Ultimate Electricity Generation For Electrical Engineering | Ahmed Mahdy | Skillshare

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Ultimate Electricity Generation For Electrical Engineering

teacher avatar Ahmed Mahdy, Electrical Power Engineer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

29 Lessons (1h 50m)
    • 1. Introduction to Generation

    • 2. Definition of Generation

    • 3. Why do we generate electricity

    • 4. How do we generate electricity

    • 5. Difference between induction generator and synchronous generator

    • 6. Principle of Operation of Synchronous Generator

    • 7. Types of Synchronous Generators

    • 8. Self Excited induction generator

    • 9. Principle of Operation of Induction Motor

    • 10. Types of Induction Machine rotor

    • 11. Principle Of Operation Of Double Fed Induciton Generator 1

    • 12. Introduction to Generating Power Stations

    • 13. Construction of Hydro Electric Power Plant

    • 14. Types of Hydro Plants

    • 15. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydro Power Plant

    • 16. Diesel Generators

    • 17. Importance of Diesel Generators

    • 18. Fossil Fuels Power Plant Construction

    • 19. Enviromental Issues Fossil Fuels Of Power Plant

    • 20. Nuclear Power Plant

    • 21. Geothermal Power Plants

    • 22. Wind Turbines

    • 23. Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy

    • 24. Solar Thermal Energy

    • 25. Comparison between Costs of Different Power Plants

    • 26. Factors affecting Generators

    • 27. Comparison between Ramp and Run Time of Different Power Plants

    • 28. Dispatchability

    • 29. Load Demand

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About This Class

Welcome to my course for electricity generation , in this course we are going to discuss how the electricity is generated, the different types of electric generators.

We will also discuss the types of induction machines and their principle of operation, we will also discuss the synchronous machines and their principle of operation.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Ahmed Mahdy

Electrical Power Engineer


I am Ahmed Mahdy an electrical power engineer, I am the CEO of "Khadija Academy" electrical engineering website, I am also an instructor at Skillshare and other platforms with 10 courses, I have a YouTube educational engineering channel called"Khadija Academy", I regularly post videos related to electrical engineering.


I am also an author on Amazon Kindle having 6 books about YouTube, science fiction, and electrical engineering.


In 2018 I have been awarded of being from the top 10% of most engaging instructors on another platform.


I also created Khadija Academy in 2019, my mission is "Learn the fundamentals of electrical engineering branches from absolute beginner to advanced level."


