Way you hear that kind of laser gun sound only in the right channel, because that's where the most residences. So these this is another kind of routing control. 29. Signal Flow: Okay, so we've looked at these kind of three sections. Let's take a little bit of a step back and just talk about the signal flow for a minute because this is important in any device that you're working with to figure out how the signal is flowing. Now we've talked about signal flow a little bit. What that means is, basically, we have our sound generator, and then you have the output. Okay, The output is like, basically where you're going to find a volume knob. It's the end of the chain. So how does the audio flow through this device? Okay, so what we've seen so far is that if we turn everything else off and we just do this filter one, turn that off. Okay? What's happening now is we're going from oscillator, okay? So sound generator into the filter into the amplifier, and then if this is off, it's actually going over here. So this is basically our output. It's ah, it's a master volume of everything of the whole device. And then that sends that out to the signal. OK, so this is the end of the chain. We've got a couple other settings here that we'll talk about soon. So in this sense, it's just gonna flow. Kind of in a linear fashion from left to right. And it's comin in, uh, synthesizers for the kind of graphic layout of the synth to give you an idea of how the signals flowing. Let me show you a different example. Really quick. So here I have an image of the reason Maelstrom instrument. Now, this is a whole different kind of synthesizer from a whole different program. This is from reason the program called reason, and this is one of its devices. OK, so we're not enable 10. This is just a picture of it. Don't work. Um but what I want to show you here is that what we can do is we confined the oscillators, So here it's as oscillator a oscillator be. So it has to oscillators. Then we kind of look through it and see. See this little graphic here? This is kind of saying Ah, so at the end of this oscillator, it's sending the signal here, right? And then at the end of this shaper, it's sending the signal here to this filter, right? Also, the signal could be split and going down to filter be. So what I'm trying to get at here is that these little a graphical elements often tell you how the audio signal is flowing through the device. Okay, so there are often clues in things now in analog here. There are not a lot of clues other than it's right in a line, right? So things are going from left to right that we skipped over this section on Lee because it's off. If I turn it on that everything goes into this section and then to the final volume control here, we're gonna talk about this section in just a minute. The next video, actually. But note that, you know, if I turn this on, if I turn this filter on and I saw her, I turned this routing on and said it to 50 50. Now, our signal is going from here splitting, going to hear in here And then in this situation, what's happening is so let's go back to the beginning with how I have it set up exactly right now. Okay. What's gonna What are we gonna here at the end of this? What we're gonna hear is one signal because this oscillator is it's being split 50 50. So we're hearing it's gonna go to this filter and then to this amplifier and then to the volume case. We're going to hear that. Then it's going Teoh filter to because of that. So it's going down here and then it stops, right? So my signal flow is kind of interrupted for my second signal here. So signal splits, goes to both filters and then stop. So I turn on amplifier to complete that signal, and then it goes all the way to the volume. Now we hear two singles, so it's important to keep in mind the signal flow. We turn on our second oscillator right now. What do we have right now? We have OSS later, one going to both filters and then to both amplifiers oscillator to going to both filters and both amplifiers. What if I did this? Now what we have so that says F one. So we have oscillator one going to both filters, both amplifiers, oscillator to going toe on Lee filter one and then amp one and then out. So whenever you're working with a synthesizer, always try to be mindful of this signal flow the way the signal is flowing through the device that's going to tell you a lot about what's happening and is going to save you from having to kind of twiddle knobs. And you're like, Oh, what does this do? And then, ah, an experiment, right? Because you're going to know this is gonna do nothing right now because it's off or this amplifier. This panning is not going affect my oscillator to, because the signal flow is only sending it to filter. What? So you have to kind of be keep this signal flow idea in mind. Okay, that being said, let's move on And let's talk about this little section here the LFO. 30. Why Two Amps: actually, before we move on to the other faux I just want to point out one quick thing because I'm anticipating a few of you are thinking right now Wait a minute. If this is just a volume right here and this is just a volume, why do we need to Why do we need two volumes here? We have an amplifier section and then we have essentially another amplifier section. Why? There's very good reason and it's something we're gonna go over in the next kind of big section. But the reason is, in a nutshell, For now, um, just to answer the question that you're probably about to ask me is in this amplifier section, we can craft this amplifier section to give our sound shape. Whereas this one it's really just a volume. Not there are some elements here that weaken dio, but really this is gonna boost or cut the overall volume right of everything coming out. This is the end of the chain, whereas here we can adjust this. Okay, this is an envelope. So let me I don't want to go too much into envelopes because we're going to spend a lot of time on envelopes in just a minute, cause they're really, really important. But if I go back to this sound, we have one oscillator square wave soon this filter off, it's from the fire up. Okay, so with this sound, I have a sound that has a heart attack. And then it decays away. Right? It goes ding. So we get a distinctive hit, right when I play the note and then it fades away. Okay, What I can do with this volume is really shape the volume of that sound like, let's say I didn't want to have a heart attack. Maybe I wanted to it to kind of filter in, right? Like more a pad sound that longer, right? Maybe I wanted to sustain for a long time or go back to a heart attack. And maybe I want to be even shorter, like a percussion sound. Right? So this is called an envelope, and it's how we can shape different elements of the sound here. We're applying it to the amplifier, but envelopes will use. We can put envelopes on filters to see it there. So that's the main difference between these two volumes. And this is really typical to find. You'll find envelopes all over synthesizers, different synthesizers. They might look different than this, but it's the same concept, and I'll show you a few different ones in a minute. So we're gonna talk about envelopes a lot in the next section. But I just want to point out the difference between this volume and this volume is that here we have the ability to really kind of craft the shape of the volume with an envelope. And here we don't. Okay, here we just have volume. Now, those are the difference between those two volumes. More on that. When we talk about envelopes in a minute. Cool. Now let's go to L. A foes. 31. The LFO: Okay, The LFO The LFO is very critical part of all sound design. You'll see Ella foes in everything. No matter what you're working in, there's going to be in L f o. So just about every synthesizer anywhere is gonna have an LFO. So So I'm back to simple oscillator of one oscillator square wave. Actually, let's change that to a sine wave just to make an even simpler sound just so we can focus on this My filter off amplifier on Let's change my panning. That's probably annoying. Ueo, get some good volume Now let's turn on this LFO Now what an LFO does OK, so first LF those are kind of complicated when it comes to explaining how they work So let me start by just explaining what it does and then I'll explain how it works. What it does is give a sound motion. Okay, So if we want wobbles in the sound if we wanted to not just be made pure sound like that But we wanted Teoh ago. 1111 Well, any kind of rhythmic motion to it. Especially rhythmic motion. That's ah, steady. Okay, We wouldn't go. We wouldn't use an lfo to make it go by. What? Wow. Wow! Wow! Wow! Wow! Wow! Wow! Because that's ah rhythm. But if it was just while while while while wow, that's a good use of an LFO, we could do that rhythm thing using multiple LF owes which will look at later. But let's keep it simple for now. So an LFO gives us the wobbles. Okay, if you have big, gnarly baselines ago what I if you're into that, that's an LFO right there. What about Wow, that's a big, gnarly wave form with an LFO creating that motion. Okay, But we also use it for we also use it for much more simpler things, like just a little bit of a subtle vibrato. Like if we wanted to sound to be, uh, that's no lfo, but if we wanted to be, uh, that's a little bit of LFO, right? It could be delicate. It doesn't need to be all the time. Okay, how it actually works. Uh, LFO stands for low frequency oscillator. That means is that this the LFO is Justin oscillator. Just like this is It's another oscillate, but it's tuned to be very, very low. Okay, it's very low. So this is a low frequency oscillator, meaning that it's too low for us to really hear it. And we're not going to route it in a way that we would hear it anyway. So imagine we have a way for him. Like, let's look at it right here. Okay, so we have a sine wave and what does that sign wave do? It oscillates, right? It moves back and forth and back and forth or in this case, up and down and up in depth. So what we're gonna do is we're gonna tell that oscillator this also later. Don't do your up and down and up and down motion. Don't send that to the volume because we don't want to hear this oscillator. What we want to do is send that up and down motion to another parameter. So, for example, the, uh, volume okay, lets say, send that up and down motion to the volume Oops, volume so that the volume is going up and down and up and down, up and down. Another way to think about this. I have a friend who explains this by saying the LFO is your intern, which is kind of a funny way to explain it, but it works well. So here's what that means. Let's say you are at a mixing board and you have a sound and well, let's just say you're in your service center, okay? And let's say I want to do this E okay? And I want this sound to go up and down, up and down and up and down and up and down all day long. OK, that's what I wanted to do. So I could sit here and click and hold with my mouse and move this up and down, up and down. Or I could just tell my intern my poorly paid assistant to do that For me to sit here and move this volume up and down, up and down, up and down all day long. That's what I want you to dio. Don't do anything else. Just move that volume up and down and up and down. Okay, so we can ask our assistant to do that. That's cool. Or we can just assign an LFO to do that for us. Okay, so the LFO it's gonna take this wave, and it's going to say move that we're gonna apply it to this volume when you say moving up and down, up and down, up and down. Cool. So in order to do it, we need to go into the routing a little bit. Okay, so I'm gonna turn on my LFO and I'll talk about this rate in just a minute, but let's set it up first. So now I'm going to go to my amplifier and the routing works different in all programs. But in this one, what I'm gonna do is level modulation because what we're doing here is a form of modulation . Modulation means changing the sound, uh, in repeatable ways. So we're gonna say lfo one and let's give it some. Okay, let's give it a lot. So all of it, So one means all of it in this case. So now the level which is this is being controlled by the LFO. Okay, so now when I played this note with volume is going up and down and up and down now, we don't see this. This level actually move, but that's what it's doing. OK, the graphic just doesn't change, but it is doing this. It's going like this. Okay, now if we go back over to the LFO, this LFO is now controlling that volume. So the rate is the speed which, if you think about it, the rate is just the frequency, right? Because we're dealing with an oscillator here and the speed of the oscillators. What makes pitch? Right? But the pitch were working at here is really low, like one hurts. OK, humans here, down to about 20 hertz. That's about as low as most people can hear. Maybe 19. Um, but one hurt you can't hear. That's way, way, way too low. Even if this was routed to be a signal, you couldn't hear that so But if we want us to go faster, we can increase it. So let me no no groups. I'm increasing the rate with decreasing the way. Okay, so that's what that's doing. The rate is the speed of the the warble. I guess so that's what LFO does. It gives us some character on that sound. It gives it a little bit of motion. Now there are two parameters to always keep track of. When you're looking at an LFO the rate in the amount. Okay, here we have the rate, the rate of speed to speed that it's gonna go the amount in this synthesizer. The amount is this over here. Okay, so I clicked over on amp and then I moved here. So I'm going full blast here. The amount is up all the way. If you think about it, here's the what the amount does. If I say one, I'm saying, if I say all the way up, I'm telling this level to go all the way down all the way up at the rhythm at the rate that the LFO is set to okay, all the way down all the way up. Do this. Okay, It's doing it in a way that's more accurate. It's doing it by a different speed, right? If I say halfway, Okay, now what it's doing is it's actually going. It's not going to the extremes, right? It's only going halfway. So if I want a subtle LFO, I want it like maybe 0.15 let's say 0.17 okay. And let's make it's kind of fast. So now what we're gonna here is that sound moving and moving relatively fast, but not an extreme. It's not gonna be going all the way down to nothing. Okay, let's hear it. Right. So there's a Well, Well, well, well, well happening may speed it up. Right. So you can hear that now we can apply the LFO not just to the volume we comply to other stuff too. We could apply it to panning. Let's do full blast on the panning and the volume. Okay, so now we're gonna hear it panning, going left and right by that same speed and groups Okay, We could do other things with it. Let's go over to pitch right. So if I go over to my oscillator, I still have my lfo here. Uh, pitch, Let's say change the pitch and let's go full blast. What the heck? So my LFO now is controlling level panning and the frequency your your your your your your your your right That's nuts. Now we have, like, straight up laser gun. Let's do a more subtle lfo ma my pitch right s. So now I've got this wacky sound because the volume is going up and down the pan is going left and right. The pitch is going up and down, but it's all connected to this LFO. So if I change the speed of this, all three of those parameters are gonna change, right? So ah, lets reset all of this And let's do the obvious thing, which is make that big. What will bass sound? Let's go to a new video and then let's talk about how to do that. 32. The WubWubs: Okay, so now that we know what an LFO is, uh, let's see if we can make that that big kind of dub step based sound. Now, this instrument analog isn't ideal for that, but we can come close. Um, the reason is that ideal is because of our oscillators. But let's try anyway, So I'm gonna turn off my telephone to start, because the first thing I need for that big gnarly based on is a big, gnarly bass sound, Right? So let's not worry about the motion for a minute. Um, okay, let's go higher. Okay, so we want a really kind of dirty based sounds. So first thing that my gut says is go to a square wave, right? Okay, that's a good pitch. All right? Not bad. Let's add a second oscillator. Let's also do a square wave way. Okay, Now this oscillator is separated by an active, and it's de tuned by just a little bit. Okay, not bad. Let's add a filter with a little bit of residence that's at a second filter with a little bit different residence. I want to send both of these two both, so I gotta turn my amp on. Don't forget. Don't forget about that. I mean, we're just Oh, my volume on this amp a solo. Sing it. All right. Not bad. Let's see if we can. So it's trying go away or a sawtooth. Okay, I guess I don't think I like the residents. Like I said, this isn't a great device for making these kind of really gnarly uh, based sounds a little bit of noise in. Not bad. Okay, we're in the ballpark, So uh Okay, so let's go with that for now. Now, let's add our LFO in. So I'm going to do one thing different here. The thing that's different is see right here It says hurts. Or and you've got this little note here. Switch over to this note. What that means is that now, my rate of my LFO the speed of the LFO is now gonna be Kwan ties to the rhythm of the of the sun, the tempo of the sun. So now instead of a frequency here, I have a note values 1/4 note 16th note, eighth note. Uh, so the T when you see a T, that's eight. Note triplet. When you see d, that's dotted a note or dotted 16th note 32nd note dotted. Okay, so these are going Teoh Kwan ties to a beat. Okay, so what I'm gonna do here, So basically, I can adjust this with my arrow keys. I'm gonna go 16th and 16th note triplets. Okay, so here's my bass sound. Now, Still not do anything, right, Because I got a route. It So what do I actually want? The l A photo effect? That pitch. So it goes when that No, the volume while. Why? Well, yeah, it's the volume. Let's go here. Let's turn lfo up. Uh, probably close to all the way and maybe not totally, all the way but close. I got to do it with both amplifiers. That's interesting. So this particular synth isn't letting me use lfo one on amp to, but it's OK, because I have a second oscillator. Okay, so I'm just gonna set this to be the same 16th note, and now I can use oscillator to about the same amount. Okay, so we have to lfo is here. Okay, so here is what way? Bad. Let's go all the way up with our LFO. Slow it down. Pretty good. That's how I want to do. Okay, so we're in the booth. So what a lot of like that. That dub step kind of sound is changing this rate fairly quickly. This may be it. No triplet, maybe a couple quarter notes on down to eighth note. Right? So that sound is doing big, gnarly based sound within LFO and then adjusting the speed of the LFO in the track. Okay, so, uh, let's not worry about making big, gnarly based sounds quite yet. Um, but you saw how he did it. They're fairly simply right. Uh, complicated wave form. A little bit of a filter filter is not doing a whole lot in this case, but a little bit, um, and then an LFO on the volume and then controlling the rate more on that soon. But I think the point here is that we understand how an LFO works now, right? It's our intern. It's the person we're gonna assigned to move something up and down and up and down. Now, I should point out one more thing about the LFO. Uh, does the LFO need to always be a sine wave? If it's just an oscillator and it's just going up and down. Can we send it to be different way forms? We sure can. Right here. Triangle rectangle. I said it to be a square wave. That's essentially going to be on off on off A and E. Who? It's gonna be like a European siren. I didn't really hear it at the speed. Let's slow it down to 1/4 note. Kind of a cool sound, actually, Um, I can also said it to noise, which is essentially random, which won't be very effective here. Kind of cool. Um, so don't forget that you can change the shape of the LFO. Okay, One more thing on this section, then we're gonna move on to talking more about envelopes. That is the quick routing section, Uh, which we get here. I just want to talk about quickly 33. Quick Routing: Okay, let's go back and set this to a sine wave. So, um, I want to point out this quick routing business here. If you click on the volume and you see this, you'll see this in some synthesizers as well. We look closer at this. It's kind of hard to really see what's happening here. But what this is this is showing us the signal flow in a tiny trainee. Little graphic. Okay, so in this 1st 1 we see O f and a going across in to kind of parallel lines. See, the top Oh, is connected to the F, which is connected to the A, which then kind of goes out. So that means oscillator filter amplifier. Okay, so the top oscillator is routed into the filter which