Ultimate Electricity Generation For Electrical Engineering | Ahmed Mahdy | Skillshare

Playback Speed

  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

Ultimate Electricity Generation For Electrical Engineering

teacher avatar Ahmed Mahdy, Electrical Power Engineer

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

47 Lessons (8h 30m)
    • 1. Electricity Generation Promo Video

    • 2. Introduction to Generation

    • 3. Definition of Generation

    • 4. Why do we generate electricity

    • 5. How do we generate electricity

    • 6. Difference between induction generator and synchronous generator

    • 7. Principle of Operation of Synchronous Generator

    • 8. Types of Synchronous Generators

    • 9. Self Excited induction generator

    • 10. Principle of Operation of Induction Motor

    • 11. Types of Induction Machine rotor

    • 12. Principle Of Operation Of Double Fed Induciton Generator 1

    • 13. Introduction to Generating Power Stations

    • 14. Introduction to Wind Energy

    • 15. Selection of Type of Wind Turbine

    • 16. Rotor Solidity and Selection of Number of Rotor Blades

    • 17. Gearbox in Wind Turbines

    • 18. Power Available in the Wind Spectra

    • 19. Power Extracted by the Wind Turbine

    • 20. Betz Limit and Maximum Rotor Efficiency

    • 21. Factors Affecting Wind Speed and Density Height of Tower

    • 22. Factors Affecting Air Density

    • 23. Example 1

    • 24. Example 2

    • 25. Applied Force on Wind Turbine, Torque Coefficient and the Importance of the TSR

    • 26. Example 3

    • 27. Wind Turbine Generator Characteristics

    • 28. Example 4

    • 29. Effect of Rotor Diameter and Generator Size on Power

    • 30. Wind Turbines Spacing

    • 31. Introduction to PV System Construction

    • 32. Solar Heating, Solar Irradiation and Panels

    • 33. Effect of Insolation and Temperature on V I Curve

    • 34. PV Installation, Short Circuit and Open Circuit Tests Using Avometer

    • 35. Solar Wires and Cables Installation Process

    • 36. Mounting of PV System

    • 37. Shading and Tilt Angle

    • 38. Importance of Charge Controller

    • 39. PWM and MPPT Charge Controllers

    • 40. Junction Box

    • 41. Wiring of Junction Box

    • 42. Function, Types and Data Sheet of Inverter

    • 43. Construction of Hydro Electric Power Plant

    • 44. Nuclear Power Plant

    • 45. Geothermal Power Plants

    • 46. Simulation of Synchronous Machine Connected to Small Power System

    • 47. Simulation of Induction Motor or Asynchronous Motor Using Simulink

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

Welcome to my course on electricity generation, in this course, we are going to discuss how electricity is generated, and the different types of electric generators.

We will also discuss the types of induction machines and their principle of operation, we will also discuss the synchronous machines and their principle of operation.

We will also learn 

  • Types of wind turbines.

  • Rotor solidity and selection of the number of rotor blades.

  • Gearbox in wind turbines.

  • The power extracted by the turbine from the wind.

  • Betz limit and maximum rotor efficiency.

  • Factors affecting wind speed and density.

  • Applied force on the wind turbine, torque coefficient, and the importance of the TSR.

  • Wind turbine generator characteristics.

  • Effect of the rotor diameter and generator size on power.

  • Wind turbines spacing.

  • The fundamentals of solar energy

  • Components and design of on-grid and off-grid solar systems

  • Types and selection of solar modules

  • Types of charge controllers

  • Types of different solar inverters

  • Selection of suitable tilt angle and shading effect in PV systems.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Ahmed Mahdy

Electrical Power Engineer


I am Ahmed Mahdy an electrical power engineer, I am also an instructor at Skillshare and other platforms with 10 courses, I am also an author on Amazon Kindle having 6 books about YouTube, science fiction, and electrical engineering. In 2018 I have been awarded of being from the top 10% of most engaging instructors on another platform. 

In every one of my courses, you'll see that I am always available and always offer you support through each course. I will join your success and help you through any obstacles.  In the many positive course reviews, my courses get most people like the Way I Explain everything and the encouraging teaching style that I convey as well as how I get right to the point and walk yo... See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • 0%
  • Yes
  • 0%
  • Somewhat
  • 0%
  • Not really
  • 0%
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.