In e... See full profile

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1. Introduction to Generation: hi and welcome everyone to my own course for a generation off electricity. Thescore is brought to you by engineer r MADD Maddie I am an electrical power engineer and I love teaching. Electrical engineering books will find a lot, Of course, is on our website You will find courses on electrical substations, boric thrown ings, D c electric circuit, easy electric circuits and various topics about electrical engineering. So what are we going to learn in our course? Divers ing is that we are going to discuss the definition off generation off electricity number two. Why do we generate interest is a reason why we are generating electricity in the first place. Then we are going to discuss the types off Sync Romans machines and it's a definition. Then we are going to discuss his induction machine and its own pipes. We are going to discuss also the hydropower plant and its types. Is that diesel power plant the fossil fuels power plant, the nuclear power plant, the NGO Sermon power plant, wind energy and solar energy power plants. Also that concept off dispatch ability and finally the low demand on. After all of this, we will also discuss a comparison between the different generating more plans from the perspective off Costas and other factors. So that's our theme content off our. Of course, this course is four electrical power engineering students. This will be helpful to for you to under identify the different machines use in the generation process and the different power plants which electrical power engineers walk. Thank you, and I hope to see you in my own course. 2. Definition of Generation: In our first video, we would like toa, identify the definition off generation. So what's mental boy? Electricity generation or electrical power generation? Electricity generation is simple. Easy process off generating electrical power from sources off primary energy. It means that we are converting or generating electrical power from a different sources, like solar energy, kinetic energy, mechanical energy and these different types of energy. We convert them into electrical energy. So for electrical utilities or in our power system, the electricity generation is considered as the first stage in the delivery off electricity to our induced. The other stages are the transmission is inside distribution off this electrical power and then find many that stage, which is a utilization where we are using our electricity so assembly again electricity generation. It is a process off generating electrical power. We are generating electricity from sources like fossil fuels hydropower plants, which means we are generating electricity from the kinetic energy off water. Do dozy zoo waterfalls where the water moves our turbines and generate electricity, or from solar energy, where we convert using BV cells from solar energy into electrical energy. So let's see our power system. Now we have here An overview toe our poor system, How our power system or our electrical system looks like. So the first stage in our system is that generation, which is this spot. Okay, that generating power station, which is generates electricity at a voltage nearly toe. Listen, think in a vault. Okay, Then we use as step up transformer. A transformer used the toe interest Z voltage or step up the voltage. So it simply takes is the voltage from the generating station that 10 kilovolts, for example, and step it up. Increases it upto 138 kilovolt. 230 kilovolt surround and 54 kilovolt 500 kilovolt 700 kilovolt. So assembly we generate our electricity in our course using the different generating stations such as the solar BV planets or wind the Bryants or our fossil fuels diesel generators and different types off Z generators which we are going to discuss in the course . So after generating, is that electricity? In our first stage, we transmit this power we transfer or transmit this power using transmission line This process school dizzy transmission which is our second the stage in our poor system. Okay, we transmit the electrical energy from the generating power plant in tow, Our distribution system. Then at this point, we decreases the voltage again, okay? And there, decreasing off the voltage or cares in a different steps. So finally gets revolted, which is required in the distribution network. In the distribution network, we have our end user customer, for example, in our homes, like you and me, for example, in Egypt we used 220 a vault as a phase voltage or several 180 volt as aligned line voltage . So we talk the voltage here we increased devoted using a step up transformer. Then we transmit this power at the high voltage in order to decrease the losses in our transmission lines. Then we use the step down transformer toe decreases the voltage. Then we the crease dizzy voltage again in our various steps until we reach our final customer, which is me and you with a voltage 120 volt or 140 volt or, for example, in Egypt. 220 volt s f phase voltage and sir 180 volt as allying voltage. So this is Waas. The first stage is a generation part which we are going to discuss second, the part which is the transmission office and interesting. That certain part is the distribution off this electricity. On the final is the customer, which is the black one, which means that utilization or their usage off this electrical power. So this waas simply how a ball system looks like 3. Why do we generate electricity: there is an important question. Why do we generate electricity? Why do we need electricity? OK, electricity is really important in our life. We use it Number one to run your up lancers at home we was eight for TV Reverend Graito. A sea or air conditioning, then electric oven, electric stoves, laptops and lots more. Okay, so we nearly use it in every single part in our home number two used it in Transportacion. As you know, that there is a type of train called Dizzy Electric train. We use it also in your plans. We use it also in electrical cars which runs off course on a interesting in the medical sector or on hospital that we use X ray machines, s egy and other various or different devices which work on electricity. So the reason why we use that electricity is that we use it in nearly every sector off our life. We use it in lighting. We use it in our home, up the answers. We use it in laptops. We use it in Transportacion such as a little trains, electric cars. We use it in our medical sector or the hospitals such as the X ray and different and medical equipment. Okay, all of them work on trust. So what are the the front sources off electricity? OK, so we can use or generate electricity from non renewable sources off energy or 100 noble fuels such as schools. The calls when ZR permanent is a produced amount off heat. This heat causes the water tow become a superheated steam. This so but heated steam used it'll Dr Zito Brian's which finally generates electricity. We have also wind energy which causes the when the males to rotate, then causing this a generation off electricity and we will discuss is the double fit induction generate Oh, which we use NZ wend energy. We are also in waterfalls in orderto produce hydroelectric energy. We use the kinetic energy and the movement off water in orderto move or rotate that their pints and finally generating electricity, who is also the affordable take or the solar energy by using BV cells or photovoltaic toe convert is that solar energy into electrical energy 4. How do we generate electricity: so we have now an important question. How do is generate electricity so we can generate electricity by using two types off as generators? The 1st 1 is seeing Chronos generators, and 2nd 1 is the induction generators. They are bosses in Maine pipes you will find in Zippo system. You have to know that most of's Asian raters are seeing Chronos A generators. You will find this increments generators in fossil part planters in hydropower plants and nearly every or almost every power plant working on fossil fuels. The induction generators are found with a little percentage about Diarios in Z and Power Plant Is or Z power sources, which have a variable is beat or a variable amount off energy with respect. Oh, time. So this increments generator used the Wiz that Monday noble source of energy, which is representing the larger percentage off our power system. The induction generators are found with a little percentage, but as they are used in poor polenta such as the went to Brian's because they have a variable amount off power with respect to time and the variable speed okay, they don't to produce a constant amount off power. The induction however, the induction motors RZ widely most or the most used the type off induction machines or the motors, in the meantime, is induction motors and the synchro MUS. Motives are very, very little. Okay, so most off hours in the raters are sink Rama's generators and most off our motors are considered as induction motors because induction motor that can work at a variable is beat , they don't have a constant speed, he can work and the produce torque at a different speeds, and we'll sing in this course. Helen Induction Motor Works. 5. Difference between induction generator and synchronous generator : so the difference between this in chroma generator and induction generator from a comparison or point of view number one is a synchronous generator s capable off producing boss off active power and the active power. However, the induction generator only produces active board. So the act of our which is he be or the active power is the power consumed. The buys, a resistive loads very active power, or Q is a power consumed. The Peyser inductive loads, so we'll find that, for example, the electric motors are considered as our elude. They have resistance and have an inductive. It's so we need both off active and reactive power toe feed is this Lords number two most off the power system Generators, as we said before, are considered as think. Promus. That's increments. Machines are used in hydro, non renewable sources off energy power plants. Then diction generator can be used in power system Bradley, but they are used the invariable energy, such as the wind energy that's in chroma generator halves, their own magnetic field. It can be both off or one off this permanent magnet or have a field wine and will see in the scores again how was in chronic Shinn editor works? The induction generator cannot generate their own magnetic field so they cannot supply. The active bar is the need Toby connected toe regret in order to be magnetized. Okay, so again, the difference between them is that in cross can produce active, active power induction only produce at the bar. Most of the generators are seeing Promus the induction and found the Riley in the whole system used in variable energy such as solar energy and wind energy that's in chroma generator have its own magnetic field, but the inductions in the rate or does not have its own magnetic field. It required toe be connected to sigret toe. Absorb a Q or reactive power four magnetism, ation or it can be self excited, and this will be also discussed in the course. 6. Principle of Operation of Synchronous Generator: the first type off decision raters. Is that sink Rama's generate? So what is the components or the imposition off passing chroma generator. So this as an example off us in Chronos generator, it consists is off us three main parts number one ABC, which is a state or winding the stationary wide things are winding, which are mock movie. Okay, second, the part is the air gap. Okay, The certain part is zero toe support in that same Chronos generator which rotates. So the synchronous generator has a rotating the part. The station reports the three phase A and B and C and shifted boy 120 the green The rotor is connected. Toa d c supply. Okay, so as this whining will have a current and then produces a magnetic feed So simply again the winding or the field winding which is connected on the euro Tor, it's connected toe supply. Z supply produces current Wednesay current bosses Rosie coin or the field. The winding will produce a magnetic field. Okay, this system can be represented as the following. We have here a three phase system, the syriza state winding. We have our rotor, which it can be a form it as our winding connected to a D. C. Supply s stationary d C. Supply how we can connect at rotating the part with a stationary DC supply by using his air . Something which is called the Communicator and Process as the you are used to connect the stationary D C supply with a rotating wrote. Okay, so now let's see Zine How toe or the principal off operation off the Cinquanta generator. So again you'll feel you'll find here that we have in the face a Frisbee. And if a C H off them has its own color, they are shifted by 120 degrees. So as you know that in our system or power system, we have a three face winding shifted by 120 degree. For example, if we have a face voltage A. So it will be vey and angle equal to zero. It be will have a V and angle 120 degree or minus 120 degree C will have B and 120 degree the city phase system. So how does I think groaners generator work number one is the field winding here is supplied by electricity using a D. C. Voltage. Okay, this D c bolted produces at field right magnetic field or magnetized zero toe with Sheffield. Okay, so this gives us that excitation excitation. Means is they're magnetic field or the monetization off the route. The second step is that the road or field winding is rotated by external soft. So we take this rotor, which is connected to a D. C. Supply having a magnetic field and then we rotate. Is this route with a speed? Gold is a synchro Maciste speed. Okay, so what does his ass encompasses? Breed mean. That's in Chronos Speed or the N s speed off. The rotor is equal. 