is routed into the amplifier and then to the output. The second row is oscillator, filter, amplifier, second oscillator, second filter, second amplifier. So if I click that it's basically going to set everything up so that oscillator one goes filter one. So it's set this to be just filter one. This to filter to is gonna be zero, because it's just going straight across, and then to the output oscillator to same thing just to filter to and straight across to the output. Um, everything is going to go through the LFO if it's turned on. Okay, so that gets us If I go to one of these other ones, what do we have here? We have oscillator. One is going to filter one, which is going to amplifier oscillator to is just going up to filter one and then across to the amplifier. So I click that can see it turned off filter to sent this up to filter one. And that's gonna change our sound a little bit, right? I haven't changed any other settings, but I'm routed different now, so it's gonna be a slightly different sound. Okay, Not all that much different in this case, because filter to wasn't doing a whole lot Another kind of quick routing setting. Here we have oscillator one going to filter one and two that 50 50 oscillator to going to filter one and two and then the filters going across to their amplifiers and then out again slightly different settings. Okay. In their last one here, both oscillators, going to both filters again are no sorry oscillator one going to filter one filter, one going to filter too oscillator to going to filter one and then going to filter to and then out. So basically, both oscillators going to filter one filter, one going on lee to filter to then filter to going to its amplifier. Wait a little bit more of that residence on this one. So in this case, all of these routing settings are pretty similar. But all this is is just a kind of a quick way to give you four options to route things to set up your synthesizer for different routing patterns. Uh, signal flow, right? That's what it's all about Here. It's about how the signals flowing through the device. That's what this quick routing does. Now you won't see this and all synthesizers. Ah, lot of synthesizers have something similar though some kind of routing matrix or something like that that will kind of get you started. You could still choose one of these and then adjust things as you like. Right. You still have the option to do that. Okay, let's move on and talk about envelopes 34. What are Envelopes?: Okay, so we're getting there, right? We're starting to be able to make a sound that we like. We know how toe use different wave forms. We know how to use some filters and we know how to change the way for him to get a thicker sound. We can use multiple wave forms and that's pretty good, right? We're we're off to a good start, but there's one big thing that we're missing and that is shaping the sound over time. Okay, here's what I mean. Let's go down to just one oscillator and let's do a sine wave, Do something a little higher So we've got a sine wave. I play the note, we hear it and it rings, right. So right now my finger is down on the note. If I lift up my finger from the key, the note stops right, s. So I put my finger down the notes on full blast. I lift my finger up the notes, stops no big deal. Right? But what if we had a little more control over that? So let's go to our amplifier here. And let's explore this because this is the envelope. OK, so what The envelope does is it's gonna be able, or we are going to be able to tell the sound when I play the note. When I tell you to start making sound, here's what I want you to do. First, I want you to slowly ramp up to your full volume, not just go full blast right away. Then I want you to back off a little bit. Then I want you to sustain at that spot as long as I have my finger down on the note. And then when I lift up my finger from the note, I want you to slowly trail off or quickly trail off. Or, uh, however you want to do it. So that's just one example. But those are the four parameters that we really have control of. We have control of the initial sound. That's the straight up and down line right there. How long it takes to get to its full volume. That's right there. And then, if we wanted to just quickly pull back a little bit, that's this line. Then, if we wanted to just sustain where we wanted to sustain, and then what happens when I what happens when I let go of the note. Does it go quick? Does it die off slow? So let's just do it. Let's say so. We've got a quick sound and let's say we want Tea Day full blast the whole time But then when I let go of the note, I wanted Teoh slowly trail away. OK, so here we go. We're gonna play note full blast of all time and I'm gonna let go right now. Oh, can take a long time. It's still going. See the signal? Right. So that was all because of this. Let's say I want when I let go it to just be off immediately going to make this a short as I possibly can case, you know, I let go of the note and just stops immediately. Right, So this is called an envelope. They typically look like this, but there's a couple different ways that they might look depending on the software you're using. Um so let me go. Let's go to a new video and we're gonna dissect how this thing works in the different parameters inside of this little convention 35. The ADSR Format: okay for this. I'm gonna jump over to a graphics program just so that we can look at. Ah, this shape. Okay. This little graph here, this shape that we're seeing here is the shape of an envelope. If someone walked up to you on the street and said, Draw me the shape of an envelope, this is what you would draw. This is what it looks like. Okay, You can ignore the kind of red thing. That's just there is a guide. Um, but what we have here is four different areas. Okay, there's the attack. Decay sustain and release K A D s are. You may have seen this in different synthesizers in different software. You either will have seen this kind of a graphic or these four letters A DSR. So here's what a TSR means. The attack is this first line right here. This line is the attack. So if I want this to have well, let me first explain what we're looking at in this chart. So up and down is volume and left and right is time. Okay, So this is right here. This is full volume. This means that whatever our volume is set at right. There's no hard number here because the 80 s are envelope. Doesn't know what are volume settings are, nor does it care. So this is just full volume at the top. So our first line, our attack, is how long I want it to be before it gets to that full volume. Right? So I wanted to be super quick That was gonna make that straight up and down just like that . Or do I wanted to take some time. I could do that. Okay, That's the attack. The amount of time it takes to get up to the full volume. Okay, some would say right there, so it's gonna slope ends. Go. Ah, is what is gonna happen to the sound. Okay, so that's my attack. That's that one. OK, no. After the attack, the sound might want to do an initial decay. Okay, so that's this Part of the sound is the decay. So these have to touch. So do I want it. So how fast do I wanted to? Decay would be this way. And how much do I want to? Decay will be this way. So I could say don't decay at all stay right up there or I could say decay a lot quickly. Right now, this one is a little tricky to understand. Sometimes the decay thing. Let's think of an example when I play the sound of a crash symbol can think of a crash. Simple. Okay, so you have your stick hitting the symbol. Okay, that's the attack. Okay. And in the case of a crash symbol, the attack is going to be straight up and down. Right this second. I hit it. It's full blast, right? It doesn't go unless you're doing a role or something. That's very different. But if I'm hitting it with a wooden stick as hard as I can, that attack is straight up and down. Okay, let's keep that there. So that's my attack. Now there's an initial decay here because the sound of my stick hitting the symbol is a loud sound. But then there's the sound of the symbol ringing. Right, so that's a quieter sound. So I'm going to say very quickly this is going to go away, and then we get to this sustain. Okay, so this sustain is the actual ringing of the symbol. So think about these to the attack and decay as the crash of a symbol, this line as the sustained. Okay, so we've now crossed over into talking about Sustained. So let's talk about to sustain a little bit. But sustained is in synthesis terms. It's what happens as long as you're telling the note to play. Okay, so in our crash symbol analogy, the sustain is going to kind of slowly fade out. Uh, but in an 80 s are this is gonna be a straight line. It might be higher, low, but this one works a little different than the A D in the are. So this sustain is kind of stopped in time. That's what happens as long as our finger is down on the note. That's where our sound is going to stay after the attack and after the decay, we stay on the sustain. Then when we lift up our finger, we get to the are okay, and these have touch. So the release might be very long and slow, remember? Right here is where I lifted up my finger. This is where I said, stop the note. But if I have a really slow release, it's gonna really slowly fade out. I have a straight up and down release. It's just gonna stop like we just did enable to Okay, so in the case of a crash symbol, what I would really have is a very, very short, sustained or really know sustain it all and a very long release. Assuming I'm not touching it, I'm not going to stop the symbol with my hand, But I'm just gonna let it ring forever. That's what that would look like. And in fact we'd probably do that and go all the way over. But that's not typical for synthesis because we have many notes. Okay, so a d s are attack, decay, sustained and release. So let's say let's do another example. Let's say I play a let's say I Let's do a snare drum. Okay? What is the envelope look like for a snare drum? Okay, well, the attack is right away, right? Straight up and downs Really fast. As soon as I hit the snare drum, it makes its full sound. Okay, Now, the initial decay is going to be really quick. And then where is the sustained There really isn't any sustained, right? This is gonna be all the way down here, and this is gonna go all the way down because there's no sustained. It's gonna be a very sharp attack. And then decay goes all the way down to nothing no sustained and no release because we've already are down to nothing. Now, why do we care about that? We care about that. Because if we want a synthesizer to sound like a snare drum, we know that that's what we have to do, right? We need to draw that kind of envelope. So keep that in mind. Whenever you're trying to model a sound, we need to think about the envelope of the sound, the shape of the sound. How does it work? Um, let's do one more instrument because there's an interesting one here, since we're on the idea of percussion. Ah, Gong K, a big gung. You hit that right? So if I had a big gong, it's going to do this. It actually takes a minute for a going to get loud. Case of the attack is, it builds when you hit it with a big soft mallet. It goes, it slowly gets loud. So then the decay takes kind of a while. It slowly gets down to where it kind of resonates for a few minutes, and then it's going to do a very long, slow release. So it's this kind of a sound, right? There's my sustained when the my attack. So that's kind of what a gong would do if you wanted to do a God. Okay. Ah, let's go back and look at a synthesizer and see how we can apply this. 36. More Than Just Amplitude: Now when we look at the synthesizer, if we wanted to apply this kind of a thing, we would go to the amplifier, click on it, and we see a familiar A TSR. This looks slightly different. They've got a nice little curve here because exponential weaken, do a linear one that looks a lot more familiar to us. Right. Um, let's actually stick with the linear one. They're well, because it's gonna be more familiar to my little drawing. Um, so one thing I haven't pointed out yet, that's very important is that what I've been talking about so far is a very specific kind of envelope. This is an amplitude envelope, right? It's an envelope applied to the volume amplitude. Right. So this is going to shape the volume of the sound over time. Now, that's not the only place we use envelopes. We use envelopes all over the place, right? Check this out. What happens when I click on this filter? Boom. Look at that. I still got one. I can use an envelope on this filter to change the filter over time. Right. Let's let me show you what that would you Okay, So here's my amplitude volume my amplitude envelope. Let's go to a filter. Okay, let's say E. I want So here's everything laid out in order The attack of the filter. Well, first I got to get something happening. This filter. So let's go to Ah, square wave residents. Okay, now my filters doing something. So let's say we want this filter to slowly turn on. Okay? Over the course of a second and 1/2 that's my attack. Okay, here that now it opens up, that filter goes, Whoa! Uh uh. It opens up over the 1st 2nd and 1/2 of that sound. Okay, Now, let's say when I let go, I wanted to close way Don't really hear it right, because when I let go, this is triggering and its closing that filter, However, my sound is stopping. So let's let my amplitude envelope that's open that up a little bit so that that sound keeps ringing and we'll have that filter close right now. Let me do it again and tell you when I let go with sound theme loathe, right? We see way here that filter closed back up. So he's wanted. So envelopes are not just for amplitude, not just for volume. We can use them on filters. We can use them on oscillators. Sometimes we don't have one here. Um, that could be used on LF owes. There's a lot of different things you can do with these envelopes. OK, so don't think of them just as ways to shape the volume of the sound. But nearly any parameter, depending on the synthesizer you're using, can be altered over time by using an 80 s are envelope. That's pretty cool. It's pretty handy trick. Okay. All right. No. Let me show you how we would build one of those snare, uh, snare crash symbol or gong. Kind of sounds using this synthesizer and some envelopes. 37. Applying Envelopes: Okay, let's say I want to build a snare sound, right? I pretty much know how to do it now. So I'm gonna take my, uh, filter envelope back to where, roughly where it waas. I'm not gonna need that. Now. My amplitude envelope, I want for a snare sound, right? I wanted to be sharp as possible Attack. So gonna move it all the way to the left, and then the decay is really fast. Okay, so now I'm gonna play note. Okay? Not bad. Give a tiny bit more, A little more. There we go. Okay. Pretty cool. Um, now, this doesn't sound like a snare drum, right? Because I'm using a square wave. If I really wanted to sound like a snare drum, I'm gonna turn that house later off. I'm just gonna use noise, right, Make a little bit brighter. We shorten it. A touch? Yeah, Let's go back. Okay, I'm getting close. If I really wanted to make it sound like a snare drum, gonna have to do a couple things with this filter to tighten it down Now I think the it's too long. It's close. Not bad. Okay, so now you know how to kind of craft these sort of sounds using an envelope. You just have to think about what is the shape of that sound Over time? Let me give you another good example. Uh, let's go back to a sine wave and let's add a second sine wave. Now let's have a sawtooth wave. Oops. Let's open up my, uh, a little bit. Okay. I want to get kind of a nice, complicated sound. Let's separate these by inactive. Pulling out of tune. Just a touch too much. Okay, let's go to a square. Ways good to square waves. Filter on. Just trying t o Good enough. I'm just trying to generate a kind of thick sound because I want to make a pad sound right . So if you don't know what a pad sound is, it's like an ambient evolving sound. So in order to make a good pass sound, there's a few things I need. First, I need an amplitude envelope. It's gonna be skinny. Slow attack. It's gonna be slow decay. Okay, I need to do this. I turned both amplifiers on, so I need to do it in both of these. Yeah, Thanks for the marriage. Okay, let's make this a little bit longer release. Uh, cool. Now let's make a filter envelope. It's gonna be really slow on both of these. Okay? Now, we should have a nice, evolving pad, kind of sound case. I'm just gonna play some notes, and I'm just gonna play two notes, but I'm gonna put him at the same time. And I was gonna hold those okay until it's boring and they're gonna let go. Here we go. Ah, OK, that's a nice evolving sound, because this both of these filters are going to slowly open over time. Right? So you heard that continuing to open until I let go, And then they started to close up again. The amplifier is well, was slowly opening and slowly closing, so that that's how you make a nice pad sound. Okay. Now, before we leave envelopes for now, let me just show you a couple other ways that they can look in other software just so that you're not shocked when you see them 38. Other Ways Envelopes Can Look: Okay, here's the reason. Subtract er and now in this, if you poke around and try to find an envelope Ah, it's gonna take you a minute, right? Because you're not going to see that graphic that we're used to seeing because they laid things out a little bit different here. But there are some envelopes. There are three envelopes that I can see right away. Okay. Do you see them? See if you can spot the three envelopes. And here's a clue. You're not looking for that graphic. You're looking for the letters. Okay, check it out. A D s are Okay. We see that. We know that's an envelope. Okay, we have four knobs. A TSR. There's an envelope, a TSR There's an envelope. Okay, so there's Here's our amplitude envelope. So it's going to shape our the volume of our sound. Here's a filter envelope. Just like what we were just doing. I don't envelope on the filter and here's a modulation envelope, An envelope on the modulation of the sound. We'll talk about that later. For each of these, the layout is a little bit different, but you can kind of imagine what it would be like, Let me pull this up along with my holographic. See if I can get these both on the screen here. Okay, Let's look at what's already here in this one. Attack. Super short. Okay, so attack is all the way down. That means the attack is here. Okay? It's all the way over. Decay is just a little. So decay is gonna be there something like that. Actually, take that back. Decay is gonna be like this because it's not very long. It's very fast. And then there's no sustained. So it's going to decay down to this sustained, which is at zero. And then there's no release that zero. So this is gonna be are really quick, Fast sound if we look at let's look at this one. This fact is that nothing. So it's gonna be down there. Decay is very fast. Sustained is not at nothing. It's had a little bit. Okay, so it's gonna be something like that. And then release is something so about as long as the decay. So somewhere around there, it's what that's gonna look like this amplitude envelope again. Super fast attack. Because that's all the way down decay. Quite a bit longer, Sustained all the way at zero. Now, this is interesting, because the sustained is that zero, but there's still a release up. So I think in that case, we're combining the sustain and release. Actually, I don't think this release is going to do anything, because our sustain is all the way down to zero. So this is what that one would look like. Long, slow fade out. Okay, so just a reminder that the envelopes could look like this, Okay, They could look like this. You might not see the, um the graph that I'm used to seeing that we see other places. But this tells you the same information K. It's a little harder to read. You kind of have to imagine the graph to really get it right, But, uh, with some practice, you get used to it. These are the main two ways that I see. I see envelopes incorporated into software, so keep an eye out for them. I'm sure there are other ways, um, and will probably encounter some of those later on in this class, but for now, at least keep an eye out for those two things 39. Preset: FatEric: Okay, So what I'd like to do next is a little analysis, if you will, of some of the built in presets we have here. So what I'm gonna do is in the load up. Preset number is going to kind of walk through it, looking for what we know. Um, and then the next section, we're gonna talk about, uh, kind of workflow methods of building your own sounds. OK, so, uh, I'm going to go to my list of presets here, and let's start with a pat. No, let's start with a lead. Okay. So ah, lead is typically a sound That's