1. Electricity Generation Promo Video: Hi and welcome everyone to our course for electricity generation, for electrical engineers. What are you going to learn in this course? This course is designed for anyone who would like to start learning about with electrical generation systems. What we are going to do is that we will learn how well does the electricity is generated or how do we generate electrical power. Also, we will understand what are the different types of electrical generators used in our electrical system, such as synchronous generators and induction generators. We will also start understanding what are the different types of these generators, which are the induction and synchronous generators. We will understand what are their different types. Then we are going to learn about different types of electrical power plants or the electrical generating power stations, such as hydroelectric, wind energy system, as our solar system, geothermal, and nuclear power plants. You will learn as a principle of operation of each generating power plant. Also in this course, we will start learning apart with two important topics, which is a wind energy and solar energy. Will learn is a basics of wind energy and the basics of solar energy or wind energy. We will start learning about the different types of wind turbines which are used to convert that mechanical power from the wind into electrical power. We will learn about words that I wrote or solidity incites a wind turbine. And how can we select the number of photo plates or the optimum number of photo plates. Also, we will learn about Zack gearbox and it's a function. We will learn about how we can get the equation which representing desire power extracted by the turbine from a wind. We will learn about with coefficient, very important coefficient in wind energy system, which is pizza limit. Maximum brutal efficiency. We will learn about different factors affecting both of Zara's speed of the wind and the density of air. We will also learn about the applied force on the window and Pi and buys out wind itself, the torque coefficient and the tip speed ratio. That wind turbine generator characteristics, effect of the rotor diameter and generate or size on the power generate. Finally, the wind turbines, spacings and space between different wind turbines. So all of this are considered as the basics of wind turbines. We will go into. Z is lessons step-by-step in order to help you understand everything about with basics of wind energy. Now for the another part of this course, which is the basics of solar energy, we will learn about the fundamentals of solar energy. Components ends at xi1 of the on-grid, off-grid solar systems types and says selection of solar modules, types of the charge controllers, types of the different solar inverters, selection of suitable tilt angle and shading effect MBB systems will have to understand that here we will learn the fundamentals. What I mean by some fundamentals that we will understand. How can we convert the solar energy into electrical energy. We will learn what are the different types of balance? How can we select the different types of charge controllers which are used to charge batteries? We will learn about the types of different solar inverters. And how can we select a delta angle? And what is the meaning of shading effect MBB systems or components of the on-grid, off-grid system. Forza design. I may add it to this course, or you will find it in the other course, which is solar energy course. Now, who is this course for? This course is designed for electrical engineering students who would like to learn about degeneration, originating electrical power plants. Electrical power students, complete beginners who don't know anything about electrical generation or electricity generation and would like to get knowledge on electricity generation. Also, it is also designed for electrical engineers like to refresh the knowledge in electricity generation. Saying Q. And hope to see you in our codes for a trustee generation. 2. Introduction to Generation: Hi and welcome everyone to my own courts for generation of electricity. As this course is brought to you by engineer am at Maddie. What are we going to learn in our course? The first thing is that we are going to discuss Z definition of generation of electricity. Number two, why do we generate electricity is a reason why we are generating electricity in the first place. Zen, we are going to discuss Z types of synchronous machines and it's a definition. Zen when we are going to discuss his induction machine and its own types. We are going to discuss also the hydro-power plant and its types is that D is about plant, fossil fuels power plant, nuclear power plant, a geothermal power plant. When the energy and solar energy power plants to also xhat, concept of dispatch ability. And finally z load demand. And after all of this, we will also discuss our comparison between z different generating power plants from z perspective of air, Costas and Azar factors. This r, z content of our course. This course is for electrical power engineering students. This will be helpful for you to identify is that different machines using generation process and the different power plants, which electrical power engineers walk in. Thank you and I hope to see you in my own course. 3. Definition of Generation: In our first video, we would like toa, identify the definition off generation. So what's mental boy? Electricity generation or electrical power generation? Electricity generation is simple. Easy process off generating electrical power from sources off primary energy. It means that we are converting or generating electrical power from a different sources, like solar energy, kinetic energy, mechanical energy and these different types of energy. We convert them into electrical energy. So for electrical utilities or in our power system, the electricity generation is considered as the first stage in the delivery off electricity to our induced. The other stages are the transmission is inside distribution off this electrical power and then find many that stage, which is a utilization where we are using our electricity so assembly again electricity generation. It is a process off generating electrical power. We are generating electricity from sources like fossil fuels hydropower plants, which means we are generating electricity from the kinetic energy off water. Do dozy zoo waterfalls where the water moves our turbines and generate electricity, or from solar energy, where we convert using BV cells from solar energy into electrical energy. So let's see our power system. Now we have here An overview toe our poor system, How our power system or our electrical system looks like. So the first stage in our system is that generation, which is this spot. Okay, that generating power station, which is generates electricity at a voltage nearly toe. Listen, think in a vault. Okay, Then we use as step up transformer. A transformer used the toe interest Z voltage or step up the voltage. So it simply takes is the voltage from the generating station that 10 kilovolts, for example, and step it up. Increases it upto 138 kilovolt. 230 kilovolt surround and 54 kilovolt 500 kilovolt 700 kilovolt. So assembly we generate our electricity in our course using the different generating stations such as the solar BV planets or wind the Bryants or our fossil fuels diesel generators and different types off Z generators which we are going to discuss in the course . So after generating, is that electricity? In our first stage, we transmit this power we transfer or transmit this power using transmission line This process school dizzy transmission which is our second the stage in our poor system. Okay, we transmit the electrical energy from the generating power plant in tow, Our distribution system. Then at this point, we decreases the voltage again, okay? And there, decreasing off the voltage or cares in a different steps. So finally gets revolted, which is required in the distribution network. In the distribution network, we have our end user customer, for example, in our homes, like you and me, for example, in Egypt we used 220 a vault as a phase voltage or several 180 volt as aligned line voltage . So we talk the voltage here we increased devoted using a step up transformer. Then we transmit this power at the high voltage in order to decrease the losses in our transmission lines. Then we use the step down transformer toe decreases the voltage. Then we the crease dizzy voltage again in our various steps until we reach our final customer, which is me and you with a voltage 120 volt or 140 volt or, for example, in Egypt. 220 volt s f phase voltage and sir 180 volt as allying voltage. So this is Waas. The first stage is a generation part which we are going to discuss second, the part which is the transmission office and interesting. That certain part is the distribution off this electricity. On the final is the customer, which is the black one, which means that utilization or their usage off this electrical power. So this waas simply how a ball system looks like 4. Why do we generate electricity: there is an important question. Why do we generate electricity? Why do we need electricity? OK, electricity is really important in our life. We use it Number one to run your up lancers at home we was eight for TV Reverend Graito. A sea or air conditioning, then electric oven, electric stoves, laptops and lots more. Okay, so we nearly use it in every single part in our home number two used it in Transportacion. As you know, that there is a type of train called Dizzy Electric train. We use it also in your plans. We use it also in electrical cars which runs off course on a interesting in the medical sector or on hospital that we use X ray machines, s egy and other various or different devices which work on electricity. So the reason why we use that electricity is that we use it in nearly every sector off our life. We use it in lighting. We use it in our home, up the answers. We use it in laptops. We use it in Transportacion such as a little trains, electric cars. We use it in our medical sector or the hospitals such as the X ray and different and medical equipment. Okay, all of them work on trust. So what are the the front sources off electricity? OK, so we can use or generate electricity from non renewable sources off energy or 100 noble fuels such as schools. The calls when ZR permanent is a produced amount off heat. This heat causes the water tow become a superheated steam. This so but heated steam used it'll Dr Zito Brian's which finally generates electricity. We have also wind energy which causes the when the males to rotate, then causing this a generation off electricity and we will discuss is the double fit induction generate Oh, which we use NZ wend energy. We are also in waterfalls in orderto produce hydroelectric energy. We use the kinetic energy and the movement off water in orderto move or rotate that their pints and finally generating electricity, who is also the affordable take or the solar energy by using BV cells or photovoltaic toe convert is that solar energy into electrical energy 5. How do we generate electricity: so we have now an important question. How do is generate electricity so we can generate electricity by using two types off as generators? The 1st 1 is seeing Chronos generators, and 2nd 1 is the induction generators. They are bosses in Maine pipes you will find in Zippo system. You have to know that most of's Asian raters are seeing Chronos A generators. You will find this increments generators in fossil part planters in hydropower plants and nearly every or almost every power plant working on fossil fuels. The induction generators are found with a little percentage about Diarios in Z and Power Plant Is or Z power sources, which have a variable is beat or a variable amount off energy with respect. Oh, time. So this increments generator used the Wiz that Monday noble source of energy, which is representing the larger percentage off our power system. The induction generators are found with a little percentage, but as they are used in poor polenta such as the went to Brian's because they have a variable amount off power with respect to time and the variable speed okay, they don't to produce a constant amount off power. The induction however, the induction motors RZ widely most or the most used the type off induction machines or the motors, in the meantime, is induction motors and the synchro MUS. Motives are very, very little. Okay, so most off hours in the raters are sink Rama's generators and most off our motors are considered as induction motors because induction motor that can work at a variable is beat , they don't have a constant speed, he can work and the produce torque at a different speeds, and we'll sing in this course. Helen Induction Motor Works. 6. Difference between induction generator and synchronous generator : so the difference between this in chroma generator and induction generator from a comparison or point of view number one is a synchronous generator s capable off producing boss off active power and the active power. However, the induction generator only produces active board. So the act of our which is he be or the active power is the power consumed. The buys, a resistive loads very active power, or Q is a power consumed. The Peyser inductive loads, so we'll find that, for example, the electric motors are considered as our elude. They have resistance and have an inductive. It's so we need both off active and reactive power toe feed is this Lords number two most off the power system Generators, as we said before, are considered as think. Promus. That's increments. Machines are used in hydro, non renewable sources off energy power plants. Then diction generator can be used in power system Bradley, but they are used the invariable energy, such as the wind energy that's in chroma generator halves, their own magnetic field. It can be both off or one off this permanent magnet or have a field wine and will see in the scores again how was in chronic Shinn editor works? The induction generator cannot generate their own magnetic field so they cannot supply. The active bar is the need Toby connected toe regret in order to be magnetized. Okay, so again, the difference between them is that in cross can produce active, active power induction only produce at the bar. Most of the generators are seeing Promus the induction and found the Riley in the whole system used in variable energy such as solar energy and wind energy that's in chroma generator have its own magnetic field, but the inductions in the rate or does not have its own magnetic field. It required toe be connected to sigret toe. Absorb a Q or reactive power four magnetism, ation or it can be self excited, and this will be also discussed in the course. 7. Principle of Operation of Synchronous Generator: the first type off decision raters. Is that sink Rama's generate? So what is the components or the imposition off passing chroma generator. So this as an example off us in Chronos generator, it consists is off us three main parts number one ABC, which is a state or winding the stationary wide things are winding, which are mock movie. Okay, second, the part is the air gap. Okay, The certain part is zero toe support in that same Chronos generator which rotates. So the synchronous generator has a rotating the part. The station reports the three phase A and B and C and shifted boy 120 the green The rotor is connected. Toa d c supply. Okay, so as this whining will have a current and then produces a magnetic feed So simply again the winding or the field winding which is connected on the euro Tor, it's connected toe supply. Z supply produces current Wednesay current bosses Rosie coin or the field. The winding will produce a magnetic field. Okay, this system can be represented as the following. We have here a three phase system, the syriza state winding. We have our rotor, which it can be a form it as our winding connected to a D. C. Supply s stationary d C. Supply how we can connect at rotating the part with a stationary DC supply by using his air . Something which is called the Communicator and Process as the you are used to connect the stationary D C supply with a rotating wrote. Okay, so now let's see Zine How toe or the principal off operation off the Cinquanta generator. So again you'll feel you'll find here that we have in the face a Frisbee. And if a C H off them has its own color, they are shifted by 120 degrees. So as you know that in our system or power system, we have a three face winding shifted by 120 degree. For example, if we have a face voltage A. So it will be vey and angle equal to zero. It be will have a V and angle 120 degree or minus 120 degree C will have B and 120 degree the city phase system. So how does I think groaners generator work number one is the field winding here is supplied by electricity using a D. C. Voltage. Okay, this D c bolted produces at field right magnetic field or magnetized zero toe with Sheffield. Okay, so this gives us that excitation excitation. Means is they're magnetic field or the monetization off the route. The second step is that the road or field winding is rotated by external soft. So we take this rotor, which is connected to a D. C. Supply having a magnetic field and then we rotate. Is this route with a speed? Gold is a synchro Maciste speed. Okay, so what does his ass encompasses? Breed mean. That's in Chronos Speed or the N s speed off. The rotor is equal. 220 f multiply by divided by P 120 which is a certain constant F is the frequency off. The current okays a frequency off the voltage or the current to produce the A, B and C. For example, if I am talking about the power system in Egypt, dozens of frequency will be 50 hertz. If we are talking about a frequency in United States, then the frequency will be 60 hertz B is a number off pulls off zero toe you will see is that here we have South and donors. So we have here two bulls. Okay, we will discuss that different types off sync. Rama's is in a writer and you'll see how is the number of balls change? So we have here to hold machine. And if we would like a frequency off the Albert current Toby equal to 50 Hurtis So we have 120 multiplied by the frequency required, which is 50 Hurtis divided by the number off walls which I ve more sense House which will be two balls so will equal to Siri's 1000 rpm or as hundreds to results and as a frequency or Z as a speed off the road number off revolutions a pair made. So in order to reduce an Albert current or an Abbott voltage in a PC or an hour power from the cinchona generator at a frequency equal 50 Hurtis, we need toe rotate our synchronous generator or our rotor with that sweet equal 30,000 or VM. So if we wrote it again if we rotate our rotor with this beat equal City 1000 rpm and we have here two Bulls. Then we will finally get an Albert power with a frequency 50 hertz. So somebody what happens here is that after having as a magnet ization off the field, winding, we rotate that field winding, bracing promises we sink promises beat. Means is a speed at the frequency required. After this, the rotating the magnetic field produced the boys. I feel the current. So we have here a rotor and we rotate. Is that magnetic field produced here? So it will be you produce something which is called rotating magnetic field, this magnetic field as it rotates with as results and revolutions per minute. So at the time it will be here. Another time will be here at the time would be here. It will rotate with respect to tow time. So the rotation off the magnetic field will produce Z defy biting or the variation off The flux was time. So the variation of the Fluxus time will cause induce the image in a be unseen. So again, as you remember from Friday, low E is equal to negative defy bidet e. So according to for a day long off induction, it means that in order to produce and use theme F or electricity. We need a variation in the flux. Okay, separation off the flux by rotating is this field. The flux here is variable with respect tothe thesis stationary part or this is stationary winding so induced. The main food will be reduced the year and here and here. So this assembly how listen, Comus Generator works So again, number one, we connected this field winding toe a disease. A ploy for reducing at D. C. Current reducing a. D. C. Flux by rotating this feed with has been greater than speed. Equal toes in Chronos is being sin Grant's beat, which 3000 rpm at the two bulls will give us a frequency 50 hertz as an output voltage Xenzai rotation off this field, winding at us and promises Beat will produce a rotating magnetic field, which, of course, is a variation off the flux, which in the end, the produces electricity in A and B and C or the three praise, and all of them are shifted Boy at 100 and 20 degree 8. Types of Synchronous Generators: So now let's discusses the pipes off. Sync Rama's generator. There are two men types off sync Roman generator. According toe the road off the synchronization rate. There is a silly into generator and the non salient visionary toe or toe be more specific as senior and rotor and a non salient wrote. Let's see the difference between them. We have here that Cillian pipe off the induct, emphasising Chronos generator and the non salient type off the sink. Ron's generator. You'll see that the salient type off that's in Kamas generator consisting off a pools. Okay, we'll see that the bulls are going outside. Okay, this is a first and difference between them. Second single find years at the air Gap here is different from the air gap here from the air gap here your fields, You will find that the air gap year is on. I'm gonna for the distance between the ball and dizzy state or is different. Does he have a different air gaps? Okay, Zack. Horizontal air gap is different from the vertical Ergen. This is the first difference. Second, sing Hebrew funds are monsignor type inconsistent off a cylindrical type. You will find years a distance here is equal toe. Here is equal to year is a call to here. So it's said that is this type has any form air gap. You will find that this one does not have a uniformed air gap. That this sense of between here is a changing with the pipe or the distance. Okay, you will find here we have a non uniform. Your gap. We have here an air gap, which is uniforms. You will find that the second thing here is consisting off our balls. This one is consisting off are winding around the easy road. We have your winding, you'll find yours. This is the same but in Taubate. And this one is out off bait in tobe age and outer bait you're finding we have years I wrote Orfield winding. Okay, we have a wire which is or wire, which is the same as war ending is wanted around Izzy rotor itself. So let's see. Ah, mother image. We have your more clear image. You'll find years here. We have the silien time and we hear and have the months Syrian type. You'll find yours at the salient Have pools. Okay. Going outside boards bulls. It will see that ball's clearly okay. North, south, north and south. And you'll find years. We have years, the current or the winding rotated here, then connected Tothis one and connect Toto This one all of them are serious. Toe have the same current toe produces the same flux. So we'll find here we have years on also, as a flux is going outside here we have the flux going inside. This is the bending on the direction of the current here, as you remember that from the right hand rule or an bear right hand rolled it is the current in this direction from left to right. Then the direction off the flux will be outside. So this one is considered as knows is a direction off. See current from the right to left in this direction. Okay, going from here to here, then see flux will be going this rosy port. So this one is considered a south. This one is more and all of them have the same plucks because they are having the same current senses they are in serious. You'll see that the wire here connected tothis one toe this one and this one. Now, for this time we have here, you will see that X means that the wire was going in. Taubate. Ok, means that the current is in tow. Beach current is here from this point toe this point and in tow bitch. And then the wire comes back out of wage in tow. Wage out of bitch! You will find here, this one consisting off balls. This one is consisting off slots. Where we both our wine. Okay. Now the difference between salient Anton salient according toe as their applications. You will find that here we have this picture or a rail life picture for their silly Interpol. And this one is a cylindrical pipe. The salient to pull have a large number of pools. You will see that from our previous image year. We have at least four pools. Okay, so having ah, large number off bulls means that we have a law speed so we'll see that the salient If it has a high number of wars, the greater them for then it has a low speed. It is used in diesel prime mover and it is used anything as a prime over consisting off diesel that is it is the power which causes the rotation off the soft and it is used in hydro systems. Okay, that cylindrical photo. It has a high speed because it has a low number off bulls and it is used in steam tower points. So is the Cillian Andaman. Syrian civilians are used in the hydro systems. The cylindrical type is used in the steam turbines where we are using for self the older. For example, the surrender Kuroda or the non salient is used in application where the high speed is required. Silien is used in the low speed where we have a larger number off pools. For example, An example of this hydro system. An example of this is the fossil power plants. Okay, so this wasa difference between salient and mom silly. 9. Self Excited induction generator: Now let's discuss another type off induction generator, which is the self excited. Okay, so in the previous one, we discuss a double fit induction generator. We connected the this generator in tow. Sigret, and we absorb it is the excitation, which is, as a current required foresee rotor. As you remember that we took from the grid, we connected there three phase in tow, the power electronics devices. And then we injected current inside the road, which is necessary for excitation. Now, how we can excite our induction generator without connecting does a great Okay, so and the beginning, if we operate as previous inductions and marital before or as as generator or as a motor? Okay, that's three. For his induction, genital will have something which is called the residual Flux. Some flocks or some magnetic field remained inside their rotor itself or inside the machine itself. Okay, so the theme, the amount of the flux which representing inside the rotor and then we rotate the rotor by Z wend, for example, or any mechanical movement this world causes some initial voltage or some initial current inside the state. Now, for a self excited, we added at a bus for banks. This cover story banks is user toe provides excitation. Okay, as you remember that the investors in Z bar system used to improve the power factor, or Dickie decreases the reactive bar required by injecting reactive bar. Okay, senses the inductive loads absorb sq at a certain moment Z caressed or banks supply Q or supplier active. Okay, So what happens here in this machine is that at the beginning, we have some reasonable flocks presenting inside the machine Is this also provides the initial excitation. We have a small excited on or a small magnetic field inside the road. And when we are rotating our motor boy as speed, greater sensing promises beat, for example, in wind energy, then we are going toe have some induced e meth inside the state. Okay, we'll produce some induce the image. I very small value this more value will produce. I current. Okay. Is this current will boss Rosie cholesterol which causes he covers, talked to supply or give us a cube OK, but produces the excitation required for the machine. So the total flux or the current year inside the campus to bank increases the total flux or the total excitation this will cause is against the voltage ear to increase again. So this process will continue until we have a steady state value. Or until we have our final value. Where's the characteristics off the machine or the rated value off the machine and dizzy Capstar bank of all trajectory into characterised intersect? What I mean by is it is that we have here the relation between the voltage and current off the covers to bank. Okay, you will find here is that we have here is a magnet ization girl or their value off excitation required at every current off the camera store. Zima magnetize, Asian Careful representing Zomig notarization off the machine. And we have here is a reactor Salama to represent is their relation off the over I or Ecstasy. Ecstasy is very actimates off the custom. Okay, so if we draw this line and we draw this line, we have an intersection. At this point at this point is called the City State Point, where the both of them intersect. Okay, so I want finding value. Will have the one and I see one V one is considered as here as a rated value off the machine. Okay, so at the beginning, we have a small amount of flux. Is this small amount of flux will produce a small current. So the current, as the current increases the current itself causes increase in sands excitation off the machine or increases their total flux inside the machine, causing the voltage it'll increase. Then, after the voltage increases the current eyes, he increase and so on until the city state value. So let's again revise Z a self excited induction generator at the beginning. OK, if it is a new machines, then we will start it as a motor in orderto have some residue, all flocks okay before operating it as a generator. So I had the beginning. When we are using it as an induction generator, we have some residual flux, some remaining the flocks inside the machine, this remaining the flux inside the rotor and which means some very small value off a rotating a magnetic field, very small value. And we rotate the rotor boys at your books at as we'd greater sensing promises bead. We will have the year some inducing myth or some Albert Walter. Very small value. Okay, a very small value. Is this a small value off induced a metal produce current inside the state or Zika? Is this currents and signs a state or will boss or Ruzicka buster banks causing the total voltage ito increase? Or it means that they are providing a flux in face or increasing the total flux off the machine. Okay, The Windsor Capacitor Banks Wednesay current was throws a crystal Banks. The cluster banks is used to provide AK. You are every active boat, and at the same time, it said toe increases the total voltage so the capacitor banks provide a current which produces a flux. This flocks is infants with the road or flux so that daughter magnetic field off Z rotor increases. So when's that autumn magnetic field increases? Z out here will start to increase, and at the same time, Z current here will increase until this operation continues until the city state where we have the rated output voltage. So Sam billy the road or have some flux. This flux produces a small voltage this voltage. It produces a small current. This current produces another flocks in face or increasing is a total flux Z total flux reduces again higher value off E M. F. This team effort produces another current which increase the total current and so on until a steady state. So at the beginning, we should have some reasonable flux. If there is a whole flocks does not exist. Then we should connect our machine or induction machine as a motor in orderto have some flux at the beginning. Okay, so that is a benefit off ourself excited Induction genital which is not connected to a cigarette. You will see that here it's connected toe the road. We don't have immigrate, so it cannot absorb is excitation okay? We absorbs excitation in case off a double fit induction generate. 10. Principle of Operation of Induction Motor: Now let's discuss zey induction motor. Okay, so this is an image off a symbol induction motor with a low horsepower This type off induction motors is widely used in factories. So the first thing, how does an induction motor workers and from the understanding off the induction motor, we will understand Helen Induction generator works. So you will see that an induction motor is consisting off two main parts again a state or and narrowed The state are also has a three phase winding, shifted by 120 degree, same as the state or offseason Chronos generate zero toe instead having a three phase winding shifted also by 120 degree, same as e z synchronous generator. Okay, but the difference is that the induction motor, its three face off the rotor are sore descent. Okay, so how does an induction motor works? Number one, We provide a three phase Beilenson supplying. So we have here A and two B and C, which are the three terminus off the induction motor. We provide them with a three phase balance and supply, which produces as three face pallets and current shifted by your 120 degree. The production office really face current reduces a rotating magnetic field. Okay, the three face current produces a rotating the magnetic field. Okay, The second thing is that we have here Our water is stationary and the beginning, so that three phase current produces a see a face or a rotating magnetic field. The rotating the magnetic field cuts zeroed. Okay, causing a three phase current. So again, here we have a variable rotating if he'd guns and stationary winding or a stationary winding at the beginning, a stationary wrote this Z cutting off their rotating magnetic field. Producing as three phase current. The three faced current produces another rotating the magnetic field. Okay, so this one has a rotating the field and the Windsors rotating field magnetic field. The carts is this rotor. It produces another three phase current which produce on mother magnetic field. So we have to magnetic field one from the state, or and one from zero to the interaction between the rotor field and the magnetic, or the state or field. And the photo field produces a torque which rotates the magnetic feed assembly as if we have here a magnet. And this magnet is rotating and we have here on mother magnetic field. This magnetic field just moves is the other magnetic field Is that to magnetic field in tow , Actors each other producing a rotation inside their more There is an important thing is that if we have here, for example, are supply voltage? Okay, so this voltage or this three phase supply voltage, it produces a Steve s current. This reef s current at the beginning cuts is is a stationary wrote or at the beginning, producing s three phase current at the beginning is he induced? The messy here is the same as our having a same and frequency as a supply. Okay, so the state or guts is rotor at the beginning, reducing as 3/5 current having a frequency same as the supply. But Wednesay rotor rotates zem rate Were zem a state or magnetic field got Z rotor. It changes with time. What I mean is that the frequency off zero toe will have s motto. Blood buys a frequency off the supply. Where S s gold is a slip. The slope is a menacing promus or the speed off the supply minus in our or the as beat off the road over the N s or their sin Chronos is beat So this is Graham Assist speed is the speed off the rotating a magnetic field off the state in our is this beat off the rotor itself Soul The frequency off this current will be equal toe s motto blood by f not the same frequency of this employ, but at the beginning or there is rest. Where's the rotor is not rotating in Laura's equal to zero. So the slip will be equal to one. So the frequent So those are the rotor will be quite toes that frequency off the supply. So that purpose off this slight is that the frequency of the rotor is not equal to the frequency of the state because at the beginning, that rotor waas stationary or at rest and then the rotor when it what it is, the rate off the cutting off the magnetic field. It changes with the speed off the road. So the frequency here is not equal toes a frequency here 11. Types of Induction Machine rotor: There are two types off the inductions in rate a roto or the induction motor rotor. We have a tour times number one Z, Wanda wrote, or the sleep. Bring the type. The second site is a squirrel cage. The want wrote or typed. This symbol is that the rotor is consisting off a three phase winding. Is this silly face winding are short circuit by using process and slip rings. Okay, so we make a short circuit between them, buys a usage off the process that benefit off. This is that we can adhere and external resistance so we can. It changes that resistance off zero. So why do we changes that resistance off the rotor? This is due to that that the change off the resistance here will cause a change in the torque speed characteristics off Z am so we can add an external resistance to control this be torque characteristics. That's three face here in Cicely Brink consists off a three phase shifted by 120 degree. Okay, That benefit off this rotor is that we can add an external resistance toe control is this beat and the talk off the road. But the problem off this time off rotors is that we need maintenance because he is a process are consisting off carbon. And did you toe the rotation off the rotor? This process needs it. Toby changes with pine. Okay, so the second, the type which is widely used because it does not need mental illness, is a squirrel cage. Okay, the square cage assembly is as this image exactly. It's called a squirrel cage, The gauge off a square. You'll see you're a squirrel inside that cage. So that's why it's called a squirrel cage. This are gold or the aluminium or copper pars. This are are conducting bores, and from both sides, you'll find here a drink and another ring here. This rings are made off, cover or aluminium are used. Toe make a short circuit insides, he wrote. That benefit off this time is that we don't need any maintenance. So there are two types. Squirrel gates, which it does not need any maintenance, but we cannot control. The torque is big characteristics, but this type is asleep brained or the want rotor, where we can boot and external resistance. But the problem off this time is that it means maintenance 12. Principle Of Operation Of Double Fed Induciton Generator 1: So now let's discuss Is the principal off operation off an induction generator? So we have here an image off induction motor or it can be an induction generator. So how does an induction generator works? Okay, as we remember that we had two parts here. We had the state or and we had that a roto Okay, The state or is connected to a three face a ploy giving us a story face current giving us are rotating the magnetic field causing current here, or a three faced current here which reduces another rotating magnetic feed. So we bought here are supply in order to get an Abbott rotating magnetic field in order to produce at all. Now, in the inductions in Ritter, we are goingto does the reverse. We are going toe supplies Arlotto with the three phase current, okay? And rotate the rotor at the same time. So we have Here's a torque or say rotation off the rotor. And we have your also the three phase magnetic field, okay, or the three phase current producing a rotating magnetic field. Then by doing exists, we will cut the state. Oh, and the produce as three phase are but walked it. So in the motor we have here our in boat reducing a rotating the magnetic field then would reduce the year s refits current, which produced rotating magnetic field. Then we produced art. Or could you toes interaction between the magnetic feeds In that generator, we are goingto supplies the rotor with as three face current, which produces a rotating the magnetic field. Then by rotating busy router we will be able to produce and I would current here inside that state. So now let's the scene their induction generator torque speed characteristics. In order to understand how those an induction machine works, you will find years that we have here a relation between the torque reduced, the boy am motor or an induction generator, and we have yearsas beat off the route. So we'll see that we have a different reason. From here we have a region called is a baking reason where we wanted to stop our motor by providing 02 with a negative is speed from here from zero Until that same chromosomes speed , you will see that we are working in the motoring Greason, this reason where our induction machine is working as an mood If we increase the speed off zero toe Greater Zen that's in crosses beat. We will be able to generate electricity. So again, in the induction motor we work it from zero until they sink. Ramos is be during this reason we have motoring reason. The reason where our induction machine is working as a motive if we increase, is that it's beat off zero toward greater sends us in Caracas is beat. We will have a generation. Okay, we will generate electricity. So we understand the now that we need toe have as bead off our order. Greater sentencing crosses weed in order to generate electricity. Now let's see their bubble fit induction generator which is used in when the energy you'll see here that here we have our window meals which which rotates do toe wind Okay, we have here are gearbox this gear books changes as with it is just excellent or increases beat by changing is the years off yearbooks we and sends their give books is connected toe a double fit induction generator. So let's to take it easy. We have paralysis. There went which produces mechanical energy. Then we have that gearbox. The Gill books is usually used or its purpose is to take. This is beat off the wind and increase it beyond disgusting promises. We okay, in order for the generator to work So they went rotates the total with us bead Greater sentencing promises weed z went hever usually have laws beat so we use that give books in order to increase this beat Greater sentencing Coronas his weed. Okay, so why do we does this in orderto operate in then? Reason off generation inside that induction machine. Okay, now this was the first thing. Second thing is that we have two parties in the induction generator. We have that three face or the stato and the three face off zero to Okay, We said before that in order to generate electricity, we need to connect the rotor do and easy supply. Okay, we said that we will supply. Here's a photo is a three face current and rotating. It was as be greater sensing promises beat, We were able to generate electricity in the state of winding So that waas exactly what you are doing here we first to connect our state or toes. Egret is the great is the power system or where we are is a generated interest it goes to. So we take at the beginning. We take three faced current here from the great Okay. And then convert. Is this this three phase A C or a C current in tow? D c. Okay. By using a part of running devices, then we changes a D. C again toe a c. Why do we do this in order to control our voltage of from cigarette voltage and frequency? Okay, so first we take a three phase here a voltage, we convert it into D C voltage. Then we take the D. C. And converted again to a C. This method is used to control the frequency off the the M word. Voltage it towards the rotor and the value off the vaulted itself inside the road. Okay, so this part used the toe control the M boot, voltage and frequency and dozy wrote Okay, remember that the frequency off cigarette is constant. Okay? It does not affected by anything. So we take Here's the frequency and voltage and control it inside the road. Okay, Now we have here again. We have a speed greater sensing promises made by using the gearbox. And we have here is the embassy three phase voltage A to Z rotor. Therefore, we can produce electricity inside secret. So again we have Here is a public it induction generator consistent off a steep face inside the rotor and see phase inside the state that rotor is fed with three face signal. Okay, by taking it from the great and controlling it, then we provide it to our A route, Okay. Providing a stiffest current torture produces as three phase rotating defeat. All are rotating magnetic field as the window Turpan rotates. It produced the mechanical force on mechanical movement on zero. As rotor rotates the magnetic field, the produce they do to the A C current also rotates at as we'd promotional to the frequency . What does it mean? It means that we have here the import voltage and frequency which we controlled, which causes a three phase current. The three face current inside the rotor is controlled the Boise frequency off. See Abbott from the power running device. Okay, so the frequency from zip our electronic devices control There's a frequency off the magnetic field. The rotating magnetic field, the bosses, Rosa state or and the causing a three phase current. Okay, so it is the same ends the induction motor, but they reverse off the operation and instead, off providing here a Strief s current we provide inside the rotor three. Fiscal on top. Reduce as three phase inside the state of sauces as read off reputation off the state or magnetic field the benders on zero to re speed as well as a frequency off a C. Ok, so here is an important thing you will find here. Is that the frequency year and the rotation of the rotor control, There's a frequency off the output. Okay, so we have two factors here. The frequency off the import voltage and the frequency or the rotation off the mechanical board or that rotation off zero toe. All of this affect this is the Albert frequency and voltage. So in order to control or produce a constant frequency, we will use Z power electronics converters to change the frequency. Okay, So as you know that that that when this beat is not constant, Okay, so that's beat off. The rotor is not constant. So we need to change is a frequency Toby able to produce the same Constanta frequency here . Okay, we have here. A variable is beat, so we'll use Zipporah electronics. Converter toe changes a frequency off the boat. A c current. OK, by changing is this one and the change inside the rotation. We will finally get a constant value here, so that is a benefit off. Using an induction generator is the induction generator Can be working with a variable is beat but us in chromosome machine If's we connected to year toe when the turbine, we will have a variable Albert frequency. Okay, so that was the benefit off. Double fit induction generator and it is only used inside the wind demands, okay? 13. Introduction to Generating Power Stations: hello and welcome everyone to my own course in my own serious forward power system. In this course, we're going to discuss their generating power stations or power plants. Now, in this lecture, we are goingto have an introduction toe they're generating board plant and an overview on all of the types off more blends. So what is a generating Bartlett Generating Bar Valenti Assembly facility, designed to produce electric