Transcripts
1. Electricity Generation Promo Video: Hi and welcome everyone
to our course for electricity generation,
for electrical engineers. What are you going to
learn in this course? This course is designed for
anyone who would like to start learning about with
electrical generation systems. What we are going to
do is that we will learn how well does
the electricity is generated or how do we
generate electrical power. Also, we will understand what
are the different types of electrical generators used
in our electrical system, such as synchronous generators
and induction generators. We will also start
understanding what are the different types
of these generators, which are the induction and
synchronous generators. We will understand what
are their different types. Then we are going to learn
about different types of electrical power plants or the electrical generating
power stations, such as hydroelectric,
wind energy system, as our solar system, geothermal, and
nuclear power plants. You will learn as a principle of operation of each
generating power plant. Also in this course, we will start learning apart
with two important topics, which is a wind energy
and solar energy. Will learn is a basics
of wind energy and the basics of solar
energy or wind energy. We will start learning about the different types of wind
turbines which are used to convert that mechanical power from the wind into
electrical power. We will learn about
words that I wrote or solidity incites
a wind turbine. And how can we
select the number of photo plates or the optimum
number of photo plates. Also, we will learn about Zack gearbox and
it's a function. We will learn about how
we can get the equation which representing desire power extracted by the
turbine from a wind. We will learn about
with coefficient, very important coefficient
in wind energy system, which is pizza limit. Maximum brutal efficiency. We will learn about different
factors affecting both of Zara's speed of the wind
and the density of air. We will also learn
about the applied force on the window and Pi and
buys out wind itself, the torque coefficient
and the tip speed ratio. That wind turbine
generator characteristics, effect of the rotor diameter and generate or size
on the power generate. Finally, the wind turbines, spacings and space between
different wind turbines. So all of this are considered as the basics
of wind turbines. We will go into. Z is lessons step-by-step
in order to help you understand everything about
with basics of wind energy. Now for the another
part of this course, which is the basics
of solar energy, we will learn about the
fundamentals of solar energy. Components ends at
xi1 of the on-grid, off-grid solar systems types and says selection
of solar modules, types of the charge controllers, types of the different
solar inverters, selection of suitable
tilt angle and shading effect MBB
systems will have to understand that here we will
learn the fundamentals. What I mean by some fundamentals
that we will understand. How can we convert the solar energy into
electrical energy. We will learn what are the
different types of balance? How can we select the
different types of charge controllers which are
used to charge batteries? We will learn about the types of different solar inverters. And how can we select
a delta angle? And what is the meaning of shading effect MBB systems or components of the
on-grid, off-grid system. Forza design. I may add it to this course, or you will find it
in the other course, which is solar energy course. Now, who is this course for? This course is designed for electrical engineering
students who would like to learn
about degeneration, originating electrical
power plants. Electrical power students, complete beginners who
don't know anything about electrical generation or
electricity generation and would like to get knowledge on
electricity generation. Also, it is also designed for electrical engineers like to refresh the knowledge in
electricity generation. Saying Q. And hope to see you in our codes for a
trustee generation.
2. Introduction to Generation: Hi and welcome everyone to my own courts for
generation of electricity. As this course is brought to you by engineer am at Maddie. What are we going to
learn in our course? The first thing is that
we are going to discuss Z definition of generation
of electricity. Number two, why do we generate
electricity is a reason why we are generating
electricity in the first place. Zen, we are going to
discuss Z types of synchronous machines
and it's a definition. Zen when we are going to discuss his induction machine
and its own types. We are going to discuss
also the hydro-power plant and its types is that
D is about plant, fossil fuels power plant, nuclear power plant, a
geothermal power plant. When the energy and solar
energy power plants to also xhat, concept of dispatch ability. And finally z load demand. And after all of this, we will also discuss
our comparison between z different generating
power plants from z perspective of air, Costas and Azar factors. This r, z content of our course. This course is for electrical
power engineering students. This will be helpful for
you to identify is that different machines using
generation process and the different power plants, which electrical power
engineers walk in. Thank you and I hope to
see you in my own course.
3. Definition of Generation: In our first video, we would like toa, identify the definition off generation. So what's mental boy? Electricity generation or electrical power generation? Electricity generation is simple. Easy process off generating electrical power from sources off primary energy. It means that we are converting or generating electrical power from a different sources, like solar energy, kinetic energy, mechanical energy and these different types of energy. We convert them into electrical energy. So for electrical utilities or in our power system, the electricity generation is considered as the first stage in the delivery off electricity to our induced. The other stages are the transmission is inside distribution off this electrical power and then find many that stage, which is a utilization where we are using our electricity so assembly again electricity generation. It is a process off generating electrical power. We are generating electricity from sources like fossil fuels hydropower plants, which means we are generating electricity from the kinetic energy off water. Do dozy zoo waterfalls where the water moves our turbines and generate electricity, or from solar energy, where we convert using BV cells from solar energy into electrical energy. So let's see our power system. Now we have here An overview toe our poor system, How our power system or our electrical system looks like. So the first stage in our system is that generation, which is this spot. Okay, that generating power station, which is generates electricity at a voltage nearly toe. Listen, think in a vault. Okay, Then we use as step up transformer. A transformer used the toe interest Z voltage or step up the voltage. So it simply takes is the voltage from the generating station that 10 kilovolts, for example, and step it up. Increases it upto 138 kilovolt. 230 kilovolt surround and 54 kilovolt 500 kilovolt 700 kilovolt. So assembly we generate our electricity in our course using the different generating stations such as the solar BV planets or wind the Bryants or our fossil fuels diesel generators and different types off Z generators which we are going to discuss in the course . So after generating, is that electricity? In our first stage, we transmit this power we transfer or transmit this power using transmission line This process school dizzy transmission which is our second the stage in our poor system. Okay, we transmit the electrical energy from the generating power plant in tow, Our distribution system. Then at this point, we decreases the voltage again, okay? And there, decreasing off the voltage or cares in a different steps. So finally gets revolted, which is required in the distribution network. In the distribution network, we have our end user customer, for example, in our homes, like you and me, for example, in Egypt we used 220 a vault as a phase voltage or several 180 volt as aligned line voltage . So we talk the voltage here we increased devoted using a step up transformer. Then we transmit this power at the high voltage in order to decrease the losses in our transmission lines. Then we use the step down transformer toe decreases the voltage. Then we the crease dizzy voltage again in our various steps until we reach our final customer, which is me and you with a voltage 120 volt or 140 volt or, for example, in Egypt. 220 volt s f phase voltage and sir 180 volt as allying voltage. So this is Waas. The first stage is a generation part which we are going to discuss second, the part which is the transmission office and interesting. That certain part is the distribution off this electricity. On the final is the customer, which is the black one, which means that utilization or their usage off this electrical power. So this waas simply how a ball system looks like
4. Why do we generate electricity: there is an important question. Why do we generate electricity? Why do we need electricity? OK, electricity is really important in our life. We use it Number one to run your up lancers at home we was eight for TV Reverend Graito. A sea or air conditioning, then electric oven, electric stoves, laptops and lots more. Okay, so we nearly use it in every single part in our home number two used it in Transportacion. As you know, that there is a type of train called Dizzy Electric train. We use it also in your plans. We use it also in electrical cars which runs off course on a interesting in the medical sector or on hospital that we use X ray machines, s egy and other various or different devices which work on electricity. So the reason why we use that electricity is that we use it in nearly every sector off our life. We use it in lighting. We use it in our home, up the answers. We use it in laptops. We use it in Transportacion such as a little trains, electric cars. We use it in our medical sector or the hospitals such as the X ray and different and medical equipment. Okay, all of them work on trust. So what are the the front sources off electricity? OK, so we can use or generate electricity from non renewable sources off energy or 100 noble fuels such as schools. The calls when ZR permanent is a produced amount off heat. This heat causes the water tow become a superheated steam. This so but heated steam used it'll Dr Zito Brian's which finally generates electricity. We have also wind energy which causes the when the males to rotate, then causing this a generation off electricity and we will discuss is the double fit induction generate Oh, which we use NZ wend energy. We are also in waterfalls in orderto produce hydroelectric energy. We use the kinetic energy and the movement off water in orderto move or rotate that their pints and finally generating electricity, who is also the affordable take or the solar energy by using BV cells or photovoltaic toe convert is that solar energy into electrical energy
5. How do we generate electricity: so we have now an important question. How do is generate electricity so we can generate electricity by using two types off as generators? The 1st 1 is seeing Chronos generators, and 2nd 1 is the induction generators. They are bosses in Maine pipes you will find in Zippo system. You have to know that most of's Asian raters are seeing Chronos A generators. You will find this increments generators in fossil part planters in hydropower plants and nearly every or almost every power plant working on fossil fuels. The induction generators are found with a little percentage about Diarios in Z and Power Plant Is or Z power sources, which have a variable is beat or a variable amount off energy with respect. Oh, time. So this increments generator used the Wiz that Monday noble source of energy, which is representing the larger percentage off our power system. The induction generators are found with a little percentage, but as they are used in poor polenta such as the went to Brian's because they have a variable amount off power with respect to time and the variable speed okay, they don't to produce a constant amount off power. The induction however, the induction motors RZ widely most or the most used the type off induction machines or the motors, in the meantime, is induction motors and the synchro MUS. Motives are very, very little. Okay, so most off hours in the raters are sink Rama's generators and most off our motors are considered as induction motors because induction motor that can work at a variable is beat , they don't have a constant speed, he can work and the produce torque at a different speeds, and we'll sing in this course. Helen Induction Motor Works.
6. Difference between induction generator and synchronous generator : so the difference between this in chroma generator and induction generator from a comparison or point of view number one is a synchronous generator s capable off producing boss off active power and the active power. However, the induction generator only produces active board. So the act of our which is he be or the active power is the power consumed. The buys, a resistive loads very active power, or Q is a power consumed. The Peyser inductive loads, so we'll find that, for example, the electric motors are considered as our elude. They have resistance and have an inductive. It's so we need both off active and reactive power toe feed is this Lords number two most off the power system Generators, as we said before, are considered as think. Promus. That's increments. Machines are used in hydro, non renewable sources off energy power plants. Then diction generator can be used in power system Bradley, but they are used the invariable energy, such as the wind energy that's in chroma generator halves, their own magnetic field. It can be both off or one off this permanent magnet or have a field wine and will see in the scores again how was in chronic Shinn editor works? The induction generator cannot generate their own magnetic field so they cannot supply. The active bar is the need Toby connected toe regret in order to be magnetized. Okay, so again, the difference between them is that in cross can produce active, active power induction only produce at the bar. Most of the generators are seeing Promus the induction and found the Riley in the whole system used in variable energy such as solar energy and wind energy that's in chroma generator have its own magnetic field, but the inductions in the rate or does not have its own magnetic field. It required toe be connected to sigret toe. Absorb a Q or reactive power four magnetism, ation or it can be self excited, and this will be also discussed in the course.
7. Principle of Operation of Synchronous Generator: the first type off decision raters. Is that sink Rama's generate? So what is the components or the imposition off passing chroma generator. So this as an example off us in Chronos generator, it consists is off us three main parts number one ABC, which is a state or winding the stationary wide things are winding, which are mock movie. Okay, second, the part is the air gap. Okay, The certain part is zero toe support in that same Chronos generator which rotates. So the synchronous generator has a rotating the part. The station reports the three phase A and B and C and shifted boy 120 the green The rotor is connected. Toa d c supply. Okay, so as this whining will have a current and then produces a magnetic feed So simply again the winding or the field winding which is connected on the euro Tor, it's connected toe supply. Z supply produces current Wednesay current bosses Rosie coin or the field. The winding will produce a magnetic field. Okay, this system can be represented as the following. We have here a three phase system, the syriza state winding. We have our rotor, which it can be a form it as our winding connected to a D. C. Supply s stationary d C. Supply how we can connect at rotating the part with a stationary DC supply by using his air . Something which is called the Communicator and Process as the you are used to connect the stationary D C supply with a rotating wrote. Okay, so now let's see Zine How toe or the principal off operation off the Cinquanta generator. So again you'll feel you'll find here that we have in the face a Frisbee. And if a C H off them has its own color, they are shifted by 120 degrees. So as you know that in our system or power system, we have a three face winding shifted by 120 degree. For example, if we have a face voltage A. So it will be vey and angle equal to zero. It be will have a V and angle 120 degree or minus 120 degree C will have B and 120 degree the city phase system. So how does I think groaners generator work number one is the field winding here is supplied by electricity using a D. C. Voltage. Okay, this D c bolted produces at field right magnetic field or magnetized zero toe with Sheffield. Okay, so this gives us that excitation excitation. Means is they're magnetic field or the monetization off the route. The second step is that the road or field winding is rotated by external soft. So we take this rotor, which is connected to a D. C. Supply having a magnetic field and then we rotate. Is this route with a speed? Gold is a synchro Maciste speed. Okay, so what does his ass encompasses? Breed mean. That's in Chronos Speed or the N s speed off. The rotor is equal. 220 f multiply by divided by P 120 which is a certain constant F is the frequency off. The current okays a frequency off the voltage or the current to produce the A, B and C. For example, if I am talking about the power system in Egypt, dozens of frequency will be 50 hertz. If we are talking about a frequency in United States, then the frequency will be 60 hertz B is a number off pulls off zero toe you will see is that here we have South and donors. So we have here two bulls. Okay, we will discuss that different types off sync. Rama's is in a writer and you'll see how is the number of balls change? So we have here to hold machine. And if we would like a frequency off the Albert current Toby equal to 50 Hurtis So we have 120 multiplied by the frequency required, which is 50 Hurtis divided by the number off walls which I ve more sense House which will be two balls so will equal to Siri's 1000 rpm or as hundreds to results and as a frequency or Z as a speed off the road number off revolutions a pair made. So in order to reduce an Albert current or an Abbott voltage in a PC or an hour power from the cinchona generator at a frequency equal 50 Hurtis, we need toe rotate our synchronous generator or our rotor with that sweet equal 30,000 or VM. So if we wrote it again if we rotate our rotor with this beat equal City 1000 rpm and we have here two Bulls. Then we will finally get an Albert power with a frequency 50 hertz. So somebody what happens here is that after having as a magnet ization off the field, winding, we rotate that field winding, bracing promises we sink promises beat. Means is a speed at the frequency required. After this, the rotating the magnetic field produced the boys. I feel the current. So we have here a rotor and we rotate. Is that magnetic field produced here? So it will be you produce something which is called rotating magnetic field, this magnetic field as it rotates with as results and revolutions per minute. So at the time it will be here. Another time will be here at the time would be here. It will rotate with respect to tow time. So the rotation off the magnetic field will produce Z defy biting or the variation off The flux was time. So the variation of the Fluxus time will cause induce the image in a be unseen. So again, as you remember from Friday, low E is equal to negative defy bidet e. So according to for a day long off induction, it means that in order to produce and use theme F or electricity. We need a variation in the flux. Okay, separation off the flux by rotating is this field. The flux here is variable with respect tothe thesis stationary part or this is stationary winding so induced. The main food will be reduced the year and here and here. So this assembly how listen, Comus Generator works So again, number one, we connected this field winding toe a disease. A ploy for reducing at D. C. Current reducing a. D. C. Flux by rotating this feed with has been greater than speed. Equal toes in Chronos is being sin Grant's beat, which 3000 rpm at the two bulls will give us a frequency 50 hertz as an output voltage Xenzai rotation off this field, winding at us and promises Beat will produce a rotating magnetic field, which, of course, is a variation off the flux, which in the end, the produces electricity in A and B and C or the three praise, and all of them are shifted Boy at 100 and 20 degree
8. Types of Synchronous Generators: So now let's discusses the pipes off. Sync Rama's generator. There are two men types off sync Roman generator. According toe the road off the synchronization rate. There is a silly into generator and the non salient visionary toe or toe be more specific as senior and rotor and a non salient wrote. Let's see the difference between them. We have here that Cillian pipe off the induct, emphasising Chronos generator and the non salient type off the sink. Ron's generator. You'll see that the salient type off that's in Kamas generator consisting off a pools. Okay, we'll see that the bulls are going outside. Okay, this is a first and difference between them. Second single find years at the air Gap here is different from the air gap here from the air gap here your fields, You will find that the air gap year is on. I'm gonna for the distance between the ball and dizzy state or is different. Does he have a different air gaps? Okay, Zack. Horizontal air gap is different from the vertical Ergen. This is the first difference. Second, sing Hebrew funds are monsignor type inconsistent off a cylindrical type. You will find years a distance here is equal toe. Here is equal to year is a call to here. So it's said that is this type has any form air gap. You will find that this one does not have a uniformed air gap. That this sense of between here is a changing with the pipe or the distance. Okay, you will find here we have a non uniform. Your gap. We have here an air gap, which is uniforms. You will find that the second thing here is consisting off our balls. This one is consisting off are winding around the easy road. We have your winding, you'll find yours. This is the same but in Taubate. And this one is out off bait in tobe age and outer bait you're finding we have years I wrote Orfield winding. Okay, we have a wire which is or wire, which is the same as war ending is wanted around Izzy rotor itself. So let's see. Ah, mother image. We have your more clear image. You'll find years here. We have the silien time and we hear and have the months Syrian type. You'll find yours at the salient Have pools. Okay. Going outside boards bulls. It will see that ball's clearly okay. North, south, north and south. And you'll find years. We have years, the current or the winding rotated here, then connected Tothis one and connect Toto This one all of them are serious. Toe have the same current toe produces the same flux. So we'll find here we have years on also, as a flux is going outside here we have the flux going inside. This is the bending on the direction of the current here, as you remember that from the right hand rule or an bear right hand rolled it is the current in this direction from left to right. Then the direction off the flux will be outside. So this one is considered as knows is a direction off. See current from the right to left in this direction. Okay, going from here to here, then see flux will be going this rosy port. So this one is considered a south. This one is more and all of them have the same plucks because they are having the same current senses they are in serious. You'll see that the wire here connected tothis one toe this one and this one. Now, for this time we have here, you will see that X means that the wire was going in. Taubate. Ok, means that the current is in tow. Beach current is here from this point toe this point and in tow bitch. And then the wire comes back out of wage in tow. Wage out of bitch! You will find here, this one consisting off balls. This one is consisting off slots. Where we both our wine. Okay. Now the difference between salient Anton salient according toe as their applications. You will find that here we have this picture or a rail life picture for their silly Interpol. And this one is a cylindrical pipe. The salient to pull have a large number of pools. You will see that from our previous image year. We have at least four pools. Okay, so having ah, large number off bulls means that we have a law speed so we'll see that the salient If it has a high number of wars, the greater them for then it has a low speed. It is used in diesel prime mover and it is used anything as a prime over consisting off diesel that is it is the power which causes the rotation off the soft and it is used in hydro systems. Okay, that cylindrical photo. It has a high speed because it has a low number off bulls and it is used in steam tower points. So is the Cillian Andaman. Syrian civilians are used in the hydro systems. The cylindrical type is used in the steam turbines where we are using for self the older. For example, the surrender Kuroda or the non salient is used in application where the high speed is required. Silien is used in the low speed where we have a larger number off pools. For example, An example of this hydro system. An example of this is the fossil power plants. Okay, so this wasa difference between salient and mom silly.
9. Self Excited induction generator: Now let's discuss another type off induction generator, which is the self excited. Okay, so in the previous one, we discuss a double fit induction generator. We connected the this generator in tow. Sigret, and we absorb it is the excitation, which is, as a current required foresee rotor. As you remember that we took from the grid, we connected there three phase in tow, the power electronics devices. And then we injected current inside the road, which is necessary for excitation. Now, how we can excite our induction generator without connecting does a great Okay, so and the beginning, if we operate as previous inductions and marital before or as as generator or as a motor? Okay, that's three. For his induction, genital will have something which is called the residual Flux. Some flocks or some magnetic field remained inside their rotor itself or inside the machine itself. Okay, so the theme, the amount of the flux which representing inside the rotor and then we rotate the rotor by Z wend, for example, or any mechanical movement this world causes some initial voltage or some initial current inside the state. Now, for a self excited, we added at a bus for banks. This cover story banks is user toe provides excitation. Okay, as you remember that the investors in Z bar system used to improve the power factor, or Dickie decreases the reactive bar required by injecting reactive bar. Okay, senses the inductive loads absorb sq at a certain moment Z caressed or banks supply Q or supplier active. Okay, So what happens here in this machine is that at the beginning, we have some reasonable flocks presenting inside the machine Is this also provides the initial excitation. We have a small excited on or a small magnetic field inside the road. And when we are rotating our motor boy as speed, greater sensing promises beat, for example, in wind energy, then we are going toe have some induced e meth inside the state. Okay, we'll produce some induce the image. I very small value this more value will produce. I current. Okay. Is this current will boss Rosie cholesterol which causes he covers, talked to supply or give us a cube OK, but produces the excitation required for the machine. So the total flux or the current year inside the campus to bank increases the total flux or the total excitation this will cause is against the voltage ear to increase again. So this process will continue until we have a steady state value. Or until we have our final value. Where's the characteristics off the machine or the rated value off the machine and dizzy Capstar bank of all trajectory into characterised intersect? What I mean by is it is that we have here the relation between the voltage and current off the covers to bank. Okay, you will find here is that we have here is a magnet ization girl or their value off excitation required at every current off the camera store. Zima magnetize, Asian Careful representing Zomig notarization off the machine. And we have here is a reactor Salama to represent is their relation off the over I or Ecstasy. Ecstasy is very actimates off the custom. Okay, so if we draw this line and we draw this line, we have an intersection. At this point at this point is called the City State Point, where the both of them intersect. Okay, so I want finding value. Will have the one and I see one V one is considered as here as a rated value off the machine. Okay, so at the beginning, we have a small amount of flux. Is this small amount of flux will produce a small current. So the current, as the current increases the current itself causes increase in sands excitation off the machine or increases their total flux inside the machine, causing the voltage it'll increase. Then, after the voltage increases the current eyes, he increase and so on until the city state value. So let's again revise Z a self excited induction generator at the beginning. OK, if it is a new machines, then we will start it as a motor in orderto have some residue, all flocks okay before operating it as a generator. So I had the beginning. When we are using it as an induction generator, we have some residual flux, some remaining the flocks inside the machine, this remaining the flux inside the rotor and which means some very small value off a rotating a magnetic field, very small value. And we rotate the rotor boys at your books at as we'd greater sensing promises bead. We will have the year some inducing myth or some Albert Walter. Very small value. Okay, a very small value. Is this a small value off induced a metal produce current inside the state or Zika? Is this currents and signs a state or will boss or Ruzicka buster banks causing the total voltage ito increase? Or it means that they are providing a flux in face or increasing the total flux off the machine. Okay, The Windsor Capacitor Banks Wednesay current was throws a crystal Banks. The cluster banks is used to provide AK. You are every active boat, and at the same time, it said toe increases the total voltage so the capacitor banks provide a current which produces a flux. This flocks is infants with the road or flux so that daughter magnetic field off Z rotor increases. So when's that autumn magnetic field increases? Z out here will start to increase, and at the same time, Z current here will increase until this operation continues until the city state where we have the rated output voltage. So Sam billy the road or have some flux. This flux produces a small voltage this voltage. It produces a small current. This current produces another flocks in face or increasing is a total flux Z total flux reduces again higher value off E M. F. This team effort produces another current which increase the total current and so on until a steady state. So at the beginning, we should have some reasonable flux. If there is a whole flocks does not exist. Then we should connect our machine or induction machine as a motor in orderto have some flux at the beginning. Okay, so that is a benefit off ourself excited Induction genital which is not connected to a cigarette. You will see that here it's connected toe the road. We don't have immigrate, so it cannot absorb is excitation okay? We absorbs excitation in case off a double fit induction generate.