pretty bright. Pretty piercing. Think of like a lead guitar. Eso. Let's just kind of randomly grab one. Sounds like a pretty good one. Now, actually, before we even cute this up just by hearing that example Note. What can we tell about this sound? Wait. Tell it's got its using pretty fat wave forms is probably a square wave in there, maybe two. Um, there's probably a filter cutting off the high end because it's not extremely bright. Um, do we hear any of that? Residents sound that kind of laser gun sound? Not very much. So there's not a lot of residents going on. Probably, um And then what about the envelope? It's really kind of straight up at the beginning, right, Because we hear that sound. Just turn on full blast, right? And then at the end, there's a little bit of a trail off, but not very much. It really kind of just go to work and stops really quick. There's probably a little bit of an envelope on a filter, definitely a little bit of an envelope on that filter. So when the release happens, that filter is closing up. That's what's giving us that little wink at the end here at the end, you hear that filter closes. Okay, so that's what I hear. Let's load up to sound and see what's in there. Okay, so let's start with the oscillators. What do we got? Square wave oscillator to square wave. Okay to oscillators. We're transposing this down and active, both of them down inactive. So the's square waves air in the same active, but there an octave lower than the note were playing on the keyboard. Um, semi tones are the same. They are both d tuned by a little bit. Um, so they're basically So this is 0.9 and this is 0.1 So they're about 8/10 of a cent apart. Um, eight. Hundreds of ascent apart? I guess. So. There's very slightly out of tune from each other that's gonna add to that kind of thickness of the sound. Okay, so that's going to give us a nice, thick sound. Okay, let's go. Let's look at where felt. Where are sound is going. So let's look at our signal. Flow a little bit here. So we're going to filter one with this oscillator going to filter to with this house later . Great. So let's go to filter one and look at what's happening there. So our filter is a low pass set pretty low. So we're not letting a lot of high stuff through it here, and our residence is almost nothing, right? Very small as predicted filter, too. Ah, similar. We have a little bit more residents on that one, but also pretty low. Okay, and then if we look at the envelope here, we have a filter envelope where that filter is opening up almost instantly. It looks like because that's straight up and then backing off a little bit. And then it's got that little tale right there, right? So it's won't closing off when we release, we release right here, right at that little joint there and then it's closing up. Look at the other one. We have a more kind of evolving filter on filter, too. That's interesting, because I didn't really hear that. So filter to is slowly opening and then slowly closing. Let's hear that again. Interesting. I don't hear it so much. I hear motion in there, but I mostly here that motion from I think the out attuned when you d tune oscillators by just a little bit. You get that little bit emotion? Uh, Theo So different. Um, the two different sounds you heard there. I'm playing the note really soft, Uh, and playing it really hard. It's getting a different sound, right? That's all in the velocity. So we'll look at that in just a second. Cancel get what's happening in the amplifier here, so the amplitude envelope is what really shapes that sound. This one, interestingly enough, is going up and down fairly quick, and then we must be having this one for the majority of the sound. The majority of the sound is here. That's interesting. So this top oscillator is really just our attack, and it's not giving us very much in the overall sound. Let's turn this oscillator off, right? This oscillator is Onley contributing to the attack. That's interesting. If we turn this one off, all we're really gonna here's an attack. That's all the first oscillator is doing is just that. So if you play the two together, that first oscillator doesn't contribute a lot to it. It's the majority of it is here that makes me wonder where that filter tail is. Because I thought it was this that we're hearing. But it's not. It's this. So when we release from the sound, this is that filter closing that we're actually hearing is right there. All right, let's make it longer just to prove we're right. Yeah, we don't have our amplitude envelope going longer, so we don't really hear it as much, but it was definitely longer that time. Okay, Interesting. So this top oscillator is really just contributing to the attack and the sustain of the sound. They've put all in oscillator to So the interesting, um is our LFO doing anything? So they have a rate set LFO one and two are both on. Let's look at how they're applied. If we go to filter one, go to our LFO, nothing there. Nothing there filter to LFO a little bit just a little bit. So that's probably that motion that we were getting that I was attributing to the out of tune sound before. We're not really hearing any motion from the out of tune because this one is already done by the time that that motion starts, because this is a really short sound, right? So that motion that's this? Well, well, well, well, it's like Well, um well, like that speed, it's very slow, and we're only hearing a teeny, tiny bit of it because this is only up to 19. Okay, let's see if our amplitude is doing anything. No, and probably nothing here. Well, there's a tiny bit of L. A foe in the panning here that's interesting. So the panning is the light right toe left motion. So it's kind of swooshing right and left a tiny bet really quick in our first oscillator. But nothing in her second. So the l A. Foes are doing a little bit very subtle on the l A foes. Okay, then we also have a little bit of vibrato, a little bit of this unison mode. Souness in mode is kind of like a chorus effect. And glide is off glide, just like, ah, gliding between two pitches. Cool. So, um, a really interesting sound, right? We're getting nearly everything from the second oscillator. Let me just entertain me for a minute here. What if this second or the first oscillator wasn't so short? Right, So let's hear. Just the first house later. Right now we're going to keep that first house later up. Now, let's hear the sound way. Really? Hear that attitude feel? That's a big fat sound, right? Remember, the fatness comes from to square waves. Both inactive low. A little attitude. Nice. Okay, so that is fat Eric. The preset. Okay, cool. Uh, let's look at another one. 40. Preset: SadnessPad: okay for our next one. Let's take a look at a pat. Now, we've talked a little bit about pad sounds. A pad is usually a kind of slowly evolving sound. It's gonna have an amplitude envelope that fades in and fades out most of the time. Um, usually a lot of motion within the sound. So LFO is probably doing something that might be a little bit of tuning business. Um, let's just grab sadness pad, all right? Because it's that kind of day. Okay, So what do we hear from that? Okay, so think about the sound. Is it a thick or a thin sound? I really hear two distinct layers in there. I hear something that's, like, relatively clean. Not quite a sine wave. Probably. Um, maybe it's probably not a sawtooth. Probably. Triangle wave would be my guests on one of the oscillators. The other one is a little grittier. Maybe a square. Definitely a long Ah, attack on the amplitude envelope. Um, the release on the amplitude envelope is probably long to, but here is getting cut off. So we're not really hearing the release here on the little preview E. I think we've got a filter that's on an envelope that slowly opening. So it's kind of opening throughout the course of that. Okay, let's take a look. Attendance pad. OK, so this looks totally different, right? It's because this is a group. This is unable to thing. We can actually get to what we want to get to by just going here. Um, so this means that there are some effects on this. Also, there's a chorus in a reverb on it. Chorus could be contributing to a little bit emotion in that sound, but ah, probably not a whole lot. Um, so let's hear the sound it is. All right, let's hear the release I'm releasing right now. Okay, So a good amount of release, Okay, So Ah, I was close with the oscillators. I have a square wave here in a saw tooth here, so not a triangle, but a saw tooth. Okay, we have also later one going to filter one oscillator to going to filter to. Okay, so nothing were there. Um, a tiny bit of out of tune happening in the second oscillator. You know, it's 0.6 out of tune, and this one is perfectly in tune. They are an octave apart. Okay, so are us later. One is down and active and are other oscillator is up inactive, actually. Sort of two octaves apart. Um, so interesting. Okay, are filter does have an envelope on it. So this is a slow, pretty slowly opening filter, right? And then, ah, it's got a little closing to it as well on the release. Um, and these little green dots here, this is just enable 10 thing. That means that these parameters are also being controlled out here by one of these. So filter cut off filter residents there. Um, OK, but that filter is pretty closed at the moment, but it's gonna open up right with this envelope. It's looking Are other filter both of these air low pass filters. This one really similar envelope? Basically the same envelope. No residence being controlled here. Though it's interesting on our amplitude envelope. Slow fade in right, as predicted and a not extremely long release. But, um not a short release about what I expected. The same thing. And the other amplitude envelope our LFO is on. It's said to be very slow. Um, let's look at what that's doing? Let's go back to our filter. LFO is not doing anything there. LFO is not to be anything there. Amplitude envelope. LFO is not doing anything there or there. There's a lot of LFO in the pulse width that's going to change. Ah, elements of the, um, wave form. It's gonna kind of widen out the wave form a little bit. That's kind of what the pulse with does. So it's gonna be controlling the tone of the way form that affects the tone. Is that true down here also? Ah, not really. I mean, a very, very small amount in the pitch modulation that's going to kind of wobble to pitch a little bit. Um, but I mean, that's extremely subtle. So the LFO is goingto be changing the tone through that pulse width parameter, which is really interesting. Okay, a little bit of vibrato on it, um, and nothing else. So let's hear. Just oscillator. One, it's quiet. Okay, let's hear just oscillator to There's a lot of that wobbliness here. So where is that wobbliness coming from that ringing in, in, in, in, in, in, in, in, in in it. It's fairly fast motion, but it's not coming from our LFO. Let's see no elephants here. A little bit pitch modulation, but we hear a lot more than that. Where would that be coming from? Yeah, it is coming from just that little bit of LFO like if I crank it up right, that's pitch modulation. It's gonna adjust the pitch, make it move up and down with the LFO. So if we just do this tiny little bit, I think it was your zero point six was the default. It's just giving it that little bit of back and forthright, so interesting. So the LFO is affecting this pitch modulation, which is gonna make the pitch go up and down. So with just this tiny, tiny bit on there, it's just kind of doing a slow wobble of that pitch. Just a won't want. Well, almost like a vibrato. Ah, but a little more longer than a vibrato usually is interesting cancer. Here is everything together Nice rich pads out, girl 41. Think Or Thin?: okay. In this next section, I want to talk about how we make a sound and kind of my thinking. For what? I'm trying to dial something. It. Okay, so I'm gonna go through kind of the four elements and kind of what I think about when I'm trying to make a sound. So, first of all, I usually have a pretty good idea of the sound that I'm looking for before I start messing with the knobs. They don't have to. You can totally just start twiddling knobs and find a great sound. But I like to have a pretty good idea. So I think, um, I kind of think through these four things and that gets me really close to what I want. Then I might kind of find tune it, um, and explore the instrument that I'm working on a little bit. But in general, the first thing I think about is do I want a thick or thin sound. Okay. So step one thick or thin. Um, that is going to drive me right to my oscillators. Right? So if I want a thick sound, I'm probably going to go square waves. If I want a thicker sound I'm gonna use to square waves. If I wanted even thicker sound, I'm going to de tune one by just a little bits. Um, you know, maybe eight or so, Um, that's going to set me up with a pretty thick sound, right? Not bad for starters, right? If I want a thin sound, I'm going to go to sine waves. Right. Um and if I want anything in between, then I'm going to start playing with sawtooth, um, triangles if I have, um, I guess I don't have triangles here. Sawtooth would work. Yeah, right. Little bit thinner. We're gonna pull those back in tune, right? That's gonna thin that out a little bit. Um, I could best with octaves, maybe I want toe boost this up. Inactive. I could boost both up. Inactive, maybe one up, two octaves. That's going to give me. Ah, thin sound, but octave separated, so it's gonna be a little bit thicker. Ah, uh, right. Um So the question of thick or thin really rests in the oscillators. There are some things you can do with the filter in the amplifier and the LFO to make sounds thick or thin, but the lion's share of that question. Whether or not you're making a thick sound or thin sound rests in the oscillators. And what you're looking for is the shape of the weight form. And then you can get a little bit more out of the D tuning them a little bit. Okay, so that's step one that I think about when I'm programming a sound. I want to fix sound or thin sound or something in between. 42. High Or Low?: Okay, so here's a sound I have. So the next question that I ask myself is higher. Low, right? So the first question Thicker, thin. Second question higher, low. And when I'm asking myself higher low, I'm not thinking about the actual note that I'm playing because I can play low notes. I can play high notes. That's not what I'm asking. I'm asking about the frequency content within the sound. So I have a lot of high stuff or do I not have a lot of high stuff? Right? So right now, uh, I have a good deal of high stuff in there, remember all that bussiness? That's high stuff. So there's a good bit of high stuff in there. So when I ask higher, low, what I'm really talking about is what are my filters doing, right? Are they going to give me a lot of high stuff, or am I gonna pull that high stuff away? Um, so if I don't want a lot of high stuff, I want a low pass filter. Maybe a next Ah, fairly quick one like the 24. Or maybe just the 12. Let's turn off oscillator to for a minute just here. Okay, so let's say I want less high stuff. Pull that back. Right? Maybe I still want a little bit more high stuff, but down in this area and add some residents Right now, I've pulled back on the high stuff. What if I want Low Star? You know what? If I want a lot of high stuff, so right now I'm pulling back on the high stuff. Um, but if I want to boost the high stuff, I'm going to switch this to, Ah, high pass Right now. I'm pulling out the low stuff, right? I don't want low stuff. No. Right. That's it was a weird sound. It's like cicadas, but, um, that might be what I want. So I'm asking myself the frequency content of my sound. Do I want a lot of high stuff? A lot of low stuff? Not a lot of either. Just a lot of stuff right in the middle. That could be, um, so you might use a notch or a band pass. Probably band pass if you want. Just the stuff in the middle. So that's the question. So as we dial things in, let's go back to its to a high pass. 12 to go there. It's plot of residents. Eso not very much high stuff. Let's turn our second oscillator back. Um, well, everything is going to filter one here and then down to filter to. So I got to think about my routing also while I'm doing this. So let's simplify this. And let's say this is all gonna go to filter too, and none to filter to from here. So we're gonna go straight across with all of it. Okay, so with this one to do the same thing, we're gonna roughly the same filter. Okay, so I've pulled out most of the high stuff. Still leaving a good bit of high frequency content in there to add a little bit of bussiness. So question to hi stuff and low stuff. 43. Short Or Long?: Okay. Question three. Short or long. Okay. So do I want this to be a short sound? Do wants to be a long sound. You could also think of it like Do I want this to be a a Ah, quick sound. A sound that just comes on quick and his aggressive. Or do I want this to be a slow sound that involves Now, If you've been following along, you know exactly what I'm talking about here. If I'm thinking about shortened long in terms of my sound, what am I thinking about? I'm thinking about the envelope, right? Specifically, I'm really kind of thinking about the amplitude envelope, but I might be thinking about the filter envelope as well. Although the filter envelope will fall more into our fourth question, which I'll get to in just a second. So the amplitude envelope shorter long. Right now, we have a pretty short sound right, because I can play a short sound if I wanted to. So if I wanted to make it a long sound and give it a little bit longer entrance might give it a longer decay, right? Maybe boost the sustain right and let it just kind of die away. Ah, so I would call that a long sound because it's more delicate. Short sound's gonna have a short attack. A short, um, release. So the shape of the sound is this kind of third thing that I think about. Okay, let's go into the fourth and final thing. 44. Motion Or Stillness?: um, OK, the fourth element that I think about is motion or stillness. Okay, So when I'm talking about motion in that sound like right now, we have not right that sound. Once it gets up to its sustaining point, it just sits there, right? Like, right now, it's not doing anything. There's no motion in this sound. It's just playing the sound. So do I want that? That would be what I call stillness in this case, or do I want motion in that sound and how much motion do I want? So the parameters that we would look to for motion or stillness Ah, there are actually a few. One would be the tuning right. I could go back to tuning and create a little bit of motion by adjusting the tuning. Uh ah Ah, oops, my second and fires off just by d tuning, you know, a tiny bit. I added this this bit of motion just from it being out of to, uh, you speed that up just a little bit, pulling it a little farther out of town, right? Do you feel that it's a It's a subtle motion, but it's in there. Okay, let's get rid of that. Okay, Now, another kind of motion we could do would be a filter envelope, right? Ah, we could do something like this. Turn off us later to for a second. Ah! Ah! Okay, let's let this filter slowly open. Ah, here. That's 11 it's opening up. That's a good amount of that's a something that involves motion. So let's do that on folder to also What the heck? Uh, okay, um, there's also the LFO right? I can create a lot of motion here. Let's from both LFO is on. Let's set them to be slightly different to make a good deal. Emotion, Um, let's set them to the division of the Beats. Let's say like this one. Be an eighth note that will be pretty fast. And let's set this one to be 1/4 note would be half is fast. Okay, so now let's go to our amplifier. Put a little bit of motion on that one. Let's just listen to also later, one for a second. So that's in the panning, right? So now we're gonna go back and forth on 1/4 note. That's a good amount of motion. Can also do it with the volume. Ah, right now if I do it over here with LFO two, I have a ton of motion to back on our oscillator to now. I've got a ton of motion in this sound. So those are the Those are the four kind of steps that I take when I'm making a sound. First I think about Do I want a thicker, thin sound Then I think about Do I want a lot of high or low frequency content in this sound Then I think about do I want it to be a short sound or a long sound which is gonna inform how I shaped by amplitude envelopes that last I think about Is this sound full of motion or is it mostly stillness? Is it? Does it Does it lack motion? That's kind of my four things right that I that I walk through, no matter what software I'm using one or what kind of sound I'm making. That's kind of my process. Okay. I think next it's time to, uh, look at how all of this applies to some other instruments. Right? So let's dive into another instrument and see if we can find all the same things and learn some unique qualities of some other instruments. 