and energy from Anna's. Our form off energy such as heat or thermal energy generated from fossil fuels, coal or petroleum? Natural gas? So a lot of cinnamon energy, geothermal energy and the nuclear energy. As you know that in the most industrial countries, electric power is provided by generating facilities that serve ah, large number off customers. This generating facilities is known as the central station. Generators are often located in remote areas, far from the point off consumption. The economics off the center of the station generation is largely a matter off coasting as you know that forward any power station. It has a fix, it courses and a variable cost, and both of them clearly defines what kind off the power station we are going to use. and, of course, their environmental conditions. But now you will see here that we are having that generating power station it produce electricity and then with passes through a step up voltage or a step up transformer in order to increase a vaulted. Why? To decrease the losses in the transmission lines also. Then we will have the transmission lines and you see your towers occurring, this transformational lines and then you will find here I step down transformer in order to decrease the voltage in order to distribute it. And then Boston gets orders. That's tributes online. Or is that carry electricity towards the houses until it comes through our home Off course , it wouldn't have toe buster, another step down transformer. So is he here, for example, who are generating at 3.3 kilovolt and them browsing through step up transformer to step up the voltage upto 500 kilovolts or 220 kilovolts, and then it bounces through another step down transformer is this step down transformer to step it from 500 or 220 kilovolts toe 76 or set this recon avant or 20 talking vault or 11 kilovolt and so on. It has a large number of venues. And then this is this. Another step down transformer will step this voltage from six of 1 60 kilovolt or city 13 kilovolt until 780 or the voltage aliant line at our home. So now we can generate our power from the potential energy from the falling water in hydro electric facility when the energy solar electric from solar or photovoltaic cells which are going to discuss their BV or the photovoltaic cells in our laws, of course, the chemical energy from fuel cells. Or but there is. And here is an overview for that different types off electrical facilities which produce electricity. We're having a different forms. The number one is a fossil fuel power plant number two was hydro electric power plant, the solar symbol for blend a nuclear power plant. Zero sermon or planned to answer went power towers or the went barter pines. All of this are a different forms off the generating power stations. All of this we're going to discuss each one of them in this course. So in the Alex Electoral we're going to discuss is that different types off them 14. Introduction to Wind Energy: Hi and welcome everyone to our course for wind energy design. Hubs scores will be helpful for, for you in your own career. So in our first lesson of wind energy course, we will discuss an introduction to wind energy. So first, what is wind? When the assembly as the air flowing in our area? As you can see here in this image, this is an image of where wind is flowing. So simply went is a natural movement of air of any velocity on the surface of Earth due to the presence of different of pressure. Due to the presence of difference of pressure between one area and also the air will start to moving from this location to another. Now the question is, why do we have a difference in pressure? Difference in pressure between one location and on Azar is generated by the uneven heating of the earth's surface buys us on radians or radiation. We have the solar radiation. This is our, this is our Earth. And we have the solar radiation. As you notice that adds the equator. At this lines equator, you will find that that temperature is very high, or it is exposed to a very large amount of solar radiation. In this location, we will have very high temperature. Which means that since we have high temperature, it will lead to low pressure or rising of low pressure. So as you can see it, rising air low pressure in this location. Now if we go towards north and south pole and north and south ball, you will find that we have high pressure. Why? Because they are less exposed to the solar radiation. So this will lead to a cold air, which will lead to high pressure. In the cold areas, we have high pressure. In warm areas, we have low pressure due to the presence of difference between high pressure and low pressure. Difference in pressure between these two location is that air will start moving from the high pressure region towards the low pressure region. Okay, So as you can see, air will store the moving or the wind will start blowing from the high pressure area towards the low pressure area. Same as here, high to low pressure. Now in this location when it starts to call Windsor, warm air, coming from here to here, starts to becoming warmer or its pressure decreases, it will return back to the high pressure area. So this cycle keeps repeating itself. As you can see here, the air moves from area of high pressure such as the North and South pole, to the area of low pressure such as Zara equate when it moves from one location to another, it form is what we can see here, zoned. Now as you can see here, we have all the area called the air or cold. The area with cold the air, it has high pressure. And we have here an area exposed to the sun with low pressure. Okay? So the air starts moving from the high pressure area called the area into the warm area. Pressure, high pressure to low pressure. So when it starts flowing, now when it reaches a low pressure due to the presence of warm air, it will start heating up and start moving upward. Then we'll go back to the cold day. Like this. Moves from high pressure to low pressure, from low pressure to high pressure. Now as an example, as you can see here, this is our Earth divided into several reasons. You can see the North Pole and South Pole. It will find that this area is having high pressure due to cold the air. And this one have a low pressure, more heat. Okay, So the difference between two areas from high pressure to low pressure, zone window will start blowing. It moves from the high pressure going into the low pressure. Then here it will start its heat. Its temperature will increase, its density will decrease and the go up, then return back to the gold area. So as you can see, it's a cycle repeats itself in every location on Earth. You can see high pressure, low pressure, high pressure, low pressure, and so on. Between these different areas, window will start moving. Another thing which is a land breeze, sea breeze. So as you know that Zack, during the day, you will find that this area, this area will have, will be hot or Zanzibar seen. C will be cooler. We have here high temperature, and we have here low temperature. What will happen is that the air will start to moving from the cold area towards the warmer area, from the high pressure area towards the low pressure area, as you can see here, a high pressure zone when they start moving. Those, a low pressure area which is warm area. Then when this cold air comes here, it will be heated or exposed to solar radiation. So it will start rising up. Then it will administer will decrease Zeno tool go back here. Then it will sink down because we have here called the air. It will go down and then it will repeat itself. So as you can see here, cycle repeats itself. At night, the reverse will happen. Zealand is color and the C is warmer. So this has a high pressure. Here, we have lower pressure. It will move from here, going to the sea, then it will rise up, zinc go back and so on. So this difference in pressure leads to the generation of wind. Now what does wind energy mean or went to power mean? Wind energy assemblies or process of converting this motion or when the motion into mechanical energy, or from mechanical energy to electrical energy. Let's understand this as well. Notice that this is called at when the total point is that convert this Z motion of all went into electrical energy. Into electrical energy by converting the first went to mechanical. It's mechanical to electrical. Okay. What happens exactly here first is a wind Abbas over the blades and the maximum turn. This is called Xenoblade. This one is called the plate. So we have 123 blades. This one has three blades. Now, when, when the comes through it will start rotating. As you can see here, when went comes through it, it will start rotating. We have one blade, two blades, three blades. Now, second step is that the blades turns are soft. You will see here a box here and Sciences box. You will find out soft. When this blades start rotating, they will cause the rotation of a soft, as you can see here, this blades rotating. You will see here Ayush soft, mechanical soft. Now this shaft will lead, produces mechanical power due to the rotation here produces mechanical power. Now if we take this, this motion and connect it to an electrical generator, we will have electricity. Okay? So here we have the shaft. Turn is Asian rate or which converts the kinetic energy of ZAB blades into electrical energy. Now sometimes between them you can see here's the plates starts rotating. Now this blades, the shaft here connected to the plates. This shaft is connected to a gearbox. As you can see here, this one is called gearbox. What is the benefit of this one? It converted the lowest bead of the turbine into very high speed for the electrical generator. As you can see, this went turbines, it rotates slowly, convert to be required for degenerate. So Zach gearbox here is this one, increases as bead of second soft. You can see this one is a slow, this soft is very fast. Due to the basis of this gearbox, we will have a very large velocity for the electrical generator, which will lead to generation of electricity. Some types of wind turbines have a gearbox, others don't have. And the called direct drive is they don't have in gearbox. Then XAMPP, electrical energy produced from the generator is connected to a transform. What is the benefit of the transformer? The transformer is used to step up the voltage require the Forza grid. Electricity is exported to the electricity grid using the transform. Here's the transformer is connected to the power grid. This transformer increases the voltage, require the four connection to the power grid. Went when the motion causes that or the kinetic energy of the wind causes the rotation of these blades. Okay, which is connected to a shaft, then gearbox, then electrical generator is going to transform our ends are great. This is a process of converting Zack when the energy into electrical energy. Now, the first when the turbine, which was used for electricity generation was made by a childless brush, dollars brush, this man in 1888. This one, this is a first when the turbine, turbine, the turbine consisting of 144 blades, as you can see, 1234, very large amount of blades, which means it will have very large weight and the small velocity. This one was connected to a gearbox, which was used to run at DC generator. It was used to produce DC power. Mechanical motion of that when the turbine blades were converted using a gearbox and connected to a decision or a foe to produce electrical power. This one is this. When the turbine has a power of 12 kilowatt, the generator has a rated power of 12 kilowatt. Ends our total diameter is the diameter of this router. From here, from here to here, the diameter of this rotor. Whilst 17 meters. This was used the fourth 20 years or to charge batteries inside this location. So this visionary TLB reduces DC voltage, which was used to charge batteries. Is that the walls, the forest pine used. Now here are some sizing for different when the third pints and classification of the window third pints according to their size and application of each time. We have a small, we have medium-scale, we have larger scale, which is land-based, and the largest scale which is offshore. Small. What does all of this classification? We have many, many classifications of when the turbine this classification according to HHS at rated power. This one is having a small pipe, has a power Louisiana 100 kilowatts. Small amount of power. This power is used in homes, pharmacy, remotely applications such as water farming systems, telecom sites and so on. This is used in very small applications, not for grid, for small applications. Now this one, this one, the turbine is medium scale. From a 100 to 100 thousand kilowatt or from 100 kilowatt to one megawatt. This one, which is a medium. Power, is used in powering a village or in hybrid system, which is consisting of solar and wind and can used in distributed power or distribution of electrical power z distribution network. Now, the large scale, larger scale, it can be consisting of many, many pints, not only one, but several wind turbines, which can form farm. Now, the large one is the largest scales, this one which is land-based, it is located on land or mounted on land. This one is used in utility. So they can be used in large distribution network and it can be used to connect it to the power of grit. Now another one which is large also but offshore of shore means Zr in the sea, not on land about ins, I see. This one has a rating from three to seven megawatt. It is used inside utility scale also when the farms and they are used to connect tools, the power of green. This is a classification and application of different types of when the third points according to their rated power. Now let us see the evolution of the US commercial wind turbines from 90822015. So as you can see as time impulses, we started with 50 kilowatt rated power of the wind turbine. Then as we go up, as we go up with year supposing, we have Richard up to more than five megawatts. We reach with more than five megawatt. For the offshore types. As fire impulses, you can see that it's a rated power increases. And also in order to increase the rated power, we need to increase the rotor diameter. You will understand the effect of roto diameter in the next lessons. But for now, as Oozie rotor diameter is larger, the larger the diameter of the rotor is more wind it can capture, or more kinetic energy it can capture forms a wind. As you can see, more power means larger diameter of the road, leading to higher capture of the wind or more kinetic energy. Now here are two types, onshore and offshore wind farms. When the farm means group of a window turbines connected together, you can see this is called, this upon instruction is called the wind turbine, which is used to convert the Z when the energy into electrical energy. We have another window therapy and another window turbine and so on. All of this are connected together in the form of a farm. Since they are on land or mountains or hills, they are at no surprise deploy, or its name is that offshore wind farms or onshore wind farms. Onshore means the auto own length. Offshore, it means is the audience you can see here on offshore file, offshore Farm, which is in sassy. Okay? Now, as you can see that onshore, which is on land, you can see this is a larger farm consisting of several wind turbines. This forum is onshore on, on land. This one as the onshore can be for when the farmers on mountains, hills and so on. Offshore. As you can see, this is a form which generates a large amount of power. This farm is inside the C or off. Now as a future expectation for when the turbines for offshore and onshore. For the onshore, We currently in 2019, we had maximum capacity of 2.5 megawatt, which you have a rotor diameter of 120 meters ends or hop high top height means that from this location, from this moles to the ground, this is called hop height. The hump height was 89. Now is expectation for 2035 is that we can reach up to 5.5 megawatt, which almost more than doubled this value. With a rotor diameter of, you can see, more power means larger diameter, the larger height. So as you can see, the height became 130 meters. Force application off on shore. Now for the offshore which is in seawater, you can see we have in 2019 we had six megawatt of 150 meter and 103 meter. Now for 2035 weeks vector each wind turbine of 17 megawatt, which have a rotor diameter of 250 meter, hop height of 151 meters. Okay, more height and the very large diameter. The only problem in the design in general of winter turbines is a rotor diameter. The limitation in rotor diameter due to its large weight and transportation problems. So in this lesson, we discussed in an introduction to when the energy system, meaning of wind, that how we can convert wind energy into electrical energy. The evolution of wind turbines, that application and size of different wind turbines ends up future expectation of wind turbines. In the next lesson, we will discuss types of wind turbines and which one we use in wind design or wind energy application design. 15. Selection of Type of Wind Turbine: Hi and welcome everyone to our lesson in wind energy course. This lesson, we would like to discuss the different types of wind turbines, which one should we use in electricity generation? So the first thing is that we have two main types of wind turbines. We have z vertical axis wind turbines and or denoted by VAW t is the vertical axis when the turbine. Second type is horizontal axis wind turbines. What is the difference between the vertical access Windows or pints? And the horizontal axis wind turbine. Z's are classified by the excess of the main excellent. That's the blades are attached to. If the x is horizontal, then it will be named as a horizontal axis wind turbine. If the XL is vertical, then it will be vertical axis wind turbine. Let's do a census in a very simple way. The vertical axis means that we have a vertical axis like this one. Our blades, rotor blades are rotating around this axis. If this is the case, then we will have a vertical axis. Ones are fine, like this one, vertical axis wind turbine, vertical axis turbine. As you can see, this r is the blades. This odds are plates, ZAB blades or the rotor blade. This blades are rotating around the vertical axis. As you can see here, we have a vertical, x and z are rotating around it. Same as here. You can see Zr rotating around a vertical x. That's why is this type is called the vertical axis wind turbine. Very easy. Now, if this axis, instead of having a vertical axis, we have a horizontal axis of rotation. So we have a horizontal axis and our blades are rotating around it. As you can see here, we have the horizontal axis, this axis like this, and this plates rotating around it like this one. This one is called vertical axis, horizontal axis wind turbine. You can see here. You can see here is that z axis of rotation is like this horizontal. This blades are rotating around it like this, rotating around it like this. That's why this is called horizontal axis wind turbine. I hope that's a difference between these two types is clear. This one is called a horizontal axis wind turbine. So as you can see, it's a horizontal axis, vertical axis. And they are components. You can see we have rotor plants, blades. And that distance from z to display to the split is called Z row total diameter. Then it is attached to a generator to generate electricity. We will discuss the other components in the course. Now for this is called a vertical axis, rotating around this vertical axis. From here to here it is called rotor height, not roto diameter here wrote or height to a generator here, which generates electricity. So remember vertical axis generator here, horizontal axis degenerate or here. Now let's discuss each of these window third points and which one should we use? The vertical axis wind turbine. All of this inside czar slide you can see is this is called vertical axis, vertical axis. And this blades rotates around it. You can see vertical axis and the blades rotating around it. As you can see, all of these are vertical axis with different types. Each of these has its own design which will generate the front. The power. Distance from here, from this plate to here is called the Z row total height. From here to here. This is a blade. The blade is the one which is rotating. The axis of rotation is vertical again. Now, what are the advantages of using the vertical X12 turbine? The first thing is that it is omni-directional. What does omnidirectional mean? It means it operates in all directions. Whatever is the direction of the wind, it will give power. So it does not need to adjust to it too. So direction of the wind. It operates in every direction of the wind. Also, as you can see, the components of this vertical axis when the turbine. Are on the ground, are mounted on the ground, as you can see here. Here we have the gearbox and the generator. What is the benefit of this? It is very simple, is that we can go here and do the maintenance as we need. It leads to low maintenance code and low maintenance cost. And lightweight towards this tower is light. Have a lightweight. Why? Because the generator is not a board here. It is downward here. Sensors regenerate or a weekend, low cost of maintenance. So we can do the maintenance easily. Ends up weight of this tower is light. Finally, it is uses, it uses less material to capture the same amount of wind to convert it to the horizontal axis wind turbine. Those are the different advantages of the vertical x. First, it can absorb or operate in all wind right? Actions. It generates electricity in all directions of wind. Number two, we have a low cost of maintenance sentences that generator is on the ground and that light weight of tower. This will lead to less material to get the same amount of when to convert the tools are horizontal axis. Now let's see that disadvantages for us to think. Zack blades are close to the ground, as you can see here is I blades. Blades are very close to the ground. Now, what does this lead to? This means that the wind is bead will be very small. Low compare the two leading to low generation of electricity. Now, we will discuss this. Velocity of wind. Velocity of one is directly proportional to the height with a certain factor, which we will discuss called the Alpha. But for now you have to know that as height or the elevation increases, the velocity of wind will increase. For example, Zao when the velocity here V1 and velocity here v2. V2, v2 will be greater than V1 because h is the height at which a year here is higher than one here, one here. So as height increases, more velocity, which we will have. Since we have this blades, This blades are very close to the ground. This will lead to low speed of went, which will mean lower generation of electricity. Remember, is that also Zach? Electricity generation, the amount of power generated, as we will see inside the course as an equation. The vendors owns a velocity Q Zach cubic officer velocity. As the velocity increase more power or generate close to the ground, leads us to load generation of electricity. Second problem is that we don't they take advantage of the higher wind speed at very high elevation, such as we said now, as well as the horizontal axis wind turbine that horizontally Equals went through one are having very high, very large height converted to the horizontal axis, which are closer to the ground, which will lead to higher wind is beat, leading to higher generation of electricity. Also, due to the lowest bid and high larger weight of blades, this will lead to poor self-esteem charting capabilities. Why do we need largest starting to or we have larger starting torque. We need lots of wind speed in order to start rotating exists blades. Now this also allows our problem of the vertical axis is that in order to changes at bearing, bearings inside our mechanical system, we need to remove all of these plates, which will lead to high cost of maintenance. Also, you will find that it needs support at the top of the router. You can see here, at this point, you can see this line and this one and this one. All of this all support to fix as, as vertical axis turbine and prevent it from falling down. This of course, due to all of these problems, you will find that it does not successful commercially. And the overall performance appropriate formulas and reliability of this vertical axis wind turbines. This will lead us to understanding the horizontal axis. The horizontal axis when the turbine, as you can see here, we're rotating around a horizontal axis. First thing you will notice is that the height here is high compared the two horizontal and vertical axis turbine. The vertical axis was, for example, address height. However, here, since we have a higher height, leads to higher generation of electricity. Now is the axis of rotation, as I said before, it is horizontal. Now, there are two types of horizontal axis wind turbines. One which is called a boy and the type and the downwind wind pipe I went, it means that this blades or the blades itself which are rotating or facing the wind. Downwind wind means that the blades are behind the wind. Now, as you can see here, for example, is a blades here is the wind is coming in this direction, like this. Coming like this. So this blades facing the wind. It's called dissolve up when the time. Now the downwind wind, wind is not facing or behind the blade. You can see this plates are, the wind is behind this blades. It's called downwind. Now of course is our upwind of course is better because all of that air will cause rotation or the window will cause the rotation of this turbine. However, here due to that interaction with this part, due to this will lead or frictional force will lead to a decrease in the velocity leading to lower generation of electricity. Also confines that zeros out horizontal axis one turbines have a different number of plates. It can be a single blade, one blade, or two blades, or sorry blades or a multi blade turbines. We will discuss which one of these is better and which one of these, which we can use in another video or another lesson, of course. Now, the upwind again versus a wind answer is no shadowing effect. However, is a downwind is behind, behind that wind and it's affected by, is that shadowing effect. The shadowing effect, it means that the effect of that components, which will reduce the speed of wind, leading to lower generation of electricity. We showed always, always try to face to exist. Blades and face it towards this is a wind. As you can see here. Blades are, takes only the window which is coming in either direction. However, the vertical axis can operate in any direction, as you'll remember. Now, the advantages of the horizontal axis when the pine forest, it has a high efficiency. Second thing is that it helps our format of large towers, as you can see, large towers, very larger height, which means it will be, suppose the two how you win the speeds or velocities, which means more power auto-generated, converted. Those are vertical axis wind turbine. Also, it has a sulfur starting due to the places of high-speed and lightweight of the plates leading to low starting torque. However, this out once the horizontal axis when pine forest, as you can see, the components, generator and gearbox, or replaced on the top of the tower, leading to difficulty in maintenance. Second thing is that it is difficult in installation. You need to carry these plates, which can be very large across the city. And of course, due to the very large heart, it can lead to interference with radio waves and TV waves. Finally is that tall towers, this larger towers will lead to environmental problems. One of these problems is that the birders during migration it can, or during traveling from one location to Amazon. Zappa are the scan can be killed by this splits. The birds traveling from one location to another can be killed due to the presence of these planes. So as a result, as a result of this Blades, Well, we need to sort of xyz blades in order to protect the environment. However, the vertical axis are in a lower height, which does not cause environmental problems. Now, most important thing is that we discussed as a vertical and the whiskers, the horizontal. Now our question is, should we use xy horizontal axis or the vertical axis in electricity generation? The answer is, is that z vertical axis, when the turbine is easier to design and maintain, however, it provides lower performance converted to the horizontal axis due to the low height and the larger weight of the blades. And also horizontal axis are provided at a higher height means large generation of electricity due to the basis of high when speed. In the end, in the end, our wind turbines, most of our wind turbines generating electricity today, commercially or domestically. Horizontal axis machines. Okay, That's why is this one which we are born to use in when the energy costs? Do we select horizontal or vertical? We select as our horizontal axis when the turbine, because they are used commercially and the most of our 1 third pints are horizontal axis wind turbine. That is the answer of the question. The answer is horizontal axis went turbines. 16. Rotor Solidity and Selection of Number of Rotor Blades: Hello and welcome everyone to our lesson in when the turbine design. In this lesson, we would like to discuss the road or solidity and how many rotor blades showed we use or the number of rotor blades. Let us start by the definition of definition of rotor solidity. Solidity assembly zap ratio between the area of the plate or a blade area divided by the swept area. Let's understand this. We have here, for example, a three blades turbine. Turbine with three blades, One, 23. Each of these plates have an area of a a, representing this area is the area of one blade. The blade area, which is total blade area, we have 123 blades. It will be sorry, multiplied by the area of one bleed. So it will be 38. So we have here area of blade one area to another, area three. So it will be three. Now divided by the swept area. Swept area is the area which has covered the buys a wind turbine. So as you can see, this is all of this circle is considered as all of this is considered the S Z swept area of the plates. So when this blades rotate Z form a circle, the area of this circle is called the swept area, which is area covered the body is a wind is a wind turbine blades. That issue between ZAB blade area, which is Reais, divided by the swept area, which is the total area a, all of this area, which is this area, area, will be equal to, as you can see, we have radius r, radius r. So we'll say by square, Paul II multiplied by the radius squared, or Pi over four. D squared is the diameter of the router square. This representing this area. Okay, so now we would like to know how can we, how, what is the effect of the rotor solidarity on XY system or zones are one, the turbine. We have two examples here. You can see we have 1233 blades, One 233 blades. So the area here will be the road or solidity will be or let us say R S equal to a, which is the area of one blade. Display it divided by the total area a. Now this turbine, this turbine Zao wrote or solar energy will be equal to how many blades we have area formulate a. How many blades that we have, 12345678. We have eight blades divided by the total area a. So as you can see, we have here in the first case, and we have here a to a. This is called Since it is a lower value, it's called low. Hello The T. This is called the high fluidity. Now what is the difference between this type and this type? When do we use a low values or low number of blades? And when we use high number of blades, Let's see Now. First, xylose validity wins. A ratio here is equal to point to one. Ratio between the area of the blades is a three blades or over the total area. This will lead to small number of blades, as you can see, 123 only city blades. Convert it to this case off An eight blades. So this one has a low number of blades, only three blades, which will mean lightweight of blades. Since we have a small number of blades, means is the total weight will be small. Also since we have a small weights and it will rotate with high is beat. And of course it will lead to low starting torque. It will take low starting torque in order to start rotating. Why? Because it has small weight. Now the second the case here when we have large number of blades, means that RS is high in the value of the road or solidity is very high, greater than 0.8. This leads to large number of players. You can see 123 up to eight blades here. In this case, I add blades, which means we will have large weight since we have larger number of blades, which means it will rotate slowly or have lower speed. And it will lead to large starting torque. It will take large is bead of window in order to start rotating this configuration. We have two cases, is arterioles, small number of plates or larger number of plates. Which one do you think we should use? Now in real time or in real life applications, we use that law solo the T would like this one, sorry, blades use it in the electricity generation. Or large or high solidity used in water bombing system. When we have, when you see after applying with this configuration, you already know that this one is used in Walter bombing system. When you see as replayed Zola exists, you will know that it is used in electricity generation. As you can see here, we have three blades and this we have large number of blades, very large number of blades, and this we have only three blades. So as you can see, it is obvious that this one low solidity you will scenes electricity generation. And this one was large number of blades laws with, and the large width is used in Walter plumbing system. We understand the nouns that we need. Small number of blades, not larger number of blades. Since we are talking about with the electricity generation. Now, the question is, should we use even number of blades such as 2468 or we should use odd number of blades, 1357 and so on in electricity generation. Okay, so first let's discuss, is that even type, you have to understand that modern when the turbine generate engineers, engineers which are building exists when the turbines usually usually avoid building large and machines with large rating with an even number of rotor blades. They don't use the even number such as two blades or four plates. Why? Because our auto is an even number of blades, will have a stability problem. It will be unstable, not like the odd number. Now, the question is, why do we have instability problems? Why does bubble belated? For example, two blades have a stability problem. Now, simply because each rotor blade has an exact and opposite blade, which is located 180 degrees in the opposite direction. As you can see, this blade it has after 8180 degrees. Here we have the second deplete, opposite, directly opposite to it. When's the rotor rotates? When this start rotating, xy very moment, the uppermost blade is pointing vertically upwards at 12 o'clock. This one, when it is pointing here by exists. When there is played, is pointing here like this at 12 o'clock. That lowermost the blade is pointing straight down in front of the turbine support. Like here. It will be like this here. So as you can see, as you can see, as you can see that here, this one, this part or the uppermost blade behind it is free air here. It will have behind it free air. However, this one will be exactly in front of the tower. Okay? So as you can see, the effect of Wendy here is different from the effect of Wendy here due to the presence of this column or the tower support, or support tower. Now here, due to the unbalance in this forces, this will lead to stability problems. There'll be more exact that the uppermost blades bend this backwards. It will be bending backwards. It will go backwards due to very large force of air here. It will call this as trust loading, thrust roading. This will cause this one to go backwards. Here. It will go behind the tower. It will bend. While the lower plate bosses in twos or when the free area directly in front of the sub Ponto, this one will go outwards. So simply likes us. What we would like to say if we have a tower like this. Do we have here one plate? We have here, one blade like this. Second one download here. Due to the effect of went very large force of wind. This one will become like this. Well bend. Leading exists. One leading for the lower one becomes like this. As you can see there it is. Stability problems. This one will bend backwards and this will go upwards or in front of the supporting Todd. That's why we don't use the even number of plates. However, our rotor with an odd number of blades such as three or 53 blades or five plates. When it's rotating, it will rotate like a desk. It will be like a desk. As we see the swept area or the area when it rotates, it is like at the desk. So when we calculate that dynamic properties of this system, we can consider it as a desk. Also the wind turbine, which have an odd number of rows of blades. At least three blades will be rotate smoother than even number of plates. Because the forces here are plants it across z blades. Compare the tools to blade it, for example, which will lead to more stable wind turbine. In the end, we don't use the even number. We don't use z even number in generation. We use the odd number of blades. Now, the equation is xenon part of the old blades showed you was one plate or three blades or five blades. Which one, of course higher means that we will use it in Zao water pumping systems. So the question is, is it a single or three blended or more? Zomato common bleed dwindled turbines on is that of the three blades turbine. We usually use this one. That's three blended system. You will always, always seen everywhere. You will usually see this, this configuration, three blades, three blades everywhere. Most of most of the other points or 3D blade it. Now zap power efficiency of our three blades rotor is slightly above that of a similar size. To blame, the efficiency of a three blade, it will be higher than rote or double-blind more blades. It means that we will, we will take more wind and we can generate more power. Anyways as three blade, it will have a higher efficiency. Zen is a double-blinded and of course has more stability Xanax or double-blinded. I was an advanced serves as three blade that rotors includes a smooth operation and less noise and less interaction with birds. And which will lead to a compensation of the extra blade or extra cost of the blade. In the double blade, it, it will give us a higher speed, okay, but it is honest table. However, this one is more stable and this extra one will help us, us achieve more smoother operation and the list noise and so on. Now, the problem of the one belated warm-blooded exists and saves us that we have only one blade, so it will save the cost of extra blades, two blades or three blades. We will save the extra of the blades. At the same time, since we have lower weight, lower number of blades, it will lead to higher rotationally speed. Hovers, the unmarked, widespread as they have the same problems of the even plates, have stability issues. That's why due to the presence of stability issues, you will see that we add an extra weight on the other side to balance this bleed. They have noise and visual problems as you can see, and they need a counterweight, this one, in order to balance this rotor. As you can see, since we added a balance account or weight balance, you can see is there is no much difference in weight saving. You can see that we have displayed and this counterweight is almost equal in weight as the two blades. So this is no point in doing a single plate. Now as a conclusion, which one would you use in our window turbine system? Most modern Windows chloroplasts use the three blade design Z0, three blades or odd number of blades and three blades. Windsor wrote are positioned, maintained the upwind by using electrical motors in the yard mechanism. Now what does this mean? Remember that there are two types of vertical and the horizontal as xy, horizontal axis wind turbine. The horizontal axis once turbine has two types, the upwind and downwind. Now the upwind Zap Router is facing that coming, went down went Zai rotor is not facing the wind. The wind is behind this rule. In order to generate the most power, we need to maintain the direction of z router. Toward this as a wind. We need to keep this rotor in the same direction of the wind. How can we do with this? Is there's something called a JAR mechanism. Now what does a young mechanism to do this, we'll rotate Z, total buying itself. Rotate. Sister Pine ends hazard direction. As you can see here, as I said, direction rotates it in the other direction. We can move this one from this direction and move it like this and make it in the opposite direction like this one. Using your mechanism here, located here. This one rotates using electric motors. We can rotate as, as this turbine towards the direction of the wind. Now of course, most of the turbines manufacturers, they have this design, have your mechanism because this will lead to mode generation of electricity. Okay? So depending on the direction of when do we use dynamic agonism to face this turbine toward the XY window? Now let's understand. An example of a mechanism would like to see this how it is walking. So first let's delete all of this line exists. Now let's go and install this. You can see when turbine JAR system. This is when the turbine here is located in this direction and we rotate it using a mechanism here, here in zed direction order to face the wind, move it from this direction to this direction. You will see how it works right now. As you can see. As you can see, this is our wind turbine. As you can see, the wind it's facing. So I went in the upwind direction. Now we would like to rotate this one. If it is in this direction, for example, how can we rotate it? You will see here ya mechanism here. You'll see exactly what happens. So as you can see, using XA YA mechanism, using electric motors that we can rotate this part as part of the wind. You can see we can rotate it using your mechanism. In this case, we can move it from this direction, from being downwind and move it to become a buoyant. Why? Because the opponent will generate more electricity because there is no shadowing effect. I hope this lesson was helpful for you. So now you're understands that we use that's regulated design or odd number of blades in electricity generation. And we use the mechanism in order to face or moves us down, went towards this or become upwind. 17. Gearbox in Wind Turbines: Hi and welcome everyone to another lesson in our course for when the turbines. This lesson, we would like to discuss the second component, which is gearbox. As we remember, we discussed this at z. When the turbine blades convert Zach kinetic energy of wind and converts it into mechanical energy. It will sense, it says this. Rotor blades start rotating. They have a soft ear. This shaft is connected to a gearbox, which increases as bid, suitable for our electrical generator. Simply as we remember we said that the windows of pine is that when the energy into electrical energy, by using aerodynamic forces from the rotor blades, it converts the Zak kinetic energy of air into or went into mechanical energy. Now this one, the turbine blades have a shaft which is connected to a gearbox is a gearbox is used in a window turbine to increase Zao rotational is bead from a loss bead rotor, which is low speed of the blades are rotating very, very slowly into a higher is bead electrical generator like this, because the electrical generator that requires very large amount of speed. As an example, as Asian or Ito needs 1500s or BM, convert it to our Windows or pine, which again gives us 15 RPM, for example. The function of this gearbox is that increases the speed. Now how does it work? Similarly, we have two gears inside it. One which have a very small velocity, very large number of t's, very large number of T's, and another gear which have a small number of T's. Now, the ratio between the stores that connection between this tool provides us a larger rpm. How the power input to this gear is equal to the power output to this gear with some losses. Of course. Simply zap is bead of the forest gearbox. The first one here is a first tier. Multiply it by the number of HATs, the number of eight cities is equal to rpm of the seconds as beat of the second multiplied by the number of t solves the second. For example, we have in the first one, we have low speed, lows. We'd like this low speed. And the first one, which is this one. And this one has a larger number of T's, so it will be larger number. So small value multiplied by larger value equal to second degree it is as gear has a small number of T's. So in order for these two sides to be equal to each other, we need large as meat. For example, says convert this from the laws beat, as you can see here into large is vt. This is a function of Zagier box. Now our common ratio which is used in wind turbines is mine T21. What does this mean? It means that if there's bit of this turbine of Zao orders or rotor blades is 16.7 RPM revolutions per minute, 16.7 revolution per minute. As an input from the rotor. Speed, revolutionary total would be 1500. How? Because it is a ratio of 90 to one. We multiply 16.7 multiplied by 90 gives us 1500s or PM. As an example, if we have here, for example, 1980s, we will have one t's here. As an example. Of course this is not 90 here and one here. For example, it will be for 900. And do we have here ten as an example? Anyway, that issue between this, this is mine two-to-one gives us an increase in his bid of mine t times. Now some multi megawatt window. Third points, which are known as the biotech to drive machines. Barak thrives. It means that the shaft is connected directly to the generator. It does not have any gearbox. In this case, the generator will have the same speed as the turbine rotor. So we have some cases which we use gearbox, or most of our cases we use gearbox. And some of them machines called the direct drive. They don't need any gearbox and they produce power buyer. Now as our types in our market for Zack gearbox. And instead of line two-to-one, we could have values between 50 to one, source to one. This is a common ratio also in the market, okay? This is a very larger ratio. Nine two-to-one have a lower percentage, which is lower ratio to one. So in this lesson we had an idea about with Zagier box and it's a function ends a wind turbine. 