10. Principle of Operation of Induction Motor: Now let's discuss zey induction motor. Okay, so this is an image off a symbol induction motor with a low horsepower This type off induction motors is widely used in factories. So the first thing, how does an induction motor workers and from the understanding off the induction motor, we will understand Helen Induction generator works. So you will see that an induction motor is consisting off two main parts again a state or and narrowed The state are also has a three phase winding, shifted by 120 degree, same as the state or offseason Chronos generate zero toe instead having a three phase winding shifted also by 120 degree, same as e z synchronous generator. Okay, but the difference is that the induction motor, its three face off the rotor are sore descent. Okay, so how does an induction motor works? Number one, We provide a three phase Beilenson supplying. So we have here A and two B and C, which are the three terminus off the induction motor. We provide them with a three phase balance and supply, which produces as three face pallets and current shifted by your 120 degree. The production office really face current reduces a rotating magnetic field. Okay, the three face current produces a rotating the magnetic field. Okay, The second thing is that we have here Our water is stationary and the beginning, so that three phase current produces a see a face or a rotating magnetic field. The rotating the magnetic field cuts zeroed. Okay, causing a three phase current. So again, here we have a variable rotating if he'd guns and stationary winding or a stationary winding at the beginning, a stationary wrote this Z cutting off their rotating magnetic field. Producing as three phase current. The three faced current produces another rotating the magnetic field. Okay, so this one has a rotating the field and the Windsors rotating field magnetic field. The carts is this rotor. It produces another three phase current which produce on mother magnetic field. So we have to magnetic field one from the state, or and one from zero to the interaction between the rotor field and the magnetic, or the state or field. And the photo field produces a torque which rotates the magnetic feed assembly as if we have here a magnet. And this magnet is rotating and we have here on mother magnetic field. This magnetic field just moves is the other magnetic field Is that to magnetic field in tow , Actors each other producing a rotation inside their more There is an important thing is that if we have here, for example, are supply voltage? Okay, so this voltage or this three phase supply voltage, it produces a Steve s current. This reef s current at the beginning cuts is is a stationary wrote or at the beginning, producing s three phase current at the beginning is he induced? The messy here is the same as our having a same and frequency as a supply. Okay, so the state or guts is rotor at the beginning, reducing as 3/5 current having a frequency same as the supply. But Wednesay rotor rotates zem rate Were zem a state or magnetic field got Z rotor. It changes with time. What I mean is that the frequency off zero toe will have s motto. Blood buys a frequency off the supply. Where S s gold is a slip. The slope is a menacing promus or the speed off the supply minus in our or the as beat off the road over the N s or their sin Chronos is beat So this is Graham Assist speed is the speed off the rotating a magnetic field off the state in our is this beat off the rotor itself Soul The frequency off this current will be equal toe s motto blood by f not the same frequency of this employ, but at the beginning or there is rest. Where's the rotor is not rotating in Laura's equal to zero. So the slip will be equal to one. So the frequent So those are the rotor will be quite toes that frequency off the supply. So that purpose off this slight is that the frequency of the rotor is not equal to the frequency of the state because at the beginning, that rotor waas stationary or at rest and then the rotor when it what it is, the rate off the cutting off the magnetic field. It changes with the speed off the road. So the frequency here is not equal toes a frequency here
11. Types of Induction Machine rotor: There are two types off the inductions in rate a roto or the induction motor rotor. We have a tour times number one Z, Wanda wrote, or the sleep. Bring the type. The second site is a squirrel cage. The want wrote or typed. This symbol is that the rotor is consisting off a three phase winding. Is this silly face winding are short circuit by using process and slip rings. Okay, so we make a short circuit between them, buys a usage off the process that benefit off. This is that we can adhere and external resistance so we can. It changes that resistance off zero. So why do we changes that resistance off the rotor? This is due to that that the change off the resistance here will cause a change in the torque speed characteristics off Z am so we can add an external resistance to control this be torque characteristics. That's three face here in Cicely Brink consists off a three phase shifted by 120 degree. Okay, That benefit off this rotor is that we can add an external resistance toe control is this beat and the talk off the road. But the problem off this time off rotors is that we need maintenance because he is a process are consisting off carbon. And did you toe the rotation off the rotor? This process needs it. Toby changes with pine. Okay, so the second, the type which is widely used because it does not need mental illness, is a squirrel cage. Okay, the square cage assembly is as this image exactly. It's called a squirrel cage, The gauge off a square. You'll see you're a squirrel inside that cage. So that's why it's called a squirrel cage. This are gold or the aluminium or copper pars. This are are conducting bores, and from both sides, you'll find here a drink and another ring here. This rings are made off, cover or aluminium are used. Toe make a short circuit insides, he wrote. That benefit off this time is that we don't need any maintenance. So there are two types. Squirrel gates, which it does not need any maintenance, but we cannot control. The torque is big characteristics, but this type is asleep brained or the want rotor, where we can boot and external resistance. But the problem off this time is that it means maintenance
12. Principle Of Operation Of Double Fed Induciton Generator 1: So now let's discuss Is the principal off operation off an induction generator? So we have here an image off induction motor or it can be an induction generator. So how does an induction generator works? Okay, as we remember that we had two parts here. We had the state or and we had that a roto Okay, The state or is connected to a three face a ploy giving us a story face current giving us are rotating the magnetic field causing current here, or a three faced current here which reduces another rotating magnetic feed. So we bought here are supply in order to get an Abbott rotating magnetic field in order to produce at all. Now, in the inductions in Ritter, we are goingto does the reverse. We are going toe supplies Arlotto with the three phase current, okay? And rotate the rotor at the same time. So we have Here's a torque or say rotation off the rotor. And we have your also the three phase magnetic field, okay, or the three phase current producing a rotating magnetic field. Then by doing exists, we will cut the state. Oh, and the produce as three phase are but walked it. So in the motor we have here our in boat reducing a rotating the magnetic field then would reduce the year s refits current, which produced rotating magnetic field. Then we produced art. Or could you toes interaction between the magnetic feeds In that generator, we are goingto supplies the rotor with as three face current, which produces a rotating the magnetic field. Then by rotating busy router we will be able to produce and I would current here inside that state. So now let's the scene their induction generator torque speed characteristics. In order to understand how those an induction machine works, you will find years that we have here a relation between the torque reduced, the boy am motor or an induction generator, and we have yearsas beat off the route. So we'll see that we have a different reason. From here we have a region called is a baking reason where we wanted to stop our motor by providing 02 with a negative is speed from here from zero Until that same chromosomes speed , you will see that we are working in the motoring Greason, this reason where our induction machine is working as an mood If we increase the speed off zero toe Greater Zen that's in crosses beat. We will be able to generate electricity. So again, in the induction motor we work it from zero until they sink. Ramos is be during this reason we have motoring reason. The reason where our induction machine is working as a motive if we increase, is that it's beat off zero toward greater sends us in Caracas is beat. We will have a generation. Okay, we will generate electricity. So we understand the now that we need toe have as bead off our order. Greater sentencing crosses weed in order to generate electricity. Now let's see their bubble fit induction generator which is used in when the energy you'll see here that here we have our window meals which which rotates do toe wind Okay, we have here are gearbox this gear books changes as with it is just excellent or increases beat by changing is the years off yearbooks we and sends their give books is connected toe a double fit induction generator. So let's to take it easy. We have paralysis. There went which produces mechanical energy. Then we have that gearbox. The Gill books is usually used or its purpose is to take. This is beat off the wind and increase it beyond disgusting promises. We okay, in order for the generator to work So they went rotates the total with us bead Greater sentencing promises weed z went hever usually have laws beat so we use that give books in order to increase this beat Greater sentencing Coronas his weed. Okay, so why do we does this in orderto operate in then? Reason off generation inside that induction machine. Okay, now this was the first thing. Second thing is that we have two parties in the induction generator. We have that three face or the stato and the three face off zero to Okay, We said before that in order to generate electricity, we need to connect the rotor do and easy supply. Okay, we said that we will supply. Here's a photo is a three face current and rotating. It was as be greater sensing promises beat, We were able to generate electricity in the state of winding So that waas exactly what you are doing here we first to connect our state or toes. Egret is the great is the power system or where we are is a generated interest it goes to. So we take at the beginning. We take three faced current here from the great Okay. And then convert. Is this this three phase A C or a C current in tow? D c. Okay. By using a part of running devices, then we changes a D. C again toe a c. Why do we do this in order to control our voltage of from cigarette voltage and frequency? Okay, so first we take a three phase here a voltage, we convert it into D C voltage. Then we take the D. C. And converted again to a C. This method is used to control the frequency off the the M word. Voltage it towards the rotor and the value off the vaulted itself inside the road. Okay, so this part used the toe control the M boot, voltage and frequency and dozy wrote Okay, remember that the frequency off cigarette is constant. Okay? It does not affected by anything. So we take Here's the frequency and voltage and control it inside the road. Okay, Now we have here again. We have a speed greater sensing promises made by using the gearbox. And we have here is the embassy three phase voltage A to Z rotor. Therefore, we can produce electricity inside secret. So again we have Here is a public it induction generator consistent off a steep face inside the rotor and see phase inside the state that rotor is fed with three face signal. Okay, by taking it from the great and controlling it, then we provide it to our A route, Okay. Providing a stiffest current torture produces as three phase rotating defeat. All are rotating magnetic field as the window Turpan rotates. It produced the mechanical force on mechanical movement on zero. As rotor rotates the magnetic field, the produce they do to the A C current also rotates at as we'd promotional to the frequency . What does it mean? It means that we have here the import voltage and frequency which we controlled, which causes a three phase current. The three face current inside the rotor is controlled the Boise frequency off. See Abbott from the power running device. Okay, so the frequency from zip our electronic devices control There's a frequency off the magnetic field. The rotating magnetic field, the bosses, Rosa state or and the causing a three phase current. Okay, so it is the same ends the induction motor, but they reverse off the operation and instead, off providing here a Strief s current we provide inside the rotor three. Fiscal on top. Reduce as three phase inside the state of sauces as read off reputation off the state or magnetic field the benders on zero to re speed as well as a frequency off a C. Ok, so here is an important thing you will find here. Is that the frequency year and the rotation of the rotor control, There's a frequency off the output. Okay, so we have two factors here. The frequency off the import voltage and the frequency or the rotation off the mechanical board or that rotation off zero toe. All of this affect this is the Albert frequency and voltage. So in order to control or produce a constant frequency, we will use Z power electronics converters to change the frequency. Okay, So as you know that that that when this beat is not constant, Okay, so that's beat off. The rotor is not constant. So we need to change is a frequency Toby able to produce the same Constanta frequency here . Okay, we have here. A variable is beat, so we'll use Zipporah electronics. Converter toe changes a frequency off the boat. A c current. OK, by changing is this one and the change inside the rotation. We will finally get a constant value here, so that is a benefit off. Using an induction generator is the induction generator Can be working with a variable is beat but us in chromosome machine If's we connected to year toe when the turbine, we will have a variable Albert frequency. Okay, so that was the benefit off. Double fit induction generator and it is only used inside the wind demands, okay?
13. Introduction to Generating Power Stations: hello and welcome everyone to my own course in my own serious forward power system. In this course, we're going to discuss their generating power stations or power plants. Now, in this lecture, we are goingto have an introduction toe they're generating board plant and an overview on all of the types off more blends. So what is a generating Bartlett Generating Bar Valenti Assembly facility, designed to produce electric and energy from Anna's. Our form off energy such as heat or thermal energy generated from fossil fuels, coal or petroleum? Natural gas? So a lot of cinnamon energy, geothermal energy and the nuclear energy. As you know that in the most industrial countries, electric power is provided by generating facilities that serve ah, large number off customers. This generating facilities is known as the central station. Generators are often located in remote areas, far from the point off consumption. The economics off the center of the station generation is largely a matter off coasting as you know that forward any power station. It has a fix, it courses and a variable cost, and both of them clearly defines what kind off the power station we are going to use. and, of course, their environmental conditions. But now you will see here that we are having that generating power station it produce electricity and then with passes through a step up voltage or a step up transformer in order to increase a vaulted. Why? To decrease the losses in the transmission lines also. Then we will have the transmission lines and you see your towers occurring, this transformational lines and then you will find here I step down transformer in order to decrease the voltage in order to distribute it. And then Boston gets orders. That's tributes online. Or is that carry electricity towards the houses until it comes through our home Off course , it wouldn't have toe buster, another step down transformer. So is he here, for example, who are generating at 3.3 kilovolt and them browsing through step up transformer to step up the voltage upto 500 kilovolts or 220 kilovolts, and then it bounces through another step down transformer is this step down transformer to step it from 500 or 220 kilovolts toe 76 or set this recon avant or 20 talking vault or 11 kilovolt and so on. It has a large number of venues. And then this is this. Another step down transformer will step this voltage from six of 1 60 kilovolt or city 13 kilovolt until 780 or the voltage aliant line at our home. So now we can generate our power from the potential energy from the falling water in hydro electric facility when the energy solar electric from solar or photovoltaic cells which are going to discuss their BV or the photovoltaic cells in our laws, of course, the chemical energy from fuel cells. Or but there is. And here is an overview for that different types off electrical facilities which produce electricity. We're having a different forms. The number one is a fossil fuel power plant number two was hydro electric power plant, the solar symbol for blend a nuclear power plant. Zero sermon or planned to answer went power towers or the went barter pines. All of this are a different forms off the generating power stations. All of this we're going to discuss each one of them in this course. So in the Alex Electoral we're going to discuss is that different types off them
14. Introduction to Wind Energy: Hi and welcome everyone to our course for wind
energy design. Hubs scores will be helpful for, for you in your own career. So in our first lesson
of wind energy course, we will discuss an
introduction to wind energy. So first, what is wind? When the assembly as the
air flowing in our area? As you can see here
in this image, this is an image of
where wind is flowing. So simply went is a
natural movement of air of any velocity on the
surface of Earth due to the presence of
different of pressure. Due to the presence
of difference of pressure between one area and also the air will start to moving from this
location to another. Now the question is, why do we have a
difference in pressure? Difference in pressure
between one location and on Azar is generated by the uneven heating of
the earth's surface buys us on radians or radiation. We have the solar radiation. This is our, this is our Earth. And we have the solar radiation. As you notice that
adds the equator. At this lines equator, you will find that that
temperature is very high, or it is exposed to a very large amount
of solar radiation. In this location, we will
have very high temperature. Which means that since we
have high temperature, it will lead to low pressure
or rising of low pressure. So as you can see it, rising air low pressure in this location. Now if we go towards north and south pole and north
and south ball, you will find that we
have high pressure. Why? Because they are less exposed
to the solar radiation. So this will lead to a cold air, which will lead
to high pressure. In the cold areas, we have high pressure. In warm areas, we have
low pressure due to the presence of difference between high pressure
and low pressure. Difference in pressure between these two location is that
air will start moving from the high pressure region towards the low pressure region. Okay, So as you can see, air will store the moving or
the wind will start blowing from the high pressure area towards the low pressure area. Same as here, high
to low pressure. Now in this location when
it starts to call Windsor, warm air, coming
from here to here, starts to becoming warmer
or its pressure decreases, it will return back to
the high pressure area. So this cycle keeps
repeating itself. As you can see here, the
air moves from area of high pressure such as the
North and South pole, to the area of low
pressure such as Zara equate when it moves from
one location to another, it form is what we
can see here, zoned. Now as you can see here, we have all the area
called the air or cold. The area with cold the air, it has high pressure. And we have here
an area exposed to the sun with low pressure. Okay? So the air starts moving from the high pressure
area called the area into the warm area. Pressure, high pressure
to low pressure. So when it starts flowing, now when it reaches
a low pressure due to the presence of warm air, it will start heating up
and start moving upward. Then we'll go back
to the cold day. Like this. Moves from high pressure
to low pressure, from low pressure
to high pressure. Now as an example,
as you can see here, this is our Earth divided
into several reasons. You can see the North
Pole and South Pole. It will find that this area is having high pressure
due to cold the air. And this one have a low
pressure, more heat. Okay, So the difference between two areas from high
pressure to low pressure, zone window will start blowing. It moves from the high pressure going into the low pressure. Then here it will
start its heat. Its temperature will increase, its density will
decrease and the go up, then return back
to the gold area. So as you can see,
it's a cycle repeats itself in every
location on Earth. You can see high
pressure, low pressure, high pressure, low
pressure, and so on. Between these different areas, window will start moving. Another thing which is a
land breeze, sea breeze. So as you know that
Zack, during the day, you will find that this area, this area will have, will be hot or Zanzibar seen. C will be cooler. We have here high temperature, and we have here
low temperature. What will happen is that
the air will start to moving from the cold area
towards the warmer area, from the high pressure area towards the low pressure area, as you can see here,
a high pressure zone when they start moving. Those, a low pressure
area which is warm area. Then when this cold
air comes here, it will be heated or
exposed to solar radiation. So it will start rising up. Then it will administer will decrease Zeno
tool go back here. Then it will sink down because we have here
called the air. It will go down and then
it will repeat itself. So as you can see here,
cycle repeats itself. At night, the
reverse will happen. Zealand is color and
the C is warmer. So this has a high pressure. Here, we have lower pressure. It will move from here, going to the sea, then it will rise up, zinc go back and so on. So this difference in pressure leads to the
generation of wind. Now what does wind energy
mean or went to power mean? Wind energy assemblies
or process of converting this motion or when the motion
into mechanical energy, or from mechanical energy
to electrical energy. Let's understand this as well. Notice that this
is called at when the total point is that convert this Z motion of all went
into electrical energy. Into electrical energy by converting the first
went to mechanical. It's mechanical to electrical. Okay. What happens exactly
here first is a wind Abbas over the blades
and the maximum turn. This is called Xenoblade. This one is called the plate. So we have 123 blades. This one has three blades. Now, when, when the comes
through it will start rotating. As you can see here, when
went comes through it, it will start rotating. We have one blade, two blades, three blades. Now, second step is that
the blades turns are soft. You will see here a box
here and Sciences box. You will find out soft. When this blades start rotating, they will cause the
rotation of a soft, as you can see here,
this blades rotating. You will see here Ayush
soft, mechanical soft. Now this shaft will lead, produces mechanical power due to the rotation here produces
mechanical power. Now if we take this, this motion and connect it
to an electrical generator, we will have electricity. Okay? So here we have the shaft. Turn is Asian rate
or which converts the kinetic energy of ZAB
blades into electrical energy. Now sometimes
between them you can see here's the plates
starts rotating. Now this blades, the shaft
here connected to the plates. This shaft is connected
to a gearbox. As you can see here, this
one is called gearbox. What is the benefit of this one? It converted the lowest
bead of the turbine into very high speed for
the electrical generator. As you can see,
this went turbines, it rotates slowly, convert to
be required for degenerate. So Zach gearbox
here is this one, increases as bead
of second soft. You can see this one is a slow, this soft is very fast. Due to the basis
of this gearbox, we will have a very
large velocity for the electrical generator, which will lead to
generation of electricity. Some types of wind turbines have a gearbox,
others don't have. And the called direct drive is they don't have in gearbox. Then XAMPP, electrical
energy produced from the generator is
connected to a transform. What is the benefit
of the transformer? The transformer is
used to step up the voltage require
the Forza grid. Electricity is exported to the electricity grid
using the transform. Here's the transformer is
connected to the power grid. This transformer
increases the voltage, require the four connection
to the power grid. Went when the motion
causes that or the kinetic energy of the wind causes the rotation
of these blades. Okay, which is
connected to a shaft, then gearbox, then electrical generator is going to transform
our ends are great. This is a process
of converting Zack when the energy into
electrical energy. Now, the first when the turbine, which was used for
electricity generation was made by a childless brush, dollars brush, this man in 1888. This one, this is a first
when the turbine, turbine, the turbine consisting
of 144 blades, as you can see, 1234, very large amount of blades, which means it will have very large weight and
the small velocity. This one was connected
to a gearbox, which was used to
run at DC generator. It was used to produce DC power. Mechanical motion of that when the turbine blades
were converted using a gearbox and connected to a decision or a foe to
produce electrical power. This one is this. When the turbine has a
power of 12 kilowatt, the generator has a rated
power of 12 kilowatt. Ends our total diameter is
the diameter of this router. From here, from here to here, the diameter of this rotor. Whilst 17 meters. This was used the fourth
20 years or to charge batteries inside this location. So this visionary TLB
reduces DC voltage, which was used to
charge batteries. Is that the walls,
the forest pine used. Now here are some sizing for different
when the third pints and classification of the window
third pints according to their size and
application of each time. We have a small, we
have medium-scale, we have larger scale, which is land-based, and the largest scale which is offshore. Small. What does all of
this classification? We have many, many
classifications of when the turbine
this classification according to HHS at rated power. This one is having a small pipe, has a power Louisiana
100 kilowatts. Small amount of power. This power is used
in homes, pharmacy, remotely applications such
as water farming systems, telecom sites and so on. This is used in very
small applications, not for grid, for
small applications. Now this one, this one, the turbine is medium scale. From a 100 to 100
thousand kilowatt or from 100 kilowatt to one megawatt. This one, which is a medium. Power, is used in powering a
village or in hybrid system, which is consisting of solar
and wind and can used in distributed power
or distribution of electrical power z
distribution network. Now, the large scale, larger scale, it can
be consisting of many, many pints, not only one, but several wind turbines, which can form farm. Now, the large one is
the largest scales, this one which is land-based, it is located on land
or mounted on land. This one is used in utility. So they can be used in large distribution
network and it can be used to connect
it to the power of grit. Now another one which
is large also but offshore of shore
means Zr in the sea, not on land about ins, I see. This one has a rating from
three to seven megawatt. It is used inside
utility scale also when the farms and they are used to connect tools,
the power of green. This is a classification and application of different types of when the third points
according to their rated power. Now let us see the evolution of the US commercial wind
turbines from 90822015. So as you can see
as time impulses, we started with 50
kilowatt rated power of the wind turbine. Then as we go up, as we go up with year supposing, we have Richard up to
more than five megawatts. We reach with more
than five megawatt. For the offshore types. As fire impulses, you can see that it's a rated
power increases. And also in order to
increase the rated power, we need to increase
the rotor diameter. You will understand
the effect of roto diameter in
the next lessons. But for now, as Oozie
rotor diameter is larger, the larger the diameter of the rotor is more
wind it can capture, or more kinetic energy it
can capture forms a wind. As you can see, more power means larger diameter
of the road, leading to higher capture of the wind or more
kinetic energy. Now here are two types, onshore and offshore wind farms. When the farm means group of a window turbines
connected together, you can see this is called, this upon instruction is
called the wind turbine, which is used to convert the Z when the energy
into electrical energy. We have another window therapy and another window
turbine and so on. All of this are connected
together in the form of a farm. Since they are on land
or mountains or hills, they are at no surprise deploy, or its name is that offshore wind farms
or onshore wind farms. Onshore means the
auto own length. Offshore, it means is
the audience you can see here on offshore file, offshore Farm,
which is in sassy. Okay? Now, as you can
see that onshore, which is on land, you can see this is a
larger farm consisting of several wind turbines. This forum is
onshore on, on land. This one as the onshore can be for when the farmers on
mountains, hills and so on. Offshore. As you can see, this
is a form which generates a large
amount of power. This farm is inside
the C or off. Now as a future expectation for when the turbines for
offshore and onshore. For the onshore, We
currently in 2019, we had maximum capacity
of 2.5 megawatt, which you have a
rotor diameter of 120 meters ends or hop high top height means
that from this location, from this moles to the ground, this is called hop height. The hump height was 89. Now is expectation
for 2035 is that we can reach up to 5.5 megawatt, which almost more than
doubled this value. With a rotor diameter
of, you can see, more power means larger
diameter, the larger height. So as you can see, the
height became 130 meters. Force application off on shore. Now for the offshore
which is in seawater, you can see we have
in 2019 we had six megawatt of 150
meter and 103 meter. Now for 2035 weeks vector each wind turbine
of 17 megawatt, which have a rotor
diameter of 250 meter, hop height of 151 meters. Okay, more height and
the very large diameter. The only problem
in the design in general of winter turbines
is a rotor diameter. The limitation in
rotor diameter due to its large weight and
transportation problems. So in this lesson, we discussed in an introduction to when the energy system, meaning of wind, that how we can convert wind energy
into electrical energy. The evolution of wind turbines, that application and size of different wind turbines ends up future expectation
of wind turbines. In the next lesson, we will discuss types of wind turbines and
which one we use in wind design or wind
energy application design.