45. Moving On...: Okay, so now we know the basics of synthesis, right? We know what oscillators are. We know it fills. Filters are we know it. Envelopes are we know what the 80 s are. Envelope curve. Does we know all the basic parts of some attractive synthesis? But we're only getting started. There are a bunch of different kinds of synthesis, not just tools for synthesis. What I've shown you so far, you should be able to do and just about any kind of synthesizer that is a subtracted synthesizer or it's based on some attractive synthesis. But you might have in a synthesizer in front of you. And you're saying like there are knobs here that don't make any sense with what you're talking about. That is probably because it's a different kind of synthesis. Now, what you're gonna find in these other kinds of synthesis that we're looking at is that a lot of it still holds true. A lot of the basic oscillators way forms, envelopes, all that stuff, filters. All of that is still in there. There's just a couple different things about how they're combining it. And there might be a couple different things about, um the initial sound generating thing, the oscillator. So what we're gonna do next in this class is we're going to go through, uh, some of the other types of synthesis. Cool. But I just want toe emphasize that you're going to see repeating things over and over. Oscillators, filters, envelopes. You're going to see those all over the place. Uh, so let's talk about some of the other types of synthesis that we're gonna look at in this class. 46. Other Types Of Synthesis: Okay, So the other types of synthesis that we're gonna talk about in this class now remember that there are actually a lot of different kinds of synthesis, and every a decade or so, a new kind of comes out. Somebody invents something new. Um, but the main ones that we have to use for music that we're gonna focus on here are subtracted. Said this is that we've already looked at, uh, FM synthesis, which is similar to subtracted in many ways. But if you think about but one way to think about FM sentences, that's different is that what we're going to do in FM is we're going to take multiple wave forms and kind of tie them together in a way that they affect each other. So we'll get into that in just a second. After that, we're going to look at additive synthesis, which is, uh, ah, lot like subtracted, but the opposite where we just stack wave forms, um, that we're gonna look at wave table synthesis, which is ah, whole other can of worms entirely. However, again we will see thes similar things filters, envelopes, oscillators. Although the oscillators worked very differently in wave table synthesis, uh, last will be physical. Modelling of physical modelling is very math heavy. We won't have to do math because these instruments in these tools, the software that we use, keeps a lot of the math out of our hands, so we don't have to worry about the math all that much. But, um, it's really cool. It's probably the best technique for creating riel world sounding things like if you want to synthesize a flute and he wanted to sound like a flute without using a sample of a flute . Physical modelling is probably way to go, so we have tools to do all of these things. So, uh, in the next chunk, we're going to focus on F M synthesis eso Let's get right into it. 47. What Is FM?: all right. Time to talk about F M synthesis. So what we're gonna do in FM synthesis that's different than what we were doing before. When it comes to FM synthesis, what were really thinking about here is it's kind of like the LFO that we looked at before , but supercharged So when FM synthesis, what we do is we have two different kinds of signals. We have a carrier and a modulator, and it's just like before when we had an oscillator and then we put it all fo on it, right. The LFO would change the some parameter of the oscillator and make it move right, so we would use a low frequency LF low frequency oscillator, in order to modulate some element of the main oscillator. That's what LFO did. So what we're doing now is we're going to say, What if my lfo that's modulating something. What if it wasn't so low? What if we actually crank that up to be up into audio range and then we used it to modulate something that is essentially FM synthesis stands for frequency modulation. So we're going to use another frequency to modulate a first frequency so that first frequency is called the Carrier. Uh, and the other frequency that's doing the modulation. The kind of supercharged LFO that's called a modulator. So what I'm looking at here is a program called FM eight. This is one of my favorite FM programs. Um, it it looks a little, uh, gnarly when you get into kind of all of the different elements of it, But it's actually relatively simple. Don't worry. So we're gonna go over how to use this program and what this is all about, um, in the next section. But let's first talk a little bit about what FM sounds like. Okay, so let's talk about some musical examples in the next video. 48. Musical Examples of FM: Okay, so let's talk quick about what is this stuff? Actually sound like so FM synthesis really came to popularity in the eighties. If you hear a lot of eighties pop music, a lot of those are using FM synthesis. Uh, it was primarily due to, um, the DX seven synthesizer, probably. But there was a few other sense on the market that we're really making FM popular at the time. Now that doesn't mean that FM is going to make your stuff sound totally eighties? Not at all. There's a lot of really cool stuff being done with FM and and, um, a lot. Let me just say that again. There's a lot of FM's and this is in all kinds of music right now. Um, so I'm gonna give you a couple examples that it really kind of over the top with FM. Um, it's more common that you'll hear FM used in combination with everything else, so it's not so drastic. But to give you a sense of that kind of eighties FM sound, I thought, probably the most appropriate thing. That's new. It's modern. Uh, but it really takes advantage of that eighties FM sound is most of the music in the TV show Stranger Things. This is super FM synthesis. Eso Let's just hear a touch and I'm just going to tell you I think everything we're hearing in this opening theme is FM's. - Okay , so just a touch. Their, um, that's all FM synthesis. That's very very FM, and it really calls back to us that eighties sound. Here's another example of, uh, FM kind of over the top use of FM's, and this is. But if you listen to anything in the genres synth wave, um, Synthe Wait. Music is very, very FM heavy. So here's just some examples of some synth wave music. So what did we hear in both of those examples? But this and the stranger things where there's kind of really kind of big bass tones bone with a lot of grit to them that's very characteristic characteristic of FM. Also, higher end sounds those really bright sounds, almost with like a bell like texture. That's a common thing we hear in FM. Um, even I think these drums in attract like this could be a maybe, maybe not, But you can do drums with FM. Um, there's a lot of different uses of FM. Um, it's not just these over the top ones. I'm showing you here. So So what We hear in this one all of those layers of sense. Very hi stuff. The stuff in the middle of definitely the base. So there's a lot of different things you can do with FM, and it's a very it can be a very characteristic sound, but there are also more subtle ways to to use it that are not so over the top like this. I just kind of wanted to play you some of these over the top ones just to get a feel for, um, what it sounds like. So you've definitely heard FM before? Um, it's in that nearly everything in one way or another. So let's go. Let's talk one more time. Kind of about the main thing that makes it different than, uh, subtracted synthesis that we've looked at so far. 49. What Is The Same?: Okay, So we're going to dive into how to use FM A starting in the next, um, video. But before we even get into how this piece of software works, I want to explain to you a few things about FM and how it works. And in particular, I want to talk about what's the scene. So if we just scroll through here and look at some of the parameters that we have access to in all of these different windows, you're going to see a lot of things that are familiar. Okay, we still have a telephone, right? We still have some control over Tambor. So brightness you can assume brightness is some kind of cute, right? That's probably gonna boost the high end in somewhere or another. Philosophy is terms that, you know, we have some effects here. Okay, We have envelopes, right? A D S r A D s are. So we have tambor envelope. Now, that might be a little bit different, but, uh, I don't think we've directly seen a Tambor envelope, but amplitude envelope, we know what that is. And we know in general what an envelope is. We kind of Guess what? That does a little bit, right. An envelope is gonna change something over time. If we go to this expert level, which is where we'll be working in just a minute, we can see wave forms, right? We have sine waves. Ah, triangle, way square wave sawtooth. We have a lot more way forms, but we still have our familiar, you know, favorites sine wave square waves. We can invert it. We can add a pitch envelope. We can adjust the velocity. So there's a lot of familiar stuff here. Uh, let's go look at so our master section polyphony, Unison pitch, pitch transposition our Pesci ator these air familiar things. We'll go over more of this in just a second. If you look down here, we have some noise. Noise amplitude, rez. Oh, you should know what Rizzo means now That's short for resonator. That's a type of filter, right? A. The resonance on a filter boosts that cut off. We've seen that before so we can guess what the's air going to be doing. There's the cut off, so and there's the residence, right? So that's a filter right there, and we have an envelope on it. So there's a lot of familiar stuff here. So, like I said two videos ago, the main thing that's different here is that we can have multiple Ossa leaders modulating each other. OK, so that's where this little Matrix thing comes into play. So with that being said, let's dive into the FM eight and talk about how to program this thing. And let's start with talking about the kind of unique thing that is this program, Um, and how to get it, how to install it. And then we're gonna go into how to program our own sounds with it. Okay, off we go into diving deep into the FM eight. 50. Installing FM8: Okay, so let's talk about the FM. Ate a little bit. So the FM eight, uh, is a plug in that's really designed to replicate the DX seven synthesizer. Um, the DX seven was a very popular FM synthesizer. It's It had kind of its heyday in the eighties when it came out, but there's still fairly popular. I mean, I love, um, my DX seven. I get my hands on it whenever I can. It's a great sense. It has all of these sounds built in, Um, it's a little hard to program because you've got these tiny little windows. It's a you know, it's a physical synthesizer, So the FM eight is a great way to use basically a DX seven. But it's a lot easier to program because you've got a mouse and a keyboard, and you can you know a much bigger screen. Then you do on the actual de acceptance, but it's designed to sound really similar to it, so this program is a plug in, but it's a plug in that exists in two ways, and some plug ins work this way. Um, it exists as a plug in so you can get this to work in Able 10 and Logic and FL in pro tools . Whatever you want. Once you install FM eight, you can call it up just like you call up an instrument and able to him or a plug in, uh, in any other software. If you install it, it'll appear in all of your software, but it also exists as a standalone application, which is how I'm using it here. So I'm not running any audio software any, you know, able to in logic. Nothing's open right now. I'm just looking at FM eight as a standalone application. So the reason I would do that, um, is just to kind of simplify my set up for the purpose of recording this. I really wouldn't very often use this as a stand alone because I don't have a good way to record and sequence with it unless I'm in another program, right? All I'm doing with it here is sound design. So what I could do, though with it in stand alone mode, as I could design sounds and then save them eso if I really wanted to go heavy into just sound design, not worry about sequencing or arranging or writing tracks just wanted to make really great sounds. I might launch this in stand alone mode, so I'm not distracted by anything else and just work on it that way. Either way works just fine. Now. It's made by native instruments, so you can buy it from native Instruments. It's not a free plug in. You can get it in, um, some of their different plug in bundles on, and there's some really good stuff in the Native Instruments bundle. Native Instruments is a very well known name for making high end plug ins, so I highly recommend you get your hands on it if you can. If you can't, there are many other FM programs, and we're not going to go so deep into FM eight that you won't be able to apply this toe. Other FM programs, including the stuff built into live or logic, um, or FL or any of the other ones. So don't worry. All of this will apply to your built in FM plug ins or FM instruments, but, uh, this one, I think, has the easiest to understand matrix. So I like using it to teach its a really good plug in for for showing people kind of how things are working. It also sounds great. So I recommend it. Ah, you can get a free demo of it on Native Instruments website. So if you want to just play around with it, go get the demo play around, see if you like it before you buy it. Okay, so once you get it, you download it, you install it. It installs to your system so it will show up on all of your audio applications. If you install it on a computer, you're a copy of Live will be able to see it logical. Be able to see it. Everything will be able to see it if you installed it correctly. Okay. I think that's all I need to say about what this is and where it comes from. Um, let's dive into it. And let's start with looking at the rouser 51. The FM8 Browser: Okay, let's look at the browser. So what we have in the browser and in this attributes section is ah, bunch of presets. Now the presets that come with FM eight are really great. There's a lot of them, and there's some really cool sounds built in here. Now. We don't want to spend very much time with presets because this is a sound design class of after all, So we want to build our own, write our own sounds, but it is worth pointing out, Uh, how to get some of these cute up. So if I go to the browser, um, and I can look at a couple different places where I have presets stored, and this is just kind of out of the box. This is what it more or less should look like for you. You might not CFM legacy from seven legacy. Um but if I go to instruments, I can see a whole bunch of presets here, right? And I can double click on one to queue it up on. I could just play it. I'm playing it with the keyboard. But you could click down here too, if you want. If you don't see this keyboard? Uh, there's Ah, I think right here. Yeah, this button here will show that keyboard. So you got a lot of great effects here. Okay? This one has an appreciator on it. I'm just playing one note, and it's scrolling through, playing a bunch of notes and you can see down here. Cool. You can also go to this attributes section, and you can say, um, kind of narrow it down. Uh, native Instruments has put this into a lot of different stuff. Um, now where you can just kind of drill down into finding things, uh, that you want to find types of sounds that you want a five by saying, like, FM factory Oregon digital organ and then ah FM. And then, uh, somewhere something's behaving strangely where I can say, Okay, Q, those up? Um, I'm sure why it's not queuing them up right now, but it's basically like a search function that lets you pull up different things in the browser. But there are a lot of presets. This is how you get Adam. Um, it's fun to play around with ease. And, you know, Q, some of these up, you know, you can hear that one. OK, that's pretty cool. Now we can go to the expert mode and see the routing for this. See the wave forms. We can look at each oscillator and what it's doing, and that can give us a clue as to how it's program now. This will make a whole bunch more sense in just a minute when we get into how to build our own patches, which I think we should do right now, so let's convert to that. 52. Building Your Own Patch in FM8: Okay, So when we comes to building our own patches, a lot of this comes down to this matrix. So what we're seeing here is we see an oscillator which is being modulated by another oscillator, right? And then this oscillator is modulating that oscillator as well. This oscillator can follow. The line is modulating it a swell. Let me use the letter names here. So he is modulating f at 60. So I'll talk about what that number means. Shortly. De is modulating F at 40 c is modulating FF 30 b is modulating. See, at 70 A is modulating be at 62 A is also modulating Z at 100 f is going to our output. That's down here at 100. And D is also going to our output at 100. So we're actually only hearing to oscillators here, Um d and F But there's, you know, six other seven other oscillators happening here, that air modulating each other. So, uh, this is where things get interesting, right? So don't worry. We're gonna go over how this works. It's actually more simple than it sounds. Um, then we just point out I'm not a super expert at FM eight. So, uh, if you post a lot of really complicated questions in this class and asked me how to do complicated things with FM eight, I might come up short on some of them. I know how to use FM eight. Okay, but there are people who are super Ninjas and FM eight, and I am not one of them. But I know enough to get us started, so let's do it. First thing we need to do is get rid of all this and go back to a default patch. Ah, ah, blank slate, if you will. Let's go to a new video and we'll do that. 53. Getting To the Default Patch: Okay, so let's clear this out now. Have. Because we still have this preset up here which you can play around with more presets just by clicking up here, by the way. But I want to clear this out because I don't want Teoh. I want to really understand what I'm doing here. So I want to start from scratch. You don't have to start from scratch. Like I said before, playing around with these presets and ingesting some of this stuff can be really fun and can really teach you a lot of what's going on. But let's go back to the beginning. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to go to this file button and I'm going to go to new sound, and that gives me a default patch. OK, now you notice with the default patch, we have one thing already set up oscillator F routed at 82. The output done. Okay, so what are we gonna hear if I play a note, we're gonna hear just oscillator F, which is a sine wave. We're just gonna hear a sine wave. Nothing else. There's no FM synthesis happening, right? Right now, this is all I'm hearing is a single oscillator. This could be any kind of synthesis, actually, because we're not doing anything to it yet. We're just hearing an oscillator. Okay, so if I click on FM are sorry, the f, uh I see these parameters for it. Okay. So what I have here is we're gonna call this our carrier oscillator. Okay? That's the one we're going to hear. Remember an FM. There are carriers, and there are modulators. So this is our carrier. This is the one going to the output, and we can change some settings here. We can change the way for him to something different. Saw, uh, these air familiar. We can experiment with some of these other wave forms, right. These are going to give us some more of those odd harmonics. These when? When you see four. Man for mint on a, um, wave form. Typically, that has something to do with, like, vowel. Sounds like the shape of someone's mouth. So if you see second through 10th for mint, they're gonna kind of almost sound like they're someone's going law or making some kind of viable sound. You can imagine someone doing that with your mouth. Um, I don't know what these TX Wave ones are. These are unique to something different things you can play around with. But let's go back to a good old sine wave, okay? Nothing fancy here. So what we have is a default patch, nothing going on except for a sine wave. And, um, that's it, actually, down here, we've got an envelope so we could make some changes if we wanted to. OK, so clearly, we have an amplitude envelope going on right now, so I could do this if I want to give it, you know, have the amplitude ramp down a little longer. Really long. Right? So if I want to do some kind of percussion sound, I'm gonna want to do this right. But let's keep it fairly open for Knox. We really want to hear the tone. The Tambor. Okay, let's leave it like that for now. Okay, so the next thing we need is a modulator. Okay, So let's go into making turning on e as our modulator toe f 54. Add A Modulator: Now, before I turn on my modulator, let me just point out this number here. I can change it by clicking and dragging on it. And I can also change it up here. So appear it says that's the amplitude level. And in this case, it is the amplitude level, right? But this is where things get a little confusing. So the amplitude level is also the modulation level. Okay, not so much here, because this is going to the output. But when I turn on E and let's just do it, so I have to right click to turn it on. Okay? And then once I turn it on, I give it some volume. Boom, and the connection is made. Okay, so now this is a vote. An amplitude level of 66. Okay, but in this case, we would call it a modulation level, because the amount of volume I send from E in tow f is going to be the amount of modulation I sent to it. Right, because that's because it's modulating it. So it is. The modulation level is the same as the amplitude level. Okay, so if I do this, I've turned oscillator e on, but we're not gonna here anything different with your hair. There you go. That's a nice note. Okay, Where I could hear anything different because it's not doing anything. So let's turn this up slowly and you'll hear the effect of the FM. Uh uh uh Uh huh. Uh uh. OK, so I was still playing the same note all through that we still heard the same pitch, but the Tambor adjusted fairly wildly. Right, Because we are adjusting the we are adjusting the modulation amount two f from E. Okay, now, this is where things get even more interesting. I can put an envelope on e right, so I could make it so e ramps up if I wanted to. Okay, so now the member, this is an amplitude envelope right now. So but amplitude is modulation. So the modulations go slowly turn on over this envelope and then ran back off Really quick . War, war, war, war. All right, let's make that even longer. So that's the volume turning up, the modulation cranking up. So we start at just a sine wave and we end with fairly modulated sound. Uh, okay. Fairly interesting. Let's change that back so that we're just hearing the modulation. Um well, tale at the end. Cut like that. Um um Um, okay, Now let's get even weirder. Let's look at this ratio up here. So 1.0 means ah, the pitch that's coming in is the pitch. It's coming out. We can adjust the ratio. What that's going to do is act is kind of a pitch multiplier. So the pitch that I put into F might be a different pitch. Okay, so but it's gonna be related. So if I say 1.0 and I play would ever note I'm playing here a flat. So I'm playing in a flat on my keyboard. That means F is playing in a flat, and F is being modulated by an A flat from E. But if I put for example to here now, it's an octave higher. Okay, so I'm gonna flip it inactive higher, and that is going to change the tone, right? Pretty significantly. Um, I go four, which is gonna be for actives. Higher ups, right? So now it's changed quite significantly because the pitch I'm putting in there is a lot higher. Um, and then if you want to get some really odd frequency stuff. You can change these. You're gonna get partials. Once you get into some of these odd numbers on, you'll get things like that, right? If you stick to whole numbers, you'll get nice clean sounds. If you more or less do divisions of a whole number, you'll get some strange over time. That's a real distance, right? So let's go back Teoh before for even if I can get it. Ah, most way cool. So now I have a carrier and a modulator. They both have envelopes. My modulator is four octaves higher. I've got a nice, simple FM sound going up, and this is the basis this is. What FM synthesis is is exactly what we've done so far. There's other bells and whistles. Weaken do. But this is the crux of it. Okay, so let's keep going and let's had another modulator and start experimenting a little bit 55. More Modulators And Experimenting: Okay, so now it's time, Teoh. Get a little more complicated, Having more fun. So, uh, let's turn on some mawr modulators, okay? And then what we're gonna find is that we can adjust where they go. Okay, so I'm going to right click on D to turn it on, and then I'm going to click on it once again so that my settings over here turned Teoh be what I'm looking at from D, Right? So remember, that's very important. You have to right click to turn it on. If I just click on See here. We're going to see this. All all of this stuff is applying to see, but C is still not on. I have to right click to turn it up. Okay, so it's back to deep. So D's on. I could give it some volume to see its routing. Okay, so now I'm routing to E. I condemn it. A modulation amount to see to route to the next one. And let's let's just go. Not to turn them all on. Okay, so let's see, what's happening here is modulating. F d is modulating. E c is modulating d B is modulating. See a as much. Leading beat. Okay, it sounds pretty cool. Now, your modulation when you just turned up, the volume might not have done this. Might have done something different. Um, and the reason is up here. Okay, So if you want to change what goes to what You want to look at all of these options here. Okay, so there's a bunch of different ones, including empty. So if I just click on one of these, my modulation changes. Hey, so I can adjust these to be different settings. And that's how you change. What goes to what? As far as I know, you can't just click and drag to make something go to something else. It has to be one of these. Um but there's a lot of options here, so you can see in this one. What's happening is he is modulating. F d is graduating. E c is modulating. F b is much in seeing a is modulating beat. Let's change just the modulation, but leave all the settings of same and hear how it changes the tone. Ah, same settings, but different routing. Ah, Okay. One more, maybe. Ah ah, right. So the routing does change quite a bit. Um, so play around with that. Have some fun. Now, once you're done, um, once you've made something that you're really into, your really digging And don't forget you've got all of these settings over here to play around with is well, for each oscillator. Okay, so once you've done that, um, go to save as give it a name, save it. And then it should come up in, uh, your list of sounds back here at the browser. Okay, So this is how FM works, right? The the key principle here is that we're modulating oscillators with other oscillators with other frequencies. Were using a frequency to modulate another oscillator, hence FM frequency modulation. So there's a lot more you can do here. We've kind of just scratched the surface. But what I really wanted to show here was the principle of FM synthesis will look deeper at it when we look at some patches in kind of the recipe section. So, um, but this should really help you understand what's actually happening. And remember, you can do this in a bunch of different programs. You don't have to use FM eight. Um, cool. Offensive. This is 56. What Is Additive?: Okay, up next. Let's talk about additive synthesis. Now, Um, see, first, before I talk about additives and assist, this is my very first video recorded with a sleeping baby next to me. So, um, hopefully I'm speaking my normal volume. I think I'm probably a little quieter than normal, but we'll see how it goes. I might never do this again, but right now I have no choice. So here we go. Um, okay, what is additive synthesis? Well, let's think back to what subtracted synthesis. Waas right with subtracted is and this is we made a complicated way for him. Then we use filters to peel laters of it away, right? With additives in the system. It's, uh, in principle much easier, right? Because we're just gonna add things and we're not gonna peel things away. We can still use filters on it if we want, but most of our sound design comes from adding layers, so that doesn't mean we're just going to start piling things on. Really? What we're paying attention to here is the partials involved in each oscillator. Okay, so we can we can do this two ways. We can add a bunch of oscillators, or we can make a more complex oscillator. Okay, so we're gonna have to look at partials a little bit And how Parshall's work, which we've already talked about. But I think this kind of synthesis is going to lead us down a road of needing to look at partials a little closer. So we'll do that in this section. Um, but really, additive synthesis is relatively simple. It's easier than FM, and it's easier than subtracted. In many ways, we're just gonna add sounds together in order to make a more complicated sound than just a simple oscillator. So let's get started by talking about some what this sounds like and some kind of famous examples of it. 57. Music Examples Additive: all right. So probably the most famous sound that comes to us from additive synthesis is the Hammond organ. Okay, so the human organ uses ah, multiple oscillators to create an additive synthesis sound. And it sounds like this that organ sound in there again in the higher voice. Okay, um, I just want to point out really quick. I never read YouTube comments, but this one that's popping out right down here, my go to song on my friends forced me to sign up for karaoke. That's funny, because there's no there's no words in this on, um, funny anyway, uh, great example of the human organ additive synthesis. Another one that you've probably heard before Still, um, looking at the Hammond organ, but a little bit different tone using additives. And this is the doors light my fire. You know that it would be true. Now listen to that synthesizer. That organ in the background just playing chords. Um, but in a rhythm, listen to kind of how gritty that actually is. Way so it it actually makes a quite gritty sound. Ah, when you do it really well, now, of course, just like FM, there are millions of other examples of this, Um, these are the kind of Hammond organ is just kind of the most simple example. But it shows you that, um, you can make dense sounds with this, you can make really great sounds, and it's used in a lot of different organ sounds. It's used a lot of different types of music and is, ah, lot more versatile than you might think by just saying we're just gonna pile up sounds Okay , so let's move on and talk about what is the same. What are familiar things that we know about other synthesis before we talk about what the new 58. What is the Same?: Okay, So when additive synthesis were mostly gonna play with the oscillators and or depending on how we do it, and I'll show you both different ways of doing it, um, we're gonna layer oscillators several oscillators. But other than that, the tools will be all familiar. Okay, so we're still gonna have our envelopes. Okay, so we envelopes were still gonna have l. F. O. S still gonna have filters, although we're gonna use him a little bit less. But we still do have filters involved, pitch envelopes, filter envelopes. Um, and then the tuning of our oscillators is going to be very important as well, but none of that will be new. Um, everything we're gonna use here for additive is going to be familiar to you. Okay, so, uh, we're just gonna kind of use everything that we know in a little bit different way, right? Instead of combining sounds together and have them modulate each other, word is gonna hear all the sounds that we're using. Right? So on FM, we drove oscillators into each other, but now we're just gonna let all those oscillators just come right towards the output, right? And just hear a mall. But we're gonna do it in such a way that we typically don't hear four different oscillators . But we hear well, we hear four different oscillators, but we don't want to hear four different pitches. We want to hear one pitch and then the other oscillators, contributing to that pitch by adding overtones. So I'll get into how that works right now. So let's go into this next section where we're going to use the able to operator to do this again. You can use all kinds of different devices to do this. There's hundreds of different synthesizers. Just about every synthesizer can do additive synthesis, so you don't need to find it a special kind of synthesizer for additive. Um, because most of them can do it. You know, the operator is not just in FM synthesize, heard not just an additive synthesizer. It does a whole bunch of things, but I'm going to use it for additive here. Okay, Off we go. 59. Setting Up Operator: Okay, let's get ourselves set up with an operator. So I'm here in a Bolton. I'm going to go to instruments and operator. Now, I can open this up and get all kinds of presets here and find some cool stuff now. Like I said, Operator is not just for additive synthesis, in fact, additives that this is a very relatively small thing that operator could do. But I like operator, um, for additive, because you can really see what it's doing really well. So it's it's good for demonstration purposes, and it's it's good for music purposes as well. So instead of dragging in any of these presets, I'm just gonna drag in the full, uh, just the operator device, and this is going to give me the default of it. Okay, so I'm hearing a sine wave. Okay? Nothing fancy. Um, So what? We have an operator here is we have four oscillators here A, b, C and D. Okay. And for each one, we have bees parameters. So if I adjust the envelope here, I just suggested it on B. If I go to a it's still up. Okay, so all of this stuff is contextual to what filter or what oscillator you've selected. So let's put that back up. Okay, then, over here, we have an LFO filter, some other envelopes and controls and then a main output. And this is where we're going to start because you will see up here all these little groups of dots. Okay, So this is where we get into all of the crazy things that operator can do. So what we want to dio for additive synthesis as look at how these oscillators are stacked because each one of these that I can click on rearranges what are oscillators air doing right? You can see a is yellow b is green Sea is teal dia's orange. And that's what these air doing here, right? So in this one, you can see d is going is going into C, which is going to be just going into a So what kind of synthesis is that they're all modulating each other and then a is going to the output that is FM synthesis. What is this one D and C are modulating B, which is then modulating a again. That's a different routing, but it's still FM synthesis because we're modulating each other here, see is modulating be which is modulating A and D is modulating a what kind is that still FM ? In fact, all of these are FM synthesis. Even this one where there's two outputs is still a type of FM. All of these Air FM Except for this one, this one is just nothing's modulating anything A, B, C and D all heading straight to the output. This is additive. So in order to get set up with additive synthesis, we need to select this one here. Okay, so select that one. Now we're in an additive synthesis mode. Now, let's go on and look at how we can build a patch. 60. Simple Additive With Waveforms: Okay, So the first way I'm going to do this is a fairly simple way of just using one oscillator and adding overtones to it so that we're not actually gonna need this because I'm only going to use one oscillator, so it's not gonna matter. Somebody go down here and use my first oscillator. I consumed the other ones off. Their levels are all the way down, so it doesn't really matter, but let's just turn them off for the fun of it. Now, what I can do And you can't do this in all programs, but you can do it in a lot of programs. But I'm gonna do is go to the oscillator here, and I see that I have a sine wave and it's playing one note, but I can draw in other notes. Now, the term note here is a little tricky. So this a sine wave has very, very few overtones, right? We've already talked about this about how overtones work. Um, and how the sine wave has the least of that. So we get this very pure sound right s so I can add in other overtones by just drawing them , and as I do this? Watch what happens to the way for him down here. Right, kind? A little more jagged. A zai Add more in. Let me, um, make a little bit better sound here, get rid of that one. So now I just added more tones and I altered the way for right. So all I did here was changed. The sign wave into a different shape of wave that would give me more over toes. So I'm just So this is additive. I'm just adding overtones. Right? So that's cool. I could do more like that one. You know, I could go nuts. I could just do that if I wanted. Right, That's kind of interesting, But to really do this well, we need to understand the overtone, Siri's, because I'm not because I kind of know where I can add in partials that are going to sound good and partials. Another word for overtones. Right? So get rid of this one. I kind of know that if I go every other, it's going to sound fairly good, really hard to get in their way way. The the higher I go, the more dissonant it's gonna get. But that's kind of a cool sound. Okay, so why do I know that? Why do I know that every other is going to sound pretty good? Well, the reason is because I know the overtone. Siri's Okay, So let's take a look at the overtone Siri's so that we can understand what's actually happening here pretty well, right? But the key to remember this, the key to remember in this thing that we're doing here is that by doing this, we're just altering the way form. Right? When I do this, if I do that, look at what I just did to the way for him, right? I've made this. What? What? Able to cause a user wave form? I just made a custom way for him because I added a whole bunch of oscillators are not oscillator. Sorry. I altered the way form, which adds a whole bunch of harmonics. It's the same thing we can do by just adding more oscillators, which is the second way we can do this. So I'll do that way in just a second. But first, let's talk about the overtones. Siri's, um, which we've talked a little bit about, but I want to look at it specifically so that we can see what each of these little vertical lines is doing here. Let's take a quick look at the overtone Siri's. 61. The Overtone Series: Okay, so we've looked at this before early on in the class, I think. But I just want to reiterate kind of what's going on. So this is the overtone Siri's. So when we kind of scroll up through the overtones of a particular pitch, this is the pattern that happens. It's always this pattern. It's not always these notes, but it's this pattern. So, for example, given a fundamental, the next note in the overtone series is going to be an octave higher. Okay, the note after that is gonna be 1/5 higher. The note after that is gonna be 1/4 higher or inactive two octaves higher than the fundamental. Okay, then it's gonna be inactive in 1/3 higher and then another fifth and then, ah, seventh. But the reason this symbol is backwards because that's kind of a not attuned note, um, that another active. And then it starts going, Ah, kind of chromatic from there on out. So if let's see, can I get thes side by side? So what that means is that here we go, here's my fundamental and there's my fundamental if I add in Mm uh so tiny for added this note. That's gonna be that note. It's gonna be an octave higher. Let's hear, though. Get away. Oops. My fundamental way. Okay, here's my fundamental. Okay, that's that. An active, Uh, Okay. Now I haven't active. If I had another one now I have an active and 1/5 above that. If I had another one, I'm gonna have another active. Another one. I'm gonna get stared. Ah, we owe Had another one. I'm gonna get another fifth on another one. I'm gonna get that attitude. Seventh, another one. I'm gonna get around from here. I'm gonna start getting, uh, some chromatic notes. It goes up to pass where we can hear. So, um, that's the series that we're getting here now. When I used every other before, what I was getting was this pattern. I was getting the fundamental of fifth above it, 1/3 above it. That seventh and then a second above it. That's what I noticed. Ah, and that just happens to be a good sounding Siri's. It makes a sound that I particularly like. I could also do the opposite. Um, where we start with the 2nd 1 This is another common thing to do. So I start with the second and then go every other from there. Oops. What that would make is fundamental in octave higher than another active than 1/5 then another active and then, uh, diatonic. From there, that sounds very different than the other sound. Right? So these air just patterns that tend to work well every other and then or what we call odd , which is this which is every other, but starting on the 2nd 1 So that's what we're getting here is we're just drawing overtones that are on this series of stuff. Cool. I know it's complicated and confusing, but, um, you know, you can just kind of use your ear and figure out what you like now. One other thing I'll point out is that typically what we do is something that looks kind of like this. We have them get quieter and quieter, has noticed that I was doing that. The reason for that is if they're all the same volume, it's going to sound like I'm playing a chord, right. You're because we're just hearing more notes. If I do this and this, we're gonna hear five different notes right on That's kind of strange, but if I stagger them kind of trail them down and they get quieter as they get louder. We really kind of here. Still. Ah, fundamental. A single note that is kind of the boss. And in these other overtones that support the boss, that's what we really want to hear in this. Otherwise, we start creating cords, which you can do. But that's that's this isn't a very good way to make cords. Um, you should, if you're gonna make chords, play courts on the keyboard. But don't make them here. You can. But it's not a great idea. Okay? I think I've beaten that topic to death. Okay, let's get back to the operator and talk about how to do this just by stacking oscillators by themselves. 