18. Power Available in the Wind Spectra: Hi and welcome everyone to this lesson in our course for when the total pints. This lesson, we would like to discuss the power available in the wind spectrum. We would like to understand the amount of power which is available inside the wind. So first let's see what will happen here. We have when they're moving with a velocity V, we have when the flowing with velocity v. Now this went is covering an area called the a area. A. Area a. This is the area covered by this wind. This window will move a distance called the x. This is the distance traveled by the wind from here to here. As you can see it following is in ZN pass cylinder, as you can see here with height, x and area. First thing is that we would like to understand what are the factors affecting this when the power is the power available inside this window? The first factor is the amount of air, volume of air, volume covered by this. When the air. Second factor is as bead of air is a velocity of v. Velocity has a great effect on the wind. The power. More velocity leads to more power. The more volume leads to more power. Zing is the mass and density of air flowing through the area as dynasty and the mass of the air flowing through this area or the cross-sectional area a. Now, the kinetic energy of a stream of air, this air we would like to understand is the kinetic energy. What is its kinetic energy? The kinetic energy assembly, as we know, half m v squared, where m is the mass of air and v is the velocity of air. This is a kinetic energy of the wind flowing. Now remember that the mass assembly equal to that dynasty multiplied by the volume density, rho is our density, the density of air. The volume is the volume of air flowing. The volume which is covered by this cylinder. Okay? The volume of this air, which is area, multiplied by the height of the cylinder, which is x. So it will be rho AX. Ax is the volume. Density multiplied by volume gives us z mass. Rho is a density of air, is the cross-sectional area covered by air, which we use. In the end. We use the area same as the area covered the body, or the swept area or the area of the rotor plates. Area covered the wiser router plates. Finally, x, which is x plus one over X, capital X is small, is that distance dropping? Now, energy, energy is equal to half kinetic energy half m, which is mass will be rho x. Rho AX ends velocity square was asked to take this mass and substituted it in this equation. Now what is power we would like to know was a wind power. So we knew, we know announce kinetic energy available in the wind, which is half rho V squared. Now we need the power in our assembly equal to energy divided by time. Or if it is it changing with time, then we use differentiation. It will be superpower available inside the window will be d over d t differentiation of the energy with respect to time. The differentiation of this function or this one, for example, half velocity is constant. Velocity flowing here is constant. So it will be v squared as it is. We will not differentiate it. Now we have the other thermogenesis. The mass, mass is changing with the motion of this air. It will be M dot. Here we have adult which is a differentiation. Half m v square will be half a mole dot v squared. Now, the differentiation of the mass, mass is equal to rho AX. So it will be rho a differentiation of mass with respect to time is dx over dy, dx over dy team. We will have in the end, the x over d t or the differentiation of x with respect to time is velocity. We will have half rho a half rho a dx over dt is the velocity multiplied by v squared gives us V cube. So as a power available inside the window will be half rho a V cube. Now the question is, how do we measure the velocity of wind? So we have a wind, the measuring device in one meter. This one anemometer is used to measure the velocity of wind, direction of the wind, which is this device, have many different shapes. It is available on the turbine, as you can see here. You can see this is a rotor hub which is. 19. Power Extracted by the Wind Turbine: Hi and welcome everyone to our lesson in wind course. In this lesson, we are going to learn that equation for the power extracted from the wind turbines. In the previous lesson, we obtain the equation for power obtained from as I wind or the kinetic energy or power available inside that wind. Now we would like to get an equation for the power extracted from the wind itself or power produced by the wind turbines. First, you have to understand that our turbine, our window turbine cannot take all of the power in the wind stream of courses, went has a kinetic energy and pulses through a window turbine. So some of these kinetic energy will be transferred to the wind turbine. The rest will go away as rest of the window will go away with another velocity. Now if our window turbine extracted all of the wind power, it means that the molecules of air will be standing here. Wednesday I went stream bosses Rosa turbine, only just a portion or a fraction of the kinetic energy of this wind stream is positive two, root and czarist leaves is that turbine carrying the rest of this energy? Now as our power taken by SS, a turbine, power of the turbine is equal to half rho, which is the density of air multiplied by area, which is the area of the turbine. Multiply it by V, or the velocity of when the stream cube multiplied by a power coefficient, CB, which are representing the efficiency or power efficiency. It means the ratio between the power taken by his daughter pine, the total power available in the area. Here, the area is the area of the turbine. So the larger the area of the turbine, The more energy or more kinetic energy it will be extracted from the wind industry. And the area of Zao where when the total pine assembly is a swept area, which is pi r squared or Pi over four d squared, where d is the diameter. Power coefficient, which is cB, the abundance on many factors, such as a profile of the orbital plates, blade arrangement and sitting and meaning onslaught of factors. Cb is symbol is the ratio between the power of the turbine divided by the power available in winter, which is half rho a etorpine, the area of the turbine multiplied by V Q. Okay, to hear how here goes up, here becomes two. So somebody likes us. See B, which is efficiency, is equal to 0 power absorbed with buys after applying. Divided by the power available in wind. Cp, representing the efficiency is the amount of power which we have taken from our wind. So let's say, for example, if we have an efficiency CP of 0.5, for example, it means that the power of the third pine, taken by his other pine or absorbed by the third pint, is equal 0.5 of the power available in Windows. So it means that our third fine, 50% of the wind energy. Now let's say for example, I would like to get zap hour, which is going to after the generator from the wind power available from the wind, converted it. Tools of power going from the generator to the transmission system or the transformer. Power. As we remember, the output power is the total output power. Final output power is equal to half rho multiplied by area of the turbine, which is pi r-squared, swept the area which we discussed before, multiplied by c b, which is power efficiency or power coefficient. We have velocity q, okay? This part, this part of rho by r-squared, CB and v cube, representing the power from the wind. After absorbed by a wind turbines, we will have support here, b of the third pi, power of the turbine, which is half rho pi r-squared multiplied by cp multiplied by V Q. Now, we have a gearboxes system. This gearbox has efficiency. Efficiency of Zagier books is called N being the power going into the generator. Power input to the generator will be equal to b. Generate, let's say lesion or a tilde, which means the power coming from the gearbox going through the generator is equal to np is the efficiency of the gearbox multiplied by B through fine. Now, our generator itself has an efficiency. Efficiency of the power coming from, final power coming from the generator is equal to b. Be our final output is equal to d, z. 20. Betz Limit and Maximum Rotor Efficiency: Hi and welcome everyone to this lesson. This lesson we would like to get Z, maximum route or efficiency, or the maximum value of the power coefficient lets us store two. We said that we need to understand is the value of Cp or the power coefficient. How can we get it? Then we need to find the maximum value. What is the maximum value of CP? Or how much power can be extracted by the wind turbines. The maximum value can be attracted by the window. It'll pine using this splits. So first, you have to know that we have a window turbine was rotor area AT this when the turbine with area, area a assembly a T, as you can see in this figure. Now, the went, since, going this coming and facing the split zen it's called unbent. Since our wind turbines blades are facing exists, went up, wind is coming with a velocity v. And the covering an area, a, area a. Now and we have here area of the turbine with a velocity of air or velocity of air adds up blades are called the VB. Vb is the velocity of air at the blades. And then after leaving exact blades, we will have a V downwind since it is not facing or behind a window turbine. So it's called the Darwin when the velocity of air with an area a. As you can see, we have area of the turbine. Area one, which is area before the OB1, the area or the area before we reach this when the turbine and the area to which is after leaving that when the turbine. Then we have a velocity V or VBE, which is the velocity of the wind, example rotor blades. And V1 is the velocity of the upwind and V2 is the velocity of downwind. Hope it is clear now. V is the upwind velocity of the stream. This velocity, Vd is a downwind went, and VB is the wind speed at the rotor plate. Now, the value of VB was there as a mathematical proof for this, which we are not going to discuss. For simplicity, VB or the velocity of the wind ads out rotor blades is equal to the average value of v upwind and downwind. So as you can see, it will be half V plus V downwind. Okay? It's the average value of this too is beets. Now we have a coefficient, it's about coefficient CB is equal to 41 minus a all squared. Is this a power coefficient which we need? It is equal to 41 minus a all squared. What is a assembly equal to V minus vb over v or the upwind, the velocity minus the velocity of wind at the rotor plates divided by the velocity of the upwind. This ratio, if you substitute in this equation, you will get zapped power coefficient. It's a power coefficient four multiplied by V minus vb over v, one minus v minus v over v all squared. So if you know that I went the velocity and the velocity at this turbine blades, you will be able to get the efficiency of conversion. Now before we leave this slide, you have to move something which is really important that the area of the wind stream before, in the upwind direction or before reaching the plate has small area. After leaving when the turbine it will have large area. Why? Because in this case we have V1 and in this case we have V2. Now, of course, in a sense, our wind stream moving towards the blades will extract tract, extract some kinetic energy from the wind so that when the velocity will decrease, so V2 is the velocity after leaving the winter point will be less than v1. In order to preserve the same mass flow rate. M dot mass flow rate, which is rho area multiplied by v. So density is constant. Okay? So we have area of the stream and the velocity of the string, area of the stream and velocity of the Stream Reserve same mass, then we will have to increase the area. Now let's see how, let's say m1 equal to m2 mass here is equal to the mass here are buoyant equal to downwind. So M1, of course, a dot here is a flow rate. We have dynasty a, one, V1 equal to rho, A2 V2. Okay? So take row is row. We have A1 V1 equal to A2 V2. So what does this mean? It means that the new velocity, new area we need the area A2 over one is equal to V1 over V2. Velocity V1 is higher than V2. It means that the second area will be. 21. Factors Affecting Wind Speed and Density Height of Tower: Hi and welcome everyone to this lesson in our course for wind turbine design. This lesson we are going to discuss the different factors affecting xs are windows, bead and Dynasty. This first lesson, we will discuss the height of the tower. What is the effect of Zao, height of the tower or lens of the tower itself on Z generation of power or the electrical power and on the wind itself. First, what is the effect of height on velocity, velocity or forint? It will find that the relation between zap velocity at any reference height with respect to any larger height is equal to this relation. Velocity at any height we would like to get with respect to a reference velocity is equal to h over h naught to the power alpha. First, V is a velocity we would like to get, let's say for example, at cr meters, at the height of 50 meters, V node is velocity at height H naught, and H node is our reference height, example, a ten meters. For example, we have the velocity at ten meters, at height equal to ten meters, and we would like to get h at certain meters. Let's try it. Let's say for example, here we have ten meters, then we know our velocity, for example, two meters per second. This is a velocity at height equal to ten meters. Now as an example, I would like to get as the height, as the velocity of the wind at height equal to searching meters. Or this velocity is unknown. By using this equation, we can evaluate the new velocity. Now we will find that the relation between v over v naught equals h over h. Note to the power alpha, you will find that we have a factor here which is Alpha. What is Alpha? Alpha is something which is called is a friction coefficient, which the demand zones or roughness of the surface friction coefficient when we will discuss this in the next slide. But for now, if you block this relation at, for example, alpha equal to 0.1, you will find that there is a velocity of wind increases like this. As the height of power increases or as the height In, increases or as elevation increases, you will find that the velocity starts to increase in a very larger in the, in the form of exponential phone or exponent form. As you can see here, is that for example, here at ten meters, so we have 6.8 meter per second at, for example, are larger height of 100 meters. For example, we have a very large speed of ten meters, almost doubles as beat. That is, what is meant by z. Velocity. As the velocity increases, velocity of wind increases with height. Or the innovation. What, what does this mean for us? This means that we can increase Z generation of electricity by increasing the height of the tower. As we have larger tower, or a tower was more height, it means that we are going to collect more electrical power or more kinetic energy from wind with larger is meat. So as you can see here, we have the same relation. You can see here is SSR relation of Z, speed of the wind, width, the height. As you can see, smallest speed. So as elevation increases, the height, the height increase, or the elevation increase, the speed of the wind increase. Now, as you can see here, surface here has a big effect or a large effect on the velocity of the wind. So as you can see here, and depending on the type of Zao obstacle here available here, we will have different alpha coefficient. As you can see, due to the presence of an obstacle, it will lead to decay of the wind. Here, as you can see here is the output window from this. You can see here little or no wind due to the presence of a large obstacle here or having the larger frictional force. This is a window profile before reaching n obstacles such as a house or a village or anything. And this is a window profile after leaving this obstacle. Now you can see is that the wind moves more slowly, adds a ground level due to the presence of a frictional force. Here, you can see small windy year, smallest bit of wind due to the frictional force. And as we go up, Zeff, frictional force decreases, leading to faster speed of the wind. Now is the reason for having smaller velocity is that there are service objects such as trees, rocks, house, etc. On the ground that slows the air as it collides into Zen. Influence of this frictional force is less with the height above the ground. So the frictional force, it decreases those height. As you can see, here's a friction here, which is opposing our wind is larger than Zeff frictional force. Here we don't have. 22. Factors Affecting Air Density: Hi and welcome everyone to this lesson in our course for wind turbines. This lesson we would like to discuss effect off air dynasty own Z power of course. So he knows I affect off Dennis Jones or power. But we would like to understand what are the factors, is that can you change the density of air? Since zy dynasty is a factor which affect our power. First, let's get back to the physics or chemistry where we discussed it before. Ideal gas law. Of course, we know from chemistry is that BV equals nRT. Bv is pressure multiplied by the volume of any substance is equal to n, which is the number of molecules multiplied by a certain constant, or which is the ideal gas constant multiplied by temperature. So as we know, is that from this equation, as you can see, we can say is that n divided by vi and divided by V is equal to P over RT over V equal to P over RT. Now n, which is XAML gas, or the number of modes of any gas is equal to total mass of this gas. Zambia has gas in grams divided by molar mass. What does the molar mass equal to? Xa? Moral mass is equal to that. Graham bear molar. How many grams for each mole of a substance? We need the wisest with each other. You will get CSA number of modes. So it will be m divided by the molar mass. So we'll take this and substitute it in this equation. We have n, which is mass of the gas. Mass of the gas divided by volume, volume divided by molar mass. Since we take this and substitute it here, molar mass equal to B over our mass is the M. The molar mass is simply equal to WN. The, remember that from CSA physics. So we know that the mass and the mass of any substance to the violet, it's a volume, gives us its own dynasty, mass divided by volume. We will substitute it here with dynasty, so it will be row. It will be dynasty equal to rho is equal to zap pressure multiplied by the molar mass of our RT. How is this? I will show you now. Have your mass, mass, which is m, the mass of the substance, and the volume. We can take mass divided by volume, all of this and substitute with Dennis. We will have rho, which is a dynasty, divided by its molar mass, divided by its molar mass equal to the pressure, the volume, volume. Or we can say that the dynasty is equal to zap ratio multiplied by the molar mass divided by RT. This equation is this equation. The pressure brush or molar mass, WM or t, or t. I hope it's clear. Anyway, all of this does not matter. What is important for us is that Xia dynasty. Finally, it will be equal to the pressure multiplied by the molar mass of a substance divided by RT. Now first brush or a brush or is pressure of the substance which is can be in one atmospheric, can be in atmospheric unit or in basketball. Or which of course, a Pascal is equivalent to 21 Newton meter per meter squared, newton per meter squared, and the 100 kilopascal is equal to one bar. Now, W mole is the molar mass of the molecule. Molar mass of the molecule of air is equal to 28.97 grams for each mole of air. Temperature. Temperature is in Kelvin, since we are talking about Zack SR units. So Kelvin is equal to Silesia is degree the temperature in Celsius degree plus 273. And R is the ideal gas constant. And it's equal to 8.2 multiplied by ten to the power negative five and so on. As you can see, it's unit in atmospheric. When we substitute with pressure here, we substitute with how many atmospheric brushes? One atmospheric to atmospheric and so on. As you can see is that the dynasty is a constant. Then we look low, molecular weight is constant. For the air. We have two factors that are affecting our Dynasty. We have zap pressure. Pressure affecting our Dynasty. We have the temperature that affect us, our Dynasty. So this two factors, again, it changes at dynasty, leading to change in power generated by wind turbine. As you can see here, let's see two relations. The first graph here is a relation between a dynasty and the pressure. As you can see, it's adenosine. 23. Example 1: Hi and welcome everyone to this lesson. In this lesson we are going to have an example on ZAB, previous factors affecting when did they esteem and wind velocity. So in this example, we have n anemometer mounted at a height of ten meters above a surface with a friction coefficient of 0.2. So we have a height ten meters. And the friction coefficient, which is alpha, is equal to 0.2. Now, by installing this anemometer, we found that wind speed, or a window velocity is five meters per second. What does this mean? It means that at a height of ten meters, we have a friction coefficient of 0.2. We have a velocity of air of five meters per second. Now is that requirement? Now find or estimate is that when the velocity or wind speed and the specific power in the wind at a height of 50 meters. Assuming that we are walking at 15 series as degrees one atmospheric pressure. Let's start step-by-step. So the first requirement is a wind beat, right? So we needs of the loss. At the height of 50 meters. We have a velocity of five meters and a height of ten meters. And that we have is a friction coefficient from the relation which we will discuss the before ends up previous lesson, we can say is that v over v naught is our velocity at any certain height or any specific height divided by the velocity V node, which is a velocity at the reference height, is equal to h, which is the height, the new height divided by the reference height, all to the power alpha or the friction coefficient. We can substitute with this relation like this. We have velocity which we need V is equal to, equal to v-naught deg v node to the other side, it will be the initial velocity, which is five meters per second. Five meter per second multiplied by h over h denote a new height, which is 50 meters, divided by the reference height, which is ten meters. So it will be 50 over ten to the power alpha, which is a friction coefficient or point to two. We have the velocity at the new height, 6.9 meter per second. And this is expected as you can see, that the velocity of air or went increased ADH height 50. As the height increases, the velocity will increase from five meters to 6.29 meter per second. Now, second requirement is a specific power. Now what does the specific power mean? Specific power is simply z power, dynasty, or ZAP power divided by the area. As you remember that we said before that the asymptote, civic power or support Dynasty, which is b over the area, is equal to the power available in air, which is half, are all multiplied by area, multiplied by v cube. Divided by the area gives us have Zara. Density multiplied by v cube is like your big of the velocity. Okay? Now we have, we would like to find this amount of power at a height of 50 meters. We need the velocity at 15 meters. Now as a velocity at 50 meters is the velocity which is also obtained 6.9 meter per second. Now we would like to find Zao role or density of the air at this height. As you remember from the previous lesson we said before is that the density of air is equal to the pressure. Pressure at this height multiplied bys our molecular weight of air divided by r, which is our ideal gas constant, multiplied by temperature. First, we have some pressure. What is the pressure ratio? Is simply one atmospheric, one atmospheric pressure. So B will be equal to one. As you can see here, B will be equal to one. Now, second thing is our molecular weight, WMO n, which is equal to 28.297. As you can see, Graham bear moon gram, gram, gram here. We need to convert this to kilograms by multiplying this by ten to the power negative three to convert this into kilograms. Now r, which is the ideal gas constant, which is equal to 8.2 multiplied by ten to the power negative five. That in virtual is equal to 0 Celsius temperature, which is 15 sleazy us 15 plus 273. Like this. If we substitute with this equation, we will have like this pressure multiplied by his own Look lot of weight divided by the ideal gas constant, multiplied by the temperature in Kelvin, gives us that the density of air at 50 meters is equal to 1.2 to five. 24. Example 2: Hi and welcome everyone to this lesson. In this lesson we are going to have an example on the effect of xy density and the effect of height on z velocity of air. And so power generated. In this example, we have this wind turbine. We have this wind turbine which is mounted, it's a hub app, a height of 15 metres. What does this mean? It means that the height from the hub, from here to ground is equal to 50 meters. This atropine has a diameter of thirsty meters, which means that radius of the blade is 15 meters. Let's see you. When does applying with a salty meter root or diameter, diameter of the router is equal to 13 meters, is mounted was it's a hub at 15 meters above the ground surface. So it's 50 meters from here to here. From this hub to the ground. Friction coefficient is equal to 0.2. Now what does that requirement or what do we would like to get in this problem? Find the ratio of specific power in the wind, or it's a power dynasty of the wind. At Zao highest point is that a rotor blade that breaches to reaches to the lowest points at it falls too. Now what does this mean? It means that we would like to get that ratio between the power dynasty at the highest point at which is a rotor blade which will reach and with respect to two is the lowest two points that it falls into. What does this mean? It means like this. We would like to get support Dennis two of air at this point. At the highest point is that our rotor plate will reach the tip of the rotor blade and support dynasty here adds a lowest void. This is a ratio would like to get. In order to get the ratio, we need to find the height here, the height of that here, and the height here, the height at which we are going to find the power density. Let's start. We have here at this point, we have this router. This router is having a diameter of diameter of 15 meters. What does this mean? It means this radius will be 15 meter here. From here to here. We will have also 15 meters. Since it is xhat radius of that route or plate. We have here is the height, the height of the hump from here, this height from the ground, all of this is 50 meters. The height of this point will be equal to zack 50 meters here, 1515 meters plus is that rotor diameter, this extra diameter, which is 15, we will have 65 meters. So this point, this point is APA height of 65 meters. Now was the lowest point here. This point will be equal to 050 meters minus this part, which is 15 meters minus 15, which will give us five meters. We would like to get that issue between Apollo dynasty at 65 meters and uncertainty five meters. So first, the radius is equal to the diameter divided by two, which is 30 divided by two, giving us 15 meters. Now, the ratio between the power adds on top of the blade swing was respiratory towards the bottom, which is six to five with respect to certified meters is equal to, remember this equation, z power divided by power as a power n divided by power at any reference height is equal to h divided by h anode, all to the power three alpha. We discussed this equation before. Now, the height adds the highest point, which is 65 meters, and the height at the lowest point is certified meters. All of this to the power three alpha three multiplied by 0.2.2 is a friction coefficient, as you can see here. So let's first delete all of this. The ratio between the power at this point to see power at this point will be equal to 1.45. So as you can see, as the height increases, it means more power is generated. 25. Applied Force on Wind Turbine, Torque Coefficient and the Importance of the TSR: Hi and welcome everyone to our lesson for wind design course. In this lesson, we are going to discuss that applied force or the equation of the applied force on the window turbine and the torque is generated on the wind turbine. Why is this important? You will understand in this lesson, what is the importance of obtaining the torque and why it is important? As we discussed them before, the power equations. Now let us see what about words at all. As you can see, we have our windows of buying, as you can see here, our rotor blades. Now, due to the presence or flowing of the wind through our wind turbine, you will find that the wind June rates or force. This force is known as the thrust force. As you can see, thrust force F, This force you leads a tool rotation of the rotor blades. It applies mechanical power or mechanical torque on our window turbines. This force, which is called the roster force, leads us to that rotation of the Earth wind turbines. Now of course, this force as a torque applied by Zao wind would be torque will be equal to this force multiplied by Z, radius, multiplied by the radius of the rotor blade. This will give us the torque. Thrust force experienced by Zao router, which is applied by the wind on the rotor blades, can be expressed as first Zell force, as we know from basic mechanics, is that the force is equal to power divided by the velocity. Power divided by velocity. So some power will be equal to half rho dynasty multiplied by area, multiplied by velocity cubed divided by velocity or the velocity of wind. This will give us half rho a V squared. This equation, this equation represent is the force applied by the wind, which causes the rotation of the wind turbine. The torque, torque, as we know, the torque is equal to the force multiplied by the radius. This is well-known in mechanics that this force multiplied by the radius of the rotor blade, We'll give us half rho V squared, which is this equation multiplied by the radius. Now of course, as this torque is a theoretical torque. Now what does this mean? It means that this talk is not the actual torque that is applied by wind. This is just, in summary, actual torque will be equal to the same value. The actual torque will be half rho V squared R. This equation multiplied by a coefficient which are representing z efficiency. Ct is called is that torque coefficient, and of course it is less than one. This CT or the torque coefficient is equal to the actual torque applied on the rotor plates. D divided by however, if v squared r, which is a theoretical torque applied by the wind. So we have now two coefficient we have discussed before, zap power coefficient, cp. Cp is a power coefficient. And then now we have a vocal coefficient, CT. CT is the same as the previous equations. Actual torque owns atropine on the window turbine divided bys ensure ethical torque. Now zap, our coefficient is a power generated by the wind turbine power of the third pi divided by the theoretical power or as a power available in air. We have to be T over rho a multiplied by the area of the author point v cube. Now we would like to mention something here is at what is the relation between the power generated by the window third, and the torque generated by the wind turbine. As we went off from mechanics, that the power is equal to torque multiplied by the angular velocity. Beating would be equal to torque multiplied by the Omega, omega, which is the angular speed or angular velocity. Since our router rotates with a certain speed, which is called the rotational speed, or rotational angular speed. Angular speed, which is omega m, which is same as omega. Multiply it by the torque. Now, if we divide Cp is a power coefficient divided bys at orca coefficient Cb over Ca. Divide these two equations, you will find that we have are multiplied by omega divided by velocity. And what does this represent? This are the videos multiplied by 0. Rotational angular velocity likes us. Here. Multiplied by omega is this gives us that V t or z tangent, tangential velocity of the wind turbine. This velocity is v, t. Is that tangential velocity. As you can see is this is a tangent, tangential velocity of Zao when the blades, and this is a velocity of point. A ratio between these two is the ratio between the velocity of z of z ablate. The blade tip was respect to toes or velocity of xy went itself will give us the tip speed ratio. Lambda is equal to r omega over v, which is omega. Of course, omega is the angular speed is equal to two pi n, which is two pi multiplied by n, which is how many revolutions bear second revolutions per second. Omega is the angular velocity, which is the angular velocity of XY window thorough plan itself. And N is the rotational speed of the rotor and is adaptational in revolutions per second. The R is the radius of the rotor plates and v is the velocity of point. Now this ratio, the ratio between these two velocities is called that tip is bead ratio, or TSR or lambda. It is the ratio between the velocity of the rotor tab. This is a tub of 0 to this point. The velocity of this tab with respect to two, when the velocity is called setup is bead ratio. Now, if we draw a relation between Cp or some power coefficient and London, the tip speed ratio. You will find that the Cp and tip speed ratio will follow the same relation as before. It will start from 0 and starts to increase, reaching the maximum value of 0.5 ninths three is the maximum theoretical value, as we discussed before, is a bit silly limit. Then it will start to decay. Okay? Tip is be the ratio is the ratio between the velocity of the rotor tap with respect to that wind velocity. Now, as you can see here, this curve is divided to a region here at the beginning and region in the end and arisen between lags, us 123 adds up beginning. You will find that here. The issue is low. What does this mean? Or Z t is r is low. Let's start by the high-value, not this region. Let's start with eyes. This one. We have this region where TSR is a high-value. Now, what does that tip speed ratio high? As you can see, this is the ratio r Omega over when, when this equation is high, it means that omega is the angular velocity. The angular velocity of the wind turbine is very fast convert those are wind speed. If this lambda is very high, it means that omega is the angular speed of when the dopamine itself is much greater than the velocity. What does this will lead? This will lead to low Cp coefficient, lower value of CP. Why? Because when we have a very high speed of the turbine, we will have more turbulences and that will lead to reduction of the efficiency of the wind turbine. We discussed the force that turbulences affect the efficiency of our wind turbines. And we will have effect this turbulences will affect our zone when the turbines and it would reduce the efficiency of our generator. Now wins at photos to region, we have low TSR. The load is the R value means that is the omega, or angular velocity is very small compared to the wind speed. Now this will also lead to low CP, low CC-BY because angular velocity omega will be small, lower value, and the velocity of wind will be very high compared to eight. So what does this mean? It means that our router will start rotating very, very small, or ads or starting of the generator, which means that a lot of wind or too much wind will pass through our daughter point. And we will not convert. This went into kinetic energy or absorbs the kinetic energy from the wind and generate electricity. Which means we will have power losses. And it means we would have low power coefficient. So what we would like to understand is that the tip speed ratio. Why tip speed ratio is important? Because the control of the omega control of z, we don't have any control and velocity of wind. Velocity of wind is a constant evaluate demands on the nature. However, Omega itself or mega, which is a bead of our rotor. If we can control it, we can have the maximum possible power. For example, if we say that the maximum power occurs at eight, for example, a tip speed ratio. It means that the velocity of the rotor tip should be equal to eight times the velocity of wind. As an example, let's say, let's say for example here, maximum value occurs at eight, like this. This at which the maximum power will occur at the tip speed ratio or lambda equal eight. So lambda equal to eight, which is equal to velocity of that or pine divided bys of velocity of wind. So we should make as a velocity of the turbine equal to eight times the velocity of wind in order to produce the maximum amount of power. So how can we do this? We can do this using this, our control system. The control system will help us in order to reach the desired velocity. What you are going to discuss in another lesson, but as i important single tool would like to understand is that we now understand the relation between tip speed ratio and the maximum generated power. Controlling this ratio leads to controlling power generated. Now, as you can see here, are the effect of force or torque coefficient or power coefficient, CB coefficient with respect to two different types of wind turbines. As an example, you can see here the American multiply it time. You can see the dots for our monotype highest veto blood type. The ideal efficiency. If we have an ideal when demand which followers bits a limit, and so on. We have Diodorus Darrieus rotor type. There are many, many types of wind turbines. What is important for us, as you can see that all of them are less than the maximum value of 0.59, which is a bit silly limit. 1593, as I remember, all of them does not reach this theoretical limit. As you can see here. This is a maximum values, this is a maximum value, maximum value, maximum value, maximum value, and so on. As you can see, all of them have a maximum power at the different TSR tip speed ratio. As you can see, for example, this Data Service, for example, needs lambda equals six in order to give the maximum power. This one, for example, it needs to 0.5. This one needs less than one, and so on. What does this mean? It means each type of went turbine can have different efficiency. Has different efficiency depending on Z, TSR or reserve ratio between the tangential velocity and the velocity of point. In order to generate maximum power, we need to store to controlling our speed of the wind turbine. Now another thing we would like to understand before ending this lesson is that the effect of number of blades on the TSR. Now as you can see here, but pretty obvious that if we increase number of blades, increasing number of blades means we will have larger weight of our window. Third, pine, leading to a slower speed. Omega will start to becoming law, which means lambda will be low. So as you can see, large number of blades means that the tip speed ratio will be low. Okay? So as an example, as you can see, as the number of blades decreases, the speed increases, which means the tip speed ratio will increase. When we have larger number of plates, means that we will have large weight of blades leading to low rotational speed and low T is solved. And also a small number of blades leads to small weight of blades, leading to how rotationally speed and the height is our ratio. So I hope this lesson was helpful for you and understanding the importance of Z tip speed ratio on our wind turbine system. 26. Example 3: Now let's have an example on the tip speed ratio in order to understand more about it. So let's say we have windows of pine with a five meter diameter router. Router has a diameter of five meters. As beta's a router at ten meter per second when the velocity is a 130. Revolutions bear minute. Remember here we have minute, not second as before. Suppose coefficient at this point is 0.35, so Cp will be 0.35. Now what also requirements? The requirements is that we need to get tempeh speed ratio or the TSR. We need that all coefficient or SCP over the therapy. Also, what will be the torque available adds a rotor shaft, assuming is a density of air will be 1.24 kilogram bear meter q. Let's start with the first step is that we need z tip speed ratio. So let's try this law. We know that that tip speed ratio or lambda, is equal to r multiplied by omega divided by velocity of wind. First, what is r? R is a radius of our router plate. We have the diameter five meters, which means that the radius will be 2.5 meters, half of the diameter. Now what is omega? Omega is rotational is meat and rotational angular speed, which is two pi N divided by 60, y divided by $0.60. So we have minute and V is velocity is equal to ten meter per second. Omega is equal to the angular. Velocity is equal to two multiplied by pi multiplied by n, which is a 100 uncertainty revolution per minute divided by 60. Now remember, remember something which is really important. And it's our previous lesson. We said that two pi n only, because n walls revolutions bear second hearings equation. We have revolutions per minute. By minute means that we will divide by 60 in order to convert it revolutions per second. So the angular velocity will be 14.6 radian per second. We have omega1, radius is 2.5 meters. So we have our 2.5 meters omega, so 15.6 V, which is a velocity of ten meter per second. So we'll have the ratio, tip speed ratio of 3D point for. Now, a secondary comment is a torque coefficient C team, now we have Lambda and do we have CP? Cp, which is apparent coefficient is 0.35. C T will be Cp divided by lambda. Ct would be equal to Cp divided volume lambda. This is the torque coefficient, 0.103. Now what is the quadrant? What will P is a torque available as a rotor shaft, assuming the density of air will be 1.24 kilogram per meter cube. Now remember that the torque is equal to half rho a V squared R multiplied by C T. This is the equation which we discussed in the previous lesson. So the torque of the turbine will be equal to half rho, which is our density is equal to 1.241.24 area, which is the area of the turbine will be bio. But of Bali over four, D squared is a diameter squared, diameter squared of 0. Or we can say by r squared, which will be multiplied by 2.5 squared. Z are the same. This is the area swept. The area buys that wind of pi multiplied by v squared velocity of the wind squared, which is ten squared squared. Multiply it by the radius, which is 2.5 meter, 2.5 meter multiplied by c t, which is torque coefficient, which is 0.103. This will give us 0 torque available at auto-generated points are when the turbine is 113.39 newton meter. This was assemble example in order to understand how can we use z tip speed ratio and the torque coefficient to find some parameters in our wind turbine. 27. Wind Turbine Generator Characteristics: Hi and welcome everyone to this lesson in our course for when the two pints. In this lesson we are going to discuss Zao, a wind turbine generator characteristics. We would like to see how does the power or how does regenerate electrical power from our generator, depending on the speed of the wind. As you can see, this figure representing the relation between the power generated by our wind, Asian rated with respect to z velocity of wind, as you can see, is this is a power available in the wind. This is amount of power absorbed by Zhen rate, or of course, we cannot absorb all of superpower. And so it's a wind since we have zap bit, so limit or 59% efficiency. Our curve here, which is the power generated with respect to the velocity of wind, is divided into several regions. The first region is that here from 0 power. And here we have 0 power starting from 0 velocity to v cut in this region. This region is a generator, does not produce any electrical power until the available power in exceeds SAP power needed to overcome Zao window edge and friction losses in the whole system. In the beginning, coenzyme speed of the wind is low, less than Vicodin or Vicodin, we cannot produce any electrical power in this region. We cannot produce any power. Since this as beat of the wind is very low and as the automotive enough to overcome friction and when the Joule losses, and of course it cannot start our wind turbine. Starting from VCAP n, which is the speed at which our generator will start reducing electrical power, is this is called ve got in or socket in his beat. This is meat is the speed at which we start generating electricity. Now, starting from here, from this velocity of wind V cut in, as this is B, it increases as beta increases. We or our generated by our stores to increase, keeps increasing till reaching rated power. As I went to third is beat increases due to the presence of more speed of our Went. The power output of the generator increases on television rated, but reduces its rated power. So add V rated the velocity of wind at which our power will be equal to z rated power. This rated power depends on the generator installed. For example, if we have a 100 kilowatt generator, it means that we cannot produce more than a 100 kilowatt, whatever's as meat of zone. Now, this is speed at which we produce the rated power is called Z V rated Windsor speed. Starting from V rated windows width of the wind stores to increase, keeps increasing. We still produce the maximum power or the rated power. So we have a constant power generated. Whatever is the speed of the wind increases beyond the rated, we still produce maximum power, which is the rated power of the generator, until we reach a certain speed v cut off. This is bit of Zao went, which can produce very large mechanical forces on our Windows or pine. And they can lead to damage of our when the turbines starting from V cut off. This is the speed at which is a windowed or pan will rotate at a very dangerous highest bid, which can lead to the destruction of our wind turbine. In this case, we start as a wind turbine is folate and Asian rate or is stopped. What do I mean by folate? It means that we are moving our when the turbine away from the window direction in order to prevent its damage or break down. This is wheat at which we start shorting of our window. It'll point is called Z, cut off his feet. This is beat is important because it tells us, us to protect our window turbine against damage. As you can see, this curve representing the generator characteristics or the power generated with respect to the wind is beat. Now here's an important note which a weekend notice in this curve. You can see that between Vicodin and V rated, the relation between the velocity of air, velocity of wind with ZAP are generated, as you remember, is that we said before, is that the power? But reduce the bias Arthur pi1 is equal to half multiplied by area of the turbine, multiplied by his ethnicity of air or wind, multiplied by z velocity of the wind Dequeue. So as you can see, this relation is a relation between power and the velocity of wind should be a cubic relationship. However, this is in theoretical, radically Zach relation or the increase in power should be a cubic relationship. However, when we design our, when the turbine, we can depend with the design of this weekend, make this relation. Instead of being cubic, we can make it linear, we can make it quadratic equation. We could make it a cubic equation such as we have now. We can make it even higher powers. Now, this depends on the design of the turbine, depends on Zao when the third points which are available inside the market. Now as you can see, since we can control this relation, you will find that z power produced by hour. When sort of pi1 is equal to the rated power. The rated power multiplied by v to the power n. N is the relation here. Is it linear? Is it cubic? Is it quadratic? It will be v to the power ends up velocity at any time we would like if would like here, here, here, whatever it is, the velocity at which we would like to get the power generated. Those dipolar n minus ve got in to the power n is the cut in velocity divided by V, velocity at which is rated power occurs. We rated those the power n minus v to the power n. Of course is a cut in the viewer rated we got off this defend the zones or design of the wind turbine itself. So for example, if we have a linear relation, is an N in this equation will be equal to one. Now let's have a quick example on understandings. We have the relation be equal to b r. And as you can see, this same equation as before. Now we would like to have an example of a wind turbine. Let's say for example, when we have a two megawatt wind turbine be rated, the rated power is a two megawatt. This is a maximum power which we can generate that has a cup in rated cut out velocity 3.513.525 meters. Now again, what does 3.5 meters represent? Zakat in cutting velocity here at which we start generating, our electrical power. Rated speed is 13.5, is speed at which we start generating. The maximum power. Rated power 25 meters per second is the cut-out velocity. 