220 f multiply by divided by P 120 which is a certain constant F is the frequency off. The current okays a frequency off the voltage or the current to produce the A, B and C. For example, if I am talking about the power system in Egypt, dozens of frequency will be 50 hertz. If we are talking about a frequency in United States, then the frequency will be 60 hertz B is a number off pulls off zero toe you will see is that here we have South and donors. So we have here two bulls. Okay, we will discuss that different types off sync. Rama's is in a writer and you'll see how is the number of balls change? So we have here to hold machine. And if we would like a frequency off the Albert current Toby equal to 50 Hurtis So we have 120 multiplied by the frequency required, which is 50 Hurtis divided by the number off walls which I ve more sense House which will be two balls so will equal to Siri's 1000 rpm or as hundreds to results and as a frequency or Z as a speed off the road number off revolutions a pair made. So in order to reduce an Albert current or an Abbott voltage in a PC or an hour power from the cinchona generator at a frequency equal 50 Hurtis, we need toe rotate our synchronous generator or our rotor with that sweet equal 30,000 or VM. So if we wrote it again if we rotate our rotor with this beat equal City 1000 rpm and we have here two Bulls. Then we will finally get an Albert power with a frequency 50 hertz. So somebody what happens here is that after having as a magnet ization off the field, winding, we rotate that field winding, bracing promises we sink promises beat. Means is a speed at the frequency required. After this, the rotating the magnetic field produced the boys. I feel the current. So we have here a rotor and we rotate. Is that magnetic field produced here? So it will be you produce something which is called rotating magnetic field, this magnetic field as it rotates with as results and revolutions per minute. So at the time it will be here. Another time will be here at the time would be here. It will rotate with respect to tow time. So the rotation off the magnetic field will produce Z defy biting or the variation off The flux was time. So the variation of the Fluxus time will cause induce the image in a be unseen. So again, as you remember from Friday, low E is equal to negative defy bidet e. So according to for a day long off induction, it means that in order to produce and use theme F or electricity. We need a variation in the flux. Okay, separation off the flux by rotating is this field. The flux here is variable with respect tothe thesis stationary part or this is stationary winding so induced. The main food will be reduced the year and here and here. So this assembly how listen, Comus Generator works So again, number one, we connected this field winding toe a disease. A ploy for reducing at D. C. Current reducing a. D. C. Flux by rotating this feed with has been greater than speed. Equal toes in Chronos is being sin Grant's beat, which 3000 rpm at the two bulls will give us a frequency 50 hertz as an output voltage Xenzai rotation off this field, winding at us and promises Beat will produce a rotating magnetic field, which, of course, is a variation off the flux, which in the end, the produces electricity in A and B and C or the three praise, and all of them are shifted Boy at 100 and 20 degree 7. Types of Synchronous Generators: So now let's discusses the pipes off. Sync Rama's generator. There are two men types off sync Roman generator. According toe the road off the synchronization rate. There is a silly into generator and the non salient visionary toe or toe be more specific as senior and rotor and a non salient wrote. Let's see the difference between them. We have here that Cillian pipe off the induct, emphasising Chronos generator and the non salient type off the sink. Ron's generator. You'll see that the salient type off that's in Kamas generator consisting off a pools. Okay, we'll see that the bulls are going outside. Okay, this is a first and difference between them. Second single find years at the air Gap here is different from the air gap here from the air gap here your fields, You will find that the air gap year is on. I'm gonna for the distance between the ball and dizzy state or is different. Does he have a different air gaps? Okay, Zack. Horizontal air gap is different from the vertical Ergen. This is the first difference. Second, sing Hebrew funds are monsignor type inconsistent off a cylindrical type. You will find years a distance here is equal toe. Here is equal to year is a call to here. So it's said that is this type has any form air gap. You will find that this one does not have a uniformed air gap. That this sense of between here is a changing with the pipe or the distance. Okay, you will find here we have a non uniform. Your gap. We have here an air gap, which is uniforms. You will find that the second thing here is consisting off our balls. This one is consisting off are winding around the easy road. We have your winding, you'll find yours. This is the same but in Taubate. And this one is out off bait in tobe age and outer bait you're finding we have years I wrote Orfield winding. Okay, we have a wire which is or wire, which is the same as war ending is wanted around Izzy rotor itself. So let's see. Ah, mother image. We have your more clear image. You'll find years here. We have the silien time and we hear and have the months Syrian type. You'll find yours at the salient Have pools. Okay. Going outside boards bulls. It will see that ball's clearly okay. North, south, north and south. And you'll find years. We have years, the current or the winding rotated here, then connected Tothis one and connect Toto This one all of them are serious. Toe have the same current toe produces the same flux. So we'll find here we have years on also, as a flux is going outside here we have the flux going inside. This is the bending on the direction of the current here, as you remember that from the right hand rule or an bear right hand rolled it is the current in this direction from left to right. Then the direction off the flux will be outside. So this one is considered as knows is a direction off. See current from the right to left in this direction. Okay, going from here to here, then see flux will be going this rosy port. So this one is considered a south. This one is more and all of them have the same plucks because they are having the same current senses they are in serious. You'll see that the wire here connected tothis one toe this one and this one. Now, for this time we have here, you will see that X means that the wire was going in. Taubate. Ok, means that the current is in tow. Beach current is here from this point toe this point and in tow bitch. And then the wire comes back out of wage in tow. Wage out of bitch! You will find here, this one consisting off balls. This one is consisting off slots. Where we both our wine. Okay. Now the difference between salient Anton salient according toe as their applications. You will find that here we have this picture or a rail life picture for their silly Interpol. And this one is a cylindrical pipe. The salient to pull have a large number of pools. You will see that from our previous image year. We have at least four pools. Okay, so having ah, large number off bulls means that we have a law speed so we'll see that the salient If it has a high number of wars, the greater them for then it has a low speed. It is used in diesel prime mover and it is used anything as a prime over consisting off diesel that is it is the power which causes the rotation off the soft and it is used in hydro systems. Okay, that cylindrical photo. It has a high speed because it has a low number off bulls and it is used in steam tower points. So is the Cillian Andaman. Syrian civilians are used in the hydro systems. The cylindrical type is used in the steam turbines where we are using for self the older. For example, the surrender Kuroda or the non salient is used in application where the high speed is required. Silien is used in the low speed where we have a larger number off pools. For example, An example of this hydro system. An example of this is the fossil power plants. Okay, so this wasa difference between salient and mom silly. 8. Self Excited induction generator: Now let's discuss another type off induction generator, which is the self excited. Okay, so in the previous one, we discuss a double fit induction generator. We connected the this generator in tow. Sigret, and we absorb it is the excitation, which is, as a current required foresee rotor. As you remember that we took from the grid, we connected there three phase in tow, the power electronics devices. And then we injected current inside the road, which is necessary for excitation. Now, how we can excite our induction generator without connecting does a great Okay, so and the beginning, if we operate as previous inductions and marital before or as as generator or as a motor? Okay, that's three. For his induction, genital will have something which is called the residual Flux. Some flocks or some magnetic field remained inside their rotor itself or inside the machine itself. Okay, so the theme, the amount of the flux which representing inside the rotor and then we rotate the rotor by Z wend, for example, or any mechanical movement this world causes some initial voltage or some initial current inside the state. Now, for a self excited, we added at a bus for banks. This cover story banks is user toe provides excitation. Okay, as you remember that the investors in Z bar system used to improve the power factor, or Dickie decreases the reactive bar required by injecting reactive bar. Okay, senses the inductive loads absorb sq at a certain moment Z caressed or banks supply Q or supplier active. Okay, So what happens here in this machine is that at the beginning, we have some reasonable flocks presenting inside the machine Is this also provides the initial excitation. We have a small excited on or a small magnetic field inside the road. And when we are rotating our motor boy as speed, greater sensing promises beat, for example, in wind energy, then we are going toe have some induced e meth inside the state. Okay, we'll produce some induce the image. I very small value this more value will produce. I current. Okay. Is this current will boss Rosie cholesterol which causes he covers, talked to supply or give us a cube OK, but produces the excitation required for the machine. So the total flux or the current year inside the campus to bank increases the total flux or the total excitation this will cause is against the voltage ear to increase again. So this process will continue until we have a steady state value. Or until we have our final value. Where's the characteristics off the machine or the rated value off the machine and dizzy Capstar bank of all trajectory into characterised intersect? What I mean by is it is that we have here the relation between the voltage and current off the covers to bank. Okay, you will find here is that we have here is a magnet ization girl or their value off excitation required at every current off the camera store. Zima magnetize, Asian Careful representing Zomig notarization off the machine. And we have here is a reactor Salama to represent is their relation off the over I or Ecstasy. Ecstasy is very actimates off the custom. Okay, so if we draw this line and we draw this line, we have an intersection. At this point at this point is called the City State Point, where the both of them intersect. Okay, so I want finding value. Will have the one and I see one V one is considered as here as a rated value off the machine. Okay, so at the beginning, we have a small amount of flux. Is this small amount of flux will produce a small current. So the current, as the current increases the current itself causes increase in sands excitation off the machine or increases their total flux inside the machine, causing the voltage it'll