62. Additive With Oscillators: Okay, so now let's do basically the same thing, but with different oscillators. So the first thing I'm going to do is turn my way, form back to just a normal side wave, okay? No. And it doesn't have to be. I could use a more complicated way form if I wanted to. Um Okay, so now I'm gonna go over here, and I'm gonna turn on my house leaders on. Okay, so oscillator one now, the pitch of us later. One. We are sorry. Ass later, A is gonna be our fundamental. Okay, so here's my fundamental. It's the only one I'm hearing right now because there's no volume on the others. Okay, So I can turn on us later, be with some volume. And right now, it's exactly the same factor in a off your the same thing. Just slightly quieter. So it's the same thing. So I want this one to be actually a different partial, a different harmonic right in the harmonic Siri's. So I'm gonna do that with course. So these numbers relate. Teoh these spots. Okay, so if I want this to be an octave higher, I'm going to just go to the second in the harmonic series, so I'm gonna put that at it too. Okay? No. God. A slightly more rich wait for and I can adjust the volume of it here, right? It's exactly the same as we were doing by drawing it in here and then adjusting the volume by moving it up and down. Okay, here, I could go up to three. Add that third harmonic. Give it some volume here. I could go to four or any number away. Right now. I've got a more rich town. That's actually sounds kind of very human organ. Like just by doing that now, I could get weirder with it and make these harmonics something more interesting. E right, That sounds pretty piercing. But what if I scaled these back these levels back a little bit? E. Okay, so now I'm primarily getting the fundamental down here, but a little bit of extra business on the top. Let's change this one down to 12. This one down, Teoh. Right? So I can really play with these in the same way I could take him out of tune. But that's gonna make things even more dense. E the So the difference between these two ways of doing it is here. I only have the option to do four. Right? I could only do four oscillators unless I could get weird with it and add a whole bunch in by drawing them into one of these. Now, oscillator B has a whole bunch of extra partials e and now things get even more complicated . But, um but that's basically it. So remember that in order to do this, we have to have this setting as additives. So they're all in line like that. So all four are going to the output, and then we just adjust our harmonics here, adjust the level, and we're good to get. 63. Apply Filters And Envelopes: okay from here, Let's take this back to good old sine wave e. And that's just e. Okay, so there's my sound. So from here, weaken do all the same techniques we were doing before we can add an LFO, we can add a filter. Although you don't want to go too crazy with a filter because all of those upper harmonics that we worked on adding, you're gonna lose if you start to add filters and peel things away. You know, we've kind of intentionally built those harmonics to be exactly where we wanted them, So filters are gonna pull that away, so we tend to not use very aggressive filters in additive synthesis. Um, but you might consider something like if I go over to my envelopes here, something like an envelope to ramp. One of the filters are one of the leaders. And so it adjusts over time a little bit. You can hear it turning out enough. So it is changing it slightly by doing that, Um, so l f O's anything else you want? Anything else you want to add? You can still add in to really craft the sound a little bit more so You can still do all of that, um, to help shape the sound. But, um, just remember to be a little careful with the filters because you don't want to rule in all your hard work of adjusting those partials Cool. Um, all right, uh, so that's additive synthesis. Next, we're going to start getting to some of the complicated stuff, So let's look at wave table synthesis where things start to get really wacky. 64. What Is WaveTable Synthesis?: okay up next. It's time to get a little stranger, but not really. The thing about what we're gonna look at next is that it looks a lot more complicated. But it's actually really only one thing that's primarily different. Um, so here's what that is. We're going to start looking now at wave table synthesis, so wave tables relatively new. I mean, it's been around for a long time, but it's new and that we have some really good tools to do it. You can make some really gnarly sounds with wave table. Ah, lot of those really big fat bases are using a wave table like really piercing leads are using a wave table. Anything that sounds like super digital might be wave table. So something to keep in mind. Um, so the main difference between anything else we've looked at and wave table synthesis is that with wave table, you have an oscillator. But the thing about the oscillator is that it's it can be changing over time. Okay, so, uh, let's pick that apart a little bit. So let's just look at this. So we're looking at serum here, and we're going to go into detail on serum in just a minute. Serum is probably the most popular synthesis plug in on the market right now. Ah, it happens to be a way of table synthesizer. So what we're looking at here is the one that's yellow. That's my way form. Okay, that's the waveform hearing right now. So that yellow one is the way from I'm hearing. But I have this long list of wave forms, right? All of these air, different wave forms, and I can scrub between them in that way. This is a table of wave forms. There are a lot of way forms in that table on, right. So I could make sounds that move within the table. Theo, what we're doing here is we're switching between wave forms very quickly if we decide to modulate the wave table. Um, So what we're going to do in a lot of things is well put. Ah, modulator. Something that will modulate the wave table and we'll hear it moving in the piece. This one, this particular passes just a preset I pulled up doesn't at least not right now, But you can see all of the different way forms, and in fact, we can go in and edit them. So if I look at this view, what I'm looking at is the current frame of the wave table. In other words, the current wave that we're using Theo Now they're very similar because whoever's designed this sound is put together similar way forms and ah, that sound good together. So they're not super random. But if I go to this edit button, you can see all the way forms here, and we can start to change them up. You know, we can do things to them. And drawing are now. This one is in there. Let's do this. All right, on. Let's just get really weird with it. I'm just gonna totally destroy this wave table. It's gonna add all kinds of really, really bizarre waves. Do it. Let's go all the way back to the beginning. Here. Really noisy one. That's going to be too noisy. Okay, okay. One more. Okay, so now let's get out of this. And don't worry, I'm gonna walk you through how to do that. So now you can see all the changes I made here, where it looks just super wacky theme kind of a cool sound, right? Moving through that. It's a super grimy. So that's what wave table synthesis is. Ah, lot of the other stuff that's in this plug in will be very familiar to you. We've got LFO is we've got envelopes, we've got filters. We'll go over all that just second. But that's the main principle behind wave table synthesis that instead of a single oscillator, we have a table of oscillators weaken, scrub through those, uh, oscillators through that table of oscillators. Cool. Think of a table as a list. There's a list of oscillators and we can are a list of wave forms, one oscillator, but a list of wave forms will This case, we have to oscillators. But, um, the wave forms are in a list and we can scrub between them very quickly. That's what wave table synthesis is. Okay, cool. So ah, let's talk about what it sounds like 65. Music Examples: Okay, so I'm looking around online for examples of wave table synthesis, and I'm trying to find something that says they used wave tables. And this is for all of it. Um, and I can't find ah released track, but I didn't find this little demo song by someone. So let's listen to this a little bit of this and you'll recognize these sounds You'll be like, Oh, I know those sounds from a lot of like, um, a lot of different genres air using this type of sound right now. So take a look. Uh huh. So, you know, cool stuff. You probably recognize those kinds of sounds. Here's another one that uses a lot of different wave table sounds introducing dockside go so good stuff. So before a bunch of you ask me, what is that track you're listening to? This is a demo track for a sound bank called Dark Side Funk. So just look for that and you'll find this track cool, so that gives you a little bit of an idea of what this sounds like. Um, it's very versatile, but it's really good at getting some of those big kind of dub step E um, just really aggressive sounds. Um, okay, So next with do the thing we've been doing for a lot of difference in this is which is Look at the main tools of this kind of synthesis and talk about what's familiar to us, what we already know. 66. What Is the Same?: All right. So we're gonna go into detail on serum in just a second, but just taking a quick overview. Look at it. What's familiar things we already know how to do. Right? So we have oscillator. A oscillator? Be right. So we have to oscillators now. The oscillators work very differently in ah, wave tables. And this is but we still have to oscillators, right? We have a filter, right? Weaken Set these filters to be a whole bunch of different things, right? Here's a low pass filter. Great. We know what that is. Easy. We actually have two more oscillators. We have sub oscillator and a noise oscillator. We've seen those before, especially a noise oscillator. Nothing strange there. Ah, we have envelopes. We have three different envelopes we have LF owes, we have 34 different LF owes velocity note some controls or the velocity and the note. All familiar things modulation. Uh, these are actually just empty modulation. Things that we can apply to different ah, parameters. So it's just kind of a blank dial that we can assign to do other things. Will. Look at that in just a second. Okay? We have a bunch of effects here. We've got distortion. Flander compressor phaser, chorus, delay, filter, reverb, eq you. These are all things we know how to deal with, um, accuse. We know re verbs. We know compressors. We know and distortion. We know so a lot of really familiar stuff here. So, uh, don't be too scared by how fancy this looks and how kind of techno daunting that it looks. Just remember that at the end of the day, we've got oscillators, filters, envelopes LF owes, you know, these are all things we know how to how to deal with and the envelopes. You know, these work the same. These air familiar to us. Um, a DSR right. That's all it is. Look down here. Attack, decay. Sustained release. It's got ahold parameter. I think we've seen the hold parameter before. That's not totally unique, uh, to serum. But other things do use Ah ah, hold parameter after the attack. So I think we have seen that before. Okay, So some familiar stuff, right? The main thing that's changed here. It's just the way that are oscillators work in this wave table kind of setting. So all that being said, let's dive into serum and learn how this sucker works. 67. Setting Up Serum: Okay, So, um, just like before with the FM eight serum is a separate plug in. Okay, so Ah, this doesn't come with a Bolton. But it does run in any, uh, audio program that you're using. So it doesn't matter what program you're using. You're gonna get yourself a copy of serum, um, and then install it and then it will come up as, ah, plug in in anything. So for me, I go to plug ins. Here's my list of all my plug ins, and then it shows up here, and then it just drag it onto a track. If you've already dragged it onto a track and you're unable to click this little wrench looking thing to get the editor to come up If you're in different software, just find your plug ins and loaded onto a track. Um, I don't know if serum works as a stand alone like the way I was using the FM eight. It might. I've never tried that, but I'm going to use it inside able to end this time. And here's the super important thing. If you're using logic pro tools FL Studio, um, que base any of the other ones serum will look and act exactly the same. That's the beauty of something being a plug in, Is that it? It is its own program running inside another program. So it works totally the same Mac PC, whatever program you're in. Uh, so serum is made by ex for records. That's the letter X, um, an f e r x for records. Um, so Google that you'll find serum, you can buy it. Um, I think it's about 190 bucks. Um, you can also get it through spice for, like, nine bucks a month. If you do, they're like rent to own thing. If you're a member of spice, that's a pretty good deal. Um, so it is a rather expensive plug in, but it is very popular right now. In a ton, people are using it for a ton of things. So, um, so there are other plug ins that you can use to do wave tables and desist. There are a ton of them. Probably the most popular is if you're able to. In user Able 10 has its own built in wave table synthesizer just called wave table. Ah, that's only available in live 10. So if you're using an earlier version of live, you won't have that. Um, so in live 10 there's a new one called Wave Table. Um, massive is another very popular one. Another native instruments Plug in massive is great at making big, gnarly sounds I love massive. I decided to use serum here instead of massive just because I already used a Native Instruments thing and I thought it be nice to show a lot of different stuff. So I went with serum instead. But massive also has great sounding stuff that you could make with it. Okay, so use whichever you like. Ah, again, just like the other ones. We're not going to go in a new insane amount of detail on every knob and button of serum, uh, in this class right now, but we're gonna talk about how to make wave table pounds using it, so we will go over the basics of how it works and let's do that now. So off we go into the basics. Found serum works 68. Serum Basic Layout: Okay. First, let's look at just the basically out of how serum works S O. I have to oscillators kind of four oscillators. Right? So I have oscillator a, um and in this case, I have a way of table loaded up. And this is one that modulates the way form that I'm in. Just kind of cool. So I'll Slater a oscillator be currently off to turn it on. I have to hit this little blue pill here. Ah, and then the other two oscillators that are sort of oscillators. So I have a sub oscillator here from working, making one of those big, gnarly, low bass sounds. I might want to turn that on, give myself a little extra in the bottom. But I also have a noise generator here to add a little bit of noise to it. I've got a couple different flavors of noise that I can play with and some parameters for the noise. Okay, so I've got parameters for, um, I'll cider a parameters for us later be. Most of these are gonna be familiar. I've got up here. I've got octaves, semi tone, fine tuning. So I've got tuning parameters up here down here. I've got a little more de tune phase which will be important when it comes to the, um, wave table elements of it. And then down here, I've got, uh my wave table position WT pause, wave table, position the warp type, which will talk a little bit more about later when we talk about the wave table than panning and level. Right. So panning is our left right mix and levels just the volume of it. Same thing on oscillator to we've got a filter here that we can turn on or off. We've got a bunch of filter types. If we go to normal, we've got your normal filters that you would expect. But then you've got some interesting, like comb filters, some phasing filters on some really kind of strange filter types that you can play with here, and we'll leave that off and then familiar filter controls here. One interesting thing is that the routing is a little sneaky here. It's hard. Sometimes it's hard to notice this. So ah, what's going into the filter? The thing the oscillator is going into the filter are on Lee. What? Selected? Right here. So right now, a is going into the filter. But if I want be to go into the filter, I have to turn it on here. If I want the noise to go into the filter, I have to turn it on here. And if I want the sub to go into the filter, have to turn it on there. So don't forget about that. If you're adding stuff to the filter, Okay, Down here I have those empty modulation settings that I was talking about. So this would be like if I had a modulator on my keyboard that I wanted to map to this dial . I could do it. Ah, mapping is really interesting in serum. It's a really cool interface. You can actually just click and drag this onto the parameter that you want. So let's make it my filter cut off. And then that parameter is now mapped to that filter cut off. And I can adjust the ah, the amount that it can go right, so I could make it so it's not as extreme. Okay, so now if I turn this filter on, I can adjust that cut off by adjusting that we're not seeing it, but That's OK. So we're controlling that here. It doesn't update, but that's what we're controlling. Um, okay, so, envelope, same deal. We can We can click and drag this to make the envelope apply to whatever we want. Let's make this envelope apply to our panning so I can drop it there. And now this envelope is controlling our panning. Right? So that's gonna be our pan envelope too. I can make that apply to whatever I want, um, de tuning by dragging it there. And now envelope too is de tuning. So that's how the envelopes work. There are three envelopes. Um, you can just drag this onto which ever thing you want to apply to the envelope and you confined to never look down here. LF owes same deal, we have four different LF owes and we can do whatever we want to them. This one is modulating the wave table position already. So you can kind of see that happening, right? See how this is going up in the same way that this is going up? If you want to change that around wait Turn that noise back off. So I've added a whole bunch of weird filters and things to make it sound really strange. But your point So l f O's similar deal. Um, other things I want to point out. We have appear and effects tab so we can turn out effects. And they just get stacked up like this if we want to find tune anything we want to readjust , Um ah, we can reorder our effects, which will change the sound in some situations. Um, in a lot of situations, actually, so we can change that. Um, And weaken still, you know, our telephones and envelopes are still up here so we can apply. You know, if we want this l a photo, apply that to the phase of the Flander. We can do that. So these are effects built in our matrixes, that mapping that we've been doing and kind of some fine tuning for it. So this is lfo I mapped to the or it was already mapped to the wave table position. I could adjust that a little bit, make it go forward or backwards or kind of a boomerang style where it goes back and forth. So I can really kind of find tune it that way. So That's our basic layout. Um ah. Lot of familiar stuff. Right? Um, I do really like in serum