25 meter is a cutout velocity or at after which if we shut down our wind turbine, vr is equal to 13.5, VCR is 3.5. And as you can see here, we can be related to megawatt multiplied by 3.5 cubes, 13.5 cubed minus 3.5 Q. So for example, if I would like to find the power generated at ten, for example, at ten meter per second. Then we will substitute with v equal to ten meter per second. As you can see, 17.5 to 25 meters. From here to here, we will generate the maximum rated power of two megawatt. Windsor velocity becomes a greater than 25, which is a cutout velocity. The turbine produces no power as it was shot down. In this lesson, we discussed this generator characteristics of the windows are applying. And then now we understand Z facto velocity owns are generated power. Then it gets tell us when we will have an example on this. In order to understand more practical what happens. 28. Example 4: Now let's have an example. So let's say we have this relation between the amount of wind velocity and its availability in, as you can see, assumes that we have at 250 kilowatt wind turbine. Where does the following characteristics? We have xy ve got in five meters per second, which is the velocity at which we start generating electrical power. Zai V rated, which is velocity at which we produce the rated power or the maximum power. And we have the V cut our velocity equal 14 meter second, 14 meters per second, which is a velocity at which we start off our wind turbine. Now what does the requirement? The requirement is that before this, you will find that as a curve between the Vicodin and V rated is designed to be linear. So V cut into V rated, this will be a linear line, a linear relation. Now, that requirement is at finite amount of energy generated by this total pine bear months. And as you can see the following figure. This figure represent is that when the velocity and how many hours does it exist in months? Let's take this step-by-step first. As you can see this graph, what does this represent? For example, we have from 0 to one range of the velocity from 0 to one. It is available for 17 hours bare months. We measured the velocity of wind using anymore mortar. We found that in one month it occurs from 0 to ones I wind speed in this range occurs with 13 hours appear months. Then we have, for example, from one to two. You can see here 37 hours per months. Wednesday's bit of window between 12 and so on. So as you can see, this distribution represents how many each, each range, how many hours does it occur? Now we would like to use this with information of the wind that are pine in order to obtain the energy produced per months. So let's start. We have here, our graph is the same as this graph. So as you can see from 0 to 113 hours, from one to 237, as you can see from 0 to 11337 and so on. This graph is the same as this graph, same as this date. Now second stamp is that, you can see that here we said before, is that our pi, 250 kilowatt, which is the rated power, has a cut in velocity five meters, eight meters, and 14 meters. At five meters, we have xy ve got in. At ten meters, we have the rated power. At 14, we have the cutoff, got cut off velocity. As you can see, we have this three points. Now we will draw this. If he got here, as you can see here. As you can see from five, we start degenerating bowed before it from 0 to five. We don't have any electrical power 0. Starting from five to ten, we have a linear relation. It is, of course mentioned in the problem. Here. As you can see, linear relation. We have from five to ten linear relation reaching to the rated power 250 kilowatt. Starting from ten to cut off or cut out frequency of velocity. We have a rated power. This graph. Using this two graphs, we can get the energy produced. Let us start from 0 to five. From 0 to five, this is beat is very low. We don't have any generated power. The 13 hours or seven hours and 50. All of this is not important for us. We don't generate any electrical power before 55 is the cut in velocity from Seoul, velocity of wind from 0 to five, we have a 0 electrical power between 510. Velocity between 510. We have said before that's a power will be equal to, it will be a linear relation. So n is a factor, n will be equal to one. Okay? It's the same equation which we have discussed in the previous lesson. However, n factor will be equal to one. So V, which is a velocity at anytime minus z v cut in, which is five meters per second. The volume is the volume V rated ten minus V got in, which is five. The power between industry and in this velocity range will be equal to 15 multiplied by V minus five. Now, between ten to 14 from here to here, we will generate rated power 250 kilowatt. Now it was a velocity exceeds a 14 meters per second. We will have 0 power. Now, we obtained as the power at every single range. Now let's obtain energy produced. Let's start from 0 to five. All of this is not important for us. 0 power, which means 0 energy greater than 14 from 1415 greater than 14, all of this range will be equal to 0. V greater than 14 power 0, energy 0. Okay? Now we have here from five to six operating for 86 hours, six hours. So we have a velocity in this range from five to 686 hours for from six to 792, from six to 792 and so on. Now, here from five to six, what does, which region does it obey? From five to six? The first range here, it obeys this range, right? So it obeys this equation, 15 multiplied by the velocity minus five. Now we have 86 hours for which range? For this range, five to six. What is the velocity? Should we substitute v equal what? V will be equal to half of Z as average of these two values, or half the distance between z, the average between 56 is 5.5. So we'll use in this equation ¢5.5. It will be an average velocity. So it will be 15 multiplied by 5.5 minus five. 5.5 minus five equal to 25 kilo watt. Now, this is the power generated using the average velocity here. What is the pounds? The energy, energy is equal to power multiplied by time. So 86 multiplied by 25 gives us 2115. And so on for four until ten, until ten. Here we use the same relation is the average. For example, from nine to ten, we use 9.5. So as you can see from nine to ten, my endpoint five from eight to 9.58, and so on. Okay. So we multiply our wiser Power, Hour by Czar power, we get the energy produced. Now hear from Dan dot 11. Here in this region from ten to 14, all of this power will be constant, 250 kilowatt. So we say from ten to 1125010 to 135011 to 12250, and so on until 14. Then we'll multiply each of these power multiplied bys are our 250 multiplied by 38, nine fifty, five hundred, and so on. Multiply each of our bodies apart. I hope it's clear that how can you convert that energy or the curve for by knowing the velocity of wind, you can now run rate or obtain the power Xin, obtain the energy required. Now, this graph representing how many kilowatt hour bourbons or hours impairments. So if we sum all of these values, 0 to 15690, all of this exists. We will get this amount kilowatt-hour pyramids. This amount of power or energy generated for each month's by our wind turbine. Now as a conclusion of this is that we have, in order to get the energy generated from a window touchpoints, we need to know two curves. Number one, rated power curve. This curve was a cut in, saturated velocity ands are cut out velocity also we need so when does B duration curve, which is this GF, is that when the velocity was how many hours appear, months or a year, whatever it is. This girl for helping us in this store, curves will help us to identify or to get the energy required or of Dan froms a window pane as we did in the previous slide. Now, what are we going to do in the next two lessons? We would like to understand more about this distribution. We use in went finds the Weibull distribution. Weibull distribution is a very well known distribution used in when the turbines, we will understand it ends are factors affecting this distribution. Also one of the distribution, which is a special case of it, is called as rallied distribution, which is a special case of this distribution. Anyway, all of this distribution can help us in identifying the energy generated from the wind turbine. 29. Effect of Rotor Diameter and Generator Size on Power: Hi and welcome everyone towards this last one. This lesson, we would like to understand CSI effect officer or Ruto diameter and degenerate or size on the generated power. First, let's see the effect of czar auto diameter. Of course, when we have larger diameter of the rotor blades, it means that we will have more swept area all weekend, absorb more kinetic energy. This means is that we can generate more power at a smaller velocity. If we have a larger turbine, when the turbine blades or larger diameter, it means that we will generate more power at lower velocities. As you can see is this is the original diameter occurs at a certain velocity here. Now when we increase rotor diameter, when we increase the load to them that you will see that Zach point, instead of feeding this velocity, let's say for example, ten meter per second, we will need just eight meter per second to reach the same rated power. So increasing 0 to diameter while keeping the same generator, we did not have changes as Generate. We exhaust increased diameter. This will shift to zap our curve a board. So that's a rated power is reached at a lower wind speed. Board. The means to the left here, instead of being here at this velocity, we will need a smaller windows need to reach the same rated power. Now, this strategy increases the Albert powerful lower wind speed. Let's say for example, if we have a region with lower wind speeds, then body increasing the diameter of the router. We can collect the more kinetic energy from this went. And in the end, we can generate the same breath of power at lower velocities of point. Now, what is the effect of increasing zags generator Anzac generated power? Now, let's say we have here, this is our original generator. It's a B rated, this is a maximum power generate. Now when we increase the generator, it means that rated power will increase. What sees that here? It will be shifted our boards and the rated power will increase. Okay? So as you can see here, that this is original velocity vr at which V rated will care for that were originally generated. When we have a larger generator, you will see is that we will have more space. Here. You would have more space before reaching the rated speed. It can reduce small power, produce more power by absorbing more velocity from wind or more kinetic energy from wind. As you can see here, this is a velocity. So this curve, if we increase the size of generator, it means the velocity keeps Windsor velocity increase the generated power rule keeps increasing the reaching and new rated power. So as an example here, we have, if we have, for example, a new rated power like this, z score of all continually exists. And this will give us a new velocity V rated, new velocity we rated at which then new generated power will occur, or the new maximum generated power will occur. Simply, it will continue this scarf like here. Keeping the same rotor, same diameter, increasing, regenerate or size allows a power curve to be shifted upwards to the new rated power. For the Lord went. There is not much change and notice not subtle effect. Now for example, if we have as loose beads here, if we use this small generator or this largest network, I told him he is a same power-generating. Nothing can change it. However, if we have larger wind speeds in a region with large wind speeds, then having larger generator will lead to more generated power. In an area was higher wind speeds, increasing dictionary to rated power is a good strategy. What does this lesson teaches us? It means in this lesson we learned that if we have a region with smaller wind speed, we have a region with a smaller wind speed or low wind speeds. In this case, we use large rotor diameter. In our design. Large O2 diameter. If we have a region with a large window is VDD, we use a large regenerate. Hobbits, clear ZAB benefit of increasing generator, benefit of increasing diameter and the wind to use this and when to use that. 30. Wind Turbines Spacing: Hi and welcome everyone to this lesson in our window turbine course. In this lesson, we would like to discuss XY window turbine spacing. So let's say we have a wind farm which consisting of several numbers of wind turbines. We would like to find the spacing between each of these turbines. Let's say we have this third pint and one behind it. We would like to understand the distance between the in the same row and the horizontal distance between our wind turbine and the unknowns are 1. First, we have to understand why there was a spacing when we install several turbines in clusters. Third plants due to the rotation of the blades of one turbine, may affect the near point pi turbines. So as an example, this turbine, when it rotates, it produces a torque plants due to the rotation of the rotor plates. And it may affect as a wind coming through this as arthropods. In this case, we need to provide horizontal distance between each of these two pints in order to damp or delete or remove the effect of the lenses. In order to minimize the effect of this rotor induced interplant spacing of sorry, d t for DT, provide with n rows where the T is the rotor diameter. So as an example between this ands s, We will have three to four times the diameter of the router itself. So this, for example, has a rotor diameter called DT. Any examples such as, for example, ten meters, 20 meters, 50 meters, or whatever it is, the rotor diameter. Now it takes a short tool diameter and multiply it by three to four times. This will give you the distance, the horizontal distance. Now the spacing between the rows. For example, this row ends our row here. The distance between these two rows. Let's draw this. As you can see here. This is a row, a row of wind turbines. And this one is a row of 400 points. The distance in between here to here between these two rows is called as a spacing. And this spacing could be equal to ten or ten times the diameter of this rod. So if we draw this configuration for the wind farm, you will see is that for example, we have here is that wind turbine. And honestly a wind turbine, such as here on the top, Pine Honors or wind turbine. The distance between them, the distance in between them is four times three to four times diameter of the root ends I went to dream is coming to this when the fall. Here was our wind turbines. This wind turbines are facing the wind stream, of course, as they are appointed time. And it's the same rows ends up between the rows that spacing is then times the diameter between here, the center of this window to bind to the center of this one. That turbine is ten times and in the same row four times, three to four times. So in this lesson we learned when we form, form of wind turbines, we now understand that the distance between two of the wind turbines in the same row, three to four times the diameter. And in different rows, the distance will be ten times. 31. Introduction to PV System Construction : What does the construction of our BV system simply for an of grid system, which we are going to discuss how to design it. First thing is the solar panels. Solar panels. It's purpose is to take the sun radiation and to convert it into electricity. Dc electricity. Now Z DC electricity goes to something which is called Ashoka controller. What does charge controller do? It takes z at DC current year and DC voltage and regulate the charging of the battery. We are going of course, to discuss as the benefit over the charge of control more in this course. But we are talking now an overview about the solar system. Now, we have z battery banks which are going to store the energy from the solar panels. Now we have an inverter to convert AC to DC to generate AC power to our house. We also have here an optional a generator or if we don't have a battery banks, or if we would like to have an extra generator for generating power when we don't have or we own wind and z at solar system does not produce enough power. This is an optional solution, but it's not recommended because it won't cost you a lot. What does the advances that BV systems? Number one, it provides this green energy. This energy is from Z nature and it is at clean energy and nearly have a 0 pollution. It is free and available energy is this. Energy is taken from our sun, can be used locally, which reduces losses. Okay? What does it mean? It means that we can use it near us zoster by boating panels that we can take the energy from it. But if we're talking about woodsy grid of Z government, they generate electricity at generators, then transmit it using transmission lines, which are causes and losses until distributing it using distribution substations or substitute EDS distribution transformers, which also causes losses through underground cables until it comes to you. All of this system causes losses and Kostas Z government, lots of money. As a BV system reduces losses and more efficient in cost Zan, building, generating substation and providing power to u, z operation and maintenance costs are lower in the system. It is silent, no noise. As a reason for this is that it has no mechanical parts, not as Z generators in z, as z generating power plants such as Zs in corona generators, which you have a mechanical parts and the mechanical moving parts. It is of course, easy to install. You can install it by yourself. It is used in spacecraft applications, satellites for example. Both Saudis are advantages of his that BAE Systems number one is there is no power at night or during cloudy or rainy result because during this time there is no sun source, there is no power during zing. Night or cloudy or rainy. Wizard requires additional equipment such as inverters. And the better is the reason for this is that the power generated from Xin BV system is DC power. Or I'll buy it the current or AC, steady voltage or one directional power, water, one directional voltage. And so we need to us inverters to supply easy powers to convert to the DC power, to AC power. And if we would like to know about inverters, you can go to my own course for inverters. It did acquired as a batteries in order to restore Xin power during night or during cloudy or rainy or to be used at, during exists conditions. We store the power during Zhi De to be used at night. Or cloudy or rainy wizard Z. But that is our really, really, really expensive and represent this our larger percentage of Z BV system costs. When we are talking, of course, at an off-grid system. In this course, we will discuss the difference between off-grid and OEM system and hybrid. Of course, z BV system actually have 15 to 18% efficiency or a low efficiency. As this means that we can only benefit from 18% maximum of 18% of the radiation of the sun. It needs a continuous cleaning from dust off course. For high-power BV requires a very large area. For example, our desert, of course, it is difficult to incisors cities because we don't have a large roof for BV. What does that construction of BV sell or how does BV cell walk will find here is that here we have one BB cell. Now this beefy cell having or receives the solar radiation and converts it into electricity. How does it work? The first thing it has here, non reflecting a surface. This non reflecting surfaces. So until reflecting coating is used the tool. But event is the sunlight from being reflected from Z panel because we would like to absorb that radiation. That is the first thing we use here. And until reflecting surface. In order to absorb all the radiation. Sentencing we have year end in the type silicone. Be thought circle in-between these him add depletion region. If you understand electronics, you will understand how does this junction work. It is a p-n junction. So what happens here? Simply z and the type has an excess amount of electrons. In the top silicone has a larger amount of electrons or excess amount of electrons. But z, p-type silicon has a large amount of holes. Is this electrons want this to close, this holds assembly. This electron wants to go to this holds. What happens here is that when Z light falls on z in the top silicon electrons, again amount of energy, which is enough for them to move from Z and the type layer, p-type layer. Wednesday electron moves from the anti-type to be type. It causes an electron flow, which means as the flow of electric charges, which means that it was flow of electric current. Symbol as this. Now again, Z light energy pulses z onto reflecting surface causing disease. Silicone electrons are to gain enough energy in order to go from here. And the boss and the goto is that B type. Second, in order to fill the holes, electrons gain amount of energy. Bosses, roses, wires. Xin go and fill z, b times that depletion layer is used to separate between these two, between z and the type and B type. So when electrons have enough amount of energy, it goes from 0 was rosy wires and to z and p-type silicon. Movement of electron here will cause Z electron flaw or the electric electricity flow or current to flow. Ipsos, that solar photovoltaic cells. So a lot of balance to convert the energy from the sun in Tuesday electricity, which we use in our homes, of course, to power set lights on our streets, that machine in our industries, and of course we can use it in house. At home. There are different types of solar photovoltaics. Those zeros at monocrystalline, silicon solar panels. Zap polycrystalline or multi-class client solar panels that amorphous or a thin film solar panels. And the hybrid silicon solar panels. Because the first one is a monocrystalline, is the most effective of the solar PV cells with 15% efficiency. Also, consider the more expensive option because they require less space ends are also cells simply because they produce more energy and it can build up to four times more power than z sin films. Whole lot panels also last longer than the asset panels and they perform much better at low-light own mean this is their cost, which means that it's not their first choice. For homeowners, because it is very excellent. Despite its march efficiency which is 15%. It is also can be affected by their torch head, which can break the circuit. The second type is a polycrystalline or multi crystalline. They have an efficiency of a certain percent. Z are often seen as a better economic choice, particularly for the homeowners because they have a lower price than monocrystalline are made from a number of smaller circle and crystals that are melted together and Xin recrystallized. Zai means a bunch of it. It means that you would need more of them because of the lower energy convention, conversion efficiency. As you see here in the previous one, we have an efficiency of 15%. That's why you would need a list of space and the least amount of Zim. But here Forza polycrystalline, it has an efficiency of 16%, which means that we will need more of sin because it has a lower efficiency. The type is the amorphous or thin film solar panels. Z have a 7% efficiency. Therefore, the film or the amorphous are among the least efficient. Efficient owns the market. But they aren't considered as the best option. Because they work well in low-light even moonlight, and are made from non crystalline silicon that can be transferred the inner same film into another material such as gloss. Does that mean advanced sulfate is that it can be mass produced at a much cheaper cost, but it's more suitable for situations where the space is not a big issue. For example, in our dissolved, if you have a large space or a large amount of area, of course, in the desert the weekend, we can install that amorphous or the same film pipe. But for the homeowners, they are not. We cannot use it because it has a lower efficiency of 1%. So we'll use Z polycrystalline type. Does that mean this advanced for them? Is that the anogenital used for residential purposes or for the homeowners because they will the grant quicker than the crystalline cells or polycrystal and norms or monocrystalline. And they have a low efficiency of a 7%. Hybrid silicon solar panels have our largest stiff as you have zoology stay efficiency. It was any efficiency of 18%. The hybrid solar panels are made from a mix of the amorphous and the monocrystalline cells to generate as a maximum efficiency. The zeros on a variety of types of the hybrid cells and they are still very much adds a research and development stage, which is y, z, our country currently a more expensive option. Now, was there somebody for that BV souls. The first type is a monocrystalline. You have efficiency of FFT but ascent. And they are considered the one of the most effective BV ourselves in a market. That polycrystalline or multi crystalline, they have efficiency of facility in present. They are also cheaper to produce and slightly less efficient Zen monocrystalline, amorphous or the same film silicone. They have. The lowest efficiency is 71% of the least efficient cell types of the market, but they are considered z ships. The hybrid setup on is the combination of zap polycrystalline and the monocrystalline. And they have the highest efficiency, 18%. They are walls take seventh expensive BBS cell type available on the market, but also the most efficient. The first thing is that our system or our BV system consisting of a group of modules, strings, and finally arrays. So what does a cell module string array means? Cell represented Z, smallest part or the smallest component in a baby system. This cell, it is used to convert z solar energy into electrical energy. This cell produces from 0.5 to maximum of 0.29 volt. So this cell is used to convert the Z electrical solar energy into electrical energy. Now, a group of cells like this one, group of cells in series. All of these cells are NCDs. Form is something which is called a majority group of cells in zeros. For Ms. In module. Now we have this one which is our module. Now at group of modules in C it is will produce something which has cold drink. Z cell is the smallest component in our BV system. Module is consisting of a group of cells in CDS, is in Z, strength is consisting of a group of modules also in CDS. Now, z array, which is biggest thing in our BV system, is consisting of global strengths in pattern. This one is a string consisting of two modules. So this is one is our module. This one is a majority. This one is a module. This one is, would your modules in series will for monitoring the modules and Sierras format string. Two modules in series. String, don't want yours in CDS, string. Now all of these strings are embedded in forming and array. String does not have a specific number. At least two modules in CDs or one module in series. Z module is consisting of a group of cells. Okay, here's an example of how does this work or how a string is formed. It will find the year, this one and say six volt and 3M, six volt and 3M, 600 world and 3M. If we connect these panels, are these modules in series? We will have our final voltage of six volts plus 60 volt blood six volts, which is 18 volt, same as a group of patterns in C. It is positive, negative, negative is connected to the positive and negative bolster, same as a group of batteries in series. The **** took her neck to our BV cells in series and parallel and CSI effect on Z. Via. First, you will have to consider that each of these cells or each of these modules, to be more specific, is like a pottery. When you connect a group of batteries in series. For example, if this battery is 0.5 volt, 5.5.5, and if you connect all of them in series, as you, as you notice that from the KVL Law, you will find that the output voltage will be zi summation of all voltage, V1 plus V2 plus V3 plus V4, which will give us two volt. How we connect them as Z module has two terminals, one which is positive, one which is negative. In order to connect in series with the Z positive and connect it with the negative of the second cell, Z positive to the negative, second sale, both Steve to a negative and so on, until you finally have one positive terminal and one negative ten. Now, here is the same example. You will find here two determinants posted on z and negative on Zillow. Now I've connected the negative was the positive and negative and so on. You will have total minutes, most of them anode and the negative ten minute. The summation of zi voltage here is the sum of the voltages here. Now if we see here a z single-celled or single module having gotten to 0.8.6 volt. This is a cell, of course I'm not a majority. Now, which is the same as module. If we made this one, it will give us the same values. But the current will be higher and the voltage will be also higher. But since we are drawing this curve according to single-cell, we have the 0.6 volt. As you'll remember that the voltage was between 0.52.9 volt. Here. This one is single-cell. If we have two cells in Sierras, z voltage will be so summation of two cells. Associated voltage here doubled and the current is the same. Current. I1 is equal to I2, equal to IC, equal to I4. Bulk voltage is a submission of all voltages here. One cell here. Those cells in series all give us 0.6 plus 0.6, which will give us 1.2. Current is the same. Z voltage is doubled. Now if we talk about the parallel connection here, we have one bended here, one bundle, one panel, or one panel. Or we can say we have a group of cells, it is the same. Now if we would like to have here, this cell pattern was this one. For example, these two cells will give us a 0.60 voltage. This is an assumption. These two cells on the odd in parallel, the total current increases. It will be the current or z first string or Z first-line velocity current of z second line I a plus ib. When we connect two cells in parallel, this one is parallel. You'll find the total current increases to w. Since it's the are identical to a chosen point, it will become 1.6. The voltage will be the same sense as the R in better fronts again is that Z parallel connection. Use the to increase the total count. One cell, two cells in parallel will give us 1.6 or double the current. And the voltage is the same. But here in zs, here is z. Two series here, for example, will give us doubles the voltage. What same current? Now let us see CSI effect of series and parallel on VI curve again. Now if we have a single-cell, if we have two cells in series, Xin Zhi, total voltage will increase at the same current. Here, one cell to cell, since here's the voltage was doubled or increased toolbox. Now for Z parallel connection, one cell to two cells imbedded will increase as the codon two to z w at the same voltage. You will find the year is this one and this point, and this point is called as a maximum power point. What does it mean? It means that the maximum or z points at which we will have the maximum bone at this point. Voltage and current, we will have the maximum output power. Would like to get the maximum power from our BV cell. We will have to at, operate at this voltage. And this guy Same here is this point which is Z. Z curve is the voltage and current at which we will have the maximum. 32. Solar Heating, Solar Irradiation and Panels: Hi and welcome everyone to our lecture for Z solar radiation and passive and active solar systems. What is the difference between passive and active solar system? Z active solar system. Let's use the laser pointer. The act of solar system, or the active solar energy system assembly used to provide heat energy or to warm up our house. So how can we do this? We use at first our components such as Z solar collector. What does this door is this collected Z sunlight or the sun rays that heat energy inside the sun rays collected Zim. And we have here pipes which contain a certain fluids such as water, for example. This for the world will be subjected to heat energy due to the presence of solar collector, which collects all of C heat energy from the sun and provides a to Z fluid inside the pipes. Now after this Z fluid goes through the pipes by using of course our pump, which is spread inside it. Now we will find that this hot fluid, which such as seawater, you will find that it can be stored or it can be used as a heat exchange with another fluid, which is called the fluid for example. Or for example here, you will find that z hot fluid here exit changes the heat. We call the air inside the house. Z fluid here have the symptom ritual of Z air inside the house, then z heat energy be presented inside z hot water tank, provide this heat for this goal, the one and makes it hotter using the heat exchanger. Then this one becomes hot and use the too warm out or warm our home. And z active solar system, we capture the energy from the sun By bomb being a heat absorbing the fluid, such as water or antifreeze. Special collector's. We capture energy by using gas, oil on collected, for example, the bombing it using our bomb bombings, this fluid such as seawater or antifreeze, special collector's. We can also use that BV balance is to collect the Z heat energy. And instead of using a solar collector, we can use solar PV panels, which is used to convert solar energy into electrical energy. Electrical energy will be used to provide power to an electric heater inside our house. We have two muscles here of warming our house by using z electric heater or by using the solar collector, which provides power or provide this heat energy to call the fluid. Z collectors may be located on zeros in order to fair the sun and the collectors or the energy from it. It can be directly use and another heat can be used. Some neat can be stored in an insulated container, whereas gravel, Walter Clay and the be used later. We'll find here is that we have here a water tank. We have here is a heat exchanger to be used before to produce or to use z here, directory inside our home. Use it to heat water in many homes, this is z. Benefit of using Z active solar system similar to the passive is that difference between Zemo would see it now. Z passive solar system, you will find that this is an image of a passive. You will find that we don't have any components such as Z solar collectors or BB banners. We don't have any of these components. But according to Z construction of the building itself or Z, Z orientation of the building itself. All of this will help us in producing Z passive solar system, which does not require any components as before. Now we will find that z heat energy from the sun bosses Rosie gloss, and the content inside our home, we have here the front installation layers. In order to prevent the heat energy from going outside. We use z heat from the sun. We Abbas Z sun rays inside z, housed inside z. How is and prevent them from going outside. Now the system absorbed with an stores heat energy from the sun. Within well insulated structure. Walls and floors are made of stone, adobe or break or concrete. Water as water tanks use that to store collected solar energy as heat and slowly release the heat through the day and the night. We simply use water tanks to a store Z. As Z collected energy and slowly releasing this heat through the day, supplemented with natural gas or propane heater. So we need here type of fuel in order to increase the temperature of Z Walter itself because this heat will not be enough to hit Z water. So we need another type of fuel in order to increase the temperature of z, of z water itself. What is the Advanced and this adventure of this methods? Z as a net energy is moderate in the active and high in z passive. So the energy or the energy produced is moderate. Medium amount of energy, however, Z passive produce high amount of energy. Reside this advanced is that we need access to sun 16% of time during daylight in order to, of course, collect all of the energy from the sun. Here is the advantages that we have very low emissions of CO2 and Azara air pollutants. Now why do we have low emissions? Because we don't have any type of fuel used except in the case of z passive, where we use some amount of natural gas or propane in order to increase the temperature of the water itself. The disadvantage also is at x0, x1 can be blocked by trees and also to structures. So when the sun is blocked, it means that we don't have enough sunlight going to z as solar collectors or that house itself. The advantage is that we have very low land disturbance because it does not contain any rotating parts. It does not contain any mechanical rotating parts. It is very silent. Silent the process. We don't have anything which moves Z high and installation and maintenance costs for active system because we have solar collectors, we have bumps, we have solar panels in another case. So all of this we'll need maintenance and of course, high installation adds the beginning z equals to z. Massive is moderate and the bads. The problem is that we need backup system for the cloudy days for both of the active and z massive. Of course, how we can do a backup by using Z as natural gas or any other type of fuel. So z active and the best of systems are simply used in solar heating in order to provide heat for our house. We have two methods. Here's the active and the best of one of them uses Z solar collectors. That solar panels. And the other type does not use any of these. However, it uses that orientation and dizzy construction of the building in order to provide heat energy towards the water tanks or Tuesday building itself. But in the course, we need to understand how we can generate electricity from Z at Sun. In order to generate electricity from the sun, we need solar panels. We have to identify a very important term inside our process, which is called desert solar radiation. What does their solar radiation mean? The solar radiation that representing the amount of solar energy which affords bear unit meter square, representing z amount of kilowatt hour bear meter squared. So this is a definition of that solar radiation or the solar insulation. Now, x0, x1 itself have solar energy. 100% of the incoming solar energy, six separate cent of them is reflected Boise atmosphere, 20% of the sunlight is reflected by the clouds. 4% is reflected from the surface itself. And you will find that 51% of the energy is absorbed by land and oceans. Now we will find that this is the percent representing 30% of the energy. Which is reflected from the atmosphere itself. And that remaining goals absorption by Zealand and part of it is radiated back to space. So as the Earth receives 174 watt or ten power 15 multiplied by 174 what of solar radiation or installation adds the upper atmosphere will find that this is amount of high amount of power, 174 multiplied by temperature 15. This is a very, very large amount of power and they can provide energy required the planet for hundreds of years. So that solar energy itself is very important and we have to benefit for this amount of power. You will find that not only serve to present our effected to space winds, the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans, and land. You will find that that reflection is 60% By atmosphere, 20% by clouds, 4% buys the Earth's surface. So 60% plus 20% to give plus four gives us z served the percentage is reflected and zeros. The other part of it is absorbed by the clouds, the oceans, and the lens very small, is radiated back to space. Spectrum of light, which comes from the Sun and reaches the Earth, which reaches here, is divided among LEA, or the mostly across z visible region, the visible spectrum region. And in neon Z infrared ranges, and the very small part in the ultraviolet range. So our light have three parties, visible, infrared and ultraviolet. Of course, this is the one which bosses to the heirs. But of course we know that the light itself is having a large spectrum containing z radio waves. For example, the x-rays, gamma rays, and etc. According to what? According to z type of z wavelength and the frequency. So according to the wavelength and the frequency weekend identify it as a radio or, and visible or infrared or ultraviolet and etc. So the solar energy or zeolite energy here or does infobuttons of zeolite having is divided into the visible spectrum, having some in the infrared and small part in z alternative and the trains. Most of the world's population lives in area or live in areas with installation of one hundred and fifty two hundred watts per meter squared. Or city 0.5 to seven kilowatt hours per meter squared per day, finds that z installation here is similar to solar radiation. Solar radiation is similar to the insulation. The installation or representing the amount of power received the per meter square or amount. To be more specific, the amount of energy received bear unit area will find that z installation can have 150 to 300 to what? For each meter squared, or 3.5 to seven kilowatt-hour bear meter squared. This one depends on z position or z coordinates of the point in z ors. And we'll understand how to get z amount of solar energy or as a kilowatt hour per meter squared for any reason inside z planet. Now we will find here an example of z EBV planet you saw, you saw before in the previous slide that EBV, the solar radiation or solar installation, or both of them are similar to each other. The amount of power which he can be generated from the sun, 174 beta watt is provided by x0, x1. We have to make or use this amount of power. We have in order to do this, we need to use solar panels to collect dizzy. Solar energy into electrical energy. Will find here an example of z EBV plants, photovoltaic plants. This one is, for example, to point to a gigawatt in India. This one you will find thousandths on Z solar panels in the desert. This solar panels, all of these solar panels produce power, which is nearly equal to 2.2 giga watt or 2200 megawatt. Another one in Abu Dhabi or Abu Dhabi. At 1.1 gigawatt. This one is also in the desert because in order to benefit from x0, x1 and of course, as he deserted does not have any population. So we start, we start using exists an empty area. And the benefit from x0, x1, which is called here is this one is called z node solar park. Another one BB blend in Japan, this bv blend, you will find that a solar panel is here, are installed in z ocean or sea itself. Z are all on seawater. We take the advantage of Z, presence of Z free area or open area and add solar panels to collect disease on light which falls on Z, water itself. Now Z at BB balance this movie banner or solar panel, how it looks like that BP banner looks alike exists. It has different types as we discussed in the course. So we have monocrystalline embolic stroke. Crystalline z is in film and etc. Now, you will find that this panel, for example, have Z widths, certain width and certain height and certain sickness. That configuration of it. You need to know of course, z lens and, or z width and height and sickness. Why? Because when we install on our off, we need to understand the amount of area available. And when we know as the amount of area available, we will know the amount of energy which we can generate. This is front of Z panel is the Bank of Japan. And you will see that here at consisting of diodes which are installed in the junction box, junction Sochi, we're going to discuss z divs here is used to prevent the current from going inside reverse direction at night, for example, from Jupiter is Tuesday panel. We have here two cables going outside from JPanel. One of them representing z positive and one is an active is this one, which is the man is a bolster and z as R1 is a female and negative is this cable is certainly five inch cable. And the cold as n, the width MEC for connectors will seize that MC4 connect towards an extra slide. Now we'll find that here. We said now that advanced oxidize to prevent disease reverses direction of the current to the panel itself. We have Z2 cables, which is used to connect dizzy banners together in CNS or embedded. Now we will find the ears that as this of course is that male and female z positive and negative which comes out of the junction box stores this one is the junction box which contains, which contains z tight and two terminals of Z panel itself. Most steep negative and of course, the panel itself have a certain amount of power. It can be 5000 watt, 150, and its other, according to the wattage of z. By itself. Now we have z bolster and we have Z negative. Now in order to connect the same NCDs of course. So we connect it to z at bolster have with negative of Amazon panel. And they boast of banana is connected to the negative and its other, as we discussed in the CDS and the parallel connection of Z panels. Of course, FCR imbalance in z positive with z positive and the negative with z negative. Now someone would tell me is that how can I connect Z ball step and the Asada bolster off together? For example, what I mean is that we have, for example, this one. This one. You will find that this one is the positive, as you see here, the positive and the negative. And this one is positive and the negative. Now for example, this one is a panel as an example, and this one is another panel. Now what I would like to connect these two panels together in parallel, not in Sierras, in battery. If I would like to connect the same embedding, z and z or bolster should be connected with the positive. Bolster, fuzzy positive. And the negative was the negative, right? Because we are connecting them impairment. But you will find the problem here is that Z negative here and the negative here, both of them are females. You will see that this negative, this negative, most of them are equal to each other. This one is positive and the ball step, how iconic and I connect apples step with honors are positive or negative with Amazon negative buys the usage of the MAC for connectors. This connectors when we provide, for example, X0, female, for example, we connect this female here. And it provides us at me. What I mean is that we can connect as a female this connector to provide bolster or that middle. For example. Here you will see that this one is negative and this one is z positive. Now, I can connect the z negative here, is that female was this one. And we can take exist terminal to provide X0 male required. For example, if I would like to connect to 0 positive with the positive instead of four, how can I do this? By connecting this one to here to female, and we will have a male. Okay? You'll notice that z, z vice versa of them. So for example, if I would like z-bar stuff, then I will connect the z negative here was the spot to provide Z min. So simply we can, by using the MAC for connectors, we can provide the male and female as I would like, and I can connect to them to gather. Now, Z panel itself can have a different voltage and according to its support, you will find that this is available in market 50 watt, one hundred, one hundred, one hundred and fifty watt to 100 watt, 250 watts or 100-watt, and surrender 50 watt. So this is an example of z panels available in the market. You will find that as your voltage increases, z, Z size, obviously panel itself increases because we increase the number of cells inside z panel in order to generate more power and collect more light energy to convert it into electricity. Now here you will find an example about with z solar panel, solar panel here. And you will find the module type. Is this one, have a maximum power at STC be maximum is the maximum generated power of Z panel. Z maximum I would power of Z pattern is 250 watt. And you will find that is at STC. What does it means? It means that standard temperature conditions. What does this mean? It means that we are operating at and radians or xhat, solar insulation or the amount of radiation is 1 thousand to what Bear meter squared. And at the same time at a temperature of 25 series is degree and air mass of 1.5. The air mass will be discussed in shading and tilt the angle lecture. For now, we will find that Z maximum boat obviously abandon this one, for example. So 150 watt is the maximum power is generated at this conditions of 1 thousand watt per meter square radiation from the sun, then breach or equal to 25 cities as degree and air mass 1.5. Now we will find also the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. So what does this representing? This representing the open-circuit voltage of the panel. When we have, when we measure Z At, between the two terminals of cPanel, z voltage between them at no load case when we're not connecting any load, the open-circuit voltage, the maximum voltage between the terminals of Z panel is 37.5 and the short-circuit current of Zyban and Z maximum current which can flow inside z panel is 8.87 and bear. So what does this represents? This is representing the z. When we have z, That's sees that two terminals, for example, this panel. We have bolstered and the negative when we measure Z by using the audio meter z voltage between positive and negative, you will find that this one is equal to the open circuit voltage. When we provide a short circuit between them using the vomit or for example, when will provide a short circuit to the panel. The short-circuit current flowing inside z panel is 8.87 and bear, this is the maximum output voltage. This is the maximum current or the short-circuit current of Z panel. The maximum current which can flow inside z panels. Now we will find the result, optimum operating voltage and optimum operating current. What does this representing or funds? And this voltage is 30 volt and this one is 8.3 and bad. You will find that this value 30 volt and this open circuit is served seven. Z current is 8.32, and short-circuit 8.87 values also of course, lower than this. This values representing the optimum operating condition. What does this mean if we can reduce our voltage of circuit, the voltage across Z panel. And is the current absorb it from Z panel is equal to 8.32. Then in this case, we will provide the maximum power, Wednesday panel voltage and the current equal to 70 volt and 8.32, we can provide the maximum power of zip. And then what is the maximum power of Z panel? Is that 251250 watt can be achieved Zai panel if we have a 30 volt and 8.32 and bear if we draw a Z power care. Okay? Why exists? You will find that z power of Z panel like this. This can be achieved at a certain voltage and a certain current. Value of the voltage and value of the current is 30 volt and it warrant city to and bear. Now you will find honors are seeing here z is a point on, you will find that temperature coefficient of z power maximum. So what does this represent? It means that z power maximum is the maximum power, which is 250 watt, will be reduced. The for each series is degree by 0.44% minus 0.44% representing z, a reduction in percentage of z power or the maximum borrowed for each arise in temperature. The power maximum here is generated at z. Once I was on to what temperature? 