increase. Then, after the voltage increases the current eyes, he increase and so on until the city state value. So let's again revise Z a self excited induction generator at the beginning. OK, if it is a new machines, then we will start it as a motor in orderto have some residue, all flocks okay before operating it as a generator. So I had the beginning. When we are using it as an induction generator, we have some residual flux, some remaining the flocks inside the machine, this remaining the flux inside the rotor and which means some very small value off a rotating a magnetic field, very small value. And we rotate the rotor boys at your books at as we'd greater sensing promises bead. We will have the year some inducing myth or some Albert Walter. Very small value. Okay, a very small value. Is this a small value off induced a metal produce current inside the state or Zika? Is this currents and signs a state or will boss or Ruzicka buster banks causing the total voltage ito increase? Or it means that they are providing a flux in face or increasing the total flux off the machine. Okay, The Windsor Capacitor Banks Wednesay current was throws a crystal Banks. The cluster banks is used to provide AK. You are every active boat, and at the same time, it said toe increases the total voltage so the capacitor banks provide a current which produces a flux. This flocks is infants with the road or flux so that daughter magnetic field off Z rotor increases. So when's that autumn magnetic field increases? Z out here will start to increase, and at the same time, Z current here will increase until this operation continues until the city state where we have the rated output voltage. So Sam billy the road or have some flux. This flux produces a small voltage this voltage. It produces a small current. This current produces another flocks in face or increasing is a total flux Z total flux reduces again higher value off E M. F. This team effort produces another current which increase the total current and so on until a steady state. So at the beginning, we should have some reasonable flux. If there is a whole flocks does not exist. Then we should connect our machine or induction machine as a motor in orderto have some flux at the beginning. Okay, so that is a benefit off ourself excited Induction genital which is not connected to a cigarette. You will see that here it's connected toe the road. We don't have immigrate, so it cannot absorb is excitation okay? We absorbs excitation in case off a double fit induction generate. 9. Principle of Operation of Induction Motor: Now let's discuss zey induction motor. Okay, so this is an image off a symbol induction motor with a low horsepower This type off induction motors is widely used in factories. So the first thing, how does an induction motor workers and from the understanding off the induction motor, we will understand Helen Induction generator works. So you will see that an induction motor is consisting off two main parts again a state or and narrowed The state are also has a three phase winding, shifted by 120 degree, same as the state or offseason Chronos generate zero toe instead having a three phase winding shifted also by 120 degree, same as e z synchronous generator. Okay, but the difference is that the induction motor, its three face off the rotor are sore descent. Okay, so how does an induction motor works? Number one, We provide a three phase Beilenson supplying. So we have here A and two B and C, which are the three terminus off the induction motor. We provide them with a three phase balance and supply, which produces as three face pallets and current shifted by your 120 degree. The production office really face current reduces a rotating magnetic field. Okay, the three face current produces a rotating the magnetic field. Okay, The second thing is that we have here Our water is stationary and the beginning, so that three phase current produces a see a face or a rotating magnetic field. The rotating the magnetic field cuts zeroed. Okay, causing a three phase current. So again, here we have a variable rotating if he'd guns and stationary winding or a stationary winding at the beginning, a stationary wrote this Z cutting off their rotating magnetic field. Producing as three phase current. The three faced current produces another rotating the magnetic field. Okay, so this one has a rotating the field and the Windsors rotating field magnetic field. The carts is this rotor. It produces another three phase current which produce on mother magnetic field. So we have to magnetic field one from the state, or and one from zero to the interaction between the rotor field and the magnetic, or the state or field. And the photo field produces a torque which rotates the magnetic feed assembly as if we have here a magnet. And this magnet is rotating and we have here on mother magnetic field. This magnetic field just moves is the other magnetic field Is that to magnetic field in tow , Actors each other producing a rotation inside their more There is an important thing is that if we have here, for example, are supply voltage? Okay, so this voltage or this three phase supply voltage, it produces a Steve s current. This reef s current at the beginning cuts is is a stationary wrote or at the beginning, producing s three phase current at the beginning is he induced? The messy here is the same as our having a same and frequency as a supply. Okay, so the state or guts is rotor at the beginning, reducing as 3/5 current having a frequency same as the supply. But Wednesay rotor rotates zem rate Were zem a state or magnetic field got Z rotor. It changes with time. What I mean is that the frequency off zero toe will have s motto. Blood buys a frequency off the supply. Where S s gold is a slip. The slope is a menacing promus or the speed off the supply minus in our or the as beat off the road over the N s or their sin Chronos is beat So this is Graham Assist speed is the speed off the rotating a magnetic field off the state in our is this beat off the rotor itself Soul The frequency off this current will be equal toe s motto blood by f not the same frequency of this employ, but at the beginning or there is rest. Where's the rotor is not rotating in Laura's equal to zero. So the slip will be equal to one. So the frequent So those are the rotor will be quite toes that frequency off the supply. So that purpose off this slight is that the frequency of the rotor is not equal to the frequency of the state because at the beginning, that rotor waas stationary or at rest and then the rotor when it what it is, the rate off the cutting off the magnetic field. It changes with the speed off the road. So the frequency here is not equal toes a frequency here 10. Types of Induction Machine rotor: There are two types off the inductions in rate a roto or the induction motor rotor. We have a tour times number one Z, Wanda wrote, or the sleep. Bring the type. The second site is a squirrel cage. The want wrote or typed. This symbol is that the rotor is consisting off a three phase winding. Is this silly face winding are short circuit by using process and slip rings. Okay, so we make a short circuit between them, buys a usage off the process that benefit off. This is that we can adhere and external resistance so we can. It changes that resistance off zero. So why do we changes that resistance off the rotor? This is due to that that the change off the resistance here will cause a change in the torque speed characteristics off Z am so we can add an external resistance to control this be torque characteristics. That's three face here in Cicely Brink consists off a three phase shifted by 120 degree. Okay, That benefit off this rotor is that we can add an external resistance toe control is this beat and the talk off the road. But the problem off this time off rotors is that we need maintenance because he is a process are consisting off carbon. And did you toe the rotation off the rotor? This process needs it. Toby changes with pine. Okay, so the second, the type which is widely used because it does not need mental illness, is a squirrel cage. Okay, the square cage assembly is as this image exactly. It's called a squirrel cage, The gauge off a square. You'll see you're a squirrel inside that cage. So that's why it's called a squirrel cage. This are gold or the aluminium or copper pars. This are are conducting bores, and from both sides, you'll find here a drink and another ring here. This rings are made off, cover or aluminium are used. Toe make a short circuit insides, he wrote. That benefit off this time is that we don't need any maintenance. So there are two types. Squirrel gates, which it does not need any maintenance, but we cannot control. The torque is big characteristics, but this type is asleep brained or the want rotor, where we can boot and external resistance. But the problem off this time is that it means maintenance 11. Principle Of Operation Of Double Fed Induciton Generator 1: So now let's discuss Is the principal off operation off an induction generator? So we have here an image off induction motor or it can be an induction generator. So how does an induction generator works? Okay, as we remember that we had two parts here. We had the state or and we had that a roto Okay, The state or is connected to a three face a ploy giving us a story face current giving us are rotating the magnetic field causing current here, or a three faced current here which reduces another rotating magnetic feed. So we bought here are supply in order to get an Abbott rotating magnetic field in order to produce at all. Now, in the inductions in Ritter, we are goingto does the reverse. We are going toe supplies Arlotto with the three phase current, okay? And rotate the rotor at the same time. So we have Here's a torque or say rotation off the rotor. And we have your also the three phase magnetic field, okay, or the three phase current producing a rotating magnetic field. Then by doing exists, we will cut the state. Oh, and the produce as three phase are but walked it. So in the motor we have here our in boat reducing a rotating the magnetic field then would reduce the year s refits current, which produced rotating magnetic field. Then we produced art. Or could you toes interaction between the magnetic feeds In that generator, we are goingto supplies the rotor with as three face current, which produces a rotating the magnetic field. Then by rotating busy router we will be able to produce and I would current here inside that state. So now let's the scene their induction generator torque speed characteristics. In order to understand how those an induction machine works, you will find years that we have here a relation between the torque reduced, the boy am motor or an induction generator, and we have yearsas beat off the route. So we'll see that we have a different reason. From here we have a region called is a baking reason where we wanted to stop our motor by providing 02 with a negative is speed from here from zero Until that same chromosomes speed , you will see that we are working in the motoring Greason, this reason where our induction machine is working as an mood If we increase the speed off zero toe Greater Zen that's in crosses beat. We will be able to generate electricity. So again, in the induction motor we work it from zero until they sink. Ramos is be during this reason we have motoring reason. The reason where our induction machine is working as a motive if we increase, is that it's beat off zero toward greater sends us in Caracas is beat. We will have a generation. Okay, we will generate electricity. So we understand the now that we need toe have as bead off our order. Greater sentencing crosses weed in order to generate electricity. Now let's see their bubble fit induction generator which is used in when the energy you'll see here that here we have our window meals which which rotates do toe wind Okay, we have here are gearbox this gear books changes as with it is just excellent or increases beat by changing is the years off yearbooks we and sends their give books is connected toe a double fit induction generator. So let's to take it easy. We have paralysis. There went which produces mechanical energy. Then we have that gearbox. The Gill books is usually used or its purpose is to take. This is beat off the wind and increase it beyond disgusting promises. We okay, in order for the generator to work So they went rotates the total with us bead Greater sentencing promises weed z went hever usually have laws beat so we use that give books in order to increase this beat Greater sentencing Coronas his weed. Okay, so why do we does this in orderto operate in then? Reason off generation inside that induction machine. Okay, now this was the first thing. Second thing is that we have two parties in the induction generator. We have that three face or the stato and the three face off zero to Okay, We said before that in order to