this kind of mapping ability to just kind of dragged the parameter onto whatever you want it to be applied to. Gets really slick. Kind of minimizes some confusion. It makes you able to work really fast with it. So that's really nice. Uh, okay, so that's the basics. Now let's get into the wave table business a little bit more. 69. Wavetables in Serum: Okay, So for the next four, maybe five videos, we're going to be focusing just on this just on oscillator. A now us later be works exactly the same. As far as I know, there's no difference between oscillator and be so we can do everything we do in a we can do again and be to you. Combine sounds and make it even more dense. But let's just focus on a to really understand how this sucker works. So first, let's look at kind of what we're looking at here. So we kind of have a few different views in this. So this is just the default patch, the initialized patch right when I open it. So what I'm looking at here is just kind of Ah, sawtooth way, way. Okay. And that's what I'm hearing. There's no table here. I'm just looking at the wave. If I want to look at the table, I can just click on it. And now you could kind of see there's like a three d box here, and this is the table, OK, there's only one way for him in this table, so there's not really a table here. There's nothing for you to move. If I move this wave table position around, nothing happens, right? And there's no referred to go. But, um, it is a really nice visual of kind of what's happening here. So here's our way form the singular frame of the wave table that we are currently working with. And here it is in the table. Now I can load up tables if I want, and I can also make my own table. We're gonna get to making your own table in a minute. But I want to talk about loading up a table on your own because, um, you can make some really good sounds this way. So if we want to load up a dif or a, um, preset patch, we can do it here. There's a bunch of presets, but we can also load a preset table, Uh, and then we can start experimenting with it. So this is sometimes easier than just making your own table from scratch and still gives you a lot of unique control over it. So don't feel bad about using a table that already exists. So here's just a bunch tables, Okay, so let's grab. Um, I don't know. How about ah, misfits? Okay, so now we've just loaded up this table. Let's just hear it right out of the box. Ah, right now, remember, we're only hearing this first way for him, So if I really want to hear the table, I'm gonna have to scrub through it a little bit. Ah, okay. So it's very buzzy. It's interesting. Let's apply this lfo to that table just so that I hear that. Ah, let's have it do that Just so that, um every preset I load, we're gonna scrub through it. So I just drug this lfo over onto, and now we're just gonna go back and forth tables so I can load more table presets. I can scrub through them with these arrows. Here, you weigh. That's cool. Um, okay, Now, again, I can click on this and I Congar Oh, to look at the current frame that I'm right. So we're modulating. So now we're looking at each individual wave form that we're hearing at the moment that we're hearing it. So because we're modulating where this is going to kind of scrub back and forth. So it's kind of another fund visual to see What's going on? Okay, let's take a look at the table for this one, okay? We see a lot of, um sign, like motion that beginning of Ah, when I hear the whole thing, I don't hear that sign like motion, right? Or I shouldn't say motion the sign, like, sounds the very beginning of this. I hear that, Um, it looks like a sine wave, this one, right? But the whole thing sounds very buzzy. So let me, um, turn this off. Okay? I guess it still doesn't sound very signed. Like I like it. It's actually much more trying, Theo. So thats brings up a good point. What I might do is if I really like this middle stuff, What I might do is turn this back on, and I just right clicked to do that by the way to turn that off. Okay, Now, I'm gonna adjust this so that we only go. We skipped that beginning stuff, right? So I can click in drag on the little blue thing here. Right? So now I've basically said Don't go all the way to the front or the back of it. Just kind of stick on the middle stuff. Get that cool, buzzy stuff that has a big base. That's not a bad bass sound. I like it. Right. So, um, I didn't like that beginning stuff, so I just told my LFO to get out of it. No, Maybe I don't want that l a folk to go back and forth all the time. You could do this. Ah, maybe that's a better. So be sure you have your getting that lfo to do what you want. Map it to wave to a position or you don't have to. You don't have to map it to the wave table position. You could use an envelope on the wave table position instead. Um, let's do that, actually, so let's take that off. Let's take our envelope. Put that on the wave table position. Andan. Let's set this to G o. Actually kind of wanted the opposite, right? I wanted to scroll up through it. Actually, let's let's do it more like a traditional 80 s are just to see what happens. Let's hear that in our low base A little bit interesting, right? I kind of like it. Um, Let's leave that on there for a minute, okay? So just remember that you've got all these different wave tables here to play with, so you don't have to start out by just making your own. However, you can't make your own and that's fun. So we're gonna look at making our own in just a minute. I want to go through the rest of the settings here before we do that. So let's go to a new video and let's talk about this one right here, which is a warp mode setting. 70. Warp Menu: Okay, So what we have here when this dial here is, uh, what it called warp or warp mode? Work mode is like, unable to term. Um and it means something totally, completely different from this. OK, so don't get those two confused. If you're unable to newser what this has is, it's basically ways that it can modify the current frame of the wave table. So let's do this. Let's take a look at just a frame. It's easier to see when you're looking at just a frame than when you're looking at the whole table. So Okay, so here is my current waveform that I'm sitting on right here before my release. Let it go. Ah, if I turn this up, it's not gonna do anything. I got a select a type of warping. So let's say bend. Okay, so now when I turn it up, look at what it's doing. So it's adjusting my wave form a little bit. Let's hear that right? And it's not just doing it for this frame of the table is doing it for the whole thing, right? So if I wanted that sound, how would I do that? I wanted to kind of go crazy. What I do LFO would be a good way. So maybe something like that, I don't know. And then we'll put the LFO on that. Oh, yeah. Okay, court. So check out the different warp mode types. You don't have to use one, but they can really add a lot of depth to the sound and let it really breathe like it literally looks like. So it's a really cool effect. 71. Unison Settings: Okay. Next. I want to talk about this unison setting right here, and it's actually these three knobs. Our sorry, these two knobs and this one kind of number box are the unison settings. So this is gonna make kind of a chorus effect. It's going to duplicate the sound and then pull it out. It's you, the duplicates, out of tune. Not the original if I turn it on. So if I turn this up too, I don't know. Eight. Okay, now we can kind of see that there are eight of it. If I go here and I'm just cooking and holding on d tuna, you can see that the yellow ones are the original stereo signal, and the green ones are the duplicated out of tune knobs, knobs, the duplicated out of tune signals that you go to a higher sound way. Okay, I added, back in Theo, right. So it adds a lot of thickness to it because of that duplicated and then out of tune thing. It's basically a chorus effect, but you have a lot more control over it here. So now I have eight versions of the sound going If I go to this blend knob. You can see this is just gonna control the volume between the original and the duplicated out of tune versions. So remember, the yellow is the original green is the duplicated attitude. So now those other ones are quiet. Pull them. And now we're hearing more of the out of tune stuff, then not out of the way want to do with that blend knob. So it's really just a volume between the two. The D tune is just how much out of tune they are now. They're not out of tune it all. Now they're very, very attitude. That's too much around there, where I want it, but gives you a lot of control over that effect again, really thinking up the sound at a lot of color to it. Um, listen to this base now, right? So that like to think. But it's still pretty cool 72. Making Your Own Wavetables: Okay, so let's go back into looking our way of table. Now, let's hit this little edit button that we looked at really quick before. So here were in the table. Editor. Okay, We can see all our little wave tables down here, and there's actually tons of them. There's not just three and see each one of these. This says one. This says 129 and this is 256. So within each of these, there are, you know, 100 28. I think per block in this particular case, and I can scroll through each individual one by hitting these numbers. So there are a lot here. So what I can do is let's see if I can just delete thes. Okay. Now I'm down to just one way form, Okay? Lfo going? Um but I just have one way for him. If I really wanted to get weird, I could start making more. And there's a few different ways I can do that. I can go plus here and then, you know, modify it in some way, plus modify it. And I can do this until I've made a really interesting sound. That's one way I could do it. Another way I could do it would be. Let's get rid of these. Get rid of all of them. It won't let me get rid of the original one. Interesting. Okay, that's right. Um, you know, I can copy and paste wave forms. You can do this formula thing to modify way forms if you want to get really into it. But one of the wildest ways you can do stuff is to go to import and you can import audio. And you're like, What? That doesn't make any sense. Yeah, let's try it. So if I'm just gonna go to my desktop and look for a random audio file, What is this? It's called a noisy. Hello? Hello? Hello. Oh, I know what this is. This was me, um, demonstrating for ah, class of mine how to do noise reduction. So I was making a really noisy ah, recording. Um, where? I just had, like, noise playing. And then I was trying to remove the noise. Maybe that'll work. That'll work this for the demo. So I'm going to open that. And what it's gonna do is it's gonna try to find all the way forms in it, Um, and turn it into a wave table. Okay, so it didn't like Ah, that noise one very much. So what I did is I did a different one. Let me show you how I did it. So what I did is I went to import You can experiment with these different import settings. Um, and I grab this file, which is a very quiet little something, and now it found all the way forms in it. Right? So it's made 254 wave forms that it found within that. So let's get out of here and then take a look at the wave table. It made from that Actually kind of interesting. So you can make incredibly complicated sounds by importing audio, have it, analyze it for the wave forms, put those away forms together into a table, and then scrub through those wave forms to make your own sound. It's like crazy mad scientist business. Right? Um but it's super rad. Ah, you really get incredible sound. So experiment with that. Have some fun making your own tables 73. What Is Physical Modeling?: okay up next and kind of last. I think for our kind of main big types of synthesis is physical modeling. Physical modelling is the most different from any of the ones that we've looked at. What it is is it's math. It's a lot of math now. Luckily, um, we have all these devices and things that give us knobs to twiddle and things like that, so it keeps all the math away from us. You can find some programs, though, that will let you really get into the math and really start messing around with it and having some fun if if you're so inclined. But most of us would rather just twiddle some knobs and deal with the math. But here's what I mean by math. So let's say we want a physical model of a marimba. Okay, so what we're gonna do is we're gonna come up with this crazy long algorithm that takes every element of a marimba into account we're going to take and we're gonna assign a variable for Ah, what kind of mallet were hitting the key with? We're going to sign a variable for what key were hitting. Obviously, we're going to sign a variable for, um, what kind of wood is the key? Made out of that I'm hitting. We're going to sign a variable for, uh for where? On the wood. I'm hitting it. Is it towards the front, Towards the back, Right in the middle. We're gonna sign a variable for the size of the marambra and how it resonates. We're gonna sign a variable For what? The humidity is in the air that day, which may affect the tone quality. We're going to sign a variable for every bloody thing you can imagine. So that's why you get these huge algorithms. But, um, ultimately, what it results in is very nice sounding synthesizers. So these types of synthesizers are great for emulating riel world instruments. You're not going to make those big, gnarly, dub like dub Step base since with, um, with physical modelling, right? Unless you do something some really strange stuff with it, but more or less, you're going to make things that sound real. So you're gonna make real strings, real guitars, real percussion, real pianos, um, things like that. That's what physical modelling is really good at Is replicating things in the physical world Because that's what the name is. We're gonna model. We're gonna make a mathematical model of the physics of a riel instrument. So, um, we have a number of physical model modelling synthesizers that we can play with. There are a number on the market. Um, they're not that uncommon. Most software comes with at least one, and most of them are designed to do one or more things. Um, the one that we're gonna look at is designed to do like roads or war. Let's or keyboard. It's designed to emulate that. But we also have percussion, um, ones. We have strings is very common. Well, we'll talk more about that in just a minute. Um, let's do Ah, going with the same pattern that we've done before. Let's go toe musical examples and just here a little bit of these things 74. Music Examples: okay. I really try hard. Not Teoh. Play my own music. In these classes, that always feels like a weird kind of ego thing. So I try to avoid it, But, uh, in this case, there's a really good example of a song that I know was used Was was made using almost all physical modelling. Ah, and I know that it was made using almost all physical modelling because one of my tunes. So, um, this is on the element and a score See up by me. Uh, this is Track 10 Emporia. So there's a lot of percussion in here. This is all physical modeled percussion, No samples. Um, just physical modelling. And, um, especially in the percussion and the strings. Okay, so let's just hear a little bit of it. Way, way. 75. What Is the Same?: Okay, so let's look at what's the same. And what's different from census that we know so far. Um, so here I'm looking at the electric instrument in a Bolton. And what's the first thing that we notice? The first thing that we should always look for when we're looking at a synthesis? When any synthesizer is the oscillators and this has no oscillator, there's no oscillator here. Um, where is the filter? There's really no filter here. There's kind of some filters it in there. But, um, because we have these tone and color knobs and those could be interpreted as types of filters, although they're not really filters. But maybe kind of, um, there's not really an envelope. Um, although we do have some elements of the envelope and we have this decay to the tone, Um, here's another decay in the tone and Notre Decay. So there are some elements of the envelope that will have, but it's very, very different, right? All of this is really just parameters that will adjust our sound. So we've got the mallet. What are we hitting? The thing with the fork is the actual thing that resonates. We'll talk more about this in second. The damper is thing that stops the sound, and it has a certain amount of tone that goes with it. A pickup, Um, thing that actually amplifies the sound it if you play guitar. You know that pickups change the tone quite a bit on some global setting, so this is very, very different. Um, nothing is really super familiar here, but if you understand the previous kinds of synthesis, you'll be able to figure out what this is doing fairly quick. Even though we're in kind of a foreign land here, Um, you'll know that the oscillator is kind of spread out through all of this, and the envelope is kind of spread out through all of this filters. Air kind of spread out through it as well. There's multiple spots for volume of the different elements, so it's familiar in some ways, but it's all very new. This is a whole different ballgame from what we've been looking at so far, but I think you'll be able tow tow, latch onto it fairly easy, given that, uh, what we've already done so far. So let's dive into this particular instrument, um, the electric instrument and look at how it works and learn ourselves some physical modelling 76. Electric Setup: Okay, so we're going to use the electric instrument in able to in. So this is one of the built in able to things that comes with live sweet now able to has three different physical modelling synthesizers built into it already. Uh, there is collision, Which primary did primarily, Doesn't mallet type sounds. So that track I just played for you that was a lot of collision, um, attention here, which primarily does string type sounds. So you heard a lot of that in the track as well. And then electric, which primarily does electric piano type sounds. That would be like a Rhodes organ or a Wurlitzer piano. Our world's her organ, I should say. Now there are other ones out in the market. There are tons of physical modeling synthesizer. Probably the most popular right now. Um, is the one that's built in tow logic. Uh, sculpture. I think it's called Yeah, Sculpture in logic. Um, that's a very powerful synthesizer. It can be daunting toe look at. So I wanted to go with one that's a little bit simpler, but after you look through this, I think you'll be able to understand sculpture. Ah, at least a little bit. So, you know, we don't really need to believe with the point on set up if you're unable to and just drag one of these puppies over onto a MIDI track and then you've got, uh, sounds way Go back to the default here. Uh, so we've got a very Rhodes piano type. Sound erodes is a great sound. I love roads. Um, and again, like I said, this particular physical model modeling synthesizer is relatively simple. Doesn't give us a 1,000,000 operation. That a 1,000,000 different parameters for every, um, element of the sound, Like the humidity of the room. Like I joked about a minute ago. Um, and that's good. I wanted to keep it kind of simple. Okay, so let's go through each of these sections and look at what they're doing and try to understand how we can build our own sounds that use this 77. The Model: okay, Before we get into the actual synthesizer, Whenever you're looking at a physical model, it can be really helpful toe, understand what you're actually emulating. So in this case, we're emulating a Rhodes organ. Okay, so let's look at the actual mechanism to the organ, and then we'll be able to understand easier how each parameter, uh, affects the sound cat. So, um, always, even when you're looking at, like, a string physical model, look at the instrument that you're modeling and try to understand what each knob is doing. If it were a physical thing, Okay, so So here's the guts of a Rhodes organ. What we're actually seeing here is here's the key. Okay, so we push that down to play a note. This is one big lever when I push it down. This is the hammer. It goes up and hits this. This is the tone bar. So this is called the fork. Okay. And it has two elements. It has the tone bar and the Tien bar. Okay, those two words are going to come back to us in just a minute. So hold on to that. The tone and the time. Okay. And then It's the time that resonates with the pitch. Okay, then we have a damper. Okay? And this goes up and touches the tine bar or the full fork, I should say and dampens the sound. Now that dampening could be, um ah, little bit. So, like, a soft damper. So it could quiet down the sound. Or it could be hard. We could just hit right up on it and stop the sound. Either way, the material that is hitting the fork is gonna matter, right? That's gonna make a