25 citizens degree and mass 1.5. Now we will find that if z in Britain, for example, instead of 25, becomes the 26th Silesia as we increase the temperature by one series, yes. What will happen in this case? Z power maximum will be reduced by negative 0.44 is the power will be reduced, ends at temperature coefficient of the voltage and the current voltage will also be reduced by 0.3%. Both the current, if the temperature increases, the current will increase by 0.04%. Find the, here's the effect of temperature. If the temperature increases, temperature increased by one citizens degree, then Bower maximum reduced by 0.44% V open-circuit reduce the buying 0.3%. I short circuit will increase by 0.04%. Now we will find that Z maximum system voltage, which happens when we connect a group of panels together in series Z, maximum system voltage is 600, and voltage DC is this voltage. Where did we get this value of 600 volt, which is mz data sheet. This value is forums that in NDC code or Zion national electric code, the National electrical code says that z voltage must not exceed 600 volt DC or dependence which is connected in series. So not exceed a voltage of 600 volt. Now, you will find that the maximum C8 is fuels, that fuels which can be added in series with the Bannon as a prediction on for Z band and the maximum fuels is 15 and bear. You will find also the weight and the dimensions and its other. This is specs or the specification of the panel itself. We see that the panel itself and the effect of that in branch or as we will discuss the Amazon lectures. Now, that solar electricity systems are given in rating in kilowatt peak. When I'm talking about with the power plant, when I say one megawatt, I mean one megawatt peak. What does this mean? It means that Z maximum power which can be produced plant or Z AA, BB blend that can be measured in megawatt beak or kilowatt peak. If it is a small BB scale. This is essentially the rate at which it generates energy at big performance. For example, add Xenon on a sunny day and xenon on a sunny day, we have the maximum power which can produce the from the sun, which is the time at which have the maximum amount of radiation from the sun. This time representing Z, maximum power which it can be generated. And this one is z1, which you can represent the Z capacity of our solar PV system. Zach kilowatt peak of domestic system will vary depending on how much customer wants to spend, how much it will is bent on Z equipments such as of course is the panels, how many balances again, he pay for it. Z inverse of size, charge controller and the batteries. And of course, z roof area available in order to install. Bb panels. We can also knows that radiation of an area that require the tilt, the angle of the EBV systems etl Tango, representing the inclination of ZB V0 system. Temperature. Of course, which is the temperature at which a banner will be an installed by using Zack low-power a solar eclipse is the global solar atlas will help us to identify radiation of an area that delta angle ends at temperature, as we will see now. By using global solar atlas website, we can get this value. So let's go towards the global solar across website in order to find this and see what is the information available for us. Now if you'll type in Google, Global Solar outlaws, you will find that this website, which will give you information about what the heat energy or not. The heat energy of course, is the solar energy in different parts of the wall it. Now as an example, you can move here and CZ full map, as you'll see here, at any reason you would like like this. Now, for example, let's see this area, for example here in my own country, Egypt. If I, for example, selected this one Click here, one click on this area, double-click. And you'll find that this is the name of the area which I selected. You'll find the specific photovoltaic power output, z power output from photovoltaics specific, which are representing what does this represent representing? Z kilowatt hour or the energy is generated bear kilowatt beak barrier. What does this mean? It means that each one kilowatt beak, each one kilowatt beak installed, we'll provide us 18093 kilowatt each year. So in one commonality here, I can, using Zap, one kilowatt installed, one kilowatt beak of panels installed can provide me a power of 1893 key to what? This assembly can provide you with the energy required or the energy can be produced from a certain area. Now you will find that here we have the biotic to normal irradiation. The irradiation or the solar insulation with a different definitions. The air irradiation here is 2211 kilowatt hour bear meter squared. This representing z energy produced for each one meter squared. Now we will find the air temperature, air temperature in this particular region, 221.1 z optimum tilt angle, which is the one which is important for us. The optimum delta angle. What is the angle which she can't, which should be provided, certain degree angle which can be provided. And assuming here is that the elevation of Z balance is at 120 meters. So of course, according to the specs, you can know z region. Now, z is saying here is that you will find that z by selecting another region like this, you will find that the front powers z-bar one here. For example, 1986 kilowatt hour, bear kilowatt peak. Now what I would like you to notice here is that the zeros are different colors inside this map. Finds that blue one is the lowest one and z darker the color. The more energy which can be produced. You will see that Z blue one in 600 kilowatt hour bear each kilowatt big installed. This one is z energy generated for the blue in one year as we go darker to the maximum, which is 2400 kilowatt hour bear kilowatt peak in one year. Finds that this one is aldol color, which is in this region 1986, in the range between two thousand and one thousand nine hundred. Now if we get a brighter one, for example, this one lie exists. You will find the 1700s 96. If we get a dark one like this one, you will find that 10 one hundred thirty one hundred. So as the color goes darker, it means that we can provide or get more energy, or more energy can be filled from x0, x1. So what is the benefit of Z global solar across here you will find that outlaws provided you with a different air BV bower which you can be reduced according to zap position inside z wall lid map gives you an estimated amount of kilowatt hour, but reduce the bear kilowatt beak and installed in. Not only this, but also provides you with the regions which have higher amount of energy. Not only this, but also provides you with the optimum delta angle of the PV modules. You will find that in another lecture, we discussed different methods of obtaining Z tilt the angle. Now you can get the tilt angle easily by using Z global solar Atlas. It provides you with directly with the angle required or was that a BV benefits? In this video, we discussed the different types of solar heating, your methods. Then we discussed the Z BB panel, some specs up, I would say BV balance. And the finally global solar atlas. 33. Effect of Insolation and Temperature on V I Curve: Now I would like TO discusses Z effective of z installation ends at temperature on z v curve or z power kill. First we need to define z installation or solar irradiance. What does ask solar irradiance mean or installation mean. It means that z power, bare unit area received from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation. It means that when we are saying radians, we can say z kilowatt bear meter squared, simple as this, or it can be energy per unit area, okay, kilowatt hour per meter squared. For example, here you will find here is a relation between BV array current ends up PV array voltage. Let's take this curve. We'll see is that at solar radiance of 100-watt meter squared power, bare unit area. This means that at this value, we will have a value of maximum orders. Now short-circuit current will be nearly 1.2. For example. The maximum voltage will be nearly circuit voltage. Okay? Now if we increase the solar irradiance or z power per unit area from the sun, for example, 400 watt per meter squared. You will find that Z current increase. Z voltage also increased at 600 millimeter squared. Z currently increased, voltage increased, and so on. Well, it sees that we understand the ear as z installation or irradiation, or z power per unit area received from z. Sum increases. Z power generated from BV system increases. You will see is that here at 1200 watts per meter squared, here at 200 watts per meter squared. Now if we would like to find z power, we multiply z voltage multiplied by z current. So at this 0, voltage multiplied by 7.5 and bear here ten and bear multiplied by certain value here and so on. And Z maximum power received from BV system is add Z of Z curve at z ne, nearly here at 75 volt, and nearly add seven and pair. Now what is the effect of temperature on this curve? You will see here is a tear. For example, add Z on Joanne at 75 degree. If we decrease that in breach on it, 250 Celsius degree. Here, z voltage will increase as buzzy current or whether they were nearly remained constant. Now, again, here at 25 citizens degree, here at 0, degree, at negative 25 citizens degree. What does it mean? It means is that if we increase the temperature, for example here is 0 degree 25 citizens degree 1575. So as we increase temperature, z voltage decreases, but the current nearly remain constant. What does it mean? It means that the total power from the BV system decreases. So this means that at a higher temperature, Z efficiency of the system decreases. Now let us see another curve here. At density 0 degree 2540 degree, 55 degree, 70 degree. So as the temperature increases from right to left, z power received from Z, BB system decreases. As the temperature increases. Z power over the PV system decreases. As the insolation increases. Z efficiency and z power received the froms EBV system increase. 34. PV Installation, Short Circuit and Open Circuit Tests Using Avometer: Now in this video we would like to discuss Z, some advice about what BV and installation and how to do the open circuit test and short circuit test. Afford that BV Bennett, in order to see what is the value of Z open circuit voltage and the short-circuit current or EBV panel when installed. Of course, the first thing is that we have to of course avoids it ought to be between the positive and the negative of Z panel. We remember that each panel have two terminals, one which is positive and z and negative. Now remember that z positive and then negative should not touch each other because it will cause a short-circuit inside z panel. And they may lead to the damage of the panel. Number to reduce the distance between z panels and the charge controller or inverter in order to reduce Z losses in Zack cables from the balance to Z charge controller or Z inverter in order to receive the power from the panels. We use cables in order to connect between them and z inverter or a charge controller. So we have to make sure that the distance between them is not very large in order to avoid z voltage drop and avoid z, z losses inside z cable. Because we remember that z losses equal to I squared multiplied by z resistance. So as length of the cable increases, that resistance will increase, leading to more voltage drop mode losses in gables. Number to allow a space between Z balance in order to reduce that wind effect. We'll see is that here we have one binded here, the next beside it, you will find a very small space between them. Why in order to allow Z went to pass through Zim? Because if Z are connected together, then the window we'll keep pushing him away. But if you provide a smallest basis I went to we'll go through this. Is base. Avoid obstacles and shadow in front of Z patterns or is ourselves. So of course, we should not when we install our parents. So we should avoid any obstacles or shadow or trees or anything. Because of course it will effect the CSI effect Z performance over z balance should be done for the enclosure and fixing components of xy EBV band and y of course is we have here, is that structure itself is made of iron or germanium or any conducting material. Will find that Samad charges or leakage current may boss from Z panel to this structure. When someone touches this one will have a touch of voltage or have a chalk electric shock. So in order to prevent this, we have to connect as this enclosure or this structure with the Earth System. Course, we discuss parsing system in details, but now we have to understand one of the important things is that we have to design n Earth's think, Ford Z, all of the inclusions we connect them together in order to form an equi, potential surface and the connected into the system. We use a baby structure made of aluminum in order to be irresistible to rust. Now how we can do is that there's the wind we do short-circuit disk or open circuit disk. Short-circuit distorted. The open circuit test we use z eval meter is this one which is the meter. The meter have a common have z voltage, have Z and bear. We have from the meter itself two terminals, one for z voltage and one for z m bear and z common. Now we will find that there are two wires. For example, if I would like to measure Z open circuit voltage, then we have Z two terminals. Let's write this. We will find here the total NAD plus and the minus from junction box of z. When we connect the Z positive z both step with that red one because it is connected here. The ball step of amateur z negative is always z black one, z negative here of z panel is connected to z common. Then we both zest wich at 0 voltage, you will find here is the voltage. Sometimes it is DC like this one. This one, this is at DC and this one is AC. Since we are using the panels, solar panels. So they provide DC voltage. We will connect it add here at DC voltage. Now by connecting this, we will have a reading for z voltage as the open circuit voltage similar to the current about the differences that we will take. Red one here for the voltage. And the boat it here like this and connect it again Tuesday positive. Now you will find here is that measuring the voltage here for a different loads. In order to understand this meter here, we have z voltage is z, v here, the voltage here and z common. Like this. In order to measure the voltage between the terminals of Z banner, we connect the Z positive here and negative here. We measure the voltage between these two terminals of Z panel. This of course, in case of connecting anode here, okay? Now, and of course it draws current. Now in the case of measuring the current absorbed in case of having a load, then we will connect to the AVL meter in series with the binder. In this two cases, we don't measure Z. Open circuit offers a short-circuit. We measure the voltage and the current normally, in case of having a load of zeros, if I would like to measure the currents and the meter will be in series of the circuit. Most of their man goes to the motor terminal of the motor connected to the negative. The negative here connected tos and negative here. The bolster is connected here to this term. Now in that case here, Let's delete all of this. Vomit on here is connected in series with the circuit. If this one is Z Positives ends up or step was positive. And the negative connected to the negative here is n z. Because z, if it is, for example here positive-negative. Let's make it easy. Bolster negative. So as the current goes out from here, Tuesday mode, Zingales out here from the motor to the load, which is the AVL meter. So as the entering current is from here, so this one will be z positive of the current or z and bear a, a as the current goes here. Since this one is z comma negative goes back and back and back towards the negative of Z binary, positive-negative, positive two z, positive of Z motor. Since a negative means that the current going out of the motor going into Z bolster the eval and going out like this. Similarly here you will see that z method here is connected. We have Z battery and the lamp. So z lamp is connected in series with z meter and the meter connected to a z better. You'll find your positive because the current goes out here going into entering Z AB amateur Zen going out of z common to z lambda z lambda two z negative. Now let's see a video explaining how we can do Z, open circuit and short circuit in actual life. Now you will see here at Video for z company somewhere on later, which is that famous company for BV components and panels. Now Z somewhere company provided a video showing you how to do the short circuit test and open circuit test. Now we have the meter as you see it. Let's maximize this one. You'll see here we have Z ever meter. We have the voltage here, Common, Z, Z command here also or common and mainly and bear or ten and bear. We have Zuckerman, which represent which is connected to Z black one or z 0 terminal. We have z voltage and we have here Z and bear if I'm measuring and bear in melody and bear very small values. And this one, if we are measuring tin and bear or higher values, we usually will use that ten and bed, since it's a short circuit level was in the previous case was eight and bear ends up previous video of Z panel. Now you will find that z, for example, if I would like to measure the voltage, then I take that two terminals of Z panel connect the Z positive with the V and the negative was the common. Now, let us move it forward. You will see that z, red one representing z bolster and the black one representing z negative. Both step is connected to the voltage and the negative is connected to is the black one. Or z common is connected to the black one. Now, we'll find that z meter here is connected to this one. This one is representing is the voltage as DC. This one is DC about, this voltage is AAC. I know it's not clear, but here you will see that when you have the average difference between Z, since we automate running DC. So we'll put it at DC. Now what happens is that we connect this as one towards the positive of z and this one to the negative of Z Pan. And let's see. We have here. We have that red one representing the positive opposite pattern, and then we have the blue one representing z negative terminal of Z binary. We connected z red one which is the positive with the pollster one, and Z, blue one which is the negative with the command. Now by connecting these two to here and by putting it as the voltage, you will find that here is that DC voltage and measure was 20 volt. This is the open circuit voltage. Remember is that this voltage is adds a conditions at which the panel exists as this panel and this video exists in a studio. According to the lighting of the studio. Zb be bundled will produce amount of power. Now I would like to measure the current. In order to measure current, I will keep z common itself as this. But z red one will go to z and bear. Bear. And z, a terminal here will go to z and bear. Now let's move forward. Like exists. You will see that here, this is z and bear. And here's the voltage is this one is the voltage and you see that it is a constant. This means that it is at DC value, but here is our sine wave, or a sinusoidal wave means it is measuring AC. So this one is a DC which we fix it at. Since we are measuring z and bear, it doesn't matter if it is at DC or AC beta value. We bought this one at z and bear. We take z negative with the common enables the wizard then m bear. Now you see here does that z common itself with the black similar to Z open-circuit voltage case. The z red is with that thin and bear since we are measuring AC current or high current for z and zap BV benefit. You'll see that here also z maximum voltage measure the year between V and the command, maximum 600 voltage DC or AC. So this is omega, maximum value is 600 volt. And you will find that the between Z Coleman and the middle ear and bare maximum value is 500 million pairs. This is the maximum value of current measurement. If we connected started here. Now, if you look at this one, maximum ten and bear, that's why CPV button before was it and bear. So we connected here to that large value or z and bear. Now we will connect that it was the red and the black with blue. Like this. You will find that z right here is connected with the red or z positive. And z negative is connected with z black or Z command. Then we will have z final value of z and bear or 0.031 and bear. This value is low here in this case, why? This is a short-circuit and bear why it is low because of course, z lighting inside the studio is low or having low radiations. So z power produced is lower. That's why is the current will be lower? Because the current is affected more by radiation. Now someone will tell me what is the benefit of the green. Now if you measure z voltage between red and green, it will give you half of z V open circuit. Between the red and the blue, it will give you a full V open circuit value. This is how you can do is an open circuit and short circuit test. Also, we learned in this video about some advices when we are installing our panel. 35. Solar Wires and Cables Installation Process : Hi everyone. In this video we would like to discuss z difference between solar wires and cables. And what are the types of cables used in solar PV system and z installation process for solar cables. What is the difference between zones, solar wires and cables? You will find here is that Z wire here. This is called the wire. It's consisting of one conductor. This wire is formed, conducted one conductor. But you will find that z k, What is formed from a group of conductors. You will find the one conductor to conduct, or 34 and etcetera. So this one is a cable and it has two layers. One which is insulation level, which is used to prevent leakage off current and electric shocks. This one which is the outer, which is used to protect against the fire and against climate conditions. Let's see what's the difference. Number one, z wire is a conductive materials. This one is a conductive material. This is usually made of copper or aluminium. Because copper and aluminum are good conductor of electricity. Of course, as they are not made of gold, because gold is expensive. It is made usually made of copper or aluminium. Z conductor is our wire or combination of foreigners will see that here. This one is our wire. Is this a small wires or combinations of wires and Z, this would form one conductor. Zinc-air battery itself is consisting of a group of conductors. You will find that z cable is a group of two or more inductors. This is, OR note here, two or more conductors that are twisted or bonded together surrounded by an insulating layer, which itself is within a cable jacket, also called AC cable cheese. Find here is that this is a conductor itself is the cable itself is a conducting layer in which is used to conduct z electric current or use the two, moves the electricity from BB balance to anywhere else. This one is a conducting area. And you'll find that this gray or white layer, this layer is called dizzy cable insulation layer. This is an insulating layer which is used to prevent that flow of electricity outside of Z cable or connection of that cable to the ground, or electric shocks when someone touches the conducting material will suffer from electric shock. We need to insulate between them. Also the outer layer, which is called Zach cable cheese, is this cable cheese is used to protect the Z cable against fire and it uses to protect it against the climate conditions. Zack cable may vary in its external diameter depending on Z number of conduct are used. So what does this mean? It means that if I have, for example, a small amount of current needs to flow or needs to be passed. Therefore, we will need a small number of conductors. Diameter itself of the cable will be small as the current capacity increases or z, z amount of the current required increases. Z and z. In this case, we would need higher than amateur. Why? Because we need more conductors. So we'll find that z solar cable here. You will find that, for example, solar cable. You will find the Wannsee, which means one code. You will find the one core or one cable, multiply it by six square millimeter. What does mean? It means that this conductor have a diameter of as the area, as a cross-sectional area of the cable itself is six millimeters squared. And z area as the area increases, it means that it will have higher current capacity. It means that it can absorb or it can pass more current, or it means that it can flow more amount of power or transfer more amount of power. You will find here is that this cable, for example, solar cable, photovoltaic cable. This one is, you will find it the outer layer. The outermost layer is halogen and free sheath. This one is used the two protected against the fire again, and it is used to protect it against the climate conditions. You will find here is our second layer is the halogen free installations. This one is used to insulate betweens a conducting material and z humans, for example, or the ground. And dizzy copper wire is used to transfer or carries electric current. Now, this cables are suitable for that permanent outdoor long-term use. Under variable and the harsh climate conditions. Z are designed and tested to operate at a normal maximum conduct or temperature of mine diseases degree. The fourth 20 thousand hours up to 120 series is degree. It is used at, normally it can sustain up to 90 degree. Therefore, the expected better news is 30 to 40 years under normal usage conditions, you will find that the halogens make Zach cable jackets, XLR cable jackets Z out on most layers. And z installation which is here, this hydrogen free installation, highly flame retardant. What does this mean? It means that it can was a stanza flame for large period of time. That's why it is made of halogen in order to withstand Z flames for large amount of time. Now we will find here is that the standard and the color codes are for cables. It, you'll notice that z color of the cable itself. Therefore, according to Z code itself, for example, the IEC or International Electro Technical Commissions and z and anemia for example, all of this are different codes. And according to the code, you will know what is the color of our three-phase, for example, and the z DC cables. You will find that, for example, in a country or a region, European Union, according to the IEC zip code reference, this code reference according to IaC, what colors should be used? For example, if it's a should be brown, phase B should be black, phase C should be grades. This is a three-phase power which is supplied to our load as a neutral should have light blue color. Now I will find that if it is a single phase system, then the active one or z is considered as Zippo step. Or of course we know that Z reverse with each other, but this is the one which at the beginning of a polarity or is a positive cycle. So this one is black or brown. Then you throw it should be light blue. You will find that the dc should be one. Or what does one means? It means that it is, you will find that it is here in cenotes, no recommendations given. It means that this colors it does not have any standard the values. Now we'll find that that protective error, which is used in arcing system, it can be green or yellow with Upload marking add z. And now we will find that, for example, the United States, you will find that it is different from them, or brown in here. Z phase B is little bit difference. That is difference as a neutral is different and so on. Now the funds that in my own country in Egypt, which is located in Africa, that phase a is red, yellow, and blue. As a neutral is usually black. You'll find that it's a protective herbs is nearly equal to all of these green, yellow, green, yellow, green, yellow. And you'll see that you are usually green with yellow lines. You will notice that this line rubric, this cable representing zebra detective nursing conductors. Of course all of this we will discuss inside every single part or nursing design of the system. Now we will find that when we would like to install cable in our BB system, for example, if I have one panel and have another one and I would like to connect them together. In order to connect them together, I will use a wire or I will use a cable according to zack cross-sectional area required. Someone would ask me what is the required cross-sectional area? Zach cross-section at area depends on the amount of current, the amount of current dependence on z power and the z glued. When I design my beam system, I will know what is the amount of current. And according to this, we will select our load. Now, someone will tell me I need the example you will find is that this example will exist in ZAP protection of the wifi system part. And you will find it also in signs, a single line diagram, obviously EBV system, both of them I discussed in details how to select a cable from the catalog. Because it's a selection depends on many factors such as the temperature, the current capacity. Also z installation type is the cable grounded under the ground, buried in the ground, or it is a wall mounted or in is it in a conduit or whatever? It's case. According to this case, we will select the Z cross-sectional area required. And you'll see that by numbers, we will get all of this later in the course. Now in order to connect two panels together, for example, using a wire, I will need to do some steps. Number one, we will use that solar cable Qatar was this one. What does this do? This simply use the two cut Z wire. For example, if I have a long wire and I need just a small portion of this wire. This small portion will be needed to connect the two panels together. In order to cut Z Y are required. We will use the solar cable cutter. This one we'll cut Z cable and connect the two panels together. Now, another component is the solar cables treble. What does this do? This one is used to remove insulating part from that wire or ZK board. It is used to remove the insulation layer in order to add Z contexts. Don't see it. I just have both Z wire here inside according to Z, cross-sectional area receives a is the cross-sectional area here is ten millimeters squared, or 12 millimeter squared, or 14 millimeters squared. So according to the cross-sectional area, I will both our cable here OR NOT z. I have to tell you something here is that there are 14 here, 12 and then not millimeters squared z our AWS, according to the American wiring gauge, they are not here. So as xenon but increases, you will find that the cross-sectional area decreases. Now z, we bought a wire inside this one according to what is that AD EWG of it, if it is it ten AWS or 12 AWS. And dual understand is the AWS. Later in the course, you will find z catalog, of course again, insides up Protection lecture or inside the single line diagram, I will give you a table and you will see that it's a cross-sectional area. And z American wiring gauge. We put Z wire inside it and then claw Z contexts clauses tool and then drag in order to remove Z insulating part. We have here Z conductor. What is the next steps and accept is that we are going to add our contact, which is used to connect the inside X0 male or female by using Z MC4 solar creaming tool, crimping tool is this one, have a different millimeter squared the front cross-sectional area. So all of those is those. This one is used to add contacts to z tos that BV cable. So what will happen here is that we bought Zach contact, contact inside z here, inside this part as you see here. And then both our wire and the close contact closes the jaw of z over MSE for solar camping. You will see all of this inside that video I will give you now. What will happen is that closes and Joe, just to hold the pen in place, zis z or Z contact here and without compressing. So we just bought this one and just glows a little bit without compressing this contact. Then we will insert the Z wire and the growth Z ad for a sweet boards this contact inside this one in order to fit it inside it. Then both our wire and zinc clause x0, jaw of crimping tool. Now make your own trip by closing it. Now we will find what will happen is that we have now our wire and having its own contact now connected Zach contact to toe MC4 and Crim, this one, we connect the Z contact here and z wire and then we made our cramp. And now what does that except the next step is that we will connect this one to that male or female according to the time. This one is fit inside X0 male or female. For example, we fit it inside here and then we will rotate this wheel that this part or this contact will be inside z. Main. Summary of the steps is like this. Number ones as dripping line. You will find that here. We bought our wind or solar. The first one which is solar Katara, in order to cut about of XLR cable Xin, we will use the solar striving tool in order to remove that insulating layer. As you see a weird move this insulating layer in order to have Z conducting part. Then we will add using Zap cramping tool. We will both this contact to Z1 and close this Joel. We will have that solar cable or wire with a contact lenses contact will be inside the core of Z MC4, male or female. You will find that this is a female and demand. We will get inside it and you will hear a look when we gloss or when we bought this one. Inside this one, you want to find that look or at tick. After this, we will just rotate this wheel in order to close at x1 inside it. Now we can also tie things MC4R and the male and the female by using tools hidden node or too tight it rotate this wheel like in order to try it, it well, then you will find that we have our mirror and the female ready. Now before this, I would like to show you something here. You will find that here we have a panel, and we have another panel. We have here a cable, another cable or wire, cable, wire or whatever according to the cross-sectional area. Now we will find that this one is a positive, and this one is the positive. This one is a male. This one is also a male. And we would like to connect to these two panels in parallel. So XYY male would be connected with Gmail with using MAC for multi-branch connectors, this one would use to connect these two and the produce one bolster one or one minute. And then negative part, which is a female and Amazon negative which is a female connected together using also MAC for multi-branch, this user to connect this to females and reduce one female. In the end we have positive and negative. Someone will ask me, is the male z positive or that female positive or vice versa? Why is that male is positive. Always wanting you can both X0 male as the positive ends at female as negative, or you can do the reverse. You can make samples, they've as FMN and you can make the negative as the mail. Whatever you would like does not matter in anything. Okay. Now, if I would like to connect them in series, I will connect the 0 bolster negative as if we are connecting the two batteries in series. So bolster we'll go with negative. So this negative is female and this one is min. Self does that male to female, and we have one male and one female in the end. This is a two contacts adds the end we will have. In order to connect this one with this one. It was this one where we would like to connect the Z wire with that male. In order to do this, we will have to use that soil, our cutoff. Since our solar striping tool, then we will use solar grabbing it all in order to connect the Z contact or makes eye contact and the connected through male or female. Now, let's see this inside video. Now we will find the video which is made by Eclipse tools is this one which will provided this video for the process of connecting and BV panel or connecting cable with the MAC for in order to or creating zap grim using the crimping tool, creating the contact and zinc own query, creating Z, male and female. So let's see what, what happened at first, we have this one tool, which is a solar cutter tool. What does this use? For example, if I would like this part only from the cable. So I will just both UTLA exists in order to cut a small part of it. So it uses to connect there to cut a small part. Now the second one is Z tool here which is grabbing tool or x1, which is not the crimping tool. It's one which is used to remove the insulating layer. You will see that here we connect the Z cable. Let's see it Exactly. We bought here our cable inside it, as you see here, in order to drag, in order to remove that insulating part, we have here, our cone, our conducting bond. Then we would need to connect to this contact to z. Z as z power two, which have Z conductor. We have here our contact and then we breath as more a little bit without connecting this one a little bit in order to fit it here by using Joe is just a little bit, you'll see that a little bit is compressive. Then we will both our wire inside it. We will use that Joe and bold force in order to connect them together as you see here. Now what will happen next is that we will connect this one to our wheel. Then it will connect it to a male or female. You will see that here, this one is connected to a wheel which is used to rotate zinc connected to that mail for example, or female or female. And you will find that when you connect this out, why our wisdom in, you will find it will give you a thick. Then we'll rotate this wheel in order to close and tie them together. Now we will find that here again, that male here. Then we will lose out on writing tool in order to tight this week. You will see that here, Titan, well, then we can connect to that male and female together of Z penance. And again, you can use that separate in order to separate these two parts. We understand now how we can form our MAC for solar connector or male and the female in order to connect them together. We understand is a benefit of Z crimping tool. How to cut the cable and how to form our pots. 36. Mounting of PV System: Now let's discuss the different semesters of mounting of V0 system, how we bought our BV system or BV panels. We have a different method. The first semester is I fix it but I panel which does not move through our z, it is a fixed panel. An example of this Z balance on our o of, of the house is this panel does not move. So I would see one pool where we fix our BV patterns on a pole. This pole as this ball is not moving, it is a steady pool or on the ground aware it is a constant of course, and it is not moving. Roof mounts. For example, Z advances and this was one of it is, it is simple and cheap. Tony stole of course, we take z minus and put it on z. But the problem is that no flexibility on orientation of V0 system, we cannot control Z at orientation or Z movement of Z PV system. It is fixed it all, I would say eat. It only support the z small BB system, only a small or Z low-power BV systems. Z. Second type is z integrated. Z integrated as you see here, I have a good looking. As the problem of this. Once you have a very low efficiency. For example, we have here at building, you can see that all of these are solar panels. They give a very good look. However, Z have a very low efficiency. But anyways, they are very held before to benefit from sunlight. Now, Amazon method is the tracking of Z BV system. You will see here PV system connected to a motor. Motor has sensors and be LSE system in order to control and the move our BV system. You will see that here, Z panel will produce the maximum output power when sun rays are perpendicular TO Z panel. So it tracks Z movement of x0, x1 in order to have always a perpendicular direction and the produce Z maximum power. This message is used is called the Z solar tracker. Z solar tracker is simply advice. Use the for orienting BSL or moving is a BV cell toward the x0, x1 by using a light source or so which senses the light connected with our motor like servomotor. This helps us to increase the efficiency pie 15% in winter and 30% in summer. However, this system is very, very high price because we use here are motor and sensory needs to be a change it. However, this will help to increase the efficiency. Or if you would like to produce the maximum power, it will help you to increase by 15% in one door and 30% in summer. Now, Z trucker or solar tracker can be different types. The first type is called the Z single access to records. This trucker moves in one axis. It can be easily vertical axis or horizontal axis. It moves in z, vertical, or the horizontal. Like this one, it moves in a specific direction, only in one direction. Dual axis tracker or Dual Access Drucker have posts and vertical and the horizontal axis, it has two axes. Not only one axis, only two axis. It can rotate. In other frontal bio section, as you see here, it can rotate like this in the clockwise direction. It can rotate in a vertical direction, in the horizontal direction as we would like. 37. Shading and Tilt Angle: Now let's add this course knows of thing which is important in our BV system, which is called the Z shading. What is the metabolic shaving? It means that Z zeros. And three, for example, hiding our sunlight or z shadow of z3 is going on Z BB cell and the causing it not to reduce Z current, not produce any power. We'll see here is that our sun here causes shedding on one of z BV cells, which causes here the current flow. Let's have an example on this. You will see here is that we have here at cell connected in series and have here something which is codes or bypass diode. And we will understand what is it. Now, we will assume that we have here at shadow on z cell or a leaf of the tree. This shadow or leaf is hiding ourselves, so it prevents it from