15. Selection of Type of Wind Turbine: Hi and welcome everyone to our lesson in wind
energy course. This lesson, we would
like to discuss the different types
of wind turbines, which one should we use in
electricity generation? So the first thing
is that we have two main types of wind turbines. We have z vertical axis
wind turbines and or denoted by VAW t is the
vertical axis when the turbine. Second type is horizontal
axis wind turbines. What is the difference between the vertical access
Windows or pints? And the horizontal
axis wind turbine. Z's are classified by the
excess of the main excellent. That's the blades
are attached to. If the x is horizontal, then it will be named as a
horizontal axis wind turbine. If the XL is vertical, then it will be vertical
axis wind turbine. Let's do a census in
a very simple way. The vertical axis
means that we have a vertical axis like this one. Our blades, rotor blades are
rotating around this axis. If this is the case, then we will have
a vertical axis. Ones are fine, like this one, vertical axis wind turbine,
vertical axis turbine. As you can see, this
r is the blades. This odds are plates, ZAB blades or the rotor blade. This blades are rotating
around the vertical axis. As you can see here,
we have a vertical, x and z are rotating around it. Same as here. You can see Zr rotating
around a vertical x. That's why is this
type is called the vertical axis wind turbine. Very easy. Now, if this axis, instead of having
a vertical axis, we have a horizontal
axis of rotation. So we have a horizontal axis and our blades are
rotating around it. As you can see here, we
have the horizontal axis, this axis like this, and this plates rotating
around it like this one. This one is called
vertical axis, horizontal axis wind turbine. You can see here.
You can see here is that z axis of rotation
is like this horizontal. This blades are rotating
around it like this, rotating around it like this. That's why this is called
horizontal axis wind turbine. I hope that's a difference between these two
types is clear. This one is called a
horizontal axis wind turbine. So as you can see, it's a
horizontal axis, vertical axis. And they are components. You can see we have
rotor plants, blades. And that distance
from z to display to the split is called Z
row total diameter. Then it is attached to a generator to
generate electricity. We will discuss the other
components in the course. Now for this is called
a vertical axis, rotating around
this vertical axis. From here to here it is
called rotor height, not roto diameter here wrote or height to a generator here,
which generates electricity. So remember vertical
axis generator here, horizontal axis
degenerate or here. Now let's discuss each of these window third points
and which one should we use? The vertical axis wind turbine. All of this inside czar
slide you can see is this is called vertical
axis, vertical axis. And this blades
rotates around it. You can see vertical axis and the blades
rotating around it. As you can see, all of these are vertical axis with
different types. Each of these has its own design which
will generate the front. The power. Distance from here,
from this plate to here is called the
Z row total height. From here to here. This is a blade. The blade is the one
which is rotating. The axis of rotation
is vertical again. Now, what are the advantages of using the vertical X12 turbine? The first thing is that
it is omni-directional. What does omnidirectional mean? It means it operates
in all directions. Whatever is the
direction of the wind, it will give power. So it does not need
to adjust to it too. So direction of the wind. It operates in every
direction of the wind. Also, as you can see, the components of this vertical
axis when the turbine. Are on the ground, are mounted on the ground,
as you can see here. Here we have the gearbox
and the generator. What is the benefit of this? It is very simple, is that we can go here and do
the maintenance as we need. It leads to low maintenance code and low maintenance cost. And lightweight towards
this tower is light. Have a lightweight. Why? Because the generator
is not a board here. It is downward here. Sensors regenerate or a weekend, low cost of maintenance. So we can do the
maintenance easily. Ends up weight of
this tower is light. Finally, it is uses, it uses less material to capture the same amount of
wind to convert it to the horizontal
axis wind turbine. Those are the different
advantages of the vertical x. First, it can absorb or
operate in all wind right? Actions. It generates
electricity in all directions of wind. Number two, we have a low
cost of maintenance sentences that generator is on the ground and that light weight of tower. This will lead to
less material to get the same amount of when to convert the tools
are horizontal axis. Now let's see that
disadvantages for us to think. Zack blades are
close to the ground, as you can see here is I blades. Blades are very
close to the ground. Now, what does this lead to? This means that the wind is
bead will be very small. Low compare the two leading to low generation
of electricity. Now, we will discuss this. Velocity of wind. Velocity of one is directly proportional to the height
with a certain factor, which we will discuss
called the Alpha. But for now you
have to know that as height or the
elevation increases, the velocity of
wind will increase. For example, Zao when
the velocity here V1 and velocity here v2. V2, v2 will be greater
than V1 because h is the height at
which a year here is higher than one
here, one here. So as height increases, more velocity,
which we will have. Since we have this blades, This blades are very
close to the ground. This will lead to
low speed of went, which will mean lower
generation of electricity. Remember, is that also Zach? Electricity generation, the
amount of power generated, as we will see inside the
course as an equation. The vendors owns a velocity Q Zach cubic officer velocity. As the velocity
increase more power or generate close to the ground, leads us to load
generation of electricity. Second problem is that
we don't they take advantage of the
higher wind speed at very high elevation, such as we said now, as well as the horizontal axis wind turbine that
horizontally Equals went through one are
having very high, very large height converted
to the horizontal axis, which are closer to the ground, which will lead to
higher wind is beat, leading to higher
generation of electricity. Also, due to the lowest bid and high larger
weight of blades, this will lead to poor self-esteem
charting capabilities. Why do we need largest starting to or we
have larger starting torque. We need lots of
wind speed in order to start rotating exists blades. Now this also allows
our problem of the vertical axis is that in
order to changes at bearing, bearings inside our
mechanical system, we need to remove
all of these plates, which will lead to high
cost of maintenance. Also, you will find that it needs support at the
top of the router. You can see here, at this point, you can see this line and
this one and this one. All of this all
support to fix as, as vertical axis turbine and prevent it
from falling down. This of course, due to
all of these problems, you will find that it does
not successful commercially. And the overall performance
appropriate formulas and reliability of this vertical
axis wind turbines. This will lead us to understanding
the horizontal axis. The horizontal axis
when the turbine, as you can see here,
we're rotating around a horizontal axis. First thing you
will notice is that the height here is high compared the two horizontal
and vertical axis turbine. The vertical axis was, for example, address height. However, here, since we
have a higher height, leads to higher generation
of electricity. Now is the axis of rotation, as I said before,
it is horizontal. Now, there are two types of horizontal axis wind turbines. One which is called
a boy and the type and the downwind
wind pipe I went, it means that this blades or the blades itself which are
rotating or facing the wind. Downwind wind means that the
blades are behind the wind. Now, as you can see
here, for example, is a blades here is the wind is coming in this
direction, like this. Coming like this. So this blades facing the wind. It's called dissolve
up when the time. Now the downwind wind, wind is not facing
or behind the blade. You can see this plates are, the wind is behind this blades. It's called downwind. Now of course is our
upwind of course is better because all of that air will cause rotation or the
window will cause the rotation of this turbine. However, here due to that
interaction with this part, due to this will lead or
frictional force will lead to a decrease in the
velocity leading to lower generation
of electricity. Also confines that zeros
out horizontal axis one turbines have a
different number of plates. It can be a single
blade, one blade, or two blades, or sorry blades
or a multi blade turbines. We will discuss
which one of these is better and which
one of these, which we can use in another video or another
lesson, of course. Now, the upwind again versus a wind answer is
no shadowing effect. However, is a
downwind is behind, behind that wind and
it's affected by, is that shadowing effect. The shadowing effect,
it means that the effect of that components, which will reduce
the speed of wind, leading to lower
generation of electricity. We showed always, always
try to face to exist. Blades and face it
towards this is a wind. As you can see here. Blades are, takes
only the window which is coming in
either direction. However, the vertical
axis can operate in any direction,
as you'll remember. Now, the advantages of the horizontal axis
when the pine forest, it has a high efficiency. Second thing is that it helps
our format of large towers, as you can see, large
towers, very larger height, which means it will be, suppose the two how you win
the speeds or velocities, which means more power
auto-generated, converted. Those are vertical
axis wind turbine. Also, it has a sulfur
starting due to the places of high-speed and lightweight of the plates
leading to low starting torque. However, this out once the horizontal axis
when pine forest, as you can see, the components, generator and gearbox, or replaced on the
top of the tower, leading to difficulty
in maintenance. Second thing is that it is
difficult in installation. You need to carry these plates, which can be very
large across the city. And of course, due to
the very large heart, it can lead to interference with radio waves and TV waves. Finally is that tall towers, this larger towers will lead
to environmental problems. One of these problems is that the birders during
migration it can, or during traveling from
one location to Amazon. Zappa are the scan can be
killed by this splits. The birds traveling from
one location to another can be killed due to the
presence of these planes. So as a result, as a result of this Blades, Well, we need to sort of xyz blades in order to
protect the environment. However, the vertical axis
are in a lower height, which does not cause
environmental problems. Now, most important
thing is that we discussed as a vertical and
the whiskers, the horizontal. Now our question is, should we use xy horizontal axis or the vertical axis in
electricity generation? The answer is, is
that z vertical axis, when the turbine is easier to design and maintain, however, it provides lower performance converted to the
horizontal axis due to the low height and the
larger weight of the blades. And also horizontal axis are
provided at a higher height means large generation
of electricity due to the basis of high when speed. In the end, in the end,
our wind turbines, most of our wind
turbines generating electricity today,
commercially or domestically. Horizontal axis machines. Okay, That's why is this
one which we are born to use in when the energy costs? Do we select horizontal
or vertical? We select as our horizontal
axis when the turbine, because they are used
commercially and the most of our 1 third pints are
horizontal axis wind turbine. That is the answer
of the question. The answer is horizontal
axis went turbines.
16. Rotor Solidity and Selection of Number of Rotor Blades: Hello and welcome everyone to our lesson in when
the turbine design. In this lesson, we
would like to discuss the road or solidity and how many rotor blades showed we use or the number
of rotor blades. Let us start by
the definition of definition of rotor solidity. Solidity assembly
zap ratio between the area of the plate or a blade area divided
by the swept area. Let's understand this. We have here, for example, a three blades turbine. Turbine with three
blades, One, 23. Each of these plates
have an area of a a, representing this area is
the area of one blade. The blade area, which
is total blade area, we have 123 blades. It will be sorry, multiplied by the
area of one bleed. So it will be 38. So we have here area of blade one area to another, area three. So it will be three. Now divided by the swept area. Swept area is the area which has covered the buys
a wind turbine. So as you can see,
this is all of this circle is
considered as all of this is considered the S Z
swept area of the plates. So when this blades
rotate Z form a circle, the area of this circle
is called the swept area, which is area
covered the body is a wind is a wind turbine blades. That issue between ZAB
blade area, which is Reais, divided by the swept area, which is the total area a, all of this area, which is this area, area, will be equal to, as you can see, we have
radius r, radius r. So we'll say by square, Paul II multiplied by
the radius squared, or Pi over four. D squared is the diameter
of the router square. This representing this area. Okay, so now we would
like to know how can we, how, what is the effect of
the rotor solidarity on XY system or zones
are one, the turbine. We have two examples here. You can see we have 1233
blades, One 233 blades. So the area here will be the
road or solidity will be or let us say R S equal to a, which is the area of one blade. Display it divided
by the total area a. Now this turbine, this turbine Zao wrote
or solar energy will be equal to how many blades
we have area formulate a. How many blades that
we have, 12345678. We have eight blades divided
by the total area a. So as you can see, we have
here in the first case, and we have here a to a. This is called Since
it is a lower value, it's called low. Hello The T. This is called the
high fluidity. Now what is the
difference between this type and this type? When do we use a low values
or low number of blades? And when we use high number
of blades, Let's see Now. First, xylose validity wins. A ratio here is equal
to point to one. Ratio between the
area of the blades is a three blades or
over the total area. This will lead to small
number of blades, as you can see, 123
only city blades. Convert it to this case
off An eight blades. So this one has a low
number of blades, only three blades, which will
mean lightweight of blades. Since we have a small
number of blades, means is the total
weight will be small. Also since we have a
small weights and it will rotate with high is beat. And of course it will lead
to low starting torque. It will take low starting torque in order to start rotating. Why? Because it has small weight. Now the second the
case here when we have large number of blades, means that RS is high in
the value of the road or solidity is very high,
greater than 0.8. This leads to large
number of players. You can see 123 up to
eight blades here. In this case, I add blades, which means we will have large weight since we have
larger number of blades, which means it will rotate
slowly or have lower speed. And it will lead to
large starting torque. It will take large is bead
of window in order to start rotating this
configuration. We have two cases,
is arterioles, small number of plates or
larger number of plates. Which one do you
think we should use? Now in real time or in
real life applications, we use that law solo the
T would like this one, sorry, blades use it in the
electricity generation. Or large or high solidity
used in water bombing system. When we have, when you see after applying with
this configuration, you already know
that this one is used in Walter bombing system. When you see as
replayed Zola exists, you will know that it is used
in electricity generation. As you can see here,
we have three blades and this we have large
number of blades, very large number of blades, and this we have
only three blades. So as you can see, it
is obvious that this one low solidity you will
scenes electricity generation. And this one was large
number of blades laws with, and the large width is used
in Walter plumbing system. We understand the
nouns that we need. Small number of blades, not larger number of blades. Since we are talking about with the electricity generation. Now, the question is, should we use even
number of blades such as 2468 or we should use
odd number of blades, 1357 and so on in
electricity generation. Okay, so first let's discuss, is that even type, you have to understand that modern when the turbine
generate engineers, engineers which are
building exists when the turbines
usually usually avoid building large and machines with large rating with an even
number of rotor blades. They don't use the
even number such as two blades or four plates. Why? Because our auto is an
even number of blades, will have a stability problem. It will be unstable, not like the odd number. Now, the question is, why do we have
instability problems? Why does bubble belated? For example, two blades
have a stability problem. Now, simply because
each rotor blade has an exact and opposite blade, which is located 180 degrees
in the opposite direction. As you can see, this blade
it has after 8180 degrees. Here we have the second deplete, opposite, directly
opposite to it. When's the rotor rotates? When this start rotating,
xy very moment, the uppermost blade is pointing vertically upwards
at 12 o'clock. This one, when it is
pointing here by exists. When there is played,
is pointing here like this at 12 o'clock. That lowermost the
blade is pointing straight down in front
of the turbine support. Like here. It will be like this here. So as you can see, as you can see, as you
can see that here, this one, this part or the uppermost blade behind
it is free air here. It will have behind it free air. However, this one will be exactly in front of
the tower. Okay? So as you can see, the effect of Wendy here is different from the effect
of Wendy here due to the presence of this column or the tower support,
or support tower. Now here, due to the
unbalance in this forces, this will lead to
stability problems. There'll be more exact that the uppermost blades
bend this backwards. It will be bending backwards. It will go backwards due to
very large force of air here. It will call this as trust
loading, thrust roading. This will cause this
one to go backwards. Here. It will go behind the tower. It will bend. While the lower
plate bosses in twos or when the free area directly
in front of the sub Ponto, this one will go outwards. So simply likes us. What we would like to say if
we have a tower like this. Do we have here one plate? We have here, one
blade like this. Second one download here. Due to the effect of went
very large force of wind. This one will become like this. Well bend. Leading exists. One leading for the lower
one becomes like this. As you can see there it is. Stability problems. This one will bend
backwards and this will go upwards or in front of
the supporting Todd. That's why we don't use
the even number of plates. However, our rotor with an
odd number of blades such as three or 53 blades
or five plates. When it's rotating, it
will rotate like a desk. It will be like a desk. As we see the swept area or
the area when it rotates, it is like at the desk. So when we calculate that dynamic properties
of this system, we can consider it as a desk. Also the wind turbine, which have an odd number
of rows of blades. At least three blades will be rotate smoother than
even number of plates. Because the forces here are
plants it across z blades. Compare the tools to blade it, for example, which will lead
to more stable wind turbine. In the end, we don't
use the even number. We don't use z even
number in generation. We use the odd number of blades. Now, the equation is xenon part of the old
blades showed you was one plate or three
blades or five blades. Which one, of course higher
means that we will use it in Zao water pumping systems. So the question is, is it a single or
three blended or more? Zomato common bleed
dwindled turbines on is that of the
three blades turbine. We usually use this one. That's three blended system. You will always, always
seen everywhere. You will usually see this, this configuration,
three blades, three blades everywhere. Most of most of the other
points or 3D blade it. Now zap power efficiency of our three blades rotor is slightly above that
of a similar size. To blame, the efficiency
of a three blade, it will be higher than rote
or double-blind more blades. It means that we
will, we will take more wind and we can
generate more power. Anyways as three blade, it will have a
higher efficiency. Zen is a double-blinded
and of course has more stability Xanax
or double-blinded. I was an advanced serves as three blade that rotors includes a smooth operation and less noise and less
interaction with birds. And which will lead
to a compensation of the extra blade or extra
cost of the blade. In the double blade, it, it will give us a higher speed, okay, but it is honest table. However, this one is more stable and this extra
one will help us, us achieve more
smoother operation and the list noise and so on. Now, the problem of the one belated
warm-blooded exists and saves us that we
have only one blade, so it will save the
cost of extra blades, two blades or three blades. We will save the
extra of the blades. At the same time, since
we have lower weight, lower number of blades, it will lead to higher
rotationally speed. Hovers, the unmarked, widespread as they
have the same problems of the even plates,
have stability issues. That's why due to the
presence of stability issues, you will see that we
add an extra weight on the other side to
balance this bleed. They have noise and visual
problems as you can see, and they need a counterweight, this one, in order to
balance this rotor. As you can see, since we added a balance account
or weight balance, you can see is there is no much difference in weight saving. You can see that we
have displayed and this counterweight is almost equal in weight as
the two blades. So this is no point in
doing a single plate. Now as a conclusion, which one would you use in
our window turbine system? Most modern Windows chloroplasts use the three blade design Z0, three blades or odd number
of blades and three blades. Windsor wrote are positioned, maintained the upwind by using electrical motors in
the yard mechanism. Now what does this mean? Remember that there
are two types of vertical and the
horizontal as xy, horizontal axis wind turbine. The horizontal axis once
turbine has two types, the upwind and downwind. Now the upwind Zap Router
is facing that coming, went down went Zai rotor
is not facing the wind. The wind is behind this rule. In order to generate
the most power, we need to maintain the
direction of z router. Toward this as a wind. We need to keep this rotor in the same direction
of the wind. How can we do with this? Is there's something
called a JAR mechanism. Now what does a young
mechanism to do this, we'll rotate Z,
total buying itself. Rotate. Sister Pine
ends hazard direction. As you can see here, as I said, direction rotates it in
the other direction. We can move this one from
this direction and move it like this and make it in the opposite direction
like this one. Using your mechanism
here, located here. This one rotates using
electric motors. We can rotate as, as this turbine towards
the direction of the wind. Now of course, most of the
turbines manufacturers, they have this design, have your mechanism
because this will lead to mode generation
of electricity. Okay? So depending on the direction of when do we use dynamic agonism to face this turbine
toward the XY window? Now let's understand. An example of a mechanism would like to see this
how it is walking. So first let's delete
all of this line exists. Now let's go and install this. You can see when
turbine JAR system. This is when the turbine
here is located in this direction and we rotate
it using a mechanism here, here in zed direction
order to face the wind, move it from this direction
to this direction. You will see how it
works right now. As you can see. As you can see, this
is our wind turbine. As you can see, the
wind it's facing. So I went in the
upwind direction. Now we would like
to rotate this one. If it is in this direction, for example, how
can we rotate it? You will see here
ya mechanism here. You'll see exactly what happens. So as you can see,
using XA YA mechanism, using electric
motors that we can rotate this part as
part of the wind. You can see we can rotate
it using your mechanism. In this case, we can move
it from this direction, from being downwind and move
it to become a buoyant. Why? Because the opponent
will generate more electricity because
there is no shadowing effect. I hope this lesson
was helpful for you. So now you're
understands that we use that's regulated design or odd number of blades in
electricity generation. And we use the mechanism in order to face or moves us down, went towards this
or become upwind.