sound in the same way the material right here that is also gonna met. Okay, then we also over here, have a pickup. Hey, the pickup is just like your guitar pick up. Um, it's, you know, converts the sound into electromagnetic energy, which then get sent to some kind of amplifier. So the position of this pickup can really matter, right? If it's right on the fork, if it's under over left, right of the fork, that can change how we pick it up. So we're gonna in this in the physical model. We're gonna emulate this mechanism. Okay, so let's go over and look at the elements of the the physical model and see where each of these things comes into play. 78. Mallet Section: Okay, so let's start off with the mallet section. Okay? So the mallet is the thing that hits the fork. Okay, this is the mallet. It's gonna go up and hit that sucker. So we have some parameters that we can adjust with that. The stiffness. Okay, so think of the stiffness as how hard the mallet is. Is it made of cotton, or is it made of stone? Right. It's really not made of either of those two things. But if we want to turn it way down was here. So we turned away down. It's going to be very soft, right? Can barely even make a sound that way. See, right there. Now it's a soft mallets like I'm hitting it with, like, a soft piece of rubber. But that doesn't mean it's just quieter, right? Hitting it with a soft piece of rubber. Even if I hit it, Justus, hard as I hit it with a rock, it's going to affect the tone, right? So if I hit now, cheated to be really hard right now I'm hitting it with something really, really hard, and the volume could be the same. But what that's made out of affects the tone a lot. Guess I have to go right back. Middle gay. And then force how hard on my hitting it, right? Um um, I slamming it or am I just gently brushing it that again and affects the tone? Right. Also affects the volume, but definitely affects the town. Now, noise. We're gonna introduce a little bit of noise, too. We can, I should say, introduce a little bit of noise. Teoh, give the hitting of the mallet onto the fork. Ah, little bit of grit. So if you imagine when something Ah, if we hit the If we hit the fork with Iraq, let's just say there's going to be the sound of the fork mix. But then there's also gonna be a sound of the actual rock hitting the fork, right? That's gonna create something of a sound. And it's always gonna be noise based. So we can add in some noise here to help simulate that and fax something is already here. Who s I'm gonna pull it away now. It's gone. You hear that? That's the actual hitting of the thing. So I want to pull that back a little bit. Okay? But I can. I can give that Cem some grit by adding a little bit of noise to that. And I can change the pitch of the noise And how long the decay of that noise is. Does it stick around for a minute, or does it go away really fast? So that lets us kind of color the actual attack of the sound. Okay. And then let me point out these velocity and key Ellen boxes Here. You see a few of these around this synth, and this is an able to thing, but you'll see this in many, many cents. It looks slightly different, but it has the same function. What this does is we're going to map this. If we turn this up, I can map stiffness to velocity. In other words, if I crank this all the way up, then how hard I pressed the key, Which is the velocity how hard I pressed. The key is going Teoh change the stiffness. So if I press the key this hard at 30 it's gonna be the stiffness is gonna be 35 Precedent . 100. It's gonna be 100. So this is now mapped to the velocity, right, So 100 is pretty silly, but I might do it at 30 or so, so I can, you know, change the stiffness a little bit. As I, um, play a note louder. Key is is same thing, but map to your keyboard. So if I go LA higher up the keyboard, it's going to map the stiffness to that, So ah, the stiffness gets it gets stiffer as I go up the up into higher notes. Okay, so you might decide to do that on a sound you're making. I'm going to own You can do negative to make go the opposite direction. So I'm not gonna do that. In this case. One good place for it that we've looked at already would be this right, so I could say key. So I get more of that crack on the initial hit as I go up higher. So I play a low note. E don't get much of it by high note. I get a lot of that hit, right that a lot of that noisy little snap from it e don't get hardly any down low. So you might consider doing that. So that's what these key and velocity boxes do. Okay, let's move on. Talk about the fork section 79. The Fork Section: Okay, so the fork is the thing that gets hit by the hammer. You can think of it like a big tuning fork. Um, that's basically what it is is it's like a tuning fork and has two elements. The Tien and the tone. Okay, so the time gets hit is the thing that gets hit in the tone is the thing that does the resonating. Okay, so we have it separated out here. Here's the time. We have three parameters, and here's the tone. And we have three parameters, mostly the same parameters with a couple of exceptions. Okay, so the color here is going to be the frequency of the harmonics. So if we pull it down lower, we're gonna get kind of basic your harmonics, and if we push it higher, we're gonna get higher harmonics. Okay, so let's well is out, right? We're getting some kind of gnarly or harmonics there here too much there. Okay, so it's really kind of doesn't really sound very base year, but we are getting some lower harmonics in there. That's what's kind of getting added in there, so that can kind of change up the harmonics that you're getting from the attack on when we hit the time The decay here is how it decays when you while you're holding the time down. So as I'm holding the note down, it's the decay of the initial time. So let's get us. We can really hear the time that stuff. So we hear two things, right? We hear that dissonant overtone business, which is coming from the attack of the time. And then we hear the actual nice pitch, which is coming from the resignation of the tone. So this is going to tell me how long the time sounds sticks around. I take it really short. It's gonna come and go pretty quick, right? And then we're left with the tone. If I put it up here, it's gonna hang out all the way, way forever, Right? So this is the decay of that initial hit on the time. And then we have a level of that hit on the time. So it's very similar to adding this noise, but it's a but it's more, much more harmonically rich. So I'm gonna get rid of that. Go back to where we were here, okay? And then we look at the tone, so the tone has roughly the same settings, has a decay. But remember, this is now when we're talking about the tone, we're talking about the decay of the whole pitch. Okay, so if I pull this down, it's going to take a very fast right. If I put this all the way up, it's gonna go on forever. It's not what a real roads does, but you can make this one do it if you want. Okay, I'm still hearing that too much. Um, and then we have a release setting here. So the release is going to be when I let go of the key how long it takes to, uh, disappear, right? Right now, it's pretty fast. So if I do this, then I let go. The key, it just stops. But if I crank it up and I let go the key who it hangs out for a little bit and fades out. So this is a normal kind of decay and release what you would expect from an attack from an 80 s are envelope. You could almost think of it as an attack. Decay don't really have a sustain here. Although this could be well now. Attack, decay and release really have a sustained here, but it's very similar to an envelope that you're already familiar with. Okay, now let's move on to the damper. 80. The Damper Section: Okay. The damper is the thing that's going to stop the sound or soften the sound if we wanted to . So it has a certain tone by its material, right? It could be made of, uh, Stone, I guess. Or cotton, I guess I'm alternative to cutting in stone. This kind of goofy but, um who lets to turn it all the way. Softest possible. Well, away, as hard as possible Way Don't really hear any difference in this case. So I think what we need to do is crank up the level and then change our attack and release settings. Here s so this what this is going to do is tell us, do we hear it more on the attack or on the release? Eso think of, um these dampers are very often pedals. So I think you pushed down the pedal and that actually pushes the damper into place. So do we want to hear it when we push it into place on the attack or when we let it go on the release? So it's an attack all the way. Oh, so we lose a little bit of volume here release Oh, being a weird little click at the end. Oh, so it's affecting the envelope and how it's turning off. So we might have to play around with out a little bit more to really dial it in. Um, with these settings right now, I'm not hearing it a lot, but it could be just because, uh, you know, we really need to have a more aggressive tone in order for it to ah come into play because the damper is really kind of working like a filter, right? And if we have a soft damper, even if we have a hard damper, it's going Teoh pull out some higher frequencies. We don't have a lot of higher frequencies on there right now. Yeah, you hear that little clicking at the end there? Yeah, that clicking is our damper. Letting go. It's really kind of regulated up in those higher frequencies, so it's mostly going to effect if we have a dirty or sound and we've got some higher frequencies going. Okay, almost done. Let's look at the pickup 81. The Pickup Settings: okay. A couple interesting things in the damper are sorry in the pickup section. Um, most notably these top two. Okay, So Sim is for symmetry, and distance is distant, So symmetry as the vertical position of the pickup on the tone bar. If you imagine, um, there's the fork, and then is the pick up perfectly in line with it? Or a little above it? Or a little below it? So that's gonna change the tone in slight ways. So we're getting a lot more higher frequencies down here. A lot more warmer frequencies over here. Okay, So vertical position of the pickup distances kind of horizontal position of the pickup. How close is it? How close is it to the fork? Right on top of it, I think. And a little farther away. Ah, Uh huh. So, placement of the pickup, and then we have input in output. So, um, this is kind of like you're just like your input output settings on a guitar amp, in a way. Right? So we can get some really cool distortion here. Actually, if we really want Teoh, we can crank up the input and then pull our output back and really kind of overdrive created overdrive. It's a cool way to get a nice kind of over driven sound on it. And last thing on this section is just the R W here, these air, different types of pickups. Do you want a Rhodes style pick up or do you want a world? It's her style pick up. I don't know the kind of, ah engineering things that make those to pick up different. They are different types of pickups. Let's hear them. So it's the roads type. Ah, Wurlitzer type Getting a lot less low end here. Oh, right. Eso a lot less Lohan on the world, sir. But, um, that could also be influenced a lot by my settings here. So worth playing around with, then we have key so we can map our output to our key so that it gets louder or quieter as we go up the keyboard. Cool. So there's our pickup settings 82. The Global Section: and then just for the sake of being all completed, let's look quick at the global settings. We know global settings from other synthesizers. Usually it's just kind of panning and volume of things like that don't actually get panning controls here. But we do get in a ah global volume control number of voices anywhere between two and 32. If you don't want to deal with voices, just leave that at 32. Uh, some D tuning. We can adjust by semi tone Weaken de tune in a little bit then this stretch parameter, um, is a fun and dangerous little thing. It's basically like, if you imagine, look it, look at the keyboard that you have if you have a keyboard in front of you. Um, imagine all those notes are in the right spot. And then if you grab either end of your keyboard and just stretched it out to be longer, the space in between the notes would be a little bit bigger. And you had basically, uh, all the notes would slowly become out of tune. They would all be, you know, the one that the dead center would be in tune, but everything else is going to be sharper flat depending on what side of it it's on. You kind of pull the notes apart. You can do that a little bit of that. Here. Uh, let's hear it. Oh, right. So it's just a little bit going out attuned. Um, I'm not sure why that's there. Um, I think maybe that's just the common thing. Toe are a common something that happens to these types of keyboards. Maybe giving it a little bit of that kind of emulates how some of the, like a really old roads might have fallen out of tune. Um, and giving it a little of that stretch. Can you like that? I don't know, but might be fun to play with. Okay, um, that's it. So that's the electric really fun. Um, play around with that and all your physical models. Remember that whenever you look at a physical model, try to I understand what you're modeling before you dive into it so that you can really kind of visualize what each parameter is doing. It will really help you understand. The model 83. What We Find In Analog Synths: okay, up next. Let's look at some analog instruments now. I don't have a big arsenal of analog synthesizers like some people do. They are fun to get. They are fun to play with. They can't be really expensive. And it can turn into a, um, pretty rough addiction. Teoh really get into buying analog synthesizers, especially when it comes to the modular synthesizers that are really popular. Now, um, there's Superfund. I'm not saying anything bad about him, but you could just buy more and more and more modules for them, and it gets to be really expensive, so I haven't got into that. But I do have a couple analog pieces of gear that I think would be fun to look at and see how all of this stuff applies to those pieces of gear. Okay, so let's move over here and look at a couple analog sense 84. My Analog Synthesizers: Okay, So here's my little analog. Since station, I have, uh, really just two things here. This is just ah, midi controller that have set up over here. But I have the cord mono tribe over here, which is a fun little analog synthesis toy. I guess I'd probably classified at the toy. Um, it's not extremely useful, but it it's fun. It's really fun. Um, and then over here, I have the Moelgg. Mother 32. This is a quite a bit more robust. Um, if you know the name Moelgg, you know, Ah, that it's kind of the first and most important name in analog synthesis. So it's like both of these, Um, let's start with the mono tribe because it's actually a really cool way to understand synthesis. So let's take a look at that 85. Device: Monotribe: Okay, so here we have the cord Mono tribe. So this is super funnel thing that the first thing that's really fun about it is that it has a built in speaker on the bottom, and it's totally battery powered, So you can and I have Take this to, you know, a party and just play it to sit on the couch and play it all night. It's actually really kind of fun. Um, so let's look at it and figure out what we have. So first of all, what kind of synthesis is happening in this box? Well, let's see what we've got. We've got V. C. O is voltage control oscillator vcf voltage controlled filter. Now the voltage control is something you'll see on a lot of analog instruments. It just really means that this knob is attenuating voltage, which is ah, controlling the filter. So it's a filter bolted controlled amplifier, an LFO. Okay. And we've got this rhythm thing that will look out in a minute. We've got some noise that we look at, but we have an oscillator of filter and an envelope. Just one oscillator. Two if you count the noise, A filter and That's it. We sort of have envelope options. Here we have three that we can move between. So it's not really additive synthesis, right? Because we would need either direct access to the wave form to alter it, or we would need multiple oscillators. It's not wave table. Um, it could be so, really, it's subtracted. We have one oscillator and then a filter. That's what we're going to be doing here. So, um, turn the rhythm all the way down. Let's turn the speed down. Because what we have here is a little sequence that weaken dio, right? So I can play notes here, and then I can kind of control different elements of them. So I'm just gonna set this to play a note. Okay, so let me just record a new pattern here with one. No. Okay, so I just made every step here, be that note. It doesn't just like a really simple step sequence. Let's big you make it lower. So this is an octave adjust way have away form that we can change way, have the filter, and we have to cut off and the people so little residents know. Okay, we've got a little envelope here. So volume and then a shape of it. Ah, now telephones off. So it's recorded that note underwear sequence. Get myself a little change the shape of the LFO here fast. So there's this fast, slow one shot, one shot. It's just gonna happen once. Wait, let's use the sequencer, Teoh, make a little bit. It's gonna randomly It's a nose. So I just recorded that sequence into record off Just my filter. Ah, uh, Ueo starting with a groove. Now check this out. We've got a couple other things here. This is just kind of an added thing, this sand kick and you could pull their name this cheesy little kicks in So let's dio todo now this rhythm. But this is actually volume lecturing that up here. All that drums. Now I've got all that happening So those drums air just kind of three set in there. You can control the rhythm that you can't control with a little bit Filter a little bit. I love the way these analog filter sound Okay, so pretty simple. That's Ah cork. Monta tried. Really? We just have a single oscillator filter envelope lfo Ah, and then a little sequence or built in as well. And that's that 86. Device: Moog Mother 32: Okay, so we have here the Moelgg, Mother 32. Now, before we look in detail at this, let's talk a little bit about to set up for this because this is quite a bit more complicated. Um, in order to get this to play with my computer now, one thing I didn't mention about the core go mono tribe that I was just using is that it does not interface with your computer at all. You cannot play a MIDI sequence through it. Um, it just doesn't You can record it because the audio comes out. You would record it just like you would record your guitar or anything like that. But it doesn't have a midi input. It doesn't have a USB. Jack doesn't have any of that. There is a mod for it out on the Internet that you can buy that retrofits it with the midi input. If you really wanted to get weird with it, Um but I don't have that. So, um, if I wanted to sync with my track, I've just gotta eyeball it. Basically, The mod mother 32 on the other hand, does interface with our computer. So what? I've got set up here is I have a MIDI channel going out of my computer and into right here . So this is the midi input right here. So when I start the sequence, you'll see it it blinking. So then I've got it going into live using this external audio in external midi interface external instrument. So I'm saying Midian on ERM 82 Channel one, which is where the mother is. Mother 32 is plugged in and then audio from channel 34 So that's where I have the mother plugged into the court or my audio interface, which is then routed back into that channel. So this little external instrument lets me send out a MIDI signal and get back an audio signal. So that's talking to the mother 32. So midi input comes here. My main audio out is right here. Okay, so it takes a little bit of finagle ing to get this set up just right s so that it talks to are actually I should say, listens to ah, your audio software, but it can be done. Um, it's just a little bit of finagle ing and you really want to use that external instrument. Um, the only other thing I've got plugged in here is his power. This unlike the mono tribe, this definitely requires power. It's not battery operated or anything like that. OK, so that's our set up. Now let's look at what we've got going on here. 87. Moog Mother 32 Controls: Okay, So the mother 30 to another analog synthesizer. Again, I'm just gonna tell you right up pretty much a subtracted synthesizer. Although there's a couple different things you can do with it, But we would really use it as a subtracted. And the main reason is that when we looked at the court mono tribe, I mentioned how I love those analog filters, the moelgg stuff all the mod stuff uses this very specific kind of filter that they invented way back when Bob Moelgg invented it. Ca