generate electricity, we need to connect the rotor do and easy supply. Okay, we said that we will supply. Here's a photo is a three face current and rotating. It was as be greater sensing promises beat, We were able to generate electricity in the state of winding So that waas exactly what you are doing here we first to connect our state or toes. Egret is the great is the power system or where we are is a generated interest it goes to. So we take at the beginning. We take three faced current here from the great Okay. And then convert. Is this this three phase A C or a C current in tow? D c. Okay. By using a part of running devices, then we changes a D. C again toe a c. Why do we do this in order to control our voltage of from cigarette voltage and frequency? Okay, so first we take a three phase here a voltage, we convert it into D C voltage. Then we take the D. C. And converted again to a C. This method is used to control the frequency off the the M word. Voltage it towards the rotor and the value off the vaulted itself inside the road. Okay, so this part used the toe control the M boot, voltage and frequency and dozy wrote Okay, remember that the frequency off cigarette is constant. Okay? It does not affected by anything. So we take Here's the frequency and voltage and control it inside the road. Okay, Now we have here again. We have a speed greater sensing promises made by using the gearbox. And we have here is the embassy three phase voltage A to Z rotor. Therefore, we can produce electricity inside secret. So again we have Here is a public it induction generator consistent off a steep face inside the rotor and see phase inside the state that rotor is fed with three face signal. Okay, by taking it from the great and controlling it, then we provide it to our A route, Okay. Providing a stiffest current torture produces as three phase rotating defeat. All are rotating magnetic field as the window Turpan rotates. It produced the mechanical force on mechanical movement on zero. As rotor rotates the magnetic field, the produce they do to the A C current also rotates at as we'd promotional to the frequency . What does it mean? It means that we have here the import voltage and frequency which we controlled, which causes a three phase current. The three face current inside the rotor is controlled the Boise frequency off. See Abbott from the power running device. Okay, so the frequency from zip our electronic devices control There's a frequency off the magnetic field. The rotating magnetic field, the bosses, Rosa state or and the causing a three phase current. Okay, so it is the same ends the induction motor, but they reverse off the operation and instead, off providing here a Strief s current we provide inside the rotor three. Fiscal on top. Reduce as three phase inside the state of sauces as read off reputation off the state or magnetic field the benders on zero to re speed as well as a frequency off a C. Ok, so here is an important thing you will find here. Is that the frequency year and the rotation of the rotor control, There's a frequency off the output. Okay, so we have two factors here. The frequency off the import voltage and the frequency or the rotation off the mechanical board or that rotation off zero toe. All of this affect this is the Albert frequency and voltage. So in order to control or produce a constant frequency, we will use Z power electronics converters to change the frequency. Okay, So as you know that that that when this beat is not constant, Okay, so that's beat off. The rotor is not constant. So we need to change is a frequency Toby able to produce the same Constanta frequency here . Okay, we have here. A variable is beat, so we'll use Zipporah electronics. Converter toe changes a frequency off the boat. A c current. OK, by changing is this one and the change inside the rotation. We will finally get a constant value here, so that is a benefit off. Using an induction generator is the induction generator Can be working with a variable is beat but us in chromosome machine If's we connected to year toe when the turbine, we will have a variable Albert frequency. Okay, so that was the benefit off. Double fit induction generator and it is only used inside the wind demands, okay? 12. Introduction to Generating Power Stations: hello and welcome everyone to my own course in my own serious forward power system. In this course, we're going to discuss their generating power stations or power plants. Now, in this lecture, we are goingto have an introduction toe they're generating board plant and an overview on all of the types off more blends. So what is a generating Bartlett Generating Bar Valenti Assembly facility, designed to produce electric and energy from Anna's. Our form off energy such as heat or thermal energy generated from fossil fuels, coal or petroleum? Natural gas? So a lot of cinnamon energy, geothermal energy and the nuclear energy. As you know that in the most industrial countries, electric power is provided by generating facilities that serve ah, large number off customers. This generating facilities is known as the central station. Generators are often located in remote areas, far from the point off consumption. The economics off the center of the station generation is largely a matter off coasting as you know that forward any power station. It has a fix, it courses and a variable cost, and both of them clearly defines what kind off the power station we are going to use. and, of course, their environmental conditions. But now you will see here that we are having that generating power station it produce electricity and then with passes through a step up voltage or a step up transformer in order to increase a vaulted. Why? To decrease the losses in the transmission lines also. Then we will have the transmission lines and you see your towers occurring, this transformational lines and then you will find here I step down transformer in order to decrease the voltage in order to distribute it. And then Boston gets orders. That's tributes online. Or is that carry electricity towards the houses until it comes through our home Off course , it wouldn't have toe buster, another step down transformer. So is he here, for example, who are generating at 3.3 kilovolt and them browsing through step up transformer to step up the voltage upto 500 kilovolts or 220 kilovolts, and then it bounces through another step down transformer is this step down transformer to step it from 500 or 220 kilovolts toe 76 or set this recon avant or 20 talking vault or 11 kilovolt and so on. It has a large number of venues. And then this is this. Another step down transformer will step this voltage from six of 1 60 kilovolt or city 13 kilovolt until 780 or the voltage aliant line at our home. So now we can generate our power from the potential energy from the falling water in hydro electric facility when the energy solar electric from solar or photovoltaic cells which are going to discuss their BV or the photovoltaic cells in our laws, of course, the chemical energy from fuel cells. Or but there is. And here is an overview for that different types off electrical facilities which produce electricity. We're having a different forms. The number one is a fossil fuel power plant number two was hydro electric power plant, the solar symbol for blend a nuclear power plant. Zero sermon or planned to answer went power towers or the went barter pines. All of this are a different forms off the generating power stations. All of this we're going to discuss each one of them in this course. So in the Alex Electoral we're going to discuss is that different types off them 13. Construction of Hydro Electric Power Plant: So now in this lecture, we're going to discuss the hydro electric power blend. What is harder electric barbell In it Assembly A power plant which we depend this on is a potential energy of water in order to turn or operate our turbines in order to generate electricity. So we'll see here. In this figure, we have the construction off the hydro electric power plant. You'll see Here are is a war a damn a control gate. Binstock as you narrator after Brian a powerhouse and transform and, of course, is a river off the water. So now let's discuss is the importance of feature component number one the damn what is important off the them or the reservoir. The dam is constructed on a larger ever in Haley areas to ensure sufficient water storage at the height that them for Mazar larger is of war behind it, Zeit off the water, liver cold as water head, which is this one in the reserve, or deter minds how much off the potential energy is stored in it. So this reservoir contains the potential energy off the water, which reduces their their energy required before interest. The control gate, What's the control gate. It is that the water from the reservoir is allowed to flow through that Binstock which is this one? Those after pine. The amount of force which is to be released in the penny stock can be controlled The buyer control gate so that control get controlled The amount of water to be released. This rules have been struck by off course opening and closing this gate. When the control gate is fully open, the maximum amount of water is released. This rose up in stock. So when this one is a fully opens therefore the maximum amount of water will bows. So what is the pain in stock? Binstock is a huge steel pipe which carries water from that is a war does after buying the potential energy off this water is is converted toe kinetic energy as it flows down throws a Binstock and this kind of energy off course rotates. Is that rpai? Now what is a water turbine? A water turbine is a water from the pain in stock is taken into the water turbine. The turbine is mechanically coupled to an electric generator. This one the kinetic energy off the water derives at Zetter. Buying this water drives a turbine and rotates it, and the consequent pleases, you know, literally gets driven. There are two main types off the water tower pines. One of them is called the M, but set their brain. Second. The type is a reaction turbine. The difference between them is the impulse temper. Brian is used for large heads, and the action turbines are used for the low and the medium hit. That's the difference between them. The last component is the generators, as generator is mounted in the powerhouse and it's mechanically coupled to that are buying soft. This one. When the turbine blades are rotated, do does a kind and manage off the water. It drives judge, generator and electricity is generated, which is then Step the Abu's help of transformer for the transformation purpose. So as you know, that's a generation is at 3.3 kilovolts, for example, and then it goes to a step up transformer. Is this transformer step right upto 120 kilovolts, 500 kilowatts of 150 kilovolts, 1500 kilovolts any amount off kilovolt according toe that type off the transmission line of course you told decrease the losses in the transmission lines. Now there is an important thing which we should discuss is the surgery tank. Let's see it now. Now the important thing is a surge hitting. So what is the surgery? Think that search tanks are usually provided in high or a medium head power plant? When there is a south and reduction in the load on the turbines, the governor closes the gates also after buying to reduce the water flow. This is also prevented by using the search sitting in which the water level rises to reduce the pressure. On the other hand, the surge tank provides excess water needed wins. The gates are suddenly opened to meet the increased load demand. So simply you will see here is the same as before. There is a war and seven in Stoke and since the turbine and then connected toe the generator, you will see it and distancing, which is a surgery tank. This surge tank has a gate which open and the closest according toe, the water flow or sediment. So when we need water, this surge tank will provide water since a decrease abrasion and there is a war on the water comes out of here and takes toe direction here and the year. So it decreases of pressure on the wall. This tank wins a load, decreases therefore thes gets closes and therefore it provide this water here. The water is stored here, so decreases the pressure on somewhat 11. But when the demand increases, we will suddenly opens its gates and therefore the water will come from here and to come from here. So that surgery tank provides excess water in the need off excess load or, in the requirement off, producing more electricity. And it stores the water in there when there is a reduction in salute. 14. Types of Hydro Plants: So what is the types off the hydropower plants? There are three types off the hydropower plants. Number one, the conventional plants. Number two is a bomb bed storage plant. Number three is a runoff river plant. The conventional blend. Conventional plants use potential energy from the damned water. The energy extracted dependence owns a volume and the head of the water so they France between zero it off the water level in the reservoir, and the water outflow level is called as water head. The second, the type is a pomade storage plant in a bomb but storage plant, a second reservoir is constructed near the water flow from center pine. When the demand for electricity is low, the water from the lower razor for is bomb it into the minister of war or the other one. Is this off course? Ensure sufficient amount of water available in the minister of war, so fulfills their beak loads, so difference between them is it was. This one has only one attempt in, which is that it provides water, according to the D Mont. But this one has a minister of war and the second reservoir in the time off. In which is that the money is low. The water from the orders that one is bomb. But in Tosa, Minister of War Toe have a sufficient amount of water available in the Minister of war. In case off the beak loads the run off river. In this times there is no them. There is no them constructor and there is no loser war. Therefore, this this river or this part of the river is diverted through a Penis talk or a cannon does a turbine. Therefore only the water is flowing from the river is available for generations. And due to the absence of a reservoir in oversupply, fourth is past unused. So assembly. In this times it is a damn. This type has a minister for on second reserve war and this time has no them. The water which waas generates electricity and, of course, genetic test. According toa, only the demand and therefore there sometimes exist off water which is not used 15. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydro Power Plant: now what does the advantages and disadvantages off the hydro electric power plants? Advantages is no fuel is required as a potential energy is a store. The water is used for electricity generation potential energy, which converts in tow. Kinetic energy is the one which generates electricity. It is net and the clean source of energy. We don't need any fuel very small running towards or running Costas as the water is available free. Of course, list maintenance is required and has a longer life service as a purpose to such as education. We use that water in the irrigation purpose, so this advantage is number one very high capital costs due to the construction off them because it needs a lot of money. High cost of transformation as the hydro plants are located in areas which are quite away from the consumer, or in a remote areas, which they need longer transmission lines, which represents hostess and, of course, substations. And the more 16. Diesel Generators: Now let's discuss the diesel power generator, the diesel portion it or is a generator, which uses a combination off a diesel engine and then electric generator for the generation off electricity. This is genitals are generally used. The case off emergency. When the power supply forms, a great is unavailable and the wear a containment sparks of light is important, such as hospitals, airports, larger, industrious movie theaters is. They can also be used at the best words up. Our great is not available, and I have seen with my own eyes in generating border station for petroleum company, where they use a diesel s and backups are blowing in order toe supply the mean components in case off the bar feller or any emergency cases the portable diesel generators that may come with ratings between a toast, articular volta and bear as a single face off course. And, of course, is there is a large generators upto 2500 kilovolt ampere, or 2.5 mega volt and beer, which are, of course, I three days. Both of them have their own applications. That small one or supportable one is used in homes. It's more officers and etcetera. The large one is used in industries and airports. So how does a diesel generator work? A decision. Aerator uses air compression ignition diesel engine as a prime mover off an electric generator. So what does it mean? It means that, as you know that for any generator, and of course, we're going to discuss the decision aerators and, of course, and NBC generators in other courses. But for now, we have to knows as a generator on orderto work, we will need a movement in a magnetic field in order to produce electricity. That's really symbol, just a movement inside a magnetic field. Off course. It's not that simple, but that is a principle off induction off for a day, Wilmar moving our conductor inside a magnetic field or a static magnetic field on induce the Memphis produced, which means the ailing and electricity. Therefore, when were are using at these, it will need a soft or rotating inside a magnetic field. So we was from compression ignition diesel engine as the prime movers, I think what you move is the rotor off the generator and the prime bribery fuel for this dessert genital. Of course, it's season. The soft of dangerous coupled to the soft off an electric generator or alternator, which is considered as the roto. It moves inside the magnetic field that diesel engine drives. Is there Kabul to generate? Oh, which is in generates electric power. Really simple. Bransford Justice. A movement off the shaft off the engine makes the movement or coupled to the soft off an electric generators alternators to produce a movement. So when a conductor moves in a magnetic field according toe for a day, any math is induced. It was in the conduct. This principle is used to generate electricity in any electric genetic. It is the original principle, and the four off course that easy and the easy generators off course is a power produced from it is a C. But in order to convert it toe d. C will need something which is called the Director fires as and brought electron ICS, and they we will discuss it in the other course for fundamentals of our electron ICS. Or you can use something. We just called that communicators, which was carbon brushes in order to convert to the A, C and D C electric power 17. Importance of Diesel Generators: Now, what is the importance off the diesel generators? The originators are used in Bos off course similar and the nuclear power station as an emergency. Back up power source. They are used for emergency. Really easy. Why in orderto supplies a critical auxiliary equipment? Because we can. Sometimes we cannot fix as, uh, errors or the filler inside our bar station without this components having an electric power supply. And, of course, there are some equipment which is really important, such as the cooling, A promise, the fans, the hydraulic unit, Zapata, Richards and so on. And as you know that, for example, in the nuclear border station, if they're calling off, this nuclear power station has any filler. Therefore, a big explosion will happen. Therefore, you want you may find in nuclear position has more than two or more bar supply sources there, front of art supply stores and orderto avoid this disaster in case off they're calling stop , for example, as you see it during a power interruption, no club or plant, it is a very necessary to keep the continuous power supply for the actor cooling bumps. It's really important in the nuclear position or a dis, Esther or a disaster will happen, or a big explosion will happen. Which way will cause that this off thousands of people or that's direction. Off cities there are back up battery banks to keep a continuous supply of the critical equipment. This is unit, it was. Also supplies are better resources and also as our auxiliary needs. They provide electricity, toes, a spillway gates which used to prevent water from flowing in case off the flood conditions they are also it can be used in a circuit breakers, protective relays, transformers, communication system and, of course, the circuit breakers and the relays and the fuses and all of this. I have been discussed in another course of this series in which you are talked about Zach substations. There are many parts off the our world in which is that is a genesis as the only available power source. And, of course, the you are. You know that there are some areas in which our electricity or our transmission Lincoln, Mont reach. Therefore, that is apart. Relent is the only way in orderto generate electricity 18. Fossil Fuels Power Plant Construction: Now let's talk about an important bore plant. The important Portland is a fossil fuels warplanes house he work and their importance. Their importance, as you see, is that over 65% off the wall, it's electrical energy user today generated boys a steam turbine generators burning of fossil fuels as their source off energy on the largest scale for selfie old, the plants provide most off the wall. It's based low generating capacity, so more than 65% of the world's electricity are from as a fossil fuel. So as you know that this is really important. That's why we have toe find another way because they are under a renewable source of energy . If the fossil fuels and the sooner or later the electricity will be gone unless we exhaust uses that that renewable source of energy, like the solar energy, is that when the energies of geothermal energy now let's discuss it's a principle or formulation. First, we use a different types off fjords, fossil fuel. The brand Susie's Up cool, which is 60% oil, which is 10% gas, 30% in purpose, designed the compassion jumpers to rise esteem. So we just take all of this And the boat eating in the compassion room in order to burn is them. And therefore, world will produce exhaust gases which goes toe evolution. Control is they hate energy and produces team. They are user to rise his team. These are all of course. Ah, nonrenewable. So resource is host supply will ultimately be exhausted. Oil is off course is their most convenient The fuel And 30 years ago it accounted for 30% off the consumption, but the rest until it has been replaced by cool as oil prices have risen. First presents a price off cool due to their insecurities off supply. But most of them are now, or the cool is really harm a photo, the environment. So you will see that there is a lot off facilities and the great nations are now trying toe decrease that your send off court due to its harmful effects on the environment. So we'll see here that this fuels burn it in tow, the combustion room and therefore it produce exhausted guess which is really harmful and then goes toe esteem boiler, which would reduce hit energy which a request to boil the water until it becomes esteem. And of course, the water or the cold water is coming from here from my steam condenser and then goes toe the steam bullet on orderto be boiled and the converted to steam. You will see arrest involved, which controls the amount off steam produced. Therefore, the steam produce a mechanical power which moves our steam turbines and then for the exhaust steam or the remaining off steam will goto esteem Condenser system turbine is off course, coupled with are soft in order with, as in Krajina to produce an E C power. So it's really assembled. We burning fuels in order to produce heat energy, which boils the water and convert it into steam. And since this is team moves after point and Sister Pine discovered the wizard generator or and to produce and any seapower 19. Enviromental Issues Fossil Fuels Of Power Plant : now for the efficiency off this three conversion processes. The sermon mechanical and the electrical in off course is a fossil fuel barb lent. If overall efficiency is about 40% which means that certain 60% off the energy input to the system is wasted. And sometimes efficiency maybe as low as 30% in older for blends for the environmental issues, number one is the air quality Do toes off course is a combustion process produces off course. Amble isn't togethers and souls into the atmosphere. As I said before, Cole is really, really dangerous fuel, and it's really dirty. It produces gases as some for dioxide isolde to excise off nitrogen in no to, for example, which was contributory acid rains as well as particles as cadmium, mercury and lit. And, of course, is the acid rains may effect off course. The important places in the wallet, for example, here in my own country, Egypt is acid rain may affect his apparent and the important statues off course contributors that global warming, the another unavoidable consequence of burning any fossil fuel is that it generates a green house. Gases off course is our most important greenhouse gases that photo todo, which makes us hate energy stored inside. There's it does not help it to skip from theirs. And, of course, the problem off the global warming is that the north and South poles are goingto be melted , and therefore a lot off reasons in the world will be flooded by what but also their arms are harmful gets such as sell for Exodus, Soto and the Meats and Ch four and which all contribute and toes a global warming. So that's why we have to decrease the usage off fossil fuels and start using the renewable energy like solar energy, hydro energy when the energy and geothermal energy 20. Nuclear Power Plant: Let's discuss is a nuclear power station. A nuclear bowl blend or a nuclear power station is a sermon power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor seven or to similar power stations. They it is used toe generate esteem, which drivers a steam turbine connected to an electric genetic which have reduced electricity. Now, let's see is a structure off their nuclear power station in order to generate electricity. Now we will see here for us is a reactor vessel or the nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor is the heart off the stage in its a central part that actors, of course, heat is generated by control. The nuke nuclear fission With this heat, air coolant is heated as it is bomblets rosary actor and their boy removes their energy from very active. Hit from the nuclear fission is used toe raise steam, which is Aransas rose after points which in turn powers there electrical generators and off course we can use in the nuclear reactor off course that you're running, which is a very heavy metal, that is our abundant owners. And they found in the sea water as well as most trucks and of course, this reactor is brought surrounded by a protective shield since it produced radio activity . And of course, this protective chills event that radioactive material from escaping or releasing into the environment and of course, is that many actors are equipped. Do is a dome off concrete to protect is a reactor against both internal and external impact . So simply what happens here? Random here, which has a very high temperature You tosa nuclear fission. And then you will see here this water which comes from here. Of course, you will see here a cycle for their the Hoat. You're on you and therefore there will be a hate extender with water and therefore this hot water will produce this team This team will cause is that they're buying Toby moved. And the boldness off this steam turbine is to convert is a hit contending the steam into mechanical energy. Therefore it is a couple does a generator. The generator convert is a mechanical power supplied by the turbine into electrical power and therefore they will see here AC condenser, which convert is that team in tow called water In order to bus it again here, Toby it and converting it into steam. And, of course, that generator buses room my step up transformer. Anything goes toe transmission lines, but you have to know that there is an important thing, which is the emergency power supply. Most of nuclear stations require two distinct sources off power feeding station surface transformers that are sufficiently separated infestations, switchyard and the Guaracy bar from multiple transmission lines. And even with the absence off this to their front of our sources, we also the nuclear position is equipped with emergency power in case off any problem. So, as we said before and I will say it again, you will see that inside nuclear position we will have more example supply. Why, in order to have the cooling system still be operating, because, of course, a visa the cooling system stopped. Therefore there will be accessed. It will happen or thousands of people will be killed. The end destruction end, of course, that radioactive material will be spread. Throws the entire area 21. Geothermal Power Plants: Now let's discuss that geothermal power. The geothermal power is a power generated boy. Geothermal energy. The geothermal power is considered to be a sustainable, trainable source off energy. Because I hate extraction. ISS more converted with the nurses. Heat content is, as you said, my ball stations are similar. Toe us, our esteemed toe point cinema power stations heat from a fuel source. In case off our courses and geothermal, you'll see that they hate source off course. The it's the score, which is used to heat water or another working fluid, is that working float is in use to turn after pine over a generator and thereby producing electricity. The fluid is then called undertone in tow, the heat source. Now let's discuss that the front of types off their Geo Cemal Bar Station number one is a dry steam power station. The dry steam stations are the simplest ends. All the society. They directly use the same esteem off water at 150 solicitors or greater toe turns after pints, CNN's a condenser. Water cools and is emitted back into the soil so the hot water comes here and sense. Of course, there is a control valve, ear and another control valve ear. And then this hot water for the steam bosses Rosa turbine, producing a mechanical energy which rotates the pine and then coupled the wizard generator producing electric energy. And then, of course, there is a condenser here where it bosses, again in tow, is injected back into the soil. The other type is a flash steam power station, the flash steam border station. In this time, the freshest importation body. High pressure hot water into lower pressure tanks and use the resulting flesh. This team toe, Dr Sattar points. They require flow temperature off at least 180 solicitous, usually more. This is the most common type off the station in operation today. The flesh steam plant issues juicer, Mel's reservoirs off water wisdom Britcher greater then surround. And 60 F or 182 solicitors without water flows up. Sorrows are wells in the ground under its own pressure. As it flows upwards. Pressure decreases on some of the hot water points. Interesting. The steam is in, separated from the water and used toe power, a turbine on a generator and, of course, the remaining steam or the remaining called the water will return them back into the soil, so we'll see a same as before. They're very hot water. Of course, that Richard is greater than here. Bosses through a tank in which would you have a lower pressure? The Flashes team bosses, Rosa turbine producing electricity on them bosses through a condenser and turned back here . And, of course, a cold water. From here comes this room that subsurface or their sorry again. 22. Wind Turbines: Now let's discuss that renewable source of energy, which is wind. I wind the turbine assembly advice. The converters are. Win this kind, antic energy into electric power. Let's see its a construction off the window. They're buying your Caesar. The construction of it is is easier than it seems. You'll see here. You'll find that this is the blades, which were a taste you to air, and then you will find here's the rotation is connected toe a soft, which rotates off course on the bossing. So a gearbox between it and the generator in order to increase, as we, of course, the highest beach off disconnected toes. I give books and centuries generator has a very high speed, soft and therefore will generate electricity. And of course, there is a controller and other things. Which control, of course, is that the frontal parts inside the wind turbine so it is really, is a rotation. Off the blaze will use a kinetic energy which rotates is the shaft, which connected so I gearbox, which increases as beat off the shaft. New tools at the front since attorneys ratio on Xenzai generator produced electricity 23. Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy: So what is the advanced off the window turbines? ZR number one Inexpensive. The cost between two and six cent bear kill What our, which is one of the lowest priced renewable energy sources that today's wallet their cost is between 4 to $48,000.65,000 dollars to any stole. So it is a mean coast off the wind turbines, and it's not much cost the wind. The turbine provides a clean source off energy. Of course, I know does not emit any greenhouse effects or rather together due to their non existence off any fuel. So when the forms can generate between 17 and certainly in times as much and support they consume and in the United States, I don't know why you always say that when the turbines have produced about 16 Bailey on Gil , what hours off energy bear here? But there this advantage is they are really Lord the rich, over 400 feet told and with the blades 15 yard this long, and the people have have a complaint about their visual impact. And of course, there is another disadvantage, which is that thousands of birds and of course, there is a rare speeches which are killed the boys, their plates off the window turbines. A sort of this adventure is that the wind turbine cannot be controlled. What does it mean? It means that the wind when the wind is not available, therefore there will be no energy do does there is affected the wind, the can flecked weight. Therefore, there is no Afghanistan. The power generated therefore the wind energy is not a particularly reliable source off energy. That is a really important advantage. We cannot rely on the wind turbines because we cannot control wind. But of course is a fossil fuels the oils against petroleum. We can control it. We can control the amount of fuel as because we have it. We can use it any time. But the wind turbine only can be used and the time in which, when the exists 24. Solar Thermal Energy: Now let's discuss another renewable source of finish, which is a solar cinema linage ste. It is a form off energy and a technology for using the solar energy to generate sermon, energy or electrical energy for those in industry and in the residential and commercial sick. So they're off course is actually an energy is also converted a sermon or that solar energy in tow, electric energy by the usage off the photo will take. Now let's sees a different types off the solar energy. Our solar energy is divided in tow, direct and indirect methods. The direct, which uses a solar cells and indirect using the solar salmon. Let's is a direct A direct receives the reader ear ideation in radiation, which has a symbol h and what bear meter square. And we have Ear IBV models, which contains that BV cells This beefy BV sells. It takes the radiation from the sun and the produce electricity or a DC electricity. Therefore, this DC electricity will charge the batteries. And, of course, in order to take power, we will have to convert this D C into a C using an inverter inverter, which converts is that D. C. into a sea. Of course, you will see here that the A radiation from the sun varies according to the time of day you will see it occurred for two represents us on rice and the window sunrise. The amount off ready radiation increases until the beak at saloon. And of course, it started to decrease until sunset. And of course there is a different factors affecting is a ball received a tomato, for example er, irradiation or the temperature. And of course I will discuss it in another course for photovoltaic. But now you will find that it can be respectable by using that better is end and under special If there is no battles. And of course, we will discuss the meaning off dispatch mobile and non special in another video. But now we all have towards Austin. Oh, that dispatch mobile. We will have a batteries and nonce matchable. No batteries. This vegetable means we we can use it that many times and so we can store it using batteries. Non special. We cannot use it except the ads or time off existence off that son. And it will happen when we have no batteries to store this energy that in director type is that we have the sun and we were there. So rays are reflected by a mirror to our by which contains oil. This oil flows and the oil temperature increase and therefore we will boss it. This oil with water, there will be a hate exchanger. Therefore the water Bybee inside it will convert the to steam and sinful Babel. I totally trying to produce a kind, antic energy. So assembly the sun rays are reflected through a mirror which you collected the sun rays to increase off course. The concentration off and the heat energy off the sun off the rays which comes from the sun and the bossing throws the oil and then the oil is heated and some buses through our water . Of course, it is a cold water and the water will take all of the hate energy from the oil and then its temperature will increase and converted to steam. And then this is team will turn as a turbine to reduce our kinetic energy, which produces electric energy 25. Comparison between Costs of Different Power Plants: in this video are goingto make a comparison between the different power generators or power plant is according toe their capital cost. The ends are Brittan coast or the capital cost, which is called desire. Fix it cost, which is in dollar bear kill what, and there operating cost or the running cost was a variable cost, which is dolar bear kill what our Which dependence on the installed the capacity or support generated boy, this poor blend and so everything costa, which is killed Water origin depends on the amount of energy consumed the boys. The consumers you will find here is that for a coal fire the combustion turbine $500 to $1000 for the capital cost for the operating or going toe to toe. Four