producing any power. The problem here is that Z current from cell one buses through here, then cirrhosis rel to since rho cell theory. And the when it reaches sell for it cannot boss why? Because cell phone does not produce any power and it is considered as an open circuit. How we can solve with this problem, we cannot produce now any power. So we put here diode, better tools, the settling this diode called a bypass diodes in order to pass this cell. So as the current that passes through here, here, here, then at cell four cannot boss. So we give it another pause here. So rosy dye D4 and through Z load it as if it cancels. Is this cell. Benefit of white boss died is that it passes z cell when the cell does not generate any electricity. When a shadow is cast on a panel wizard by a tree or a building, for example, it decreases the amount of electricity produced, the power z panel chiding of jobs to one cell in a module only one cell which consists of 67 I'm with you will consist on 60 cell can efficiently decrease the power by 33%. So you can see is that a module like this one consists of a sickest T cells. If one of these cells is hidden by shedding or z shadow of z3 or a building. This can reduce the efficiency of z cell by 33%. You can see how the shedding analysis is really important. You have to keep beaker fall from Z shedding effect on your own site. Okay, now let's discuss a very important thing which is called Z tilt angle. What is adult the angle here? Delta angle here is the angle beta officer BV panel. That delta angle of z photovoltaic PV array is the key to an optimum energy yield. Is this angle. Affect the Z power from Z. From Z. Because Z, we want the Z sum to be perpendicular on Z BV binary. We have to tilt it by an angle called the tilt angle, or incline it by an angle called theta or tilt angle. Solar panels or be very most efficient. So when Zr perpendicular to z, some race Wednesday sound ray is like this one is perpendicular on ZB, ZB V band and produces the maximum power or is the maximum possible power. Also, this angle, we have to use it, which is the angle between Z panel and z horizontal. This angle will cause a shadow from Z panel. When sun here hits a Z panel, it will cause a shadow here. So we have to both Z panel and Z next to one at a distance D called design module row distance. In order to prevent disease selfish heading. Again, when sunlight hits a Z panel, it causes shadow under eight. If we both Z panel, this one here, it will be affected by shed. So we need to both Z panels at a distance between each other to prevent Z shedding effect or selfish adding effect. This distance should be at least three. W, where w is z. Z width of Zinn panel. This one multiple advisory and both z next abandon this density here is three w. Now Z, optimal angle here for BV panels according to your own position on the wall. See here a map. For example, here at this region where my own country, Egypt, you will find here is that the optimal angle for z delta angle be between 2060 degree, 70 degree. For Z maximum or Z. Most efficient the power from Zi Zhong. Boating here, Z pattern at an angle 26 to 70 degree will produce z most efficient power. This exhaust the an approximation that range here. Therefore, according to 0 regions of the world to give you a point of reference as 0 delta angle means that zip panel is lying flat down on its back facing directly opposed winds this angle equals 0. It will be flat and facing upwards. As the inclination increases, that panel would be adjusted to face more and more towards the front. Okay. When this angle increases, it will be more to the front. Now in order to find Z third angle accurately z. First thing we would go to this for a website to find z latitude of your own place. Latitude and the z magnitude or longitude will be held before in our program, baby says. Now Z accurate method is that you might manual calculations for our latitude up to 25 degree according to her own place on ZMapp or will take a latitude and the multiply eight by 0.874. Altitude between 25250 series is degree or 50 degree. Take your latitude, multiply it by 0.87, and afterwards let you will add 3.1 degree. For over 50 degrees are most ideal angle will end up being approximately 45 degrees. Of course, I obtained this an accurate method from this website called Solar parents footwall take.net. Another easier method by going to this website. Now, this website you will find that z angle here will be between vertical. Z angle provided is between z vertical, not between horizontal and cPanel. And you will find here Z, optimal angle here. A changing with z. Months of z are of course is z position of the sun is not constant. As the angle it changes as Rosie moles of Z, as you've see. This colors is also as this one. Let's get back. This one is obtained from the same website which will provide this debt. I have two references him saying to them for providing us an awesome a very important map. And thanks for their information. Now, this angle will it changes through, I would say here. Now let's go to this website and go to this website and see how we are going to use them. Now for our first website, which is provided by nasa in order to find z accurate angle or the accurate latitude and longitude of your own position. We will double-click here. For example, I'm living in Cairo. Now. I want to select the My own country. So I will click on point here and then select here. You will find here Z latitude, longitude of Z position here Z latitude and longitude values are used also in our program, be racist. Now another thing we can do of total findings is that we go to our calculations here, you will find between 25 degree to 50 degree. The exam, let me do it and multiply it by 0.87 of towards that adds 3.1. Let's get back here. Calculator, for example, Z latitude is 30 degree. And multiply it by 0.87 and then add 3.1 degree. Finds that Z best angle accordingly to this method is 29.2 degree. Actually in Egypt, in my own Cairo, in my own country, Kyle will use at delta angle of certain degree. So this method is very, very accurate. Now if we'll get back to z map, you will find the year for my own country. Z optimum is 26 degree TO such seven degree line is between this range. Okay? This is a very important DMSO and the accurate tool obtains his values. Now let's go to z. This website, the same website to find any important to Theta. What is this debt? Now I would like to choose my own year and date. I will tell you now why. For example, from 11 at 2018 to 2018 again, december research T1. Now I would like to find z data for Z radiation. Obviously son in this position through our one-year. Now if I go here and select sizing and the boiling of solar parents for photothermal applications. Click on it and zinc click on Submit. You will see is that xn outside is processing the data or data for this position will see now important information which will help you in designing. Now we will see is that here from January to December, 31, December 2018, you will find years the kilowatt hour bear meter squared per day. So this is the amount of energy produced a bear you want IT area in one day. This you will see that here. For example, for teen April, 7.71 kilowatt hour per meter squared per day. This is a very helpful information for yourself and you can use it in designing. Now, Amazon or data kilowatt hour per meter squared per day. You will find here is that it gives you each of these values and how long is that you remain. For example, Z value 8.9 kilowatt hour per meter square is for 60 days, 0.1 is for 14 days, and so on. So you can get the average of kilowatt hour per meter square bear day. I would say by analyzing disease curve. Now the second the meso Gucci said here is by going to this website. Let's go. Solar angles calculate. This provides us with data for going or having ankle. For example, I shows in Egypt and z SHE scale. Now you will find here it gives you z optimum angle in Z, or Z optimum tilt angle. I would see, for example, in January 44 degree, February 52 degrees, 60 and so on. But remember that z optimum angle here is between z vertical and cPanel. But here, this one and this one is from z horizontal. 44 degree here. For example, means that between it and z, horizontal should be 90 minus 3060 degree. So you will see if you draw here, add vertical or horizontal line as the angle here, 90 degree. Therefore this angle between Z panel and the horizontal, 90 minus 3060 degree. This is another solar English calculator from this awesome Mozart. 38. Importance of Charge Controller: Now let us discuss an important component which is solar charger controller. What is a solar charger controller, as well as charger controller controls is the current in and out of the battery. It control Z current inferring the ZP3, the current coming out of the battery. Number two, it protected ZP3 from overcharging. We have to protect the ZP3 from overcharging in order to increase its lifetime and prevent overcharging which will decrease its lifetime. Also see charge to control, regulate voltage entering Z battery. Of course, we will go on the z voltage to be very high to deliver the z over voltage. If z voltage is very low, Z solar and social control increase it. If it is a larger value, it will decrease it. Z charge controller contains a DC shoppers, DC shopper, and post DC shopper to step up the voltage and step down z voltage. We have here at. So a lot of charge controller, solar panel having positive and the negative terminal for example, all of z array, for example, z positive entering the solar social controller, z negative two solar charger controller. We have here positive and the negative two z battery. You have your positive and the negative two DC loads. So again here an example of solar charger controller. Here, z is solar panel z positive and the negative entering the Z charge controller. And two terminals for ZP3. And here two terminals for our load. Or we can take from here from Zebra three of course two and inverter 0 charge controller also protect the Z battery from over this a charging according to depths of this surcharge. As we remember that each battery has a depth of discharge, for example, 80%, 50 percent, and so on. So we use the shorter contour to cut of Z circuit and the abbreviation DC battery from exceeding its depth of discharge in order to increase Z a lifetime of Z batteries. Also it contains sensors are to protect the ZP3 from high temperature, so it increases the lifetime of ZP3. So z sensors are used to protect his battery from high temperature because Z temperature affect the Z efficiency of Z battery. Therefore, by controlling the Z bathroom or cutting off charging way will help, but to increase the lifetime of z by three. 39. PWM and MPPT Charge Controllers : Hi everyone. In this video we would like to discuss z, different types of that charge controllers. What are the types of surcharge or controllers used in our BV system. Number one, z pulse-width modulation, a charge controller, number two is the maximum power point tracking charge controller. What is the benefit of the charge controller? We said before that's a charge controller is used to charge our batteries or by providing a suitable voltage for a charging Z pattern is. And the difference between these 21 of them keeps its economy to constant and steps down when Z DC voltage, the maximum power point tracking changes the voltage and current. Now Z pulse-width modulation. What does z bolts width modulation controller means? Now we'll find the ear to be V balance together. And z are connected, z positive here and we have Z positive boast of connected to the negative. And we have both deaf and we have negative. What happens here? That saying here which happens is that z voltage produced it forms a EBV banana in this case, for example, which is a constant DC voltage, 54 volt, I think 5454 volt. Now we have, we can connect the 54 to directly to the battery. But if, what if z voltage, this one is, this voltage is higher than z amount required for Z pattern. For example, if I would like to provide the battery and instead of 54, for example, I would like to provide 48, for example, I would like to provide 48 volt. So how can I do this? You'll notice that this is the input and I would like the output to V0 with average to be 48 voltage is going into the battery to charge eight. What happens here? In order to do this, we add Z pulse width modulation, borrows width modulation controller or charge control. So what does this mean? This is used the two, and instead of providing AT constantly DC, provides it in the form of pulses. For example, here. You will find that here this is a patriot t. This is a period T. You will find that zeta is a small part here. This part is the unbalanced node, which is which when it provided z4 volt voltage, 54 volt for a certain time, t on Zen for a certain and uncertain time provided the 0 voltage, for example, as you see here, this one, this one here, you will find, for example, at 0 duty cycle and we'll understand what does this mean? 0 voltage provided to Z battery. Now Twenty-five percent Twenty-five percent a year. Twenty-five percent on and seventy-five percent of Twenty-five percent of the cycle on and seventy-five percent of 25%. It means that it provide the Z 54 voltage for quarter of this EIC. 50% means that it provides is 50, 50%, 50% of the balls is 54 volts and the ozone half is 0 voltage. And 75 volts like it means that 75% of it is 54 volt and twenty-five percent, which is 0 voltage. 100% means that we are providing our voltage for all of the time. What does this mean? It means that when we do this, when we change the duty cycle, duty cycle means that Scikit is the ratio between that on videoed by him at which we provide our voltage to that total videoed. Twenty-five percent means that we are providing ratio between T on those are duty cycle time or is aperiodic time? The ratio between them is Twenty-five percent. Twenty-five results at twenty-five dollars, a cycle is our voltage ends up remaining. Bod is 0. What will happen when we change that TO on, when we change the Z pulse width here it's called the balls. With the modulation, we audit changing z appalls of Zippo voltage. You'll see that here does this ball is different from this one, different from this one. This one, this has a higher width of balls, balls of z, which is obviously false, is high, lower widths, lower width. By increasing the width, we would have a higher output voltage. Is the equation is like this. This is from z power electronics course. Z v, which is going to the battery, is equal to the input voltage V in both, which is 54 volt. In this case, V in both. Multiplied ball. T on t. Over t is the output voltage to a battery is equal to the input voltage to zap also do modulation multiplied by z on barrier over the total period. So as we increase that Yuan Shao would average will increase. By using this weekend, he changes the width of the balls and the kind of changes the output voltage. Now what happens here is that we reduce the voltage. So the voltage is reduced as the input voltage is reduced after it goes out, and the current is constant. In this case, we don't change the current. The current is Connie stand, cone is done. The voltage is decreasing. Current is constant. So what does this mean? It means that z power, which is equal to the voltage multiplied by the current, voltage multiplied by the current will be reduced. So what does it mean? It means that we are experiencing losses in the power generated. Power here is reduced. Why? Because when we reduce the voltage and the current constant z power but reduced is reduced. Okay, So this is one of the biggest disadvantage of the balls width modulation control. Okay, let's use that laser. Now, the pulse-width modulation, PWM stands for pulse width modulation. Instead of a steady output from the control, it's in doubt a series of a shortage charging pulse to a battery, a very rabid on-and-off switch. You will find here on Zen off, Xin, on, Xin off, on and off in a very short time, very small time. Okay. Zach controlling constantly checks is a state of ZP3. Usually checks is that state of cemetery in order to see if it is a charge or this charge it or needs to be a George faster, which means that we are going to provide longer pulses. Or it is already a charge it, which means that we are providing lower policies or we need to cut it off, or we will provide that full voltage. It depends on the state of the battery. In a fully charged battery with no load, it may just to take every few seconds, just to giving up every few seconds. Why? Because it is already charged and send the ashore tomorrow's Tuesday pattern. In a discharge battery is a pulse would be very long and almost continuous like this 100% duty cycle, or it can be 75 duty cycle in order to charge the battery. Now the broth of this method is number one, this controllers are inexpensive, it is very cheap. You can buy it for less than $350. Z pulse-width modulation controllers are available. Insulin is up to 16 bits. This is a maximum available current. Boss switching modulation controllers are durable. Most always a passive heat sinks died cooling. It is used it to it can be it is durable, which means that they can dissipate the heat produced by using, of course, the heat sink cooling. This controllers are available in many sizes for a variety of applications. Z cones or disadvantage of this method is number one, there is no single controller sizes over 16 bearing. You will find that the maximum size is 16-bit. In order to have more than 16-bit will need malt tablet numbers of pulse width. Modulation Controller is the medulla. Modulation controllers have a limited capacity for system gross. See that Zach capacity is limited. Z losses as the voltage will be reduced and z cannot remain constant, so z power will be reduced. Now the second type is the maximum power point tracking a charge controller. So what does this do simply, we remember that Z maximum power point dragging is used to provide Z maximum power. It controls or it changes the voltage, and at the same time it changes the current in order to satisfy the same power. For example, in the previous case, when we have, for example, at 28 volt, for example, 28 volt entering Z controller, we need to step it down to 25. For example, the step-down in the voltage. The maximum power point tracking will increase the current in order to compensate the reduction in voltage. So in this case, we will have the maximum power will be produced. So the maximum power point tracking, and maybe we tee this our ultimate in controllers with prices to match but with the efficiencies in z, mine T for 94% to 98%. They can save considerable money on larger system since it's a provide ten to 30% more power to ZP3 charge as impulse modulation George them taller, can have losses up to 30%. So it means that we are losing a lot of power. But the maximum power point tracking, since it changes the voltage and the current, reduces the voltage and increases the current. So the efficiency is very high. The maximum power point tracking when we use the voltage coming from the PV panel to their values suitable for charging the battery. But we'll keep the current at a higher value y in order to make the current power sources that z power is equal to z voltage multiplied by the current. When we reduce the voltage to be suitable for Z matters, we will increase the current at the same time in order to make the power constant. In order to make Z power constant, in this case, z power produced will be seen. Csi advantage of this method is number one, the maximum power point tracker offer a potential increase in a charging efficiency up to 30%. Controllers also offers a potential ability to have an array with a higher input voltages NZ battery bank. If we have an input voltage to a controller, very high input voltage rather than higher than z battery nominal voltage. Then this controller will be able to satisfy this, or we able to handle this amount of voltage. You can get up to 80 amps and z previous one or the pulse-width modulation, maximum or 60 and bears maximum power point tracking of our grid flexibility for system gross z, this muscle, this muscle is number one, z are expensive of course. Sometimes it ghosting twice as much as matched as March as Z balls. Width modulation Controller, Z, maximum power point tracker. Do you want to order generally large, not in physical size of Congress as a means that z takes the same amount of power. Buds up also is modulation will produce lower amount of power. It is generally higher in or larger in physical size. But z, which is usually used, is the maximum power point tracking because of course it saves us power. It has a high efficiency locked like z bar. So as a modulation despite being expensive. So the maximum power point tracking is z1, which is usually used. In this video, we discussed the two main types of charged or controllers used, which is F, maximum power point tracking and z balls width modulation. 40. Junction Box: Now let us discuss an important thing in the solar cell or an important component in solar cell. Junction box. What is our junction box as ANC sandbox is an enclosure on dual, whereas the BV strengths are electrically connected. Junction box assembly, Z connection, or is that where the BV strings are connected? It is attached to the back of the solar panel, or TBT, which is layer firm. It wires usually afford connectors to Kazaa and it is output interface of the solar panel. When we're applying our pseudo modules, we have to look at something which is really important, which is called the IB of a junction box. Junction box is simply the IB is called as the ingress protection. You will find that for air completely watertight junction box it carries IB 67. Now we have said Zajonc some books, it is just standing closer, whereas their BV strengths are connected. It's connected at the back of the solar panel. It can usually connect to Ford strengths together. Now we will find that there is something which is really important when purchasing a junction box, which is called the IB or the ingress protection, you will find that the IB is a value which is for any electrical equipment such as transformers, junction box, and so on. So the IV has two values or more TO values here. One of them represented their protection against dust. Value, which is the protection against the liquid or water. So this value has a maximum value of six and the maximum value of seven. This value represents the protection against the dust. This value represented as a protection against liquid. For good junction box, which will help us to completely watertight. Or a completely watertight junction which is resistant to, to water, is having an IB 67. It is really important to make sure that the junction box is a watertight to be able to withstand rain. Most of photovoltaic junction box I have about why the function of this diode is to keep up our flow going in one direction. So as you'll notice at Windsor, sun goes through that BV cells, our BB cells convert solar energy into electrical energy, ends up our floors from the solar panels into our load and the batteries. When we don't have sunlight ZAB battery will it started to give our toes EBV cells would like to prevent his power from feeding back into the panels. Windsor is no sunshine's. Those are diodes will allow the passage of the power or current in one direction. In forward biased, it will be a short circuit and allows a current to flow. In the reverse advice, it will be open circuit and prevent is a current from going through the panel. 41. Wiring of Junction Box: Now how we can wire our junction box when wiring strings together, which happens in series, positive to negative and so on, the voltage will started to increase walls current state constant. Wind, water wiring our strings impairing. The ball step is 2s are positive and the negative two then negative. The current will start to increase while the voltage stays constant. So again, modules in order that they are connected in series in order to increase the voltage. Because they are connected embedded in order to increase the current. You will find in order to connect his him in theaters. Zappos step is connected to the negative about here in, in connection for the apparel, the ball step is to the positive and negative is to the negative. Image of the junction box. You will see here is a wire and it has its negative and positive and Annas or wire, this one is coming from a string, and this one is coming from another module. Now let's see how our strings are connected. You will find here is that heat is assumption books. We have here an input a and m would be or Shannon, AN channel. Z are two strings. You will see a string one, string, two, string three. And for each of the string are into the junction box and another one here, another one here. You will find that each of them are wired in parallel loans that DC compiler in boots ads the inverter. The total number of modules on each of the channel is different. But the number of modules on each string within channel a and B are the same. You will see here is that we have it, it in joules. Okay? Now we would find that we connected it here and this one here and this one here and this one here. Now in order to connect to this one in series and parallel, we have to see how we can open our assumption books and the Connect disease strings. Now we are going to see a video of how we are going to wire our junction box. Now first thing we're going to do, you will see here is that we are going to Windsor junction box in order to connect the hour. Of course is. Why. Now we all went our junction books and you will see here zeros, both Steve and here is negative. And you will see outside of the junction box so we can see whereas the both Steve and whereas inactive it is just a mentioned die on the outside or the description of Zajonc sandbox. Now we would like to make sure we'll just use a dc ammeter to see is that this is both step and this is negative. Zara V1 is positive, and then the black one is negative. Now let's just see how he will connect to them. He was adjustable tier, just the symbol for the positive and another symbol for the negative. The positive is the red and Zach negative is the black one. Now we are going to just bored of this outlet and see how we are going to connect a wire. You will see it as a positive and negative which comes from the string. Now we will make it through this hole until this one looks like this. Then we're going to screw it again. Now we have the two terminals, Zappos, Steve and Zen active. We would've started to connecting zap positive with the positive ends and negative with a negative. Now watch carefully how we will try it. Why did he do this in order to SaaS the **** bam in boating gate inside this holds. Now we will see now just to lie exists. After we have connected the positive ions and negative, we will need to close that junction box again in order to prevent anyone from blame. You will see here in the out-of-the-box, here is a positive and here is negative. Assumption books is really easy in order to. Now we have learned in this video how to wire the junction box and everything that jumps on books. 42. Function, Types and Data Sheet of Inverter: Hi everyone. In this video we would like to discuss a z function of z inverter in solar energy system and the types of inverters or inverters. So first, what is the function of the inverter? The inverter can be used in converting DC input voltage or the DC input coming from BB panels or from hepatitis into AC power, which is used for our AC loads assembly. It converts DC into AC output. Dc input which have a fixed value like this. Like this is, this is our input. Exists z voltage with Cornerstone devalue was trying. This is a value which comes from the EBV panels or from Z batteries, converts it into sinusoidal wave like this. The output should be at sinewave AAC, or it can be like this. First one. This one is your sinewave board, which have those known to have any harmonics. But this one is and modify it sine wave-like this one. You'll see that it looks like a lot of this is also a sine wave. This one is also a sine wave, but modified sinewave, not be your sinewave have harmonics. Of course is your sine wave is better than they are modified by the modified xi bar Zan zip your sine wave inverter. The inverter is an electric or equipment that convert the Z direct current or AC or DC direct current from the pathways or from the PV panels. End-to-end, end alternating AC current or alternating current or AC, which is used for AC loads, as in our homes. Is it all such as the motors, the lighting theologian does the air conditioning, everything, every appliance inside our home is depending on their AAC. You'll see that here. This inverter, DC to AC. You'll see that here, the output, it doesn't, it's not clear so much, but the output here is 220 volt. Is see the output of the inverter here, which comes from this socket or this branch. This part is the output, the three part is that line neutral and this one is the output. The output is 220 volt. The AAC is a frequency 50 or 60 hertz, so it is able to produce both of their 50 hertz frequency or 60 hertz frequency. Now was that first type of z inverters is on grid. That grid tie inverter on grid or girth or inverter. So what does this inverter Do? You will see that here in the grid-connected system, where our PV panels is connected to is at grid and connect it to our home. So as I inverter here, takes the DC from that finance, the converts it to AC, which goes to the grid or XY utility, and at the same time goes to our home. In order to feed our appliances. The inverter produces AC power from DC and provides it to the grid. And the twos are customer. You will see that here on our diagram, ZAB PV panels, DC voltage goes to the inverter. Then the inverter converts DC into AC, which goes to the main distribution board, the four-hour home or and C panel for our whole and disease. This panel is also connected to the utility in order to take power from Z inverter or supply power from the utility to a consumer. You will find that here in the on-grid system, we use a technique called net metering. Net metering here. It is a difference between that generated power ends the consumed power. For example, if our PV panels are produced higher power, then my own consumption partners and produce higher power or higher energy consumed, energy required. So the difference between them, the difference between the generated power ends are consumed. The power will go towards the grid. So we fed the power tools or utility, we give power to the utility. Now in case of having a low-power or low generation of BV panels. In this case, we need more power to fit our loads. In order to do this, we absorbed but power from the grid meter here. C is the difference in between them. For example, if the power going into the grid, zingy power goes from the inverter like this to the grid. If from the grid to see house, then it will be like this. So this one is generated power to the grid. This one is the consumed power from the grid. The difference between these two powers is the amount of energy, which is the customer going to be. A grid tie inverter converts direct current or DC current into alternating current. This alternating current should be suitable for injection into an electrical power grid. Of course, is the inverter should be automatically synchronized with the grid. We cannot connect the annual worth or with the grid without satisfying the BV code or is that synchronization conditions? The value is normally 120 volt RMS at 60 hertz or 240 volt RMS at 50 hertz. You will find that the requirement of connecting the inverter Tuesday grid depends on the BV code or photo-voltaic code. For example, in my own country, Egypt. The phase difference between the phase difference is z angle Phi of Z AAC generated. The difference in between the utility can be up to 20 degree to which the degree difference between a frequency difference between the inverter utility up to 0.3 hertz and z. The France in voltage, as I remember, plus or minus 5%. Because there is a code for that distribution and the code for that BV code, or photovoltaic, plus or minus 5% of the voltage. And the total harmonic distortion is the harmonics or is the total hormone social and factor B. Then, as I remember also 5% also injected DC current the boys are inverter should not exceed the SC. Injection. Injection should not exceed buoyant. 5% of the rated power, AAC. Rated power, rated power, will find that according to her own code, Z. According to your own country, because they differ from one country to Amazon. For my own country, is that phase difference between that Z inverter and utility should not exceed 20 degree and the frequency difference should not exceed 0.3 hertz. It can be higher than 50 hertz. For example, 50.3 or 49.75.3 or higher, and 5.3 hertz is a voltage should not exceed plus or minus 5% of utility voltage. The total harmonics should not exceed 5% that DC injected boys, the inverter should not exceed 0.5%. Also find something here is that Z inverter in our country, Z BV system should be three-phase system. We cannot connect to single-phase z are always three-phase. Why in order not to increase Z unbalanced or the unbalanced in utility. Because if we inject a single phase, one of the three phases will be overloaded. Or Zanzibar as our three phases zones are two phases. So we have to connect to a three-phase balanced system or a three-phase balance at solar system to our grid. And minimum connected power in Egypt, for example, five kilowatt, because the five kilowatt is a three-phase system. Now these values of, of course, can it change according to her own country? So you'll have to seize that BV could of your own country in order to understand the conditions required of connecting the inverter to a utility. Remember also that you can not connect to an inverted to utility without a certificate, you have to be an installer, which is a certified by Renewable Energy Agency. So you cannot just to connect as a normal person, toes a utility, you have to have a certificate or become a certified installer according to the agency itself or XY Renewable Energy Agency itself. Also in this systems at grid-connected the, we don't need any batteries because we take power from the utility in case of absence of sun, we take power from Zotero, HE or solar panels does not generate enough power. No pattern is required to store any energy here. In this system we use net metering. Net metering is a difference in between as generated and consumed us net metering technique in which a customer is paid according to the difference between the generated energy and consume the energy. Meter, of course, calculate Z generated and consume the power. In order to inject electrical power efficiency efficiently and safely. Tuesday grid, that grid tie inverter must accurately match the voltage and phase of that grid sine wave, AC waveform. Of course, as we said before, the conditions of synchronizing the inverter with a grid. Both of them should have the same voltage, same phase shift, or according to our own code, it can have a small deviation or a small difference between them. For example, plus or minus 5% of the rated value of voltage and the phase, phase difference of 20 degrees. This can differ from one country to another. In case of folders inside utility or regret, the inverter automatically shut down in order to prevent hazards to maintenance crew in the grid and the public safety. Does this mean? It means that let's see here what will happen. Assume that we have a fault in this transmission line. Fault connected to the ground, or one of the phases connected to the ground. Now what will happen, we disconnect is as circuit breakers, which is related to the transmission line, is the power on the transmission line in this case, or distribution system in this case, because you are connecting here towards distribution system. In this case, z power will be equal to 0 because z, z phase here connected to the ground and the weeds connected czar circuit breakers. Now what will happen if someone comes here, a little person here like this? This one wants to fix this broken lines, this broken line. Now the maintenance crew goes to Z AB broken transmission line or a broken distribution line. Now what will happen is that Wednesday come to touches this one, they may expose the two electric hazards. Why? Because we have the inverter here, which will provides power to Z appliances at home and provides power to the grid. So it will inject the electrical power to the grid going into maintenance crew and gives him electric hazard. In order to prevent this electric hazard zone from the inverter at my home. The inverter when z grid itself have a fault or have a problem, the inverter is disconnected automatically from the grid. So no electric cars as well. Now here's an example of xy grid tie inverter uses at this one has a power of 500 watt or 0.5 kilowatt. You will find that Z maximum exists was this grid tie inverter. You'll remember that we don't have any batteries. So we don't have any charge controller. So Zach grid tie inverter here contains the inverter velocity z charge controller. It has two techniques together. You see that here it works in the maximum power point tracking technique range of the DCM, both from 1848 volts. This is the input from the finance and it automatically has a charge of control in order to charge Z inverter itself and to convert that to AC funds at the MBO DC range, that range which can satisfy from 15 to 60 volt NZ recommended OR z value at which we can produce the maximum power is from 1848 volts. This is the maximum power point range dc. And you will find the years at. Let's delete all of this. The value of the voltage at which produces the maximum Bower is from 35 to certain nine volt. And the open-circuit voltage is from 42 to 46 volt. So here this value is 35 to 39 is the maximum voltage at which we can produce Z maximum power. Okay? So this one is the value of the voltage which can produce as the maximum power of z inverter. This value is the range of Z, nearly maximum efficiency, but the maximum value is at 3539 volt, at which it will produce the maximum power of 501. And the output of this inverter is 230 volt, and the range can be from 192160 volts. Now we will find that this inverter have two inputs. One which is the red and the one which is the blank. Does this to represent us. That red one representing z positive. Zach collected all of EBV balance. Or if we have an off-grid system, then it will be z equals to f of z patterns. And z negative here representing z negative of Z benefits. Now, this one will produce an output AC, which is suitable for our loads or connection to the grid. Now another type is called the Z of grid system or the off-grid invert. This type of inverters is used in the off-grid system or the system which is not connected to the grid. You will find here a group of solar panels, which is connected to charge controller in order to charge the batteries. Charged the batteries. Then after charging the batteries, we take from Z batteries to that solar inverter or the off-grid inverter, and provides power to the consumer or the user. So we'll find the year of z power inverter at pure sine wave B or sine wave. Why pure sine wave? In order to increase the lifetime of our equipment. This one is two kilowatt. This is the output power. You will find the units. This one is lying and neutral and Z line, neutron and else, okay. So this is inverter, this is the output or this is the output of the inverter here to fit our loads and z and what comes up from the other side. Now you can find that this one is a pure sine wave. So pure sine wave is this one. This one is that your sinewave and the latter form here or the step form. This one autosomal divide is a modified sine wave. Sine wave or a pure sine wave is better for the lifetime of the equipment. It is more expensive is enzyme modified wave. The solar panels fed DC power into batteries. Okay, solar panels provides power to DC to AC batteries using our solar charge controller. This system is upgraded or not connected to the utility of grid. It means that it is not great thigh or not grid-connected. So it's not connected to the utility. Is use the MBB places which have geographical obstacles, making it difficult to connect to the grid. If I have, if I am presenting in allocation which is consisting of mountains or does not have any or difficult to connect to the grid, expensive to connect those regret, we use the off-grid system in order to provide power to our home without depending on the utility. The inverter takes is that power and inverts a z power from the battery and inverts it to AAC is c is the output, and the input is DC. Input DC. So it provides AC power for our home. This system needs a better is in order to fit loads at night because our son, but presented at daylight only and at night we need to provide power to our home. We use batteries in order to store energy for for using it at night. Of course, in this course we will learn how to designs off-grid system. And the on-grid system will know how to select this. Solar panels controllers. A better is the inverter or everything about this is that your sine wave inverter is better than modified part higher cost zap your sine wave causes the loads to have higher lifetime Sans and modified wave. Now before we go to the hybrid inverter, We will go now to a video which shows you how to connect the zone of grid inverter. Now here's a symbol video which will show you how to connect the power inverter or sitting up on off-grid solar inverter. Now this video is provided by a do it yourself wallet channel. Now someone will ask me, why do you provide us videos from YouTube or showing us videos from YouTube? Because those are channels provide help before videos, which would can help you not in solar energy, but in other categories. So you will see it is held before for you too. Subscribe to different channels in order to learn from them and increase your own knowledge. That's why I showed you videos from different channels which show you a practical and the total **** before for you in order to understand the mode. Now this one is a pure sine wave inverter, power inverter. This one can produce a continuous power of 601. Now we'll find that the input voltage is 12 volt from Z batteries. I would 120 volt AC 60 hertz. So this one is a fixed value in both 12 volt output, 120 volts AC. The first thing you will find that here, and this side we have two parties, one which is the red. One is that black. We connect as a boast of obviously better is Tuesday read and z negative two is at Lake. Now let us see this. Go here. And z from now you will find here is that Z positive and the negative, clear and helpful. Dc 12 volt and negative is the blank. Now you will this one, this wheel and this one. You will rotate them anticlockwise in order to remove them and add Z blog or z of xy battery. So you'll see that here. We will remove it, exists. Let's take it back. You will see that here. Here move the z part by rotating like this. Let's see, by rotating and moving anticlockwise. Now with an extra step is that we are going to add z positive here and the negative. And then we will add that again. Lives is positive, which is negative, which is the black. And the both of which is that it. Now, here's what do you, you showed both Zach, black feather stars and negative first, Zen z positive. Remember that when you both ZAP or Steve, It may find your main finds that there is a small spark and coordinate to Z value of 0 voltage. When you connect it here. Remember, of course are not to touch it, not to get an electric shock. By doing this, you connected it now, z positive and negative. Now, you can see that this inverter has two outputs. One which is a USB, which can be used. The two charges, the batteries and the ozone one, which is used the two USB port in order to charge Z patterns. And this one is used to connect AC loads. For example, a charger for more pile or anything you, for laptop or anything, you can connect it here and use it to supply power. Now you can see that here it is used as a USB port in order to charge a small component or electric component. Now another one which is the load connected it, surcharge are here to battery, connected it to another anti-pattern. You won't store charge this pattern. In this video and this small video we learned about the grid system connection. Now let's take it back and see what is the meaning of Z hybrid involved. Now what is the hybrid inverter? The hybrid inverter is Brian Murray use the Fords at grid thigh purposes, but also has the added feature that they provide backup power to your home Wednesday electric utility fields. Remember that in the on-grid system, we talked z power from solar panels, connected it to the inverter, invertible watts power to the grid and from z grid using XYM method, technique. And the inverter provides power to our house. Now, wait, remember that at every old or condition of all day or having z power all day, the inverter provides power from the solar panels during daylight and at night we take power from the utility. Now we will find that something difference here. The difference is that if we have a forward tones or utility, we said that when we have a bolt-on utility, the inverter automatically disconnects, forms a grid. Now, when it's disconnects from the grid, we don't have any power to our house. In order to fix this problem, we add z over z of grid system, which is that battery. We have ZP3, we have z grid, and we have our home. So as the battery itself or it can be AC generator, whatever it is, it is a backup power. The customer often use the hybrid inverter systems with solar panels in order to keep the power going during applied, I would of z grid or a fault on Z grant. So we takes about from the solar panels to the inverter, inverter recharging the batteries. This one inverter includes, of course, inside it's the charge controller, is it is integrated inside it. So the inverter charges the batteries, provides power to our house AC power by inverting the AC to DC. And at the same time provides power to the grid or takes apart from the grid, the two-hour house using zai means panel. Now in case of z power out here or the outage of Ziebarth from the grid. We invert Z power from the battery and write it to our house or our home. Hyper power system is the best of both worlds. You never need to worry about being without power. We take a bunch of off-grid system. The advantage of on-grid system, off and on grid system together combined to as providing us with the hybrid system. But Z problem of this system, it is very expensive because the batteries, we have batteries, we have our grid. When I've inverters, we have more different components and difficult more than Z on-grid and of grid systems. Sometimes instead of patterns we have generated. So you'll increase the cost on yourself. We will see that here, an example of a hybrid inverter, this hybrid inverter, hybrid solar inverter. We'll see we have an LCD display in order to two boards are settings for Z hybrid inverter. You will find here z in both Fords, the battery inside it better the input plus and the minus positive and negative, which takes us from Z buttery. We have that BV input terminals plus or minus from the PV panels. We combined all of our PV system and the connected it to z BV in both here, we have our BV plus and minus 4s, EBV, zap, better input plus and minus. And the finally we have our AC input. And the AC output is the ACI, which we can take from it and satisfy our loads or postpone. And the AC input from the grid funds that this is a hybrid which contains all of this wall components in one. You'll see here is that it's supplies our loads. They exit from Z patterns or takes apart forms hepatitis or a charge, z batteries, whatever is the case. And forms a utility connected to the utility and the connected tos or soul or BV balance. Now another type of the inverters which is used in water pumping systems. We have this system which is very simple. We have the solar panel, which will provide the DC power, of course, it to an inverter, which is used in solar water pumping cases. This one will provide power to a three-phase motor, or a single phase motor. Motor is a pump which is used for pumping water. It can be a submersible or underwater or surface surface motor or a surface pump. According to this, you can't find z inverter amount of power required and the forearms or solar panel required. We will also go into add the design of water pumping system in our course. Now another type of z inverters, which is used as a string and centralized inverters autos difference between them. This one is a string inverter case, and this one is a centralized inverter case. C is a string. As a string inverter. What does mean? It means that for each one strength, we have inverter funds here 12344 panels are connected in series, forming one string z positive, and we have the other side which is negative, which provides of course in DC and connected to one inverter. Inverter here for this one string, for this string 1234 connected in series, all of them are having the positive and the negative connected to one inverter and its southern. What does this mean? It means that for each one strength we have one inverter. And then the output, which is the ACR, all connected in parallel. Each string have one inverter and the final output is connected to Giza. Now in centralized the type, all of our BV parents are connected to one inverter. We have some string, but I told us our string to another string forming an array which have a positive and the negative terminal and the dyes in order to prevent flowing over the current tools panels. In case of z, I would put Z gets off no sunlight, which means that no outward forms the panels. In order to prevent this reverse about from ZP3 tools, panels that we have to add, reverts to bites or blocking bytes. Now you will find that all of this, which form is one array, is connected to only one centralized inverter, one large inverter, that each string here is connected to one inverter, String, incessant string type inverter. String connected to one inverter. Inverters are connected in parallel. You'll see one inverter here better to another inverter, better to another inverter, in better providing that total power. Okay? High reliability, high reliability in this case. Why? Because if we have of course exists inverter have a fault is in z OS or two inverters or the other inverters rule is still provide power to our system. That we have high availability since it's the odd all in pattern. And if one is our zingy, others will provide power. If one inverter has a fault use asked lowest part of z power, not the total power as a centralized inverter. You see here in centralize the inverter. We have only one inverter. So if a fault occurred in this one or a problem of Gordon's this inverter, then we laws that total power. But if a fault occurred in a string inverter, only one inverter is our end. All of the other inverter exists. But the problem is that needing the largest space due to the requirement of larger number of inverters. You'll see here in the centralized, we need one inverter, just one inverter. But in the string inverter we need the large number of inverters connected in parallel. It will need largest base. Due to having larger space. Then it won't cause us more cost. And of course, a larger number of inverters, that means higher cost. Centralized. All students are connected together forming the larger LE, or strings are connected in parallel, forming one large array, which is connected to one centralized inverter. Zap problem is losing is a total power in case of default in the centralized inverter will find that in case of Z mega scale or large scale BB system, we use that string inverters are large. Number of string inverters are like hundreds of inverters. Instead of using one centralized sometimes if you use one centralized, sometimes we use string inverters. Most of them can be used in large scale or mega watt generation. Now you'll see here another image for this. You will find here that this one is a string, string, string, and all of the strings or embed forming one larger array. This string will provide positive and then negative 21. Large centralized inverter. To provide power Is three-phase power. Now in this case we have one string connected to one inverter String to connect it to one inverter, String to one inverter. All of them are in parallel. So we have a string inverter case and centralized inverter case. Here is also, we can have one parallel was one in one inverter, one panel was one inventor, one Bannon. And in this case, this is called micro-inverters because it's connected with one banana only. This system has a high cost, but high efficiency will understand it in the next two slides. Now we see is that the central inverter, it takes that DC from all of the solar arrays or the solar panels. Strings better into EHRs are forming array or group of arrays. Then we have a combiner box to combine all of this power together. Zen providing ZAP positive and the negative two is a central inverter which will provide power to the grid. String inverters, group of strings in battle. String number one, which provides to an inverter giving AC DC, giving me storing extra inverter, and giving AC, DC to invert or giving AAC. All of this are embedded and couldn't get the two's agreement. So now we understand the differences between a string type and centralized inverter. Another type is the micro-inverters. What does the micro-inverters do in a set of using a string inverter which is used as a tool, a string and invert it. We use micro-inverters. This one is used for each panel. One panel have one micro-inverters, each abandoned have its own inverter. Will find that it is a power sine wave, sine wave, sine wave output. You'll find here is that it works with the maximum power point tracking technique. So it has a charge controller inside it. What can be from 22 to 60 voltage DC. And the output in this case will be from 90 volt to 140 volt AC according to what? According to the input to it. Okay, The output here is 50 or 60 hertz. Now you can find that here we have 12, this is positive and the negative is, this is a DC input. Number one is at negative here. The number two is positive. So it comes from what comes from the BEV battery with the male and the female and the connected tos or DCM mode here. Number four is used for and then now, or it can be used for wireless communication in order to communicate with all of the micro inverter, in order to control them or to get z data from Zim. You will find here it is working on the technique of z power line carrier technique or communication be LLC communication. Now we will find that this one, number three is this one is the AC hours. This is used to provide easy outward positive and negative. You see is that in this case we use one inverter, one micro inverter is used for each panel. It converts DC, our directory to AC suitable for Zack grid. High efficiency about high cost if system as number of inverters increases, as number of panels increase. Now you'll find the year two schemes for that micro-inverters. We have a single-phase micro-inverters, single-phase scheme, and three-phase scheme will find the Arians a single phase. We have only one phase line and a neutron. You will find that the ball step and the negative goes to the inverter from each abandoned. And z inverter converts it into DC with a line and a neutron. Also bylaw number to provide the Z positive and the negative twos I inverter. The inverter converts it into AAC was positive and negative, and its other I n, the number of inverters. All of them are connected in parallel. Then it will provide us with line and the neutral which goes into a circuit breaker or a switch in order to turn it on 12. And the meter to calculate z power provided Tuesday grant. This meter. Z amount of power injected to the grid is calculated by something which is called fit in therapy. What does feed in tariff means? It means that that amount of money or the amount of dollars or amount of centers bear each kilowatt hour, but provide this to the grid. For each one kilowatt hour provided Tuesday grid, I will take for example, $1. This is just an example. According to feed in tariff. Feed in tariff. Let's write it. So someone may ask me, feed, feed. What does this representing? This representing z over z cost. For example, dollar for each kilo watt hour or for each energy kilowatt hour provided to the grid. So this sort of representing z equals in the contract with the grid yours, a utility for each one kilowatt hour provided to the grid, how much dollars I will get. A three-phase electrical scheme. You will find here is that we have panel, panel, panel in the panels and in inverters. Now in order to provide the three-phase, remember that in the three phase system, we have Z a, B, C, red, yellow, blue, or whatever according to the system, three-phase system plus xA neutral and the grounding for the protection for as a grounding of course, connected from Z inverter to it because it is a metallic structure in order to prevent these are electric shock from the inverter itself. So we have to provide the grounding against leakage account balance connected here, providing AAC is this one is C and this one AC. You will find that inverter number one, for example, provides two phase number. A. Neutral face numbering ends and neutral ends the ground fault protection. Inverter number two provides for phase number of B and the neutral. And the ground for protection. Number three provides two. Phase number c, neutral and the ground. Then after this panel number four, it will be a. And then you alternate. Number five, B and C and the neutral and it's other y in order to provide balance. On this three phase, since it provides power to the three-phase, we try to balance is a three-phase by providing inverters equally across the three phase, will find that global inverters connected to phase a and the neutron. Another group connected to phase B and the neutron, another group connected to phase C and neutral. This is how we can connect this app micro-inverters in case of a three-phase system. And how can we connect with them in case of a single phase system. Now with the inverter size and data sheet, you will find that the inverter size usually is a single phase is less than ten kilowatt. Size available in less than ten kilowatt is a single phase. But the three-phase kind of start from five kilowatt and higher. And sometimes you can find less than five kilowatt. Usually for larger scale or mega scale, we use a three-phase inverter, senses our power in mega. In this case, we'll use a three-phase system. Single-phase is used for a small-scale or small power generation. Now, here's an example of the inverter data sheet. This is a data sheet for Sonny Boy inverter unemployment, which is a famous company for inverters. You will find that here we have signing 0.4 thousand T L21, sign a boy, 5 thousand T L21 does. 4 thousand and demand for 1000 means the amount of kilowatt generated at rated power. This is the rated kilowatt. Rated walked 4 thousand to what is the rated output power? Or four kilowatt. This one is 5 thousand kilowatt, 5 thousand watt, or five kilowatt. I'll find that in any point, for example, is a 4 thousand. You will find that the rated power here is the output rated power at 130 volts, 50 hertz. Give us 4 thousand to what? The written part for 5 thousand is 4,600, not 5 thousand, the bottom 4,600. You will find that the output here, Z maximum at Bear onto power AAC is the maximum AC power. The maximum hours, the apparent power is 4,004 volt and bear inverter. Remember that inverter can be used to provide DC power, sorry, not DC, but it can provide active power and the reactive power because it is an inverter by controlling it by using different techniques. And so as a inverter itself, we can inject active power or P, and the injected reactive power or q. So the apparent power of b plus j Q is 4 thousand volts. And birds, this is a maximum apparent power, or S. The Sony poll if five thousand, five thousand volts and there is the maximum power which can be generated. Maximum. They'll funds generated grid voltage at this rated power is 230 volt and this one to 130 volt. You can also see that phenomenon, AC voltage, which can be controlled at 120 volt, two hundred and thirty two hundred and forty two hundred and twenty two hundred and thirty and two hundred and four. And this is a nominal AC voltage values. And you'll find that z equivalent to current for each of them is the output currents to on-demand 20 gives us 18 to higher voltage means lower power, lower and bear, because we need to provide the same amount of power. 230 volt AC gives us lower amount of current, 230 volts. You can steam 0.7 and bear Z maximum Albert current, which can be provided by an inverter. Maximum amount, 22 for this time and 22 for this time. And total harmonic distortion, which metal representing the harmonics enzyme is the voltage less than 4, 4%. So in easily they can be connected to the grant because the total harmonic distortion here is 4%, which is less than five percentage is required. Now we'll find here also that frequency 50 hertz, 50 hertz, z AC power frequency 50 hertz or 6050 or 60, can provide both of them. As the range of AC frequency. It can operate at a frequency from 45 to 55 artists for 60 hertz, 50 to 60 to 65 hertz. So this is a range of the frequency which you can provide. This one is the range of the frequency which can provide and connected to it, or is there a connection to the grid? The displacement effect of cosine phi. It can be from the range of from 0.8 lagging. Two or 0.8 leading. All of these techniques is for electrical power engineers. Electrical power engineers can understand me well about this in bold and datasheet. You can find here also the maximum power DC power, maximum DC Bar at cosine Phi equals one. What does this mean? It means that the maximum DC power, which can be given, which is 4,100 watt and 5,201. What does this represent? This represents the DC power input from Z balance or from Z batteries. Those are Sonny Boy. 43. Construction of Hydro Electric Power Plant: So now in this lecture, we're going to discuss the hydro electric power blend. What is harder electric barbell In it Assembly A power plant which we depend this on is a potential energy of water in order to turn or operate our turbines in order to generate electricity. So we'll see here. In this figure, we have the construction off the hydro electric power plant. You'll see Here are is a war a damn a control gate. Binstock as you narrator after Brian a powerhouse and transform and, of course, is a river off the water. So now let's discuss is the importance of feature component number one the damn what is important off the them or the reservoir. The dam is constructed on a larger ever in Haley areas to ensure sufficient water storage at the height that them for Mazar larger is of war behind it, Zeit off the water, liver cold as water head, which is this one in the reserve, or deter minds how much off the potential energy is stored in it. So this reservoir contains the potential energy off the water, which reduces their their energy required before interest. The control gate, What's the control gate. It is that the water from the reservoir is allowed to flow through that Binstock which is this one? Those after pine. The amount of force which is to be released in the penny stock can be controlled The buyer control gate so that control get controlled The amount of water to be released. This rules have been struck by off course opening and closing this gate. When the control gate is fully open, the maximum amount of water is released. This rose up in stock. So when this one is a fully opens therefore the maximum amount of water will bows. So what is the pain in stock? Binstock is a huge steel pipe which carries water from that is a war does after buying the potential energy off this water is is converted toe kinetic energy as it flows down throws a Binstock and this kind of energy off course rotates. Is that rpai? Now what is a water turbine? A water turbine is a water from the pain in stock is taken into the water turbine. The turbine is mechanically coupled to an electric generator. This one the kinetic energy off the water derives at Zetter. Buying this water drives a turbine and rotates it, and the consequent pleases, you know, literally gets driven. There are two main types off the water tower pines. One of them is called the M, but set their brain. Second. The type is a reaction turbine. The difference between them is the impulse temper. Brian is used for large heads, and the action turbines are used for the low and the medium hit. That's the difference between them. The last component is the generators, as generator is mounted in the powerhouse and it's mechanically coupled to that are buying soft. This one. When the turbine blades are rotated, do does a kind and manage off the water. It drives judge, generator and electricity is generated, which is then Step the Abu's help of transformer for the transformation purpose. So as you know, that's a generation is at 3.3 kilovolts, for example, and then it goes to a step up transformer. Is this transformer step right upto 120 kilovolts, 500 kilowatts of 150 kilovolts, 1500 kilovolts any amount off kilovolt according toe that type off the transmission line of course you told decrease the losses in the transmission lines. Now there is an important thing which we should discuss is the surgery tank. Let's see it now. Now the important thing is a surge hitting. So what is the surgery? Think that search tanks are usually provided in high or a medium head power plant? When there is a south and reduction in the load on the turbines, the governor closes the gates also after buying to reduce the water flow. This is also prevented by using the search sitting in which the water level rises to reduce the pressure. On the other hand, the surge tank provides excess water needed wins. The gates are suddenly opened to meet the increased load demand. So simply you will see here is the same as before. There is a war and seven in Stoke and since the turbine and then connected toe the generator, you will see it and distancing, which is a surgery tank. This surge tank has a gate which open and the closest according toe, the water flow or sediment. So when we need water, this surge tank will provide water since a decrease abrasion and there is a war on the water comes out of here and takes toe direction here and the year. So it decreases of pressure on the wall. This tank wins a load, decreases therefore thes gets closes and therefore it provide this water here. The water is stored here, so decreases the pressure on somewhat 11. But when the demand increases, we will suddenly opens its gates and therefore the water will come from here and to come from here. So that surgery tank provides excess water in the need off excess load or, in the requirement off, producing more electricity. And it stores the water in there when there is a reduction in salute. 44. Nuclear Power Plant: Let's discuss is a nuclear power station. A nuclear bowl blend or a nuclear power station is a sermon power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor seven or to similar power stations. They it is used toe generate esteem, which drivers a steam turbine connected to an electric genetic which have reduced electricity. Now, let's see is a structure off their nuclear power station in order to generate electricity. Now we will see here for us is a reactor vessel or the nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor is the heart off the stage in its a central part that actors, of course, heat is generated by control. The nuke nuclear fission With this heat, air coolant is heated as it is bomblets rosary actor and their boy removes their energy from very active. Hit from the nuclear fission is used toe raise steam, which is Aransas rose after points which in turn powers there electrical generators and off course we can use in the nuclear reactor off course that you're running, which is a very heavy metal, that is our abundant owners. And they found in the sea water as well as most trucks and of course, this reactor is brought surrounded by a protective shield since it produced radio activity . And of course, this protective chills event that radioactive material from escaping or releasing into the environment and of course, is that many actors are equipped. Do is a dome off concrete to protect is a reactor against both internal and external impact . So simply what happens here? Random here, which has a very high temperature You tosa nuclear fission. And then you will see here this water which comes from here. Of course, you will see here a cycle for their the Hoat. You're on you and therefore there will be a hate extender with water and therefore this hot water will produce this team This team will cause is that they're buying Toby moved. And the boldness off this steam turbine is to convert is a hit contending the steam into mechanical energy. Therefore it is a couple does a generator. The generator convert is a mechanical power supplied by the turbine into electrical power and therefore they will see here AC condenser, which convert is that team in tow called water In order to bus it again here, Toby it and converting it into steam. And, of course, that generator buses room my step up transformer. Anything goes toe transmission lines, but you have to know that there is an important thing, which is the emergency power supply. Most of nuclear stations require two distinct sources off power feeding station surface transformers that are sufficiently separated infestations, switchyard and the Guaracy bar from multiple transmission lines. And even with the absence off this to their front of our sources, we also the nuclear position is equipped with emergency power in case off any problem. So, as we said before and I will say it again, you will see that inside nuclear position we will have more example supply. Why, in order to have the cooling system still be operating, because, of course, a visa the cooling system stopped. Therefore there will be accessed. It will happen or thousands of people will be killed. The end destruction end, of course, that radioactive material will be spread. Throws the entire area 45. Geothermal Power Plants: Now let's discuss that geothermal power. The geothermal power is a power generated boy. Geothermal energy. The geothermal power is considered to be a sustainable, trainable source off energy. Because I hate extraction. ISS more converted with the nurses. Heat content is, as you said, my ball stations are similar. Toe us, our esteemed toe point cinema power stations heat from a fuel source. In case off our courses and geothermal, you'll see that they hate source off course. The it's the score, which is used to heat water or another working fluid, is that working float is in use to turn after pine over a generator and thereby producing electricity. The fluid is then called undertone in tow, the heat source. Now let's discuss that the front of types off their Geo Cemal Bar Station number one is a dry steam power station. The dry steam stations are the simplest ends. All the society. They directly use the same esteem off water at 150 solicitors or greater toe turns after pints, CNN's a condenser. Water cools and is emitted back into the soil so the hot water comes here and sense. Of course, there is a control valve, ear and another control valve ear. And then this hot water for the steam bosses Rosa turbine, producing a mechanical energy which rotates the pine and then coupled the wizard generator producing electric energy. And then, of course, there is a condenser here where it bosses, again in tow, is injected back into the soil. The other type is a flash steam power station, the flash steam border station. In this time, the freshest importation body. High pressure hot water into lower pressure tanks and use the resulting flesh. This team toe, Dr Sattar points. They require flow temperature off at least 180 solicitous, usually more. This is the most common type off the station in operation today. The flesh steam plant issues juicer, Mel's reservoirs off water wisdom Britcher greater then surround. And 60 F or 182 solicitors without water flows up. Sorrows are wells in the ground under its own pressure. As it flows upwards. Pressure decreases on some of the hot water points. Interesting. The steam is in, separated from the water and used toe power, a turbine on a generator and, of course, the remaining steam or the remaining called the water will return them back into the soil, so we'll see a same as before. They're very hot water. Of course, that Richard is greater than here. Bosses through a tank in which would you have a lower pressure? The Flashes team bosses, Rosa turbine producing electricity on them bosses through a condenser and turned back here . And, of course, a cold water. From here comes this room that subsurface or their sorry again. 46. Simulation of Synchronous Machine Connected to Small Power System : Hi everyone. In this video we would like to simulate Z synchronous generator in power system and having a transmission line, having another swing bus or swing generator. We have a city phase fault. We need to know what is the effect of happening of the three-phase and after reaching steady-state condition. So all of this we will see now how we can simulate it inside Z MATLAB. First thing we are going to click on new Zen Simulink model. We will choose a blank model. Now, starting here with our Simulink model, for a single, we need a synchronous generator. So we are going to the Simulink library as always. Then we will type as synchronous machine. Will find here is that synchronous machine you'll find here to add type, which is the cilia and the machine. And the machine will see here is that we have a synchronous machine in Bertie on it values, fundamental better unit values. And do we have here a synchronous machine, baryonic standard. And we have a synchronous machine in Z or iSCSI or units or the fundamental SI units. So in this system we are dealing with power system. We need here to use that berry on it venues. In order to use that better unit values already chose that synchronous machine, baryonic fundamental. Right-click and add block to the model on title. We have here our synchronous machine. Let's maximize it a little bit. So we have here our synchronous machine, and you'll notice that this synchronous machine will be generated. So ABC is the output of the generator or the three-phase output auto-generated. M is the measurement board. We have BM or Zen mechanical input power to the machine. And do we have Vf or the excitation voltage enter to use the machine. For the synchronous machine itself, we would need to add here Z, mechanical input power and that field voltage. We can make the VL, the voltage you can understand and make them mechanical power constant. But two are not going to do those as well, going to do something the front inside this video, we are going to use our control system, such as a hydraulic turbine for the generator itself? Or does that Bob mechanical power? And we'll use for z field, we will use an excitation control system. We would use here a different thing. We need a closed loop in order to control or controls the excitation and the control Z mechanical in both those degenerate. Going back to Simulink. First, we need the excitation excitation system. It will Control Z field voltage. Will find the excitation system as this one or this one, whatever. Right-click, Add block those a model on tightened. This is the excitation system. This one is excitation system, which provides that field the voltages to our generator. Now, we need that buy-in or hydraulic turbine. High, draw, lick, lick, dirt or by right-click and add block, does the model on tight. Okay, so we'll have here our mechanical in biopower, which is in-between generator, synchronous generator, and we have Z control or excitation system, whichever provide this field of voltage a to Z I synchronous machine. Now we will find here we need an omega France be a reference omega E z electrical power or electrical power generated. And d omega is our variation in z is bead. Omega is that bid outwards is bit of xij generator or speed of the generator itself and radian per second. We're reference, reference voltage for their excitation system, 3D and V-Q. And as a voltage stabilizer, if we have a stabilizer, then we will add here. We wouldn't have stabilizer and connect it to 0 supplies. We don't have one, so we'll use our ground. And then choose any one. Which one, which one that says Add link. Adds a block to the model entitled, okay, let's see if it will work or not. Selecting this one like this. And entering here. So if we don't have a voltage stabilizer, which you know is it is something which is called Z power system stabilizer. If you have it, then you would add a block for it and connect it to here. If you don't have it, then you will make it 0 by connecting it to the ground. Now we need to dereference omega reference and the reference. So we need a constant. Right-click and add block does the model on titled tags, this one here. We'll make 123 blocks. Connect this one here. Double-click this one here, and click on it. This one here. Collect on it. We have z, omega France, Francis bead embedded unit system be a reference embedded on it. And we reference these values is used at two megs. A control loop or Zach laws the lobe to reach a steady-state faster. According to the Simulink program itself. If you look at the MATLAB going to MathWorks website, you will find that that beer reference default value is 0.75. I will tell you now something if you make it one, if you'll make it 0.75, whatever, you will find that z-value of the abbot will be the same. It is just the **** bit to reach a steady-state first. Now we have, we need omega e be mechanical, mechanical power or electrical power, and z omega. How we can get these values and IVD and V-Q video and the VQ is direct excess voltage. V q is q axis voltage. Remember that this one is a hydraulic turbine. Since it is a hydraulic turbine, then it is salient machine. Double-click here it is at salient type machine. Why? Because the hydraulic system have lowest bid. So we use salient, the type synchronous machine and z round or z non salient is used for Z faster generators such as the diesel generator. How we can get this value simply by using the boss selector bus selected. First time, we will add block to the model on title bus selector. This one. Let's make it bigger like this. Take it here and control. Control. You will find that control plus I use the total flip X0 block, get z measurement ear, and both adhere to the bus. Now what is the value is needed? Omega0, b, dW, Vdb Q. So double-click, delete the signals, select all and delete. Then first thing we need z omega AB. Okay? Let's choose all of our values. First, we need the DQ components. Let's see dq components, which is V D and V Q. Going here, VD select stator voltage V-Q component of VD, and the component of VQ is required the Ford is excitation system. In order to reach a steady-state for Zack laws, the loop. We need heat says speed. So speed is related to the mechanical. We need BE, which is electrical tower. Select. We need that d w and omega e. Omega e, which is rotary speed. Select the we need that variation in being DW. Select. So we have 123123 and we need VD week. We have VdV dequeue. We can add another thing for ourselves, which is a load angle. Here we need the B naught means that I would act a bar. Note here that Z electrical power. We find that it is b0 and b0 all which means that our robot or related to the Albert active plot, since we need only the act about for this lobe. So we will select it and select this is one where it is it mechanical electrical power. Delete it. This is the one which is required for 0 B0 all or the mega electrical output active power. And do we need load angle in order to see what happened to the load angle delta Forza generator itself. Going up here, we need also the stator current. Let's see, whereas the stator current here select to see, for example, Z sets or current IA, what will happen to it due to the presence of fault and the reaching steady-state. The first one is stator voltage V d. So take it here, VD, Lexis. And second one is a state of voltage V-Q. So take here, this one, here, V Q. Or you can just go to here, stand at it with the mouse. You'll find that the one is a mechanical rotor speed omega m, omega m. This one. Here is the number for z d w, dw. Number five is the load angle lift. Okay, leave it now. I would add to the power p naught, B naught here. Now we need to seize delta and the z guarantee. We will use a scope, scope block to the model on titled Zen control and drag. Now we will connect this first one to z Delta. This one is z load angle. This is a scope for Z stator current. Okay. Now we're provided feedback obviously Albert from z measurement back to Z, Z hydraulic turbine controller, which is the governor. And here z excitation system, control for the excitation system giving feedback from the measurement board. Now we need that a, B, C and the output connected to add transformer. We will assume that we have of our system. So that power generated here will be connected to a transformer. Transformer connected to our transmission line, then TO another generator and embedded with eight Z load and z three phase fault. Now going back here, we need Z transmission line or the transformer first transformer, transformer transform. Now what the type of the transform menu do? We need a three-phase transformer? We need a primary and secondary. That's all what we need. So it is a two winding, primary and secondary. You will find either three-phase transformer, three windings, one primary and two secondary transformer winding only primary and seconds. This one is that one needed ad block the OSI model untitled. Legs as they exist. They exist one here. And the final is this one. This is a three-phase transformer. Now if we double-click on Z generator itself, you will find the parameters for the synchronous machine, such as the power generated involved and Bear power. And the line to line voltage in automatic, and the line to line ends our frequency of operation, which is 60 hertz. Now here's a line to line voltage of the power generated is 13.8 kilo volt, or 13,800 kilovolts, 1300 kilo voltage, only certain 0.8 kilo volts. So this is the voltage generated and this is a frequency generic, okay? We will make this one delta delta star connection to rule, but reduce that delta connection. This one will be a delta and this one would be his star. This is a step-up transformer. Now Z parameters, we need the input voltage. This is nominal power frequencies is 13, okay? We need the voltage of the primary to be 13.8 kilo volt. We have here a bar three, which means ten power three. We need is a primary to be similar to the generator. So 13.8, so this representing z0 is 13.8 multiplied by temperature three, representing z kilo volt in both two. Transformer itself. And the output of the transformer, we will assume it is at 230 kilovolt. 230 kilo volt mix up on uncertainty kilovolt. We have here I delta star connection, delta star connection transformer. We need now our transmission line. Here, transmission line, transmission line. You'll notice that there's a different configuration for the transmission line. For example, you are going to z bimodal. So as you're bimodal, which is similar USDA for this library, which is the power Library, is a three-phase, since we have heat as three-phase system. Like this, three-phase in both three-phase out, we need as three-phase bimodal. This one, three-phase bisexual multiple ad block to the module on titled exist. They exist one here, this one here, and this one here. Now what is Z? Next step, we need to add Z load and we need to add as three-phase generate. So z naught will be load. The load. Let's go down and see as three-phase node. Three-phase, see it as are a lesson. We're going to add a block to the model and tightened like this. We need also a three phase fault. Fault. Fault. Why is the fault in order to seize the response of the power system to Z fault having as three phase fault connect ad block to the model on Python. They get here. Then control I control our first Zen control. I flip the block like this. Now we need finally voltage source. Voltage source. Now, the voltage associated used is a three phase source. Right-click Add block to the model on titled. We are here simulating a power system as if we are dealing with A-bar system, having guy synchronous generator, transformer, transmission line load. We have another generator inside our Grid and z, three phase fault or getting here. And we need to see the response of our system. It takes this one here, control or he likes this. Now connect this one here, a to B to C to C By exists and connect the a, B. C is fault a, B and C. In addition to this, we will add a load here, Control and drag care air exist one here, a, B, and C. Now let's see all of our components here. For example, if we look at x0 bimodal, yours is that here we can see is a frequency used. Second stimuli artist. And you'll find here as 0 sequence positive, negative z lying lands in kilometer. All of these values is available here in order to change it as you would like. Now looking at our load, load configuration is why connected load and grounded and denominator phase to phase voltage or line-to-line voltage is one hundred ten hundred. Here, Z line to line voltage, as we'll see. The secondary, this is a primary. Secondary is 230 kilo volt. So we will make this 130 kilovolts. Where is it here? 213 kilo volt. We can make it ie, sitting, okay, 230 kilovolt apply. We can make capacitive reactive power 0. And that after Board 0, assuming the resistive load here we are going to do is the same, but the voltage here is 13.83. Because here z voltage at Z primer here is 13.8 kilo volt line to line voltage. Makes this 10 and this one z. We have here a load at the generator and we have another load I have towards Z transmission line. Now let's see is that three phase fault. You will find here the front two parameters such as default or resistance. The ground that resistance, resistance, capacitance. And you can change these values as you would like. Number two, you can find here is that Z fault here. Short-circuit here, is occurring between phase a, phase B, phase C, and the ground. So this is a three-phase symmetrical fault with the ground. If we make it remove this one and this one, then it will be between phase a and the ground, which means at line to ground fault. If it is like this, then between two phases and the ground, so it is line to line to ground. Will make it like this. Then it will be line to line to line as three phase fault or getting between the three phases only without the ground. But the most severe one is three-phase with the ground. Now we will find it on other things, switching times. What does this represent? Representing the innocence of applying the fault and the innocent of openings default. So at one over 60-second, Z fault will be connected to this line as if we have a pdfs fault. And at the time of five of our 60-second Z fault is cleared or remote from our system. We will assume app buoyant one. And assume buoyant to. Now what this is, this is our swing phase, phase to phase voltage. And let me make it also. What is the value that we choose to under uncertainty as I remember, 200 and don their uncertainty kilo volt, okay. So 230. Okay. We chose that face-to-face voltage apply. Then. Okay. What does this do? This is if you look at the load flow, is this is a swing degenerate. What is that swing generator? It means that it is the largest generator in our power system. It supplies the remaining load, and it is the largest generator in the system. We'll find here is that this one supplies to supply the loads, this one and this one. And this generator also chairs with a certain power. Now we revert our power system. The only thing remaining is z power GUI block. Again, what is the benefit of z power GUI block? Ebola goal we go II block is usually to analyze our system or sold with z equations in our system. The ODE or z differentiate equations in our system. Okay, linear or nonlinear equations. In order to finally see z final values in the scope after and before the default during transient conditions. So here if we apply as a continuous starting run, you will see that here it will take a longer time in doing the analysis. You will find here, look at the tongue itself TO 0.55 multiplied by £10 negative cities, Sarah, and 0%. So it will take longer time in solving our spar system. In this case, what does the MATLAB do? Let's see now what does the MATLAB say? Go here. You will find that here. You will find that we, as it has a method called as a phase or simulation method, is this method is used the two studies, or electro mechanical oscillations of power systems consisting of larger than haters and the motors. So as an example of this message is a simulation of a multi machine in a three-phase system. So in order to study is that electro-mechanical oscillations when a photo or a variation in the load angle delta in assist him having larger than a leader's group of generators and motors. In this case, we'll use that phasor solution. Let's get back here. What is the phase of social and how we can do this simply by going to zap continuous double-click. And you will find here in the block, you will find the results or solver type is called desert continuous time. If you click on it, you will find that this grid and vasopressors are three different methods of solving our system. This grid simply takes samples of time, funding or assembled time if we make it 0.1. What does this do? It simply Apply and Okay, and I will show you what. It will happen if we choose this option. Now, if we open any scope like this one, look what will happen. You will find here at every instance of will find that after solving it, it will give us this value for which one load angle that add 0, it has this value at 0.1, it goes down to is this value. Then add another o after 0.1, it will go to another value after 0.1 goes to another value and so on. So basically here what happens? It divided Z system and towards a solution into discrete or steps. It's always the steps, as he told, was the Apollo system in steps, it's always at 0.1.2 points three. Then we connect them together as a step function. This is not a continuous solution. In this case. We use z solution which is called design phase or solution. The frequency is 60 hertz. Now someone may tell me now, when I double-click on z power GUI, I can't change this one from continuous to any other values. It is constant and they cannot change it. So how can I open this one? You can go to Z settings or right-click and configuration parameters. Then go to this over here. And you will find here is that we have the solver. You will find here we have a different the types of solver for the ODE or the differential equations. Here, different methods. You can choose any of them and you can read about each of them to understand when to use them or which one we should use. So as an example, weekend use this one. This one which is called dizzy Vygotsky champagne. Okay. I think I pronounce it correctly. This is one of the methods of solving ODE to Albertsons together one, Andy is a student, Vygotsky and champagne. I think. I don't know how to pronounce it any way you can choose, for example, this one. And you'll find that when you select this one is different from this one and you'll find different solutions. So for example, we choose this one and Apply and Okay. You will find that when you double-click, you can now change it from continuous to any value. I'm talking about with previous versions of Z MATLAB program. Now click on, Okay. Now let's see if we start the simulation. Let's make it 30, for example, and store disaster simulation at 630, similar to the previous values you will find the exact simulation is now faster than before. Now the simulation finished. Let's see the values. We apply default at 0.1 and declare date at 0.2. So the first one here, let's see this one is the load angle that Double-click. This is the load angle delta and its variation with time. So Z, load angle at first, except breast drowns and condition and very high frequency oscillations due to the presence of fault. And afterwards the fault is cleared, you will find that the power system is going to do that steady-state condition. Now let us see almost one. This one is a stator current, double-click. Like this. You will find here adds up beginning. It was too high frequency oscillations. And the higher value, you will see that 55 means five per unit, which means five times its rated value. Find very high currents, very high frequency and high currents due to what? Due to a basis of fault. And then clearing this folder. This will cause high frequency oscillations. Then Zika and stores to go into the steady-state and finally becomes steady. So this is the load angle and this one is z current. Now as an example to show you is that if I change this one too, for example, one Xin run. Let's see what will happen to our system or winnings there. Load angular scope, nothing to change. It is the same. The current is less than one video on it. Lesson one body on it. This is how to simulate a power system in MATLAB. Now, let's see another thing here. Now. If we change the silhouette, for example, if this load is ten power t multiplied by t b