17. Gearbox in Wind Turbines: Hi and welcome everyone to another lesson in our course
for when the turbines. This lesson, we would
like to discuss the second component,
which is gearbox. As we remember, we
discussed this at z. When the turbine blades
convert Zach kinetic energy of wind and converts it
into mechanical energy. It will sense, it says this. Rotor blades start rotating. They have a soft ear. This shaft is connected
to a gearbox, which increases as bid, suitable for our
electrical generator. Simply as we remember we
said that the windows of pine is that when the energy
into electrical energy, by using aerodynamic forces
from the rotor blades, it converts the Zak
kinetic energy of air into or went into
mechanical energy. Now this one, the
turbine blades have a shaft which is
connected to a gearbox is a gearbox is used in a window
turbine to increase Zao rotational is bead from
a loss bead rotor, which is low speed of the
blades are rotating very, very slowly into a higher is bead electrical
generator like this, because the electrical
generator that requires very large amount of speed. As an example, as Asian
or Ito needs 1500s or BM, convert it to our
Windows or pine, which again gives us
15 RPM, for example. The function of this gearbox
is that increases the speed. Now how does it work? Similarly, we have
two gears inside it. One which have a
very small velocity, very large number of t's, very large number of T's, and another gear which have
a small number of T's. Now, the ratio
between the stores that connection
between this tool provides us a larger rpm. How the power input to this gear is equal to the power output to this
gear with some losses. Of course. Simply zap is bead of
the forest gearbox. The first one here
is a first tier. Multiply it by the
number of HATs, the number of eight
cities is equal to rpm of the seconds as
beat of the second multiplied by the number
of t solves the second. For example, we have
in the first one, we have low speed, lows. We'd like this low speed. And the first one, which is this one. And this one has a
larger number of T's, so it will be larger number. So small value multiplied
by larger value equal to second degree it is as gear has a small number of T's. So in order for these two sides to be equal to each other, we need large as meat. For example, says convert
this from the laws beat, as you can see here
into large is vt. This is a function
of Zagier box. Now our common ratio which
is used in wind turbines is mine T21. What
does this mean? It means that if there's bit of this turbine of Zao orders or rotor blades is 16.7 RPM
revolutions per minute, 16.7 revolution per minute. As an input from the rotor. Speed, revolutionary
total would be 1500. How? Because it is a
ratio of 90 to one. We multiply 16.7 multiplied
by 90 gives us 1500s or PM. As an example, if we
have here, for example, 1980s, we will
have one t's here. As an example. Of course this is not 90
here and one here. For example, it will be for 900. And do we have here
ten as an example? Anyway, that issue between this, this is mine two-to-one gives us an increase in his
bid of mine t times. Now some multi megawatt window. Third points, which are known as the biotech to drive
machines. Barak thrives. It means that the shaft is connected directly
to the generator. It does not have any gearbox. In this case, the
generator will have the same speed as
the turbine rotor. So we have some cases
which we use gearbox, or most of our cases
we use gearbox. And some of them machines
called the direct drive. They don't need any gearbox
and they produce power buyer. Now as our types in our
market for Zack gearbox. And instead of line two-to-one, we could have values between
50 to one, source to one. This is a common ratio
also in the market, okay? This is a very larger ratio. Nine two-to-one have
a lower percentage, which is lower ratio to one. So in this lesson we
had an idea about with Zagier box and it's a
function ends a wind turbine.
18. Power Available in the Wind Spectra: Hi and welcome everyone to this lesson in our course
for when the total pints. This lesson, we would
like to discuss the power available
in the wind spectrum. We would like to understand the amount of power which is
available inside the wind. So first let's see
what will happen here. We have when they're
moving with a velocity V, we have when the flowing
with velocity v. Now this went is covering
an area called the a area. A. Area a. This is the area
covered by this wind. This window will move a
distance called the x. This is the distance traveled by the wind from here to here. As you can see it following
is in ZN pass cylinder, as you can see here with
height, x and area. First thing is that
we would like to understand what are the factors affecting this when the power is the power available
inside this window? The first factor is
the amount of air, volume of air, volume
covered by this. When the air. Second factor is as bead
of air is a velocity of v. Velocity has a great effect
on the wind. The power. More velocity leads
to more power. The more volume
leads to more power. Zing is the mass and density of air flowing
through the area as dynasty and the mass of the air flowing through this area or
the cross-sectional area a. Now, the kinetic energy
of a stream of air, this air we would like to understand is the
kinetic energy. What is its kinetic energy? The kinetic energy
assembly, as we know, half m v squared, where m is the mass of air
and v is the velocity of air. This is a kinetic energy
of the wind flowing. Now remember that the
mass assembly equal to that dynasty multiplied
by the volume density, rho is our density,
the density of air. The volume is the
volume of air flowing. The volume which is
covered by this cylinder. Okay? The volume of this air, which is area, multiplied by the height of
the cylinder, which is x. So it will be rho AX. Ax is the volume. Density multiplied by
volume gives us z mass. Rho is a density of air, is the cross-sectional
area covered by air, which we use. In the end. We use the area same as
the area covered the body, or the swept area or the
area of the rotor plates. Area covered the
wiser router plates. Finally, x, which is
x plus one over X, capital X is small, is that distance dropping? Now, energy, energy is equal to half kinetic energy half m, which is mass will be rho x. Rho AX ends velocity square was asked to take this mass and substituted it in this equation. Now what is power we would
like to know was a wind power. So we knew, we know announce kinetic energy
available in the wind, which is half rho V squared. Now we need the power
in our assembly equal to energy divided by time. Or if it is it
changing with time, then we use differentiation. It will be superpower available inside the
window will be d over d t differentiation of the energy with
respect to time. The differentiation
of this function or this one, for example, half velocity is constant. Velocity flowing
here is constant. So it will be v
squared as it is. We will not differentiate it. Now we have the
other thermogenesis. The mass, mass is changing
with the motion of this air. It will be M dot. Here we have adult which
is a differentiation. Half m v square will be
half a mole dot v squared. Now, the differentiation
of the mass, mass is equal to rho AX. So it will be rho a
differentiation of mass with respect to
time is dx over dy, dx over dy team. We will have in the end, the x over d t or
the differentiation of x with respect to
time is velocity. We will have half
rho a half rho a dx over dt is the velocity multiplied by v squared
gives us V cube. So as a power available
inside the window will be half rho a V cube. Now the question is, how do we measure the
velocity of wind? So we have a wind, the
measuring device in one meter. This one anemometer is used to measure the velocity of wind, direction of the wind, which is this device, have many different shapes. It is available on the
turbine, as you can see here. You can see this is a
rotor hub which is.
19. Power Extracted by the Wind Turbine: Hi and welcome everyone to
our lesson in wind course. In this lesson, we
are going to learn that equation for the power extracted from the
wind turbines. In the previous lesson, we obtain the equation
for power obtained from as I wind or the kinetic energy or power available
inside that wind. Now we would like to get
an equation for the power extracted from the wind itself or power produced
by the wind turbines. First, you have to
understand that our turbine, our window turbine
cannot take all of the power in the wind
stream of courses, went has a kinetic energy and pulses through a window turbine. So some of these
kinetic energy will be transferred to
the wind turbine. The rest will go away as rest of the window will go away
with another velocity. Now if our window turbine extracted all of the wind power, it means that the molecules
of air will be standing here. Wednesday I went stream
bosses Rosa turbine, only just a portion
or a fraction of the kinetic energy of this
wind stream is positive two, root and czarist leaves is that turbine carrying
the rest of this energy? Now as our power taken
by SS, a turbine, power of the turbine
is equal to half rho, which is the density of
air multiplied by area, which is the area
of the turbine. Multiply it by V, or the velocity of when the stream cube multiplied
by a power coefficient, CB, which are representing the efficiency or
power efficiency. It means the ratio between the power taken by
his daughter pine, the total power
available in the area. Here, the area is the
area of the turbine. So the larger the
area of the turbine, The more energy or
more kinetic energy it will be extracted from
the wind industry. And the area of Zao where when the total pine assembly
is a swept area, which is pi r squared or
Pi over four d squared, where d is the diameter. Power coefficient, which is cB, the abundance on many factors, such as a profile of
the orbital plates, blade arrangement and sitting and meaning onslaught
of factors. Cb is symbol is
the ratio between the power of the turbine divided by the power
available in winter, which is half rho a etorpine, the area of the turbine
multiplied by V Q. Okay, to hear how here
goes up, here becomes two. So somebody likes us. See B, which is efficiency, is equal to 0 power absorbed
with buys after applying. Divided by the power
available in wind. Cp, representing the
efficiency is the amount of power which we have
taken from our wind. So let's say, for example, if we have an efficiency
CP of 0.5, for example, it means that the power
of the third pine, taken by his other pine or
absorbed by the third pint, is equal 0.5 of the power
available in Windows. So it means that our third fine, 50% of the wind energy. Now let's say for example, I would like to get zap hour, which is going to after the generator from
the wind power available from the
wind, converted it. Tools of power going
from the generator to the transmission system
or the transformer. Power. As we remember, the output power is the
total output power. Final output power is equal to half rho multiplied by
area of the turbine, which is pi r-squared, swept the area which
we discussed before, multiplied by c b, which is power efficiency
or power coefficient. We have velocity q, okay? This part, this part
of rho by r-squared, CB and v cube, representing the
power from the wind. After absorbed by
a wind turbines, we will have support here, b of the third pi, power of the turbine, which is half rho pi r-squared multiplied by
cp multiplied by V Q. Now, we have a gearboxes system. This gearbox has efficiency. Efficiency of Zagier
books is called N being the power going
into the generator. Power input to the generator
will be equal to b. Generate, let's say
lesion or a tilde, which means the
power coming from the gearbox going through
the generator is equal to np is the efficiency
of the gearbox multiplied by B through fine. Now, our generator itself
has an efficiency. Efficiency of the
power coming from, final power coming from the
generator is equal to b. Be our final output
is equal to d, z.
20. Betz Limit and Maximum Rotor Efficiency: Hi and welcome everyone
to this lesson. This lesson we would
like to get Z, maximum route or efficiency, or the maximum value of the power coefficient
lets us store two. We said that we
need to understand is the value of Cp or
the power coefficient. How can we get it? Then we need to find
the maximum value. What is the maximum value of CP? Or how much power can be
extracted by the wind turbines. The maximum value can be
attracted by the window. It'll pine using this splits. So first, you have to know that we have a
window turbine was rotor area AT this when
the turbine with area, area a assembly a T, as you can see in this figure. Now, the went, since, going this coming and facing the split zen it's
called unbent. Since our wind turbines
blades are facing exists, went up, wind is coming
with a velocity v. And the covering an
area, a, area a. Now and we have here
area of the turbine with a velocity of air or velocity of air adds up
blades are called the VB. Vb is the velocity of
air at the blades. And then after
leaving exact blades, we will have a V
downwind since it is not facing or behind
a window turbine. So it's called the
Darwin when the velocity of air with an area a. As you can see, we have
area of the turbine. Area one, which is
area before the OB1, the area or the area before we reach this when the turbine and the area to which is after leaving that when the turbine. Then we have a
velocity V or VBE, which is the velocity of the
wind, example rotor blades. And V1 is the velocity of the upwind and V2 is the
velocity of downwind. Hope it is clear now. V is the upwind
velocity of the stream. This velocity, Vd
is a downwind went, and VB is the wind speed
at the rotor plate. Now, the value of VB was there as a mathematical
proof for this, which we are not
going to discuss. For simplicity, VB or the velocity of the wind
ads out rotor blades is equal to the average value
of v upwind and downwind. So as you can see, it will
be half V plus V downwind. Okay? It's the average
value of this too is beets. Now we have a coefficient, it's about coefficient
CB is equal to 41 minus a all squared. Is this a power
coefficient which we need? It is equal to 41
minus a all squared. What is a assembly equal to V minus vb over v or the upwind, the velocity minus
the velocity of wind at the rotor plates divided by the velocity
of the upwind. This ratio, if you
substitute in this equation, you will get zapped
power coefficient. It's a power coefficient four multiplied by V minus vb over v, one minus v minus v
over v all squared. So if you know that I
went the velocity and the velocity at this
turbine blades, you will be able to get the
efficiency of conversion. Now before we leave this slide, you have to move
something which is really important that the area of the wind stream before, in the upwind direction
or before reaching the plate has small area. After leaving when the turbine
it will have large area. Why? Because in
this case we have V1 and in this case we have V2. Now, of course, in a sense, our wind stream moving towards the blades will extract tract, extract some kinetic energy from the wind so that when the
velocity will decrease, so V2 is the velocity
after leaving the winter point will
be less than v1. In order to preserve the
same mass flow rate. M dot mass flow rate, which is rho area multiplied by v. So density is constant. Okay? So we have area of the stream and the
velocity of the string, area of the stream
and velocity of the Stream Reserve same mass, then we will have to
increase the area. Now let's see how, let's say m1 equal to m2 mass here is equal to the mass here are
buoyant equal to downwind. So M1, of course, a dot here is a flow rate. We have dynasty a, one, V1 equal to rho, A2 V2. Okay? So take row is row. We have A1 V1 equal to A2 V2. So what does this mean? It means that the new velocity, new area we need the area A2 over one is equal to V1 over V2. Velocity V1 is higher than V2. It means that the
second area will be.
21. Factors Affecting Wind Speed and Density Height of Tower: Hi and welcome everyone
to this lesson in our course for
wind turbine design. This lesson we are
going to discuss the different factors affecting xs are windows,
bead and Dynasty. This first lesson, we will discuss the height of the tower. What is the effect of Zao, height of the tower or lens
of the tower itself on Z generation of power or the electrical power
and on the wind itself. First, what is the
effect of height on velocity, velocity or forint? It will find that the relation
between zap velocity at any reference height
with respect to any larger height is
equal to this relation. Velocity at any height we would like to get
with respect to a reference velocity is equal to h over h naught to
the power alpha. First, V is a velocity
we would like to get, let's say for example,
at cr meters, at the height of 50 meters, V node is velocity
at height H naught, and H node is our
reference height, example, a ten meters. For example, we have the
velocity at ten meters, at height equal to ten meters, and we would like to get
h at certain meters. Let's try it. Let's say for example, here we have ten meters, then we know our
velocity, for example, two meters per second. This is a velocity at
height equal to ten meters. Now as an example, I would
like to get as the height, as the velocity of
the wind at height equal to searching meters. Or this velocity is unknown. By using this equation, we can evaluate
the new velocity. Now we will find
that the relation between v over v naught
equals h over h. Note to the power alpha, you will find that we have a
factor here which is Alpha. What is Alpha? Alpha is something which is called is a friction
coefficient, which the demand
zones or roughness of the surface friction coefficient when we will discuss
this in the next slide. But for now, if you block this
relation at, for example, alpha equal to 0.1, you will find that
there is a velocity of wind increases like this. As the height of power
increases or as the height In, increases or as
elevation increases, you will find that the
velocity starts to increase in a very
larger in the, in the form of exponential
phone or exponent form. As you can see here,
is that for example, here at ten meters, so we have 6.8 meter
per second at, for example, are larger
height of 100 meters. For example, we have a very
large speed of ten meters, almost doubles as beat. That is, what is
meant by z. Velocity. As the velocity increases, velocity of wind
increases with height. Or the innovation. What, what does
this mean for us? This means that we can increase Z generation of electricity by increasing the
height of the tower. As we have larger tower, or a tower was more height, it means that we are
going to collect more electrical power or more kinetic energy from
wind with larger is meat. So as you can see here, we have the same relation. You can see here is
SSR relation of Z, speed of the wind,
width, the height. As you can see, smallest speed. So as elevation
increases, the height, the height increase, or
the elevation increase, the speed of the wind increase. Now, as you can see here, surface here has a big effect or a large effect on the
velocity of the wind. So as you can see here, and depending on the type of Zao obstacle here
available here, we will have different
alpha coefficient. As you can see, due to the
presence of an obstacle, it will lead to
decay of the wind. Here, as you can see here is
the output window from this. You can see here little or no
wind due to the presence of a large obstacle here or having the larger
frictional force. This is a window profile before
reaching n obstacles such as a house or a
village or anything. And this is a window profile
after leaving this obstacle. Now you can see is that the
wind moves more slowly, adds a ground level due to the presence of a
frictional force. Here, you can see
small windy year, smallest bit of wind due
to the frictional force. And as we go up, Zeff, frictional force decreases, leading to faster
speed of the wind. Now is the reason for having smaller velocity is that there are service objects such as
trees, rocks, house, etc. On the ground that slows the
air as it collides into Zen. Influence of this
frictional force is less with the height
above the ground. So the frictional force, it decreases those height. As you can see, here's
a friction here, which is opposing our wind is larger than Zeff
frictional force. Here we don't have.
22. Factors Affecting Air Density: Hi and welcome everyone to this lesson in our course
for wind turbines. This lesson we would like
to discuss effect off air dynasty own Z
power of course. So he knows I affect off
Dennis Jones or power. But we would like to understand
what are the factors, is that can you change
the density of air? Since zy dynasty is a factor
which affect our power. First, let's get back to the physics or chemistry
where we discussed it before. Ideal gas law. Of course, we know from chemistry
is that BV equals nRT. Bv is pressure multiplied by the volume of any
substance is equal to n, which is the number of molecules multiplied
by a certain constant, or which is the
ideal gas constant multiplied by temperature. So as we know, is that from this equation, as you can see, we can say is that n divided
by vi and divided by V is equal to P over RT over
V equal to P over RT. Now n, which is XAML gas, or the number of modes
of any gas is equal to total mass of this gas. Zambia has gas in grams
divided by molar mass. What does the molar
mass equal to? Xa? Moral mass is equal to that. Graham bear molar. How many grams for each
mole of a substance? We need the wisest
with each other. You will get CSA
number of modes. So it will be m divided
by the molar mass. So we'll take this and
substitute it in this equation. We have n, which is
mass of the gas. Mass of the gas
divided by volume, volume divided by molar mass. Since we take this and
substitute it here, molar mass equal to B
over our mass is the M. The molar mass is
simply equal to WN. The, remember that
from CSA physics. So we know that the mass and the mass of any
substance to the violet, it's a volume, gives
us its own dynasty, mass divided by volume. We will substitute it
here with dynasty, so it will be row. It will be dynasty equal
to rho is equal to zap pressure multiplied by
the molar mass of our RT. How is this? I will show you now. Have your mass, mass, which is m, the mass of the
substance, and the volume. We can take mass
divided by volume, all of this and
substitute with Dennis. We will have rho, which is a dynasty, divided by its molar mass, divided by its molar mass equal to the pressure,
the volume, volume. Or we can say that
the dynasty is equal to zap ratio multiplied by
the molar mass divided by RT. This equation is this equation. The pressure brush
or molar mass, WM or t, or t. I hope it's clear. Anyway,
all of this does not matter. What is important for
us is that Xia dynasty. Finally, it will be equal to
the pressure multiplied by the molar mass of a
substance divided by RT. Now first brush or a
brush or is pressure of the substance which is can
be in one atmospheric, can be in atmospheric
unit or in basketball. Or which of course, a Pascal is equivalent to 21 Newton meter
per meter squared, newton per meter squared, and the 100 kilopascal
is equal to one bar. Now, W mole is the molar
mass of the molecule. Molar mass of the molecule
of air is equal to 28.97 grams for
each mole of air. Temperature. Temperature is in Kelvin, since we are talking
about Zack SR units. So Kelvin is equal
to Silesia is degree the temperature in
Celsius degree plus 273. And R is the ideal gas constant. And it's equal to 8.2 multiplied by ten to the power
negative five and so on. As you can see, it's
unit in atmospheric. When we substitute
with pressure here, we substitute with how
many atmospheric brushes? One atmospheric to
atmospheric and so on. As you can see is that the
dynasty is a constant. Then we look low, molecular
weight is constant. For the air. We have two factors that are
affecting our Dynasty. We have zap pressure. Pressure affecting our Dynasty. We have the temperature that
affect us, our Dynasty. So this two factors, again, it changes at dynasty, leading to change in power
generated by wind turbine. As you can see here,
let's see two relations. The first graph
here is a relation between a dynasty
and the pressure. As you can see, it's adenosine.
23. Example 1: Hi and welcome everyone
to this lesson. In this lesson we are going
to have an example on ZAB, previous factors affecting when did they esteem
and wind velocity. So in this example, we have n anemometer
mounted at a height of ten meters above a surface with a friction
coefficient of 0.2. So we have a height ten meters. And the friction coefficient, which is alpha, is equal to 0.2. Now, by installing
this anemometer, we found that wind speed, or a window velocity
is five meters per second. What does this mean? It means that at a
height of ten meters, we have a friction
coefficient of 0.2. We have a velocity of air
of five meters per second. Now is that requirement? Now find or estimate is that when the velocity
or wind speed and the specific power in the wind at a height
of 50 meters. Assuming that we are
walking at 15 series as degrees one
atmospheric pressure. Let's start step-by-step. So the first requirement
is a wind beat, right? So we needs of the loss. At the height of 50 meters. We have a velocity of five meters and a
height of ten meters. And that we have is a
friction coefficient from the relation which
we will discuss the before ends up previous lesson, we can say is that
v over v naught is our velocity at any
certain height or any specific height divided
by the velocity V node, which is a velocity at the reference height,
is equal to h, which is the height, the new height divided
by the reference height, all to the power alpha or
the friction coefficient. We can substitute with
this relation like this. We have velocity which
we need V is equal to, equal to v-naught deg v
node to the other side, it will be the initial velocity, which is five meters per second. Five meter per
second multiplied by h over h denote a new height, which is 50 meters, divided by the reference
height, which is ten meters. So it will be 50 over
ten to the power alpha, which is a friction
coefficient or point to two. We have the velocity
at the new height, 6.9 meter per second. And this is expected
as you can see, that the velocity of air or
went increased ADH height 50. As the height increases, the velocity will increase from five meters to 6.29
meter per second. Now, second requirement
is a specific power. Now what does the
specific power mean? Specific power is
simply z power, dynasty, or ZAP power
divided by the area. As you remember that we said
before that the asymptote, civic power or support Dynasty, which is b over the area, is equal to the power available
in air, which is half, are all multiplied by area, multiplied by v cube. Divided by the area
gives us have Zara. Density multiplied by v cube is like your
big of the velocity. Okay? Now we have, we
would like to find this amount of power at
a height of 50 meters. We need the velocity
at 15 meters. Now as a velocity at 50 meters
is the velocity which is also obtained 6.9
meter per second. Now we would like
to find Zao role or density of the air
at this height. As you remember from the previous lesson
we said before is that the density of air
is equal to the pressure. Pressure at this
height multiplied bys our molecular weight
of air divided by r, which is our ideal gas constant, multiplied by temperature. First, we have some pressure. What is the pressure ratio? Is simply one atmospheric,
one atmospheric pressure. So B will be equal to one. As you can see here, B will be equal to one. Now, second thing is
our molecular weight, WMO n, which is equal to 28.297. As you can see, Graham bear
moon gram, gram, gram here. We need to convert this to
kilograms by multiplying this by ten to the power
negative three to convert this into kilograms. Now r, which is the
ideal gas constant, which is equal to 8.2 multiplied by ten to the
power negative five. That in virtual is equal
to 0 Celsius temperature, which is 15 sleazy
us 15 plus 273. Like this. If we substitute
with this equation, we will have like this
pressure multiplied by his own Look lot of weight divided by the
ideal gas constant, multiplied by the
temperature in Kelvin, gives us that the density of air at 50 meters is equal
to 1.2 to five.