and you'll find the year for the natural gas. A cool gasification combined cycle natural guest combined cycle when the turbine, nuclear photovoltaic, solar and hydro lifted, you can pass this video and see the price off. Each are fun, but I would like toa mention a lot of things for the capital cost. You will find that the lowest one is that cool for out of the combustion engine and is a natural gas combustion turbine, and they will find that the most expensive is a foot will take, which, of course, this Alatas BV easels is really costing $4500 up. The hydro electric is 1200 to $5000 as you know that due to the construction off the dam, and so you'll find that for the operating cost their photovoltaic. However, since the capital cost is very high, the operating cost is very low. The hydra realistic they're operating. Cost is very low. Also, the wind turbine you'll see it has ah, high operating costs are capital cost, but low operating costs, the same as foot will take and hide or a stick. That's why is that we normally sees a window turbine football take harder. Elected, which is the normal, has a low operating cost about high initial cost of high capital cost. But you'll find for the non renewable energy sources you will find that it has a low capital cost about high overrating cost. You will find that for the nuclear, which is considered as a renewable source of energy, 1200 to 5000 dollar, which is considered as a high capital, costs the answer. What I think is also low or going toe toe or went all five because off this apparent trade off between the capital and the operating cost. Therefore, comparing the overall courses off a different power plant technologies is not always straightforward. You're seasons up support plans compared to using a measure called the Something, which is called the Liberalized the Coast Off Energy or jealousy or in which is average price berry on it, off the Albert needed for the plant to break even over its operating lifetime. In another course we will discuss is the economics off transmission lines is a generation and distribution. All of this has its own. Economics is a price off. The equipments are priced off the subsist substations, the price off the transmission lines and all of this. We just have toe compare between them according toe There Total cost bear kilowatt hour and will have a specific course for this. But for now, we'll just in see an overview for the cost and fix it, and the variable cost for a different power plants 26. Factors affecting Generators: There are some factors which you can compare between generators. You'll see here some factors, which is number one, that I am Brayton. This very word influences how quickly is a plan to can increase or decrease the power output. It'll presenters there presents off the capacity berry on a time it can be measured in megawatts. Bear our or bar should be by partial team. The amber time is amount of time. It takes from the moment as generic Taurus turn it on to the moment it can start providing energy towards a great at its lower operating limit. So this represent is a variation or the amount off the bar. Our bar shall be about specialty, but this one represented our time. Taken toe turn is a generator on and to provide the great at its lower operating limit. As we said before the number time, it means that how long does it take to change its? It's a power generation. What I mean by that, as you remember in the gas turbine generator, it may take upto five minutes or 10 minutes, and so on. But for the esteem steam their brain generator, it may take up to seven or eight hours toe make the water becomes esteem, so that is a time. But this is a rate. The partial B by bashar yours a derivative. The capacity. It is a maximum out both off, the planned the maximum. I want a bar that the plant can provide Zawar operating, limit their minimum amount of bar or sell a West amount bars that planned to can generate once it is turn it on. As you know that for each or in about the station, it must have a minimum operating power. It must to give a specific amount of our we cannot decrease it until zero. It must have a minimum. Value is the minimum run. Time is the shortest amount of time I blend. Taken operate. Once it's turned on, it means that that's a blend. After operating it, it must work for this time, which is called Czar on time. It cannot work. Please end this time. Zanna. Low cost is the cost of the turnings that plant own but giving into spending ready to increase up our Albert in dollar bear megawatt hour. Another way of looking at it is the cost buys a generators that is independent off the amount of energy in it. What does it mean? It assembly when I overrate Zap Power station at no load, it means that it is not providing in any energy. It is just taking zap. Our toe overcomes and no load losses. As you know that in generators or motors, they have a losses due to the friction. Photos are wires and so on. This power is a minimum bar, which is taken and that scores has its own coast. The start up and shutdown causes are the course is involved in turning supplant own end off in dollar bear megawatt hour. 27. Comparison between Ramp and Run Time of Different Power Plants: now you will see is this table comparison between the remember time and the minimum run time for a different bar blends for examples. Assemble cycle combustion turbine. It means that we're are burning our fuel to produce the steam. And then this team produce electricity and the combined cycle. It does more than one thing. You can use that the exhaust steam in order to use it in on other Berbers, for example, generating electricity from a smaller generator or reducing your heating. The honors our equipment so it is called the combined. It does more than one thing the nuclear, the wind turbine and hydro electric. Now we're seeing here. Is that amber time? As we said before, the amount of time it needs ATO be turned it on. So it takes from minutes to hours the symbol for the combined hours for the nuclear it six days. That's why is that a large nuclear bar blend is Monday special, as we discussed, and we will discuss what's mental boy. It is not respectable, and we'll discuss what is meant to buy an unspeakable In the next videos. The wind turbine takes minutes. Zeidler Electric takes only minutes for the minimum run. Time is the only minimum run time. It must be around four minutes, the symbol for hours or two days, the nuclear weeks to months. The wind turbine does not have any minimum run. Time on the hard heretic doesn't have any minimum run time, so we'll see. Here it is the most or the best. The rest between them force from the remember time and the wrong time is a wind turbine and hydro electric. You will see here a graph which will present its air comparison between the operating costs and the operational flexibility. According to the different barb leads, you will see here that the operating cost is the lowest. Operating cost is cool and the hydro electric the highest, of course, is is a simple cycle. Turbines against and oils four is there, or additional flexibility is their most flexible. One is a harder electric and the symbol cycle turbine. But Seles the flexible is the cool. And of course the nuclear is less flexible because, of course, we cannot turn it on and off is your changes. That power required is, as you know, that the number time takes days and the minimum run time is from weeks to months. And of course, we'll see. Here's a combined cycle is between the highest and lowest value ends off course. Flexibility is the same. Also, the minimum run time and the remember times deter mine. How flexible degeneration sources this very among the different types of plants. And of course, they are a function off the regulations. The time of the fuel ends off course. The technology. The blend is a meaning off. Less flexibility is that it takes a longer minimum run times on the slower Rambert times as of course, is a nuclear which it can be used as a pay's load energy because they are less flexible, we cannot change. Therefore, it work is also time, so we use it as a base load energy. Why blends that are more flexible? Which means they have a shorter minimum on times and the quicker remember times are used. Auto fill the big demand in the lecture where we are talking about there low demand. We're going to discuss the distribution or the usage off each off these the front bar blends and where to use it. Dessert really important electoral which will help you toe collect all of this information 28. Dispatchability: Now what is mental boy Anspach ability? That's batch ability is simply the controlling off the amount of power generated from Zach generate or produce from the generator. It means that we can control the amount of about we can control it as we would like. For example, off it is against our Brian Generator, the steam turbine generator, because both of them use fuel so we can control the amount of power produced. The Hydra wizard is a war. Of course, there is a horrible controlled the amount off that water produced, which means we can control the amount of electric energy wind plus a storage. If we have, I went and it has a storage. We can control the amount off the power produced. There is a different types off dispatch ability, non special fix it so changed about reduced from originator in a very difficult is a very difficult process. It takes a very large time for examples. A nuclear reactor and the very largest steam generator. It takes a lot of time toe. It changes our amount of party tours. For example, I have seen, with my own eyes a gas turbine generator in which takes only five minutes. Five minutes, Toby, turn it on. But sometimes team will need toe door burn is a fuel and produce hit energy and then make as a water converted to steam on. All of this takes a long time. It may take up to 78 hours. Another one is on under special variable. Subordinate is not constant and they cannot be controlled. The toe are desired values. It is non special and the variable the wind without storage, which depends on their amount on speed, off wind, the solar without storage and of course and demands on their time off the day as they depend on the weather conditions. For example, the wind depends on the as beat off the wind the solar, which it depends on the derogations, which comes off as a sandwich. Elements on the time off the day 29. Load Demand: Now, when this lecture you will see here is a load demand, what is meant by low demand? It means that the load required the boys are customers or the energy or the power needed by the customers. So you will see. Here's the B demand or support. Need the bites, the customers who is a function with time. You will see here that the Lord varys until it reaches a big and the decrease. Okay, so we'll see here is that in orderto filled this demand, we will need toe use a different types of generators. So as a load or a fix it or a bays load generators. We will use that nuclear and the largely steam generators because they're on one dispensable and fix it. They provide constant about. We will just to feel all of this area by a constant based dual power, which is the nuclear will. Lots of steam generator because they're variation was time is equal to zero. They are fix it. They don't to change. They require a lot off on the large number off time to be able to change. As you remember for the nuclear in the Rivers video, we have said that it takes days and sometimes bizarre on time from and weeks to months is 2nd 1 which has a small variation, Can very and they can support Is this a small variations At most of the time, which is the hydro and the steam turbine generator? A small esteem Turbo engine it No tellers one. So it is dispatch mobile. We can change the amount off the bar from it. So bar shall be Barbash. Lt is low. We can't change it. But at the week you'll see here as of equal it is only a small time. So at the vehicle will use the thing which very easily which is a small guest, a bunch of metal which can be controlled easily Very dispatcher one Or is there a renewable source? What has a storage for examples? A window with batteries or the solar energy was batteries so we can use it at the time off the beak The time off peak where the low demand increases. So we need more generation. The selecting off unity H arranged amend its own is a production production cost operation courses And as you see here is the base load has a low cost compared to others and ability to deal with the load power variation but shall be by bosh anti. As you see here, it is constant ears. That's why we will use none respectable and fix it. This barter is this bachelor, so it will be able to deal with this this small variation in the road. But at the very high variation adds a beak. We will use something which is but shall be. Bob Marshall is high. That's more gin guest of buying generators and the renewable blast storage.