24. Example 2: Hi and welcome everyone
to this lesson. In this lesson we
are going to have an example on the effect of xy density and the effect of
height on z velocity of air. And so power generated. In this example, we
have this wind turbine. We have this wind turbine
which is mounted, it's a hub app, a height of 15 metres. What does this mean? It means that the
height from the hub, from here to ground is
equal to 50 meters. This atropine has a
diameter of thirsty meters, which means that radius of
the blade is 15 meters. Let's see you. When does applying with a
salty meter root or diameter, diameter of the router
is equal to 13 meters, is mounted was it's a hub at 15 meters above the
ground surface. So it's 50 meters
from here to here. From this hub to the ground. Friction coefficient
is equal to 0.2. Now what does that
requirement or what do we would like to get
in this problem? Find the ratio of specific
power in the wind, or it's a power
dynasty of the wind. At Zao highest point is that
a rotor blade that breaches to reaches to the lowest
points at it falls too. Now what does this mean? It means that we would
like to get that ratio between the power dynasty
at the highest point at which is a rotor
blade which will reach and with respect to two is the lowest two
points that it falls into. What does this mean? It means like this. We would like to get support Dennis two of air at this point. At the highest point is that
our rotor plate will reach the tip of the rotor
blade and support dynasty here adds a lowest void. This is a ratio
would like to get. In order to get the ratio, we need to find the height here, the height of that here, and the height here, the height at which we are going to find the power density. Let's start. We have here at this point, we have this router. This router is
having a diameter of diameter of 15 meters. What does this mean? It means this radius
will be 15 meter here. From here to here. We will have also 15 meters. Since it is xhat radius
of that route or plate. We have here is the height, the height of the
hump from here, this height from the ground, all of this is 50 meters. The height of this
point will be equal to zack 50 meters here, 1515 meters plus is
that rotor diameter, this extra diameter,
which is 15, we will have 65 meters. So this point, this point
is APA height of 65 meters. Now was the lowest point here. This point will be equal to
050 meters minus this part, which is 15 meters minus 15, which will give us five meters. We would like to get that issue
between Apollo dynasty at 65 meters and
uncertainty five meters. So first, the radius is equal to the diameter divided by two, which is 30 divided by two, giving us 15 meters. Now, the ratio between
the power adds on top of the blade swing was respiratory
towards the bottom, which is six to five
with respect to certified meters is equal
to, remember this equation, z power divided by power
as a power n divided by power at any reference height is equal to h
divided by h anode, all to the power three alpha. We discussed this
equation before. Now, the height adds
the highest point, which is 65 meters, and the height at the lowest
point is certified meters. All of this to the power
three alpha three multiplied by 0.2.2 is a friction
coefficient, as you can see here. So let's first
delete all of this. The ratio between the power at this point to see power at this point will
be equal to 1.45. So as you can see, as
the height increases, it means more power
is generated.
25. Applied Force on Wind Turbine, Torque Coefficient and the Importance of the TSR: Hi and welcome everyone to our lesson for wind
design course. In this lesson, we are going to discuss that applied
force or the equation of the applied force on
the window turbine and the torque is generated
on the wind turbine. Why is this important? You will understand
in this lesson, what is the importance
of obtaining the torque and why
it is important? As we discussed them before,
the power equations. Now let us see what
about words at all. As you can see, we have
our windows of buying, as you can see here,
our rotor blades. Now, due to the
presence or flowing of the wind through
our wind turbine, you will find that the
wind June rates or force. This force is known
as the thrust force. As you can see, thrust force F, This force you leads a tool
rotation of the rotor blades. It applies mechanical power or mechanical torque on
our window turbines. This force, which is
called the roster force, leads us to that rotation
of the Earth wind turbines. Now of course, this force
as a torque applied by Zao wind would be
torque will be equal to this force multiplied by Z, radius, multiplied by the
radius of the rotor blade. This will give us the torque. Thrust force experienced
by Zao router, which is applied by the
wind on the rotor blades, can be expressed as
first Zell force, as we know from basic mechanics, is that the force is equal to power divided by the velocity. Power divided by velocity. So some power will be equal to half rho dynasty
multiplied by area, multiplied by velocity cubed divided by velocity or
the velocity of wind. This will give us
half rho a V squared. This equation, this
equation represent is the force applied
by the wind, which causes the rotation
of the wind turbine. The torque, torque, as we know, the torque is equal to the force multiplied by the radius. This is well-known in
mechanics that this force multiplied by the
radius of the rotor blade, We'll give us half
rho V squared, which is this equation
multiplied by the radius. Now of course, as this torque
is a theoretical torque. Now what does this mean? It means that this talk is not the actual torque that
is applied by wind. This is just, in summary, actual torque will be
equal to the same value. The actual torque will
be half rho V squared R. This equation multiplied by a coefficient which are
representing z efficiency. Ct is called is that
torque coefficient, and of course it
is less than one. This CT or the torque
coefficient is equal to the actual torque applied
on the rotor plates. D divided by however,
if v squared r, which is a theoretical
torque applied by the wind. So we have now two coefficient
we have discussed before, zap power coefficient, cp. Cp is a power coefficient. And then now we have
a vocal coefficient, CT. CT is the same as
the previous equations. Actual torque owns atropine on the window turbine divided
bys ensure ethical torque. Now zap, our
coefficient is a power generated by the wind
turbine power of the third pi divided by the theoretical power or as
a power available in air. We have to be T over rho a multiplied by the area of
the author point v cube. Now we would like to mention
something here is at what is the relation between the power generated by the window third, and the torque generated
by the wind turbine. As we went off from mechanics, that the power is equal to torque multiplied by
the angular velocity. Beating would be equal to
torque multiplied by the Omega, omega, which is the angular
speed or angular velocity. Since our router rotates
with a certain speed, which is called the
rotational speed, or rotational angular speed. Angular speed, which is omega m, which is same as omega. Multiply it by the torque. Now, if we divide Cp is a power coefficient divided bys at orca coefficient
Cb over Ca. Divide these two equations, you will find that we
have are multiplied by omega divided by velocity. And what does this represent? This are the videos
multiplied by 0. Rotational angular
velocity likes us. Here. Multiplied by omega
is this gives us that V t or z tangent, tangential velocity
of the wind turbine. This velocity is v, t. Is that tangential velocity. As you can see is
this is a tangent, tangential velocity of
Zao when the blades, and this is a velocity of point. A ratio between these
two is the ratio between the velocity of z of z ablate. The blade tip was respect
to toes or velocity of xy went itself will give
us the tip speed ratio. Lambda is equal to r omega
over v, which is omega. Of course, omega is the angular speed is
equal to two pi n, which is two pi multiplied by n, which is how many
revolutions bear second revolutions per second. Omega is the angular velocity, which is the angular velocity of XY window thorough plan itself. And N is the rotational speed of the rotor and is adaptational
in revolutions per second. The R is the radius of the rotor plates and v is
the velocity of point. Now this ratio,
the ratio between these two velocities is called
that tip is bead ratio, or TSR or lambda. It is the ratio between the
velocity of the rotor tab. This is a tub of
0 to this point. The velocity of this tab
with respect to two, when the velocity is called
setup is bead ratio. Now, if we draw a
relation between Cp or some power
coefficient and London, the tip speed ratio. You will find that the
Cp and tip speed ratio will follow the same
relation as before. It will start from 0
and starts to increase, reaching the maximum
value of 0.5 ninths three is the maximum
theoretical value, as we discussed before, is a bit silly limit. Then it will start to decay. Okay? Tip is be the ratio
is the ratio between the velocity of
the rotor tap with respect to that wind velocity. Now, as you can see here, this curve is divided to a
region here at the beginning and region in the end
and arisen between lags, us 123 adds up beginning. You will find that here. The issue is low. What does this mean? Or Z t is r is low. Let's start by the high-value, not this region. Let's
start with eyes. This one. We have this region
where TSR is a high-value. Now, what does that
tip speed ratio high? As you can see, this is the
ratio r Omega over when, when this equation is high, it means that omega is
the angular velocity. The angular velocity
of the wind turbine is very fast convert
those are wind speed. If this lambda is very high, it means that omega is
the angular speed of when the dopamine itself is much greater
than the velocity. What does this will lead? This will lead to
low Cp coefficient, lower value of CP. Why? Because when we have a very
high speed of the turbine, we will have more
turbulences and that will lead to reduction of the
efficiency of the wind turbine. We discussed the force
that turbulences affect the efficiency of
our wind turbines. And we will have effect this
turbulences will affect our zone when the turbines and it would reduce the
efficiency of our generator. Now wins at photos to region, we have low TSR. The load is the R value
means that is the omega, or angular velocity is very small compared to
the wind speed. Now this will also
lead to low CP, low CC-BY because angular
velocity omega will be small, lower value, and the velocity of wind will be very high
compared to eight. So what does this mean?
It means that our router will start rotating
very, very small, or ads or starting
of the generator, which means that
a lot of wind or too much wind will pass
through our daughter point. And we will not convert. This went into kinetic energy or absorbs the kinetic energy from the wind and generate
electricity. Which means we will
have power losses. And it means we would have
low power coefficient. So what we would like to understand is that
the tip speed ratio. Why tip speed ratio
is important? Because the control of
the omega control of z, we don't have any control
and velocity of wind. Velocity of wind is a constant evaluate
demands on the nature. However, Omega itself or mega, which is a bead of our rotor. If we can control it, we can have the maximum
possible power. For example, if we say that the maximum power
occurs at eight, for example, a tip speed ratio. It means that the velocity of the rotor tip should be equal to eight times
the velocity of wind. As an example, let's say, let's say for example here, maximum value occurs
at eight, like this. This at which the
maximum power will occur at the tip speed ratio
or lambda equal eight. So lambda equal to eight, which is equal to
velocity of that or pine divided bys of
velocity of wind. So we should make as a velocity
of the turbine equal to eight times the velocity
of wind in order to produce the maximum
amount of power. So how can we do this? We can do this using
this, our control system. The control system
will help us in order to reach the desired velocity. What you are going to
discuss in another lesson, but as i important single tool would like to
understand is that we now understand the
relation between tip speed ratio and the
maximum generated power. Controlling this ratio leads to controlling power generated. Now, as you can see here, are the effect of force or torque coefficient
or power coefficient, CB coefficient with respect to two different types
of wind turbines. As an example, you can see here the American multiply it time. You can see the dots for our monotype highest
veto blood type. The ideal efficiency. If we have an ideal when demand which followers
bits a limit, and so on. We have Diodorus
Darrieus rotor type. There are many, many
types of wind turbines. What is important for us, as you can see that
all of them are less than the maximum
value of 0.59, which is a bit silly limit. 1593, as I remember, all of them does not reach
this theoretical limit. As you can see here. This
is a maximum values, this is a maximum value, maximum value, maximum value, maximum value, and so on. As you can see, all of them
have a maximum power at the different TSR
tip speed ratio. As you can see, for example, this Data Service, for example, needs lambda equals six in order to give the maximum power. This one, for example,
it needs to 0.5. This one needs less
than one, and so on. What does this mean? It means each type of went turbine can have
different efficiency. Has different efficiency
depending on Z, TSR or reserve ratio between the tangential velocity
and the velocity of point. In order to generate
maximum power, we need to store to controlling our speed of the wind turbine. Now another thing we would
like to understand before ending this lesson
is that the effect of number of blades on the TSR. Now as you can see here, but pretty obvious that if we
increase number of blades, increasing number
of blades means we will have larger
weight of our window. Third, pine, leading
to a slower speed. Omega will start
to becoming law, which means lambda will be low. So as you can see, large number of
blades means that the tip speed ratio
will be low. Okay? So as an example,
as you can see, as the number of
blades decreases, the speed increases, which means the tip speed
ratio will increase. When we have larger
number of plates, means that we will have large
weight of blades leading to low rotational speed
and low T is solved. And also a small
number of blades leads to small weight of blades, leading to how
rotationally speed and the height is our ratio. So I hope this lesson
was helpful for you and understanding the importance of Z tip speed ratio on
our wind turbine system.
26. Example 3: Now let's have an example on the tip speed ratio in order
to understand more about it. So let's say we have windows of pine with a five meter
diameter router. Router has a diameter
of five meters. As beta's a router at ten meter per second when the
velocity is a 130. Revolutions bear minute. Remember here we have minute, not second as before. Suppose coefficient at
this point is 0.35, so Cp will be 0.35. Now what also requirements? The requirements
is that we need to get tempeh speed
ratio or the TSR. We need that all coefficient
or SCP over the therapy. Also, what will be the torque available
adds a rotor shaft, assuming is a density
of air will be 1.24 kilogram bear meter q. Let's start with the
first step is that we need z tip speed ratio. So let's try this law. We know that that tip
speed ratio or lambda, is equal to r multiplied by omega divided by
velocity of wind. First, what is r? R is a radius of
our router plate. We have the diameter
five meters, which means that the
radius will be 2.5 meters, half of the diameter. Now what is omega? Omega is rotational is meat
and rotational angular speed, which is two pi N divided by 60, y divided by $0.60. So we have minute and V is velocity is equal to
ten meter per second. Omega is equal to the angular. Velocity is equal to two multiplied by pi
multiplied by n, which is a 100
uncertainty revolution per minute divided by 60. Now remember, remember something which
is really important. And it's our previous lesson. We said that two pi n only, because n walls revolutions bear second hearings equation. We have revolutions per minute. By minute means that
we will divide by 60 in order to convert it
revolutions per second. So the angular velocity will
be 14.6 radian per second. We have omega1,
radius is 2.5 meters. So we have our 2.5 meters omega, so 15.6 V, which is a velocity
of ten meter per second. So we'll have the ratio, tip speed ratio of 3D point for. Now, a secondary comment is
a torque coefficient C team, now we have Lambda
and do we have CP? Cp, which is apparent
coefficient is 0.35. C T will be Cp
divided by lambda. Ct would be equal to Cp
divided volume lambda. This is the torque
coefficient, 0.103. Now what is the quadrant? What will P is a torque
available as a rotor shaft, assuming the density
of air will be 1.24 kilogram per meter cube. Now remember that
the torque is equal to half rho a V squared R multiplied by C T. This is the equation which we discussed
in the previous lesson. So the torque of the turbine
will be equal to half rho, which is our density is
equal to 1.241.24 area, which is the area of the
turbine will be bio. But of Bali over four, D squared is a diameter squared, diameter squared of 0. Or we can say by r squared, which will be multiplied
by 2.5 squared. Z are the same. This is the area swept. The area buys that wind of pi multiplied by v squared
velocity of the wind squared, which is ten squared squared. Multiply it by the radius, which is 2.5 meter, 2.5 meter multiplied by c t, which is torque coefficient,
which is 0.103. This will give us
0 torque available at auto-generated points
are when the turbine is 113.39 newton meter. This was assemble example in order to understand
how can we use z tip speed ratio and the
torque coefficient to find some parameters
in our wind turbine.
27. Wind Turbine Generator Characteristics: Hi and welcome everyone to this lesson in our course
for when the two pints. In this lesson we are
going to discuss Zao, a wind turbine generator
characteristics. We would like to see
how does the power or how does regenerate electrical
power from our generator, depending on the
speed of the wind. As you can see, this
figure representing the relation between the
power generated by our wind, Asian rated with respect
to z velocity of wind, as you can see, is this is a
power available in the wind. This is amount of power
absorbed by Zhen rate, or of course, we cannot
absorb all of superpower. And so it's a wind
since we have zap bit, so limit or 59% efficiency. Our curve here,
which is the power generated with respect
to the velocity of wind, is divided into several regions. The first region is
that here from 0 power. And here we have
0 power starting from 0 velocity to v
cut in this region. This region is a generator, does not produce any
electrical power until the available power in exceeds SAP power
needed to overcome Zao window edge and friction
losses in the whole system. In the beginning, coenzyme
speed of the wind is low, less than Vicodin or Vicodin, we cannot produce any electrical
power in this region. We cannot produce any power. Since this as beat
of the wind is very low and as the automotive enough to overcome friction
and when the Joule losses, and of course it cannot
start our wind turbine. Starting from VCAP n, which is the speed at which our generator will start
reducing electrical power, is this is called ve got
in or socket in his beat. This is meat is
the speed at which we start generating electricity. Now, starting from here, from this velocity
of wind V cut in, as this is B, it increases
as beta increases. We or our generated by
our stores to increase, keeps increasing till
reaching rated power. As I went to third is
beat increases due to the presence of more
speed of our Went. The power output
of the generator increases on television rated, but reduces its rated power. So add V rated the
velocity of wind at which our power will be equal
to z rated power. This rated power depends on
the generator installed. For example, if we have a
100 kilowatt generator, it means that we cannot produce
more than a 100 kilowatt, whatever's as meat of zone. Now, this is speed
at which we produce the rated power is called
Z V rated Windsor speed. Starting from V
rated windows width of the wind stores to
increase, keeps increasing. We still produce the maximum
power or the rated power. So we have a constant
power generated. Whatever is the
speed of the wind increases beyond the rated, we still produce maximum power, which is the rated
power of the generator, until we reach a certain
speed v cut off. This is bit of Zao went, which can produce very
large mechanical forces on our Windows or pine. And they can lead
to damage of our when the turbines
starting from V cut off. This is the speed at
which is a windowed or pan will rotate at a very
dangerous highest bid, which can lead to the
destruction of our wind turbine. In this case, we start
as a wind turbine is folate and Asian
rate or is stopped. What do I mean by folate? It means that we are moving
our when the turbine away from the window direction in order to prevent its
damage or break down. This is wheat at which we
start shorting of our window. It'll point is called Z, cut off his feet. This is beat is important
because it tells us, us to protect our window
turbine against damage. As you can see, this
curve representing the generator
characteristics or the power generated with respect
to the wind is beat. Now here's an important note which a weekend
notice in this curve. You can see that between
Vicodin and V rated, the relation between
the velocity of air, velocity of wind with
ZAP are generated, as you remember, is
that we said before, is that the power? But reduce the bias
Arthur pi1 is equal to half multiplied by
area of the turbine, multiplied by his
ethnicity of air or wind, multiplied by z velocity
of the wind Dequeue. So as you can see, this
relation is a relation between power and the velocity of wind should be a
cubic relationship. However, this is in theoretical, radically Zach relation
or the increase in power should be a
cubic relationship. However, when we design
our, when the turbine, we can depend with the design of this weekend,
make this relation. Instead of being cubic, we can make it linear, we can make it
quadratic equation. We could make it a cubic
equation such as we have now. We can make it even
higher powers. Now, this depends on the
design of the turbine, depends on Zao when
the third points which are available inside the market. Now as you can see, since we can control
this relation, you will find that z
power produced by hour. When sort of pi1 is equal
to the rated power. The rated power multiplied
by v to the power n. N is the relation
here. Is it linear? Is it cubic? Is it quadratic? It will be v to the power
ends up velocity at any time we would like if
would like here, here, here, whatever it is, the velocity at which
we would like to get the power generated. Those dipolar n minus ve got in to the power n is the cut
in velocity divided by V, velocity at which is
rated power occurs. We rated those the power
n minus v to the power n. Of course is a cut in the
viewer rated we got off this defend the zones or design
of the wind turbine itself. So for example, if we
have a linear relation, is an N in this equation
will be equal to one. Now let's have a quick
example on understandings. We have the relation
be equal to b r. And as you can see, this
same equation as before. Now we would like to have an
example of a wind turbine. Let's say for
example, when we have a two megawatt wind
turbine be rated, the rated power is
a two megawatt. This is a maximum
power which we can generate that has a cup in rated cut out velocity
3.513.525 meters. Now again, what does
3.5 meters represent? Zakat in cutting
velocity here at which we start generating,
our electrical power. Rated speed is 13.5, is speed at which we
start generating. The maximum power. Rated power 25 meters per
second is the cut-out velocity. 25 meter is a cutout
velocity or at after which if we shut down
our wind turbine, vr is equal to 13.5, VCR is 3.5. And as you can see here, we can be related to megawatt
multiplied by 3.5 cubes, 13.5 cubed minus 3.5 Q. So for example, if
I would like to find the power generated at ten, for example, at ten
meter per second. Then we will substitute with v equal to ten meter per second. As you can see,
17.5 to 25 meters. From here to here, we will generate the maximum
rated power of two megawatt. Windsor velocity becomes
a greater than 25, which is a cutout velocity. The turbine produces no
power as it was shot down. In this lesson, we discussed this generator
characteristics of the windows are applying. And then now we understand Z facto velocity owns
are generated power. Then it gets tell us
when we will have an example on this. In order to understand more
practical what happens.
28. Example 4: Now let's have an example. So let's say we
have this relation between the amount of wind velocity and
its availability in, as you can see, assumes
that we have at 250 kilowatt wind turbine. Where does the following
characteristics? We have xy ve got in
five meters per second, which is the
velocity at which we start generating
electrical power. Zai V rated, which
is velocity at which we produce the rated
power or the maximum power. And we have the V cut our
velocity equal 14 meter second, 14 meters per second, which is a velocity
at which we start off our wind turbine. Now what does the requirement? The requirement is
that before this, you will find that as a
curve between the Vicodin and V rated is
designed to be linear. So V cut into V rated, this will be a linear
line, a linear relation. Now, that requirement
is at finite amount of energy generated by this
total pine bear months. And as you can see
the following figure. This figure represent is
that when the velocity and how many hours does
it exist in months? Let's take this
step-by-step first. As you can see this graph, what does this represent? For example, we have from 0 to one range of the
velocity from 0 to one. It is available for
17 hours bare months. We measured the velocity of
wind using anymore mortar. We found that in one
month it occurs from 0 to ones I wind speed in this range occurs with 13 hours
appear months. Then we have, for example, from one to two. You can see here 37
hours per months. Wednesday's bit of window
between 12 and so on. So as you can see,
this distribution represents how many each, each range, how many
hours does it occur? Now we would like to use this with information
of the wind that are pine in order to obtain the
energy produced per months. So let's start. We have here, our graph is
the same as this graph. So as you can see
from 0 to 113 hours, from one to 237, as
you can see from 0 to 11337 and so on. This graph is the
same as this graph, same as this date. Now second stamp is that, you can see that
here we said before, is that our pi, 250 kilowatt, which
is the rated power, has a cut in velocity
five meters, eight meters, and 14 meters. At five meters, we
have xy ve got in. At ten meters, we
have the rated power. At 14, we have the cutoff, got cut off velocity. As you can see, we have
this three points. Now we will draw this. If he got here, as
you can see here. As you can see from five, we start degenerating bowed
before it from 0 to five. We don't have any
electrical power 0. Starting from five to ten, we have a linear relation. It is, of course
mentioned in the problem. Here. As you can see,
linear relation. We have from five to
ten linear relation reaching to the rated
power 250 kilowatt. Starting from ten to cut off or cut out frequency
of velocity. We have a rated power. This graph. Using
this two graphs, we can get the energy produced. Let us start from 0 to five. From 0 to five, this is beat is very low. We don't have any
generated power. The 13 hours or
seven hours and 50. All of this is not
important for us. We don't generate any
electrical power before 55 is the cut in
velocity from Seoul, velocity of wind from 0 to five, we have a 0 electrical
power between 510. Velocity between 510. We have said before that's
a power will be equal to, it will be a linear relation. So n is a factor, n will be equal to one. Okay? It's the same
equation which we have discussed in
the previous lesson. However, n factor
will be equal to one. So V, which is a velocity at
anytime minus z v cut in, which is five meters per second. The volume is the volume V rated ten minus V got
in, which is five. The power between industry
and in this velocity range will be equal to 15
multiplied by V minus five. Now, between ten to
14 from here to here, we will generate rated
power 250 kilowatt. Now it was a velocity exceeds
a 14 meters per second. We will have 0 power. Now, we obtained as the
power at every single range. Now let's obtain
energy produced. Let's start from 0 to five. All of this is not
important for us. 0 power, which means 0 energy greater than 14
from 1415 greater than 14, all of this range
will be equal to 0. V greater than 14
power 0, energy 0. Okay? Now we have here from five to six operating
for 86 hours, six hours. So we have a velocity in this range from five to 686
hours for from six to 792, from six to 792 and so on. Now, here from five to six, what does, which
region does it obey? From five to six? The first range here, it obeys this range, right? So it obeys this equation, 15 multiplied by the
velocity minus five. Now we have 86 hours
for which range? For this range, five to six. What is the velocity? Should we substitute
v equal what? V will be equal to half of Z as average of
these two values, or half the distance between z, the average between 56 is 5.5. So we'll use in
this equation ¢5.5. It will be an average velocity. So it will be 15 multiplied
by 5.5 minus five. 5.5 minus five equal
to 25 kilo watt. Now, this is the power generated using the average velocity
here. What is the pounds? The energy, energy is equal
to power multiplied by time. So 86 multiplied by
25 gives us 2115. And so on for four
until ten, until ten. Here we use the same
relation is the average. For example, from nine
to ten, we use 9.5. So as you can see
from nine to ten, my endpoint five from
eight to 9.58, and so on. Okay. So we multiply
our wiser Power, Hour by Czar power, we get the energy produced. Now hear from Dan dot 11. Here in this region
from ten to 14, all of this power will be
constant, 250 kilowatt. So we say from ten to
1125010 to 135011 to 12250, and so on until 14. Then we'll multiply
each of these power multiplied bys are our
250 multiplied by 38, nine fifty, five
hundred, and so on. Multiply each of
our bodies apart. I hope it's clear that
how can you convert that energy or the curve for by knowing the
velocity of wind, you can now run rate or
obtain the power Xin, obtain the energy required. Now, this graph representing how many kilowatt hour
bourbons or hours impairments. So if we sum all
of these values, 0 to 15690, all of this exists. We will get this amount
kilowatt-hour pyramids. This amount of power or energy generated for each month's
by our wind turbine. Now as a conclusion of
this is that we have, in order to get the energy generated from a
window touchpoints, we need to know two curves. Number one, rated power curve. This curve was a cut in, saturated velocity
ands are cut out velocity also we need so
when does B duration curve, which is this GF, is that when the velocity was
how many hours appear, months or a year,
whatever it is. This girl for helping
us in this store, curves will help us to identify or to get the energy required or of Dan froms a window pane as we did
in the previous slide. Now, what are we going to
do in the next two lessons? We would like to understand
more about this distribution. We use in went finds the
Weibull distribution. Weibull distribution is a
very well known distribution used in when the turbines, we will understand it ends are factors affecting
this distribution. Also one of the distribution, which is a special case of it, is called as rallied
distribution, which is a special case
of this distribution. Anyway, all of this
distribution can help us in identifying the energy generated
from the wind turbine.
29. Effect of Rotor Diameter and Generator Size on Power: Hi and welcome everyone
towards this last one. This lesson, we would like to understand CSI effect
officer or Ruto diameter and degenerate or
size on the generated power. First, let's see the effect
of czar auto diameter. Of course, when we have larger diameter of
the rotor blades, it means that we will have
more swept area all weekend, absorb more kinetic energy. This means is that we can generate more power at
a smaller velocity. If we have a larger turbine, when the turbine blades
or larger diameter, it means that we will generate more power at lower velocities. As you can see is this
is the original diameter occurs at a certain
velocity here. Now when we increase
rotor diameter, when we increase the
load to them that you will see that Zach point, instead of feeding
this velocity, let's say for example, ten meter per second, we will need just
eight meter per second to reach the
same rated power. So increasing 0 to diameter while keeping the
same generator, we did not have
changes as Generate. We exhaust increased diameter. This will shift to zap
our curve a board. So that's a rated power is
reached at a lower wind speed. Board. The means to the left here, instead of being here
at this velocity, we will need a smaller windows need to reach the
same rated power. Now, this strategy increases the Albert powerful
lower wind speed. Let's say for
example, if we have a region with lower wind speeds, then body increasing the
diameter of the router. We can collect the more
kinetic energy from this went. And in the end, we can generate
the same breath of power at lower
velocities of point. Now, what is the effect of increasing zags generator
Anzac generated power? Now, let's say we have here, this is our original generator. It's a B rated, this is a maximum
power generate. Now when we increase
the generator, it means that rated
power will increase. What sees that here? It will be shifted our boards and the rated power
will increase. Okay? So as you can see here, that this is original
velocity vr at which V rated will care for that
were originally generated. When we have a larger generator, you will see is that we
will have more space. Here. You would have more space before reaching the rated speed. It can reduce small power, produce more power by absorbing more velocity from wind or
more kinetic energy from wind. As you can see here,
this is a velocity. So this curve, if we increase
the size of generator, it means the velocity keeps
Windsor velocity increase the generated power rule keeps increasing the reaching
and new rated power. So as an example here, we have, if we have, for example, a new
rated power like this, z score of all
continually exists. And this will give us a
new velocity V rated, new velocity we rated at which then new generated
power will occur, or the new maximum
generated power will occur. Simply, it will continue
this scarf like here. Keeping the same rotor,
same diameter, increasing, regenerate or size
allows a power curve to be shifted upwards
to the new rated power. For the Lord went. There is not much change and
notice not subtle effect. Now for example, if we
have as loose beads here, if we use this small generator
or this largest network, I told him he is a
same power-generating. Nothing can change it. However, if we have larger wind speeds in a region
with large wind speeds, then having larger generator will lead to more
generated power. In an area was
higher wind speeds, increasing dictionary to rated
power is a good strategy. What does this
lesson teaches us? It means in this lesson
we learned that if we have a region with
smaller wind speed, we have a region with a smaller wind speed
or low wind speeds. In this case, we use
large rotor diameter. In our design. Large O2 diameter. If we have a region with
a large window is VDD, we use a large regenerate. Hobbits, clear ZAB benefit
of increasing generator, benefit of increasing
diameter and the wind to use this
and when to use that.
30. Wind Turbines Spacing: Hi and welcome everyone to this lesson in our
window turbine course. In this lesson, we would like to discuss XY window
turbine spacing. So let's say we have
a wind farm which consisting of several
numbers of wind turbines. We would like to find the spacing between
each of these turbines. Let's say we have this third
pint and one behind it. We would like to
understand the distance between the in the same row and the horizontal
distance between our wind turbine and
the unknowns are 1. First, we have to
understand why there was a spacing when we install
several turbines in clusters. Third plants due to the rotation of the blades of one turbine, may affect the near
point pi turbines. So as an example, this turbine, when it rotates, it produces a torque plants due to the rotation of
the rotor plates. And it may affect as a wind coming through this
as arthropods. In this case, we need to provide horizontal
distance between each of these two pints in order to damp or delete or remove the
effect of the lenses. In order to minimize the
effect of this rotor induced interplant
spacing of sorry, d t for DT, provide with n rows where
the T is the rotor diameter. So as an example
between this ands s, We will have three to
four times the diameter of the router itself. So this, for example, has a rotor diameter called DT. Any examples such as, for example, ten meters, 20 meters, 50 meters, or whatever it is,
the rotor diameter. Now it takes a short tool
diameter and multiply it by three to four times. This will give you the distance,
the horizontal distance. Now the spacing
between the rows. For example, this row
ends our row here. The distance between
these two rows. Let's draw this. As
you can see here. This is a row, a row
of wind turbines. And this one is a
row of 400 points. The distance in between
here to here between these two rows is
called as a spacing. And this spacing
could be equal to ten or ten times the
diameter of this rod. So if we draw this configuration
for the wind farm, you will see is
that for example, we have here is
that wind turbine. And honestly a wind turbine, such as here on the top, Pine Honors or wind turbine. The distance between them, the distance in between them is four times three to four times diameter of the
root ends I went to dream is coming to
this when the fall. Here was our wind turbines. This wind turbines are
facing the wind stream, of course, as they
are appointed time. And it's the same rows
ends up between the rows that spacing is then times
the diameter between here, the center of this window to bind to the center of this one. That turbine is ten times and
in the same row four times, three to four times. So in this lesson we
learned when we form, form of wind turbines, we now understand that
the distance between two of the wind turbines
in the same row, three to four times
the diameter. And in different rows, the distance will be ten times.
31. Introduction to PV System Construction : What does the construction of our BV system simply
for an of grid system, which we are going to
discuss how to design it. First thing is the solar
panels. Solar panels. It's purpose is to take the sun radiation and to
convert it into electricity. Dc electricity. Now Z DC electricity goes to something which is called
Ashoka controller. What does charge controller do? It takes z at DC
current year and DC voltage and regulate the
charging of the battery. We are going of course, to discuss as the benefit over the charge of control
more in this course. But we are talking now an overview about
the solar system. Now, we have z battery
banks which are going to store the energy from
the solar panels. Now we have an inverter
to convert AC to DC to generate AC
power to our house. We also have here an
optional a generator or if we don't have
a battery banks, or if we would like to have an extra generator for
generating power when we don't have or we
own wind and z at solar system does not
produce enough power. This is an optional solution, but it's not recommended because
it won't cost you a lot. What does the advances
that BV systems? Number one, it provides
this green energy. This energy is from
Z nature and it is at clean energy and nearly
have a 0 pollution. It is free and available
energy is this. Energy is taken from our sun, can be used locally,
which reduces losses. Okay? What does it mean? It means that we can use
it near us zoster by boating panels that we can
take the energy from it. But if we're talking about
woodsy grid of Z government, they generate electricity
at generators, then transmit it using
transmission lines, which are causes and losses
until distributing it using distribution substations or substitute EDS
distribution transformers, which also causes losses through underground cables
until it comes to you. All of this system causes losses and Kostas Z government,
lots of money. As a BV system
reduces losses and more efficient in cost Zan, building, generating substation
and providing power to u, z operation and
maintenance costs are lower in the system. It is silent, no noise. As a reason for this is that
it has no mechanical parts, not as Z generators in z, as z generating power plants such as Zs in corona generators, which you have a
mechanical parts and the mechanical moving parts. It is of course,
easy to install. You can install it by yourself. It is used in spacecraft
applications, satellites for example. Both Saudis are advantages of his that BAE Systems number one is there is no
power at night or during cloudy or
rainy result because during this time there
is no sun source, there is no power during zing. Night or cloudy or rainy. Wizard requires additional
equipment such as inverters. And the better is the reason
for this is that the power generated from Xin BV
system is DC power. Or I'll buy it the
current or AC, steady voltage or one
directional power, water, one directional voltage. And so we need to us
inverters to supply easy powers to convert to
the DC power, to AC power. And if we would like to
know about inverters, you can go to my own
course for inverters. It did acquired as a
batteries in order to restore Xin power during night or during cloudy or rainy or to be used at, during
exists conditions. We store the power during
Zhi De to be used at night. Or cloudy or rainy wizard Z. But that is our really, really, really expensive and represent this our larger percentage
of Z BV system costs. When we are talking, of course, at an off-grid system. In this course, we will
discuss the difference between off-grid and OEM
system and hybrid. Of course, z BV system actually have 15 to 18%
efficiency or a low efficiency. As this means that we
can only benefit from 18% maximum of 18% of the
radiation of the sun. It needs a continuous cleaning
from dust off course. For high-power BV requires
a very large area. For example, our
desert, of course, it is difficult to incisors
cities because we don't have a large roof for BV. What does that construction
of BV sell or how does BV cell walk will find here is that here we
have one BB cell. Now this beefy cell having or receives the solar radiation and converts it
into electricity. How does it work? The first thing it has here, non reflecting a surface. This non reflecting surfaces. So until reflecting
coating is used the tool. But event is the sunlight
from being reflected from Z panel because we would like to
absorb that radiation. That is the first
thing we use here. And until reflecting surface. In order to absorb
all the radiation. Sentencing we have year
end in the type silicone. Be thought circle in-between these him add depletion region. If you understand electronics, you will understand how
does this junction work. It is a p-n junction. So what happens here? Simply z and the type has an
excess amount of electrons. In the top silicone
has a larger amount of electrons or excess
amount of electrons. But z, p-type silicon has
a large amount of holes. Is this electrons want this to close, this holds assembly. This electron wants
to go to this holds. What happens here is
that when Z light falls on z in the top
silicon electrons, again amount of energy, which is enough for
them to move from Z and the type
layer, p-type layer. Wednesday electron moves from
the anti-type to be type. It causes an electron flow, which means as the flow
of electric charges, which means that it was
flow of electric current. Symbol as this. Now again, Z light energy pulses z onto reflecting
surface causing disease. Silicone electrons are to gain enough energy in order
to go from here. And the boss and the
goto is that B type. Second, in order
to fill the holes, electrons gain amount of energy. Bosses, roses, wires. Xin go and fill z, b times that depletion layer is used to separate
between these two, between z and the
type and B type. So when electrons have
enough amount of energy, it goes from 0 was rosy wires and to z and p-type silicon. Movement of electron
here will cause Z electron flaw or the electric electricity
flow or current to flow. Ipsos, that solar
photovoltaic cells. So a lot of balance to convert the energy from the sun
in Tuesday electricity, which we use in our homes, of course, to power set
lights on our streets, that machine in our industries, and of course we can
use it in house. At home. There are different types of
solar photovoltaics. Those zeros at monocrystalline,
silicon solar panels. Zap polycrystalline or
multi-class client solar panels that amorphous or
a thin film solar panels. And the hybrid
silicon solar panels. Because the first one
is a monocrystalline, is the most effective of the solar PV cells
with 15% efficiency. Also, consider the
more expensive option because they require
less space ends are also cells simply because they
produce more energy and it can build up to four times more
power than z sin films. Whole lot panels also last longer than the asset
panels and they perform much better at low-light own
mean this is their cost, which means that it's
not their first choice. For homeowners, because
it is very excellent. Despite its march
efficiency which is 15%. It is also can be affected
by their torch head, which can break the circuit. The second type is a polycrystalline or
multi crystalline. They have an efficiency
of a certain percent. Z are often seen as a
better economic choice, particularly for the homeowners because they have
a lower price than monocrystalline are
made from a number of smaller circle and
crystals that are melted together and
Xin recrystallized. Zai means a bunch of it. It means that you would need
more of them because of the lower energy convention,
conversion efficiency. As you see here in
the previous one, we have an efficiency of 15%. That's why you would
need a list of space and the least
amount of Zim. But here Forza polycrystalline, it has an efficiency of 16%, which means that we
will need more of sin because it has
a lower efficiency. The type is the amorphous
or thin film solar panels. Z have a 7% efficiency. Therefore, the film or the amorphous are among
the least efficient. Efficient owns the market. But they aren't considered
as the best option. Because they work well in
low-light even moonlight, and are made from non
crystalline silicon that can be transferred the inner same film into
another material such as gloss. Does that mean advanced
sulfate is that it can be mass produced at a
much cheaper cost, but it's more suitable for situations where the
space is not a big issue. For example, in our dissolved, if you have a large space
or a large amount of area, of course, in the
desert the weekend, we can install that amorphous
or the same film pipe. But for the homeowners,
they are not. We cannot use it because it
has a lower efficiency of 1%. So we'll use Z
polycrystalline type. Does that mean this
advanced for them? Is that the anogenital used for residential purposes
or for the homeowners because they will the
grant quicker than the crystalline cells or polycrystal and norms
or monocrystalline. And they have a low
efficiency of a 7%. Hybrid silicon solar panels have our largest stiff as you have zoology stay efficiency. It was any efficiency of 18%. The hybrid solar panels are made from a mix of the amorphous and the monocrystalline cells to generate as a
maximum efficiency. The zeros on a variety of types of the hybrid
cells and they are still very much adds a research
and development stage, which is y, z, our country currently a more
expensive option. Now, was there somebody
for that BV souls. The first type is
a monocrystalline. You have efficiency
of FFT but ascent. And they are
considered the one of the most effective BV
ourselves in a market. That polycrystalline
or multi crystalline, they have efficiency of
facility in present. They are also cheaper
to produce and slightly less efficient
Zen monocrystalline, amorphous or the
same film silicone. They have. The lowest efficiency is 71% of the least efficient
cell types of the market, but they are considered z ships. The hybrid setup on
is the combination of zap polycrystalline
and the monocrystalline. And they have the
highest efficiency, 18%. They are walls take seventh expensive BBS cell
type available on the market, but also the most efficient. The first thing is
that our system or our BV system consisting
of a group of modules, strings, and finally arrays. So what does a cell module
string array means? Cell represented Z, smallest part or the smallest
component in a baby system. This cell, it is used to convert z solar energy into
electrical energy. This cell produces from 0.5
to maximum of 0.29 volt. So this cell is used to convert the Z electrical solar energy
into electrical energy. Now, a group of
cells like this one, group of cells in series. All of these cells are NCDs. Form is something
which is called a majority group of
cells in zeros. For Ms. In module. Now we have this
one which is our module. Now at group of modules in C it is will produce something
which has cold drink. Z cell is the smallest
component in our BV system. Module is consisting of
a group of cells in CDS, is in Z, strength is consisting of a group of
modules also in CDS. Now, z array, which is biggest
thing in our BV system, is consisting of global
strengths in pattern. This one is a string
consisting of two modules. So this is one is our module. This one is a majority. This one is a module. This one is, would
your modules in series will for monitoring the modules and
Sierras format string. Two modules in series. String, don't want
yours in CDS, string. Now all of these strings are embedded in forming and array. String does not have
a specific number. At least two modules in CDs
or one module in series. Z module is consisting
of a group of cells. Okay, here's an example of how does this work or how
a string is formed. It will find the year, this
one and say six volt and 3M, six volt and 3M, 600 world and 3M. If we connect these panels, are these modules in series? We will have our
final voltage of six volts plus 60
volt blood six volts, which is 18 volt, same as a group
of patterns in C. It is positive, negative, negative is connected to the positive and
negative bolster, same as a group of
batteries in series. The **** took her neck to our BV cells in series and
parallel and CSI effect on Z. Via. First, you will have to
consider that each of these cells or each
of these modules, to be more specific, is like a pottery. When you connect a group
of batteries in series. For example, if this
battery is 0.5 volt, 5.5.5, and if you connect all
of them in series, as you, as you notice that
from the KVL Law, you will find that the
output voltage will be zi summation of all voltage, V1 plus V2 plus V3 plus V4, which will give us two volt. How we connect them as Z
module has two terminals, one which is positive, one which is negative. In order to connect
in series with the Z positive and connect it with the negative
of the second cell, Z positive to the
negative, second sale, both Steve to a
negative and so on, until you finally have one positive terminal
and one negative ten. Now, here is the same example. You will find here two
determinants posted on z and negative on Zillow. Now I've connected
the negative was the positive and negative and so on. You will have total minutes, most of them anode and
the negative ten minute. The summation of zi
voltage here is the sum of the voltages here. Now if we see here a z single-celled
or single module having gotten to 0.8.6 volt. This is a cell, of course
I'm not a majority. Now, which is the
same as module. If we made this one, it will give us the same values. But the current will be higher and the voltage
will be also higher. But since we are drawing this curve according
to single-cell, we have the 0.6 volt. As you'll remember
that the voltage was between 0.52.9 volt. Here. This one is single-cell. If we have two cells in Sierras, z voltage will be so
summation of two cells. Associated voltage here doubled and the current is the same. Current. I1 is equal to I2, equal to IC, equal to I4. Bulk voltage is a submission
of all voltages here. One cell here. Those cells in series all
give us 0.6 plus 0.6, which will give us 1.2. Current is the same. Z voltage is doubled. Now if we talk about the
parallel connection here, we have one bended here, one bundle, one
panel, or one panel. Or we can say we have a group
of cells, it is the same. Now if we would
like to have here, this cell pattern was this one. For example, these two cells
will give us a 0.60 voltage. This is an assumption. These two cells on
the odd in parallel, the total current increases. It will be the
current or z first string or Z first-line
velocity current of z second line I a plus ib. When we connect two
cells in parallel, this one is parallel. You'll find the total
current increases to w. Since it's the are
identical to a chosen point, it will become 1.6. The voltage will be the
same sense as the R in better fronts again is that
Z parallel connection. Use the to increase
the total count. One cell, two cells in parallel will give us 1.6
or double the current. And the voltage is the same. But here in zs, here is z. Two series here, for example, will give us doubles
the voltage. What same current? Now let us see CSI effect of series and parallel
on VI curve again. Now if we have a single-cell, if we have two cells in series, Xin Zhi, total voltage will
increase at the same current. Here, one cell to cell, since here's the voltage was doubled or
increased toolbox. Now for Z parallel connection, one cell to two
cells imbedded will increase as the codon two
to z w at the same voltage. You will find the year is
this one and this point, and this point is called as a maximum power point.
What does it mean? It means that the
maximum or z points at which we will have the
maximum bone at this point. Voltage and current, we will have the
maximum output power. Would like to get the maximum
power from our BV cell. We will have to at, operate at this voltage. And this guy Same here is
this point which is Z. Z curve is the voltage and current at which we
will have the maximum.
32. Solar Heating, Solar Irradiation and Panels: Hi and welcome everyone
to our lecture for Z solar radiation and passive
and active solar systems. What is the difference between passive and active solar system? Z active solar system. Let's use the laser pointer. The act of solar system, or the active solar energy
system assembly used to provide heat energy
or to warm up our house. So how can we do this? We use at first our components
such as Z solar collector. What does this door is
this collected Z sunlight or the sun rays that heat energy inside the
sun rays collected Zim. And we have here
pipes which contain a certain fluids such
as water, for example. This for the world
will be subjected to heat energy due to the
presence of solar collector, which collects all of C
heat energy from the sun and provides a to Z
fluid inside the pipes. Now after this Z fluid goes through the pipes by
using of course our pump, which is spread inside it. Now we will find
that this hot fluid, which such as seawater, you will find that it can
be stored or it can be used as a heat exchange
with another fluid, which is called the
fluid for example. Or for example here, you will find that z
hot fluid here exit changes the heat. We call the air
inside the house. Z fluid here have the symptom ritual of Z
air inside the house, then z heat energy be presented
inside z hot water tank, provide this heat for this goal, the one and makes it hotter
using the heat exchanger. Then this one
becomes hot and use the too warm out
or warm our home. And z active solar system, we capture the
energy from the sun By bomb being a heat
absorbing the fluid, such as water or antifreeze. Special collector's. We capture energy by using gas, oil on collected, for example, the bombing it using
our bomb bombings, this fluid such as seawater or antifreeze,
special collector's. We can also use that BV balance is to
collect the Z heat energy. And instead of using
a solar collector, we can use solar PV panels, which is used to convert solar energy into
electrical energy. Electrical energy will
be used to provide power to an electric
heater inside our house. We have two muscles
here of warming our house by using z electric heater or by
using the solar collector, which provides power or provide this heat energy
to call the fluid. Z collectors may be
located on zeros in order to fair the sun and the
collectors or the energy from it. It can be directly use and
another heat can be used. Some neat can be stored in
an insulated container, whereas gravel, Walter Clay
and the be used later. We'll find here is that we
have here a water tank. We have here is a heat
exchanger to be used before to produce
or to use z here, directory inside our home. Use it to heat water in
many homes, this is z. Benefit of using Z
active solar system similar to the passive
is that difference between Zemo would see it now. Z passive solar system, you will find that this
is an image of a passive. You will find that we
don't have any components such as Z solar
collectors or BB banners. We don't have any of
these components. But according to
Z construction of the building itself or Z, Z orientation of the
building itself. All of this will help us in producing Z passive
solar system, which does not require
any components as before. Now we will find
that z heat energy from the sun bosses Rosie gloss, and the content inside our home, we have here the front
installation layers. In order to prevent the heat
energy from going outside. We use z heat from the sun. We Abbas Z sun rays inside
z, housed inside z. How is and prevent them
from going outside. Now the system absorbed with an stores heat
energy from the sun. Within well insulated structure. Walls and floors
are made of stone, adobe or break or concrete. Water as water tanks use that to store collected solar energy as heat and slowly release the heat through the
day and the night. We simply use water
tanks to a store Z. As Z collected energy and slowly releasing this
heat through the day, supplemented with natural
gas or propane heater. So we need here type of fuel in order to increase
the temperature of Z Walter itself because this heat will not be
enough to hit Z water. So we need another
type of fuel in order to increase the
temperature of z, of z water itself. What is the Advanced and this
adventure of this methods? Z as a net energy is moderate in the active
and high in z passive. So the energy or the energy
produced is moderate. Medium amount of energy, however, Z passive produce
high amount of energy. Reside this advanced is
that we need access to sun 16% of time during
daylight in order to, of course, collect all of
the energy from the sun. Here is the advantages that
we have very low emissions of CO2 and Azara air pollutants. Now why do we have
low emissions? Because we don't
have any type of fuel used except in
the case of z passive, where we use some amount of
natural gas or propane in order to increase the
temperature of the water itself. The disadvantage also is at x0, x1 can be blocked by trees
and also to structures. So when the sun is blocked, it means that we don't
have enough sunlight going to z as solar collectors
or that house itself. The advantage is that we have very low land
disturbance because it does not contain
any rotating parts. It does not contain any
mechanical rotating parts. It is very silent. Silent the process. We don't have
anything which moves Z high and installation
and maintenance costs for active system because
we have solar collectors, we have bumps, we have solar
panels in another case. So all of this we'll need
maintenance and of course, high installation adds the
beginning z equals to z. Massive is moderate
and the bads. The problem is that we
need backup system for the cloudy days for both of
the active and z massive. Of course, how we can
do a backup by using Z as natural gas or any
other type of fuel. So z active and the best
of systems are simply used in solar heating in order to provide
heat for our house. We have two methods. Here's the active and
the best of one of them uses Z solar collectors. That solar panels. And the other type does
not use any of these. However, it uses that orientation and dizzy construction of
the building in order to provide heat energy towards the water tanks or
Tuesday building itself. But in the course, we need to understand how we can generate electricity
from Z at Sun. In order to generate
electricity from the sun, we need solar panels. We have to identify a very important term
inside our process, which is called desert
solar radiation. What does their solar
radiation mean? The solar radiation that
representing the amount of solar energy which affords
bear unit meter square, representing z amount of kilowatt hour bear
meter squared. So this is a definition of that solar radiation or
the solar insulation. Now, x0, x1 itself
have solar energy. 100% of the incoming
solar energy, six separate cent of them is
reflected Boise atmosphere, 20% of the sunlight is
reflected by the clouds. 4% is reflected from
the surface itself. And you will find that 51% of the energy is absorbed
by land and oceans. Now we will find that this is the percent representing
30% of the energy. Which is reflected from
the atmosphere itself. And that remaining goals
absorption by Zealand and part of it is radiated back to space. So as the Earth receives 174 watt or ten power
15 multiplied by 174 what of solar
radiation or installation adds the upper atmosphere
will find that this is amount of
high amount of power, 174 multiplied by
temperature 15. This is a very, very large
amount of power and they can provide energy required the
planet for hundreds of years. So that solar energy
itself is very important and we have to benefit for this
amount of power. You will find that not
only serve to present our effected to space winds, the rest is absorbed by
clouds, oceans, and land. You will find that that
reflection is 60% By atmosphere, 20% by clouds, 4% buys
the Earth's surface. So 60% plus 20% to
give plus four gives us z served the percentage
is reflected and zeros. The other part of
it is absorbed by the clouds, the oceans, and the lens very small, is radiated back to space. Spectrum of light, which
comes from the Sun and reaches the Earth,
which reaches here, is divided among LEA, or the mostly across
z visible region, the visible spectrum region. And in neon Z infrared ranges, and the very small part
in the ultraviolet range. So our light have three parties, visible, infrared
and ultraviolet. Of course, this is the one
which bosses to the heirs. But of course we know
that the light itself is having a large spectrum
containing z radio waves. For example, the x-rays, gamma rays, and etc. According to what? According to z type of z
wavelength and the frequency. So according to
the wavelength and the frequency weekend
identify it as a radio or, and visible or infrared
or ultraviolet and etc. So the solar energy or zeolite energy here
or does infobuttons of zeolite having is divided
into the visible spectrum, having some in the
infrared and small part in z alternative and the trains. Most of the world's population lives in area or live in areas with installation of one hundred and fifty
two hundred watts per meter squared. Or city 0.5 to seven kilowatt hours per
meter squared per day, finds that z installation here is similar to
solar radiation. Solar radiation is similar
to the insulation. The installation or
representing the amount of power received the per
meter square or amount. To be more specific, the amount of energy received bear unit area will find that z installation can have
150 to 300 to what? For each meter squared, or 3.5 to seven kilowatt-hour
bear meter squared. This one depends
on z position or z coordinates of
the point in z ors. And we'll understand how to
get z amount of solar energy or as a kilowatt hour
per meter squared for any reason inside z planet. Now we will find here an example
of z EBV planet you saw, you saw before in the
previous slide that EBV, the solar radiation or
solar installation, or both of them are
similar to each other. The amount of power which he can be generated from the sun, 174 beta watt is
provided by x0, x1. We have to make or use
this amount of power. We have in order to do this, we need to use solar
panels to collect dizzy. Solar energy into
electrical energy. Will find here an example of z EBV plants,
photovoltaic plants. This one is, for example, to point to a gigawatt in India. This one you will find thousandths on Z solar
panels in the desert. This solar panels, all of these solar panels
produce power, which is nearly equal to 2.2
giga watt or 2200 megawatt. Another one in Abu
Dhabi or Abu Dhabi. At 1.1 gigawatt. This one is also in the desert because in order to
benefit from x0, x1 and of course, as he deserted does not
have any population. So we start, we start using
exists an empty area. And the benefit from x0, x1, which is called here
is this one is called z node solar park. Another one BB blend in
Japan, this bv blend, you will find that a
solar panel is here, are installed in z
ocean or sea itself. Z are all on seawater. We take the advantage of Z, presence of Z free
area or open area and add solar panels to
collect disease on light which falls
on Z, water itself. Now Z at BB balance this
movie banner or solar panel, how it looks like that BP
banner looks alike exists. It has different types as
we discussed in the course. So we have monocrystalline
embolic stroke. Crystalline z is
in film and etc. Now, you will find
that this panel, for example, have Z widths, certain width and certain
height and certain sickness. That configuration of it. You need to know of
course, z lens and, or z width and
height and sickness. Why? Because when we
install on our off, we need to understand the
amount of area available. And when we know as the
amount of area available, we will know the amount of
energy which we can generate. This is front of Z panel
is the Bank of Japan. And you will see that here at consisting of diodes which are installed in the junction
box, junction Sochi, we're going to discuss
z divs here is used to prevent the current from going inside reverse
direction at night, for example, from Jupiter
is Tuesday panel. We have here two cables
going outside from JPanel. One of them representing z positive and one is an
active is this one, which is the man is a
bolster and z as R1 is a female and negative is this cable is certainly
five inch cable. And the cold as n, the width MEC for connectors will seize that MC4 connect towards
an extra slide. Now we'll find that here. We said now that advanced
oxidize to prevent disease reverses direction of the
current to the panel itself. We have Z2 cables, which is used to connect dizzy banners together
in CNS or embedded. Now we will find the ears
that as this of course is that male and female z positive and negative
which comes out of the junction box stores this one is the junction box
which contains, which contains z tight
and two terminals of Z panel itself. Most steep negative
and of course, the panel itself have a
certain amount of power. It can be 5000 watt, 150, and its other, according to the wattage of z. By itself. Now we have z bolster
and we have Z negative. Now in order to connect
the same NCDs of course. So we connect it to z at bolster have with negative
of Amazon panel. And they boast of banana is connected to the
negative and its other, as we discussed in the CDS and the parallel
connection of Z panels. Of course, FCR
imbalance in z positive with z positive and the
negative with z negative. Now someone would tell me
is that how can I connect Z ball step and the Asada
bolster off together? For example, what I
mean is that we have, for example, this one. This one. You will find that this
one is the positive, as you see here, the
positive and the negative. And this one is positive
and the negative. Now for example, this one
is a panel as an example, and this one is another panel. Now what I would like to connect these two panels
together in parallel, not in Sierras, in battery. If I would like to connect
the same embedding, z and z or bolster should be
connected with the positive. Bolster, fuzzy positive. And the negative was
the negative, right? Because we are connecting
them impairment. But you will find the
problem here is that Z negative here and
the negative here, both of them are females. You will see that this negative, this negative, most of them
are equal to each other. This one is positive
and the ball step, how iconic and I connect apples step with
honors are positive or negative with Amazon
negative buys the usage of the
MAC for connectors. This connectors when we
provide, for example, X0, female, for example, we connect this female here. And it provides us at me. What I mean is that
we can connect as a female this connector to provide bolster or that middle. For example. Here you will see
that this one is negative and this
one is z positive. Now, I can connect
the z negative here, is that female was this one. And we can take exist terminal to provide
X0 male required. For example, if I would
like to connect to 0 positive with the
positive instead of four, how can I do this? By connecting this one
to here to female, and we will have a male. Okay? You'll notice that z, z vice versa of them. So for example, if I
would like z-bar stuff, then I will connect the
z negative here was the spot to provide Z min. So simply we can, by using the MAC for connectors, we can provide the male and
female as I would like, and I can connect
to them to gather. Now, Z panel itself can have a different voltage and
according to its support, you will find that
this is available in market 50 watt, one
hundred, one hundred, one hundred and fifty
watt to 100 watt, 250 watts or 100-watt, and surrender 50 watt. So this is an example of z panels available
in the market. You will find that as your
voltage increases, z, Z size, obviously panel itself increases because we increase the
number of cells inside z panel in order to generate
more power and collect more light energy to convert
it into electricity. Now here you will find
an example about with z solar panel, solar panel here. And you will find
the module type. Is this one, have
a maximum power at STC be maximum is the maximum
generated power of Z panel. Z maximum I would power
of Z pattern is 250 watt. And you will find
that is at STC. What does it means? It means that standard
temperature conditions. What does this mean? It means that we are operating
at and radians or xhat, solar insulation or the
amount of radiation is 1 thousand to what
Bear meter squared. And at the same time at a
temperature of 25 series is degree and air mass of 1.5. The air mass will
be discussed in shading and tilt
the angle lecture. For now, we will find that Z maximum boat obviously
abandon this one, for example. So 150 watt is the maximum
power is generated at this conditions of
1 thousand watt per meter square
radiation from the sun, then breach or equal
to 25 cities as degree and air mass 1.5. Now we will find also the open-circuit voltage
and short-circuit current. So what does this representing? This representing the open-circuit
voltage of the panel. When we have, when
we measure Z At, between the two
terminals of cPanel, z voltage between them
at no load case when we're not connecting any load,
the open-circuit voltage, the maximum voltage
between the terminals of Z panel is 37.5 and the short-circuit
current of Zyban and Z maximum current which can flow inside z panel is 8.87 and bear. So what does this represents? This is representing the z. When we have z, That's sees that two terminals, for example, this panel. We have bolstered and the
negative when we measure Z by using the audio
meter z voltage between positive and negative, you will find that
this one is equal to the open circuit voltage. When we provide a
short circuit between them using the vomit
or for example, when will provide a short
circuit to the panel. The short-circuit
current flowing inside z panel is 8.87 and bear, this is the maximum
output voltage. This is the maximum current or the short-circuit
current of Z panel. The maximum current which
can flow inside z panels. Now we will find the result, optimum operating voltage and
optimum operating current. What does this
representing or funds? And this voltage is 30 volt
and this one is 8.3 and bad. You will find that
this value 30 volt and this open circuit
is served seven. Z current is 8.32, and short-circuit 8.87 values also of course, lower than this. This values representing the
optimum operating condition. What does this mean if we can reduce our
voltage of circuit, the voltage across Z panel. And is the current absorb it from Z panel is equal to 8.32. Then in this case, we will provide
the maximum power, Wednesday panel voltage and the current equal to
70 volt and 8.32, we can provide the
maximum power of zip. And then what is the
maximum power of Z panel? Is that 251250 watt can be
achieved Zai panel if we have a 30 volt and 8.32 and bear
if we draw a Z power care. Okay? Why exists? You will find that z power
of Z panel like this. This can be achieved at a certain voltage and
a certain current. Value of the voltage and
value of the current is 30 volt and it warrant
city to and bear. Now you will find honors are
seeing here z is a point on, you will find that
temperature coefficient of z power maximum. So what does this represent? It means that z power maximum
is the maximum power, which is 250 watt,
will be reduced. The for each series is degree by 0.44% minus 0.44%
representing z, a reduction in
percentage of z power or the maximum borrowed for
each arise in temperature. The power maximum here
is generated at z. Once I was on to
what temperature? 25 citizens degree and mass 1.5. Now we will find that
if z in Britain, for example, instead of 25, becomes the 26th Silesia as we increase the temperature
by one series, yes. What will happen in this case? Z power maximum
will be reduced by negative 0.44 is the
power will be reduced, ends at temperature
coefficient of the voltage and the current voltage will
also be reduced by 0.3%. Both the current, if the
temperature increases, the current will
increase by 0.04%. Find the, here's the
effect of temperature. If the temperature increases, temperature increased
by one citizens degree, then Bower maximum reduced by 0.44% V open-circuit
reduce the buying 0.3%. I short circuit will
increase by 0.04%. Now we will find that Z
maximum system voltage, which happens when we
connect a group of panels together in series Z, maximum system voltage is 600, and voltage DC is this voltage. Where did we get this
value of 600 volt, which is mz data sheet. This value is forums that in NDC code or Zion
national electric code, the National electrical code
says that z voltage must not exceed 600 volt DC or dependence which is
connected in series. So not exceed a
voltage of 600 volt. Now, you will find that
the maximum C8 is fuels, that fuels which can be added in series with the Bannon as a prediction on for Z band and the maximum fuels
is 15 and bear. You will find also the weight and the dimensions
and its other. This is specs or the specification
of the panel itself. We see that the panel itself
and the effect of that in branch or as we will discuss
the Amazon lectures. Now, that solar
electricity systems are given in rating
in kilowatt peak. When I'm talking about
with the power plant, when I say one megawatt, I mean one megawatt peak. What does this mean? It means that Z maximum
power which can be produced plant or Z AA, BB blend that can be measured in megawatt beak or kilowatt peak. If it is a small BB scale. This is essentially the
rate at which it generates energy at big performance. For example, add Xenon on a sunny day and xenon
on a sunny day, we have the maximum power which can produce
the from the sun, which is the time at which have the maximum amount of
radiation from the sun. This time representing Z, maximum power which
it can be generated. And this one is z1, which you can represent the Z capacity of
our solar PV system. Zach kilowatt peak
of domestic system will vary depending on how
much customer wants to spend, how much it will is bent on Z equipments such as of
course is the panels, how many balances again, he pay for it. Z inverse of size, charge controller
and the batteries. And of course, z roof area
available in order to install. Bb panels. We can also knows that radiation of an area that
require the tilt, the angle of the EBV
systems etl Tango, representing the inclination
of ZB V0 system. Temperature. Of course, which is
the temperature at which a banner will
be an installed by using Zack low-power
a solar eclipse is the global solar
atlas will help us to identify radiation of an area that delta angle ends at
temperature, as we will see now. By using global
solar atlas website, we can get this value. So let's go towards
the global solar across website in order to find this and see what is the information
available for us. Now if you'll type in Google,
Global Solar outlaws, you will find that this website, which will give you
information about what the heat energy or not. The heat energy of course, is the solar energy in
different parts of the wall it. Now as an example, you can move here
and CZ full map, as you'll see here,
at any reason you would like like this. Now, for example,
let's see this area, for example here in my
own country, Egypt. If I, for example, selected this one Click here, one click on this
area, double-click. And you'll find that this is the name of the area
which I selected. You'll find the specific
photovoltaic power output, z power output from
photovoltaics specific, which are representing what does this represent
representing? Z kilowatt hour or the energy is generated bear
kilowatt beak barrier. What does this mean? It means that each
one kilowatt beak, each one kilowatt
beak installed, we'll provide us 18093
kilowatt each year. So in one commonality here, I can, using Zap, one
kilowatt installed, one kilowatt beak of panels
installed can provide me a power of 1893 key to what? This assembly can provide
you with the energy required or the energy can be produced from a certain area. Now you will find
that here we have the biotic to
normal irradiation. The irradiation or
the solar insulation with a different definitions. The air irradiation here is 2211 kilowatt hour
bear meter squared. This representing z energy produced for each
one meter squared. Now we will find the
air temperature, air temperature in this
particular region, 221.1 z optimum tilt angle, which is the one which
is important for us. The optimum delta angle. What is the angle
which she can't, which should be provided, certain degree angle
which can be provided. And assuming here is
that the elevation of Z balance is at 120 meters. So of course, according
to the specs, you can know z region. Now, z is saying here
is that you will find that z by selecting
another region like this, you will find that the front
powers z-bar one here. For example, 1986 kilowatt
hour, bear kilowatt peak. Now what I would like
you to notice here is that the zeros are different
colors inside this map. Finds that blue one is the lowest one and z
darker the color. The more energy which
can be produced. You will see that Z blue one in 600 kilowatt hour bear each
kilowatt big installed. This one is z energy
generated for the blue in one year as we
go darker to the maximum, which is 2400 kilowatt hour bear kilowatt peak in one year. Finds that this one
is aldol color, which is in this region 1986, in the range between two thousand and one
thousand nine hundred. Now if we get a brighter one, for example, this
one lie exists. You will find the 1700s 96. If we get a dark
one like this one, you will find that 10 one
hundred thirty one hundred. So as the color goes darker, it means that we can
provide or get more energy, or more energy can be
filled from x0, x1. So what is the benefit of Z global solar across here
you will find that outlaws provided you with a
different air BV bower which you can be
reduced according to zap position inside z wall lid map gives you an estimated amount
of kilowatt hour, but reduce the bear kilowatt
beak and installed in. Not only this, but
also provides you with the regions which have
higher amount of energy. Not only this, but
also provides you with the optimum delta
angle of the PV modules. You will find that
in another lecture, we discussed different methods of obtaining Z tilt the angle. Now you can get the
tilt angle easily by using Z global solar Atlas. It provides you
with directly with the angle required or
was that a BV benefits? In this video, we discussed the different types of solar
heating, your methods. Then we discussed
the Z BB panel, some specs up, I
would say BV balance. And the finally
global solar atlas.
33. Effect of Insolation and Temperature on V I Curve: Now I would like TO discusses Z effective of z installation ends at temperature on z
v curve or z power kill. First we need to define z installation or
solar irradiance. What does ask solar irradiance
mean or installation mean. It means that z power, bare unit area received from the sun in the form of
electromagnetic radiation. It means that when we
are saying radians, we can say z kilowatt bear
meter squared, simple as this, or it can be energy
per unit area, okay, kilowatt hour
per meter squared. For example, here you will
find here is a relation between BV array current
ends up PV array voltage. Let's take this curve. We'll see is that at
solar radiance of 100-watt meter squared
power, bare unit area. This means that at this value, we will have a value
of maximum orders. Now short-circuit current
will be nearly 1.2. For example. The maximum voltage will
be nearly circuit voltage. Okay? Now if we increase
the solar irradiance or z power per unit
area from the sun, for example, 400 watt
per meter squared. You will find that
Z current increase. Z voltage also increased
at 600 millimeter squared. Z currently increased,
voltage increased, and so on. Well, it sees that we
understand the ear as z installation or irradiation, or z power per unit
area received from z. Sum increases. Z power generated from
BV system increases. You will see is that here at 1200 watts per meter squared, here at 200 watts
per meter squared. Now if we would like
to find z power, we multiply z voltage
multiplied by z current. So at this 0, voltage
multiplied by 7.5 and bear here ten and bear multiplied by certain
value here and so on. And Z maximum power
received from BV system is add Z
of Z curve at z ne, nearly here at 75 volt, and nearly add seven and pair. Now what is the effect of
temperature on this curve? You will see here is a tear. For example, add Z on
Joanne at 75 degree. If we decrease that in breach
on it, 250 Celsius degree. Here, z voltage will increase as buzzy current or whether they were
nearly remained constant. Now, again, here at
25 citizens degree, here at 0, degree, at negative 25 citizens degree. What does it mean? It means is that if we
increase the temperature, for example here is 0 degree
25 citizens degree 1575. So as we increase temperature, z voltage decreases, but the current nearly
remain constant. What does it mean? It means that the
total power from the BV system decreases. So this means that at
a higher temperature, Z efficiency of the
system decreases. Now let us see
another curve here. At density 0 degree 2540 degree, 55 degree, 70 degree. So as the temperature
increases from right to left, z power received from
Z, BB system decreases. As the temperature increases. Z power over the PV
system decreases. As the insolation increases. Z efficiency and z power received the froms
EBV system increase.
34. PV Installation, Short Circuit and Open Circuit Tests Using Avometer: Now in this video we
would like to discuss Z, some advice about what
BV and installation and how to do the open circuit test
and short circuit test. Afford that BV Bennett, in order to see what
is the value of Z open circuit voltage and the short-circuit current or
EBV panel when installed. Of course, the first thing
is that we have to of course avoids it ought
to be between the positive and the
negative of Z panel. We remember that each
panel have two terminals, one which is positive
and z and negative. Now remember that z positive and then negative
should not touch each other because it will cause a short-circuit inside z panel. And they may lead to the
damage of the panel. Number to reduce the
distance between z panels and the charge
controller or inverter in order to reduce Z losses in
Zack cables from the balance to Z charge controller or Z inverter in order to receive
the power from the panels. We use cables in order
to connect between them and z inverter or
a charge controller. So we have to make sure that the distance between
them is not very large in order to avoid z
voltage drop and avoid z, z losses inside z cable. Because we remember
that z losses equal to I squared multiplied
by z resistance. So as length of the
cable increases, that resistance will increase, leading to more voltage
drop mode losses in gables. Number to allow a space
between Z balance in order to reduce
that wind effect. We'll see is that here
we have one binded here, the next beside it, you will find a very
small space between them. Why in order to allow Z
went to pass through Zim? Because if Z are
connected together, then the window we'll
keep pushing him away. But if you provide a smallest basis I went to we'll go through this. Is base. Avoid obstacles and shadow in front of Z patterns
or is ourselves. So of course, we should not
when we install our parents. So we should avoid any obstacles or shadow
or trees or anything. Because of course it will effect the CSI effect Z
performance over z balance should be done for the enclosure and
fixing components of xy EBV band and y of
course is we have here, is that structure
itself is made of iron or germanium or any
conducting material. Will find that Samad
charges or leakage current may boss from Z panel
to this structure. When someone touches
this one will have a touch of voltage or have
a chalk electric shock. So in order to prevent this, we have to connect
as this enclosure or this structure with
the Earth System. Course, we discuss parsing
system in details, but now we have to
understand one of the important things is that we have to design n Earth's think, Ford Z, all of the
inclusions we connect them together in order
to form an equi, potential surface and the
connected into the system. We use a baby structure
made of aluminum in order to be
irresistible to rust. Now how we can do is
that there's the wind we do short-circuit disk
or open circuit disk. Short-circuit distorted. The open circuit test we use z eval meter is this
one which is the meter. The meter have a
common have z voltage, have Z and bear. We have from the meter
itself two terminals, one for z voltage and one
for z m bear and z common. Now we will find that
there are two wires. For example, if I would like to measure Z open circuit voltage, then we have Z two terminals. Let's write this. We will find here the
total NAD plus and the minus from
junction box of z. When we connect the Z
positive z both step with that red one because
it is connected here. The ball step of amateur z negative is always z black one, z negative here of z panel
is connected to z common. Then we both zest
wich at 0 voltage, you will find here
is the voltage. Sometimes it is
DC like this one. This one, this is at
DC and this one is AC. Since we are using the
panels, solar panels. So they provide DC voltage. We will connect it add
here at DC voltage. Now by connecting this, we will have a reading
for z voltage as the open circuit
voltage similar to the current about the differences
that we will take. Red one here for the voltage. And the boat it here like this and connect it again
Tuesday positive. Now you will find here
is that measuring the voltage here for
a different loads. In order to understand
this meter here, we have z voltage is z, v here, the voltage
here and z common. Like this. In order to measure the voltage between the terminals
of Z banner, we connect the Z positive
here and negative here. We measure the voltage between these two terminals of Z panel. This of course, in case of
connecting anode here, okay? Now, and of course
it draws current. Now in the case of measuring the current absorbed in
case of having a load, then we will connect
to the AVL meter in series with the binder. In this two cases, we don't measure Z. Open circuit offers
a short-circuit. We measure the voltage
and the current normally, in case of having
a load of zeros, if I would like to
measure the currents and the meter will be in
series of the circuit. Most of their man goes to the motor terminal of the motor connected
to the negative. The negative here connected
tos and negative here. The bolster is connected
here to this term. Now in that case here, Let's delete all of this. Vomit on here is connected
in series with the circuit. If this one is Z Positives
ends up or step was positive. And the negative connected
to the negative here is n z. Because z, if it is, for example here
positive-negative. Let's make it easy.
Bolster negative. So as the current goes out
from here, Tuesday mode, Zingales out here from
the motor to the load, which is the AVL meter. So as the entering
current is from here, so this one will
be z positive of the current or z and bear a, a as the current goes here. Since this one is z
comma negative goes back and back and back towards
the negative of Z binary, positive-negative,
positive two z, positive of Z motor. Since a negative means that the current going out
of the motor going into Z bolster the eval
and going out like this. Similarly here you will see that z method here is connected. We have Z battery and the lamp. So z lamp is connected
in series with z meter and the meter
connected to a z better. You'll find your positive
because the current goes out here going into entering Z AB amateur
Zen going out of z common to z lambda z
lambda two z negative. Now let's see a video
explaining how we can do Z, open circuit and short
circuit in actual life. Now you will see here at Video for z company
somewhere on later, which is that famous company for BV components and panels. Now Z somewhere company
provided a video showing you how to do the short circuit test
and open circuit test. Now we have the
meter as you see it. Let's maximize this one. You'll see here we
have Z ever meter. We have the voltage
here, Common, Z, Z command here also or common and mainly and
bear or ten and bear. We have Zuckerman, which
represent which is connected to Z black
one or z 0 terminal. We have z voltage and
we have here Z and bear if I'm measuring and bear in melody and bear
very small values. And this one, if we are measuring tin and bear
or higher values, we usually will use
that ten and bed, since it's a short circuit level was in the previous
case was eight and bear ends up previous
video of Z panel. Now you will find that z, for example, if I would like
to measure the voltage, then I take that two terminals
of Z panel connect the Z positive with the V and the
negative was the common. Now, let us move it forward. You will see that z, red one representing z bolster and the black one
representing z negative. Both step is connected
to the voltage and the negative is connected
to is the black one. Or z common is connected
to the black one. Now, we'll find that z meter here is connected to this one. This one is representing
is the voltage as DC. This one is DC about, this voltage is AAC. I know it's not clear, but here you will see that when you have the
average difference between Z, since we automate running DC. So we'll put it at DC. Now what happens is that we connect this as one towards the positive of z and this one
to the negative of Z Pan. And let's see. We have here. We have that red one representing the positive
opposite pattern, and then we have the blue one representing z negative
terminal of Z binary. We connected z red
one which is the positive with the pollster one, and Z, blue one which is the
negative with the command. Now by connecting these two to here and by putting
it as the voltage, you will find that here
is that DC voltage and measure was 20 volt. This is the open
circuit voltage. Remember is that this voltage is adds a conditions at which the panel exists as this panel and this video
exists in a studio. According to the
lighting of the studio. Zb be bundled will
produce amount of power. Now I would like to
measure the current. In order to measure current, I will keep z common
itself as this. But z red one will
go to z and bear. Bear. And z, a terminal here
will go to z and bear. Now let's move forward. Like exists. You will see that here, this is z and bear. And here's the voltage
is this one is the voltage and you see
that it is a constant. This means that it
is at DC value, but here is our sine wave, or a sinusoidal wave
means it is measuring AC. So this one is a DC
which we fix it at. Since we are
measuring z and bear, it doesn't matter if it is
at DC or AC beta value. We bought this one
at z and bear. We take z negative with the common enables the
wizard then m bear. Now you see here does that
z common itself with the black similar to Z
open-circuit voltage case. The z red is with that thin and bear
since we are measuring AC current or high current
for z and zap BV benefit. You'll see that here also z maximum voltage measure the year between V and the command, maximum 600 voltage DC or AC. So this is omega, maximum value is 600 volt. And you will find
that the between Z Coleman and the middle ear and bare maximum value is
500 million pairs. This is the maximum value
of current measurement. If we connected started here. Now, if you look at this one, maximum ten and bear, that's why CPV button
before was it and bear. So we connected here to that
large value or z and bear. Now we will connect
that it was the red and the black with blue. Like this. You will find that z right here is connected with the
red or z positive. And z negative is connected
with z black or Z command. Then we will have
z final value of z and bear or 0.031 and bear. This value is low here
in this case, why? This is a short-circuit and bear why it is low
because of course, z lighting inside the studio is low or having low radiations. So z power produced is lower. That's why is the
current will be lower? Because the current is
affected more by radiation. Now someone will tell me what is the benefit
of the green. Now if you measure z voltage
between red and green, it will give you half
of z V open circuit. Between the red and the blue, it will give you a full
V open circuit value. This is how you can do is an open circuit and
short circuit test. Also, we learned in
this video about some advices when we are
installing our panel.
35. Solar Wires and Cables Installation Process : Hi everyone. In this video we
would like to discuss z difference between
solar wires and cables. And what are the types
of cables used in solar PV system and z installation process
for solar cables. What is the difference
between zones, solar wires and cables? You will find here
is that Z wire here. This is called the wire. It's consisting
of one conductor. This wire is formed,
conducted one conductor. But you will find that z k, What is formed from a
group of conductors. You will find the one
conductor to conduct, or 34 and etcetera. So this one is a cable
and it has two layers. One which is insulation level, which is used to prevent leakage off current
and electric shocks. This one which is the outer, which is used to protect against the fire and against
climate conditions. Let's see what's the difference. Number one, z wire is a
conductive materials. This one is a
conductive material. This is usually made of
copper or aluminium. Because copper and aluminum are good conductor
of electricity. Of course, as they
are not made of gold, because gold is expensive. It is made usually made
of copper or aluminium. Z conductor is our wire or combination of foreigners
will see that here. This one is our wire. Is this a small wires or
combinations of wires and Z, this would form one conductor. Zinc-air battery
itself is consisting of a group of conductors. You will find that
z cable is a group of two or more inductors. This is, OR note here, two or more conductors
that are twisted or bonded together surrounded
by an insulating layer, which itself is within
a cable jacket, also called AC cable cheese. Find here is that
this is a conductor itself is the cable itself
is a conducting layer in which is used to conduct z electric
current or use the two, moves the electricity from
BB balance to anywhere else. This one is a conducting area. And you'll find that this
gray or white layer, this layer is called dizzy
cable insulation layer. This is an insulating
layer which is used to prevent that flow of electricity outside of Z cable or connection of that
cable to the ground, or electric shocks
when someone touches the conducting material will
suffer from electric shock. We need to insulate
between them. Also the outer layer, which is called
Zach cable cheese, is this cable cheese is
used to protect the Z cable against fire and it uses to protect it against the
climate conditions. Zack cable may vary in its
external diameter depending on Z number of conduct are
used. So what does this mean? It means that if I
have, for example, a small amount of current needs to flow or needs to be passed. Therefore, we will need a
small number of conductors. Diameter itself of
the cable will be small as the current
capacity increases or z, z amount of the current
required increases. Z and z. In this case, we would
need higher than amateur. Why? Because we need
more conductors. So we'll find that
z solar cable here. You will find that, for
example, solar cable. You will find the Wannsee, which means one code. You will find the one
core or one cable, multiply it by six
square millimeter. What does mean? It means that this conductor have a diameter of as the area, as a cross-sectional area of the cable itself is six
millimeters squared. And z area as the
area increases, it means that it will have
higher current capacity. It means that it can absorb
or it can pass more current, or it means that it can
flow more amount of power or transfer
more amount of power. You will find here
is that this cable, for example, solar cable,
photovoltaic cable. This one is, you will
find it the outer layer. The outermost layer is
halogen and free sheath. This one is used the two protected against
the fire again, and it is used to protect it against the
climate conditions. You will find here is our second layer is the
halogen free installations. This one is used to
insulate betweens a conducting material
and z humans, for example, or the ground. And dizzy copper wire is used to transfer or carries
electric current. Now, this cables
are suitable for that permanent outdoor
long-term use. Under variable and the
harsh climate conditions. Z are designed and
tested to operate at a normal maximum conduct or temperature of mine
diseases degree. The fourth 20 thousand hours
up to 120 series is degree. It is used at, normally it can sustain
up to 90 degree. Therefore, the expected
better news is 30 to 40 years under
normal usage conditions, you will find that the halogens
make Zach cable jackets, XLR cable jackets Z
out on most layers. And z installation
which is here, this hydrogen free installation,
highly flame retardant. What does this mean? It
means that it can was a stanza flame for
large period of time. That's why it is made
of halogen in order to withstand Z flames for
large amount of time. Now we will find here
is that the standard and the color codes
are for cables. It, you'll notice that z
color of the cable itself. Therefore, according to Z
code itself, for example, the IEC or International
Electro Technical Commissions and z and anemia for example, all of this are different codes. And according to the code, you will know what is the
color of our three-phase, for example, and
the z DC cables. You will find that, for example, in a country or a
region, European Union, according to the IEC
zip code reference, this code reference
according to IaC, what colors should be used? For example, if it's
a should be brown, phase B should be black, phase C should be grades. This is a three-phase
power which is supplied to our load as a neutral should
have light blue color. Now I will find that if it
is a single phase system, then the active one or z is
considered as Zippo step. Or of course we know that
Z reverse with each other, but this is the one which at the beginning of a polarity
or is a positive cycle. So this one is black or brown. Then you throw it
should be light blue. You will find that
the dc should be one. Or what does one means? It means that it is, you will find that it is here in cenotes, no
recommendations given. It means that this
colors it does not have any standard the values. Now we'll find that
that protective error, which is used in arcing system, it can be green or yellow
with Upload marking add z. And now we will find that, for example, the United States, you will find that it
is different from them, or brown in here. Z phase B is little
bit difference. That is difference as a neutral
is different and so on. Now the funds that in my
own country in Egypt, which is located in Africa, that phase a is red,
yellow, and blue. As a neutral is usually black. You'll find that it's
a protective herbs is nearly equal to all
of these green, yellow, green, yellow,
green, yellow. And you'll see that
you are usually green with yellow lines. You will notice that
this line rubric, this cable representing zebra detective
nursing conductors. Of course all of this
we will discuss inside every single part or nursing
design of the system. Now we will find that
when we would like to install cable in our BB system, for example, if I have one panel and have another one and I would like to connect them together. In order to connect
them together, I will use a wire or
I will use a cable according to zack
cross-sectional area required. Someone would ask me what is the required
cross-sectional area? Zach cross-section at area depends on the
amount of current, the amount of current
dependence on z power and the z glued. When I design my beam system, I will know what is
the amount of current. And according to this, we will select our load. Now, someone will tell me I need the example you
will find is that this example will exist in ZAP protection of the
wifi system part. And you will find
it also in signs, a single line diagram,
obviously EBV system, both of them I
discussed in details how to select a cable
from the catalog. Because it's a selection
depends on many factors such as the temperature,
the current capacity. Also z installation type is the cable grounded
under the ground, buried in the ground, or it is a wall mounted or in is it in a conduit or whatever? It's case. According to this case, we will select the Z
cross-sectional area required. And you'll see that by numbers, we will get all of this
later in the course. Now in order to connect
two panels together, for example, using a wire, I will need to do some steps. Number one, we will use that solar cable
Qatar was this one. What does this do? This simply use the
two cut Z wire. For example, if I
have a long wire and I need just a small
portion of this wire. This small portion will be needed to connect the
two panels together. In order to cut Z
Y are required. We will use the
solar cable cutter. This one we'll cut Z cable and connect the two
panels together. Now, another component is
the solar cables treble. What does this do? This one is used to remove insulating part from
that wire or ZK board. It is used to remove the insulation layer in
order to add Z contexts. Don't see it. I just have both Z wire
here inside according to Z, cross-sectional
area receives a is the cross-sectional area here
is ten millimeters squared, or 12 millimeter squared, or 14 millimeters squared. So according to the
cross-sectional area, I will both our
cable here OR NOT z. I have to tell you something here is that there are 14 here, 12 and then not millimeters
squared z our AWS, according to the
American wiring gauge, they are not here. So as xenon but increases, you will find that the
cross-sectional area decreases. Now z, we bought a wire inside this one according to what
is that AD EWG of it, if it is it ten AWS or 12 AWS. And dual understand is the AWS. Later in the course,
you will find z catalog, of course again, insides up Protection lecture or inside the single
line diagram, I will give you a table and you will see that it's
a cross-sectional area. And z American wiring gauge. We put Z wire inside
it and then claw Z contexts clauses
tool and then drag in order to remove Z
insulating part. We have here Z conductor. What is the next
steps and accept is that we are going
to add our contact, which is used to connect
the inside X0 male or female by using Z MC4
solar creaming tool, crimping tool is this one, have a different millimeter squared the front
cross-sectional area. So all of those is
those. This one is used to add contacts to z tos that BV cable. So what will happen here is
that we bought Zach contact, contact inside z here, inside this part
as you see here. And then both our wire
and the close contact closes the jaw of z over
MSE for solar camping. You will see all of this inside that video I will give you now. What will happen is
that closes and Joe, just to hold the pen in place, zis z or Z contact here
and without compressing. So we just bought
this one and just glows a little bit without
compressing this contact. Then we will insert
the Z wire and the growth Z ad for a sweet boards this
contact inside this one in order to
fit it inside it. Then both our wire
and zinc clause x0, jaw of crimping tool. Now make your own
trip by closing it. Now we will find what
will happen is that we have now our wire and having its own contact now connected Zach contact
to toe MC4 and Crim, this one, we connect
the Z contact here and z wire and then
we made our cramp. And now what does that except the next step is
that we will connect this one to that male or
female according to the time. This one is fit inside
X0 male or female. For example, we fit it inside here and then we will rotate this wheel that this part or this contact
will be inside z. Main. Summary of the
steps is like this. Number ones as dripping line. You will find that here. We bought our wind or solar. The first one which
is solar Katara, in order to cut about
of XLR cable Xin, we will use the
solar striving tool in order to remove
that insulating layer. As you see a weird move
this insulating layer in order to have Z conducting part. Then we will add using
Zap cramping tool. We will both this contact
to Z1 and close this Joel. We will have that solar
cable or wire with a contact lenses contact will be inside the core of Z
MC4, male or female. You will find that this
is a female and demand. We will get inside it and
you will hear a look when we gloss or when we
bought this one. Inside this one, you want to
find that look or at tick. After this, we will
just rotate this wheel in order to close
at x1 inside it. Now we can also tie things MC4R and the male and
the female by using tools hidden node or
too tight it rotate this wheel like in
order to try it, it well, then you will find that we have our mirror
and the female ready. Now before this, I would like
to show you something here. You will find that
here we have a panel, and we have another panel. We have here a cable, another cable or wire, cable, wire or whatever according to the
cross-sectional area. Now we will find that
this one is a positive, and this one is the positive. This one is a male. This one is also a male. And we would like to connect to these two
panels in parallel. So XYY male would
be connected with Gmail with using MAC for
multi-branch connectors, this one would use to connect
these two and the produce one bolster one or one minute. And then negative part, which is a female and
Amazon negative which is a female connected together using also MAC for multi-branch, this user to connect this to females and
reduce one female. In the end we have
positive and negative. Someone will ask me, is the male z positive or that female positive
or vice versa? Why is that male is positive. Always wanting you can both X0 male as the positive ends
at female as negative, or you can do the reverse. You can make samples, they've as FMN and you can
make the negative as the mail. Whatever you would like does
not matter in anything. Okay. Now, if I would like
to connect them in series, I will connect the 0
bolster negative as if we are connecting the
two batteries in series. So bolster we'll
go with negative. So this negative is female
and this one is min. Self does that male to female, and we have one male and
one female in the end. This is a two contacts
adds the end we will have. In order to connect
this one with this one. It was this one where we
would like to connect the Z wire with that male. In order to do this, we will have to use that
soil, our cutoff. Since our solar striping tool, then we will use solar
grabbing it all in order to connect the Z contact or makes eye contact and the connected
through male or female. Now, let's see
this inside video. Now we will find the
video which is made by Eclipse tools is
this one which will provided this video for the process of connecting
and BV panel or connecting cable with
the MAC for in order to or creating zap grim
using the crimping tool, creating the contact
and zinc own query, creating Z, male and female. So let's see what, what
happened at first, we have this one tool, which is a solar cutter tool. What does this use? For example, if I would like this part only from the cable. So I will just both
UTLA exists in order to cut a small part of it. So it uses to connect
there to cut a small part. Now the second one
is Z tool here which is grabbing tool or x1, which is not the crimping tool. It's one which is used to
remove the insulating layer. You will see that here
we connect the Z cable. Let's see it Exactly. We bought here our
cable inside it, as you see here,
in order to drag, in order to remove
that insulating part, we have here, our cone,
our conducting bond. Then we would need to connect
to this contact to z. Z as z power two, which have Z conductor. We have here our
contact and then we breath as more a little
bit without connecting this one a little bit in
order to fit it here by using Joe is just a little bit, you'll see that a little
bit is compressive. Then we will both
our wire inside it. We will use that Joe and bold force in order to connect them
together as you see here. Now what will happen
next is that we will connect this
one to our wheel. Then it will connect it
to a male or female. You will see that
here, this one is connected to a wheel which is used to rotate zinc connected
to that mail for example, or female or female. And you will find that
when you connect this out, why our wisdom in, you will find it will
give you a thick. Then we'll rotate this
wheel in order to close and tie them together. Now we will find that here
again, that male here. Then we will lose
out on writing tool in order to tight this week. You will see that
here, Titan, well, then we can connect to that male and female together
of Z penance. And again, you can
use that separate in order to separate
these two parts. We understand now
how we can form our MAC for solar connector or male and the female in order
to connect them together. We understand is a benefit
of Z crimping tool. How to cut the cable and
how to form our pots.
36. Mounting of PV System: Now let's discuss the
different semesters of mounting of V0 system, how we bought our BV
system or BV panels. We have a different method. The first semester
is I fix it but I panel which does not
move through our z, it is a fixed panel. An example of this Z
balance on our o of, of the house is this
panel does not move. So I would see one pool where we fix our BV
patterns on a pole. This pole as this
ball is not moving, it is a steady pool or on the ground aware it
is a constant of course, and it is not
moving. Roof mounts. For example, Z advances
and this was one of it is, it is simple and cheap. Tony stole of course, we take z minus and put it on z. But the problem is that no flexibility on
orientation of V0 system, we cannot control Z
at orientation or Z movement of Z PV system. It is fixed it all,
I would say eat. It only support the
z small BB system, only a small or Z
low-power BV systems. Z. Second type is z integrated. Z integrated as you see here, I have a good looking. As the problem of this. Once you have a very
low efficiency. For example, we have
here at building, you can see that all of
these are solar panels. They give a very good look. However, Z have a
very low efficiency. But anyways, they are very held before to benefit from sunlight. Now, Amazon method is the
tracking of Z BV system. You will see here PV system
connected to a motor. Motor has sensors and be LSE system in order to control and the
move our BV system. You will see that here, Z panel will produce the maximum output power when sun rays are
perpendicular TO Z panel. So it tracks Z movement of x0, x1 in order to have always a perpendicular direction and the produce Z maximum power. This message is used is
called the Z solar tracker. Z solar tracker
is simply advice. Use the for orienting BSL or moving is a BV
cell toward the x0, x1 by using a light
source or so which senses the light connected with our motor like servomotor. This helps us to increase the efficiency pie 15% in
winter and 30% in summer. However, this system is very, very high price because
we use here are motor and sensory needs
to be a change it. However, this will help to
increase the efficiency. Or if you would like to
produce the maximum power, it will help you to
increase by 15% in one door and 30% in summer. Now, Z trucker or solar tracker
can be different types. The first type is called the
Z single access to records. This trucker moves in one axis. It can be easily vertical
axis or horizontal axis. It moves in z, vertical,
or the horizontal. Like this one, it moves
in a specific direction, only in one direction. Dual axis tracker or Dual Access Drucker
have posts and vertical and the
horizontal axis, it has two axes. Not only one axis,
only two axis. It can rotate. In other frontal bio
section, as you see here, it can rotate like this in
the clockwise direction. It can rotate in a
vertical direction, in the horizontal direction
as we would like.
37. Shading and Tilt Angle: Now let's add this
course knows of thing which is important
in our BV system, which is called the Z shading. What is the metabolic shaving? It means that Z zeros. And three, for example, hiding our sunlight
or z shadow of z3 is going on Z BB cell and the causing it not to
reduce Z current, not produce any power. We'll see here is
that our sun here causes shedding on
one of z BV cells, which causes here
the current flow. Let's have an example on this. You will see here is
that we have here at cell connected in series and have here something which is
codes or bypass diode. And we will understand
what is it. Now, we will assume
that we have here at shadow on z cell or
a leaf of the tree. This shadow or leaf
is hiding ourselves, so it prevents it from
producing any power. The problem here is that Z current from cell one
buses through here, then cirrhosis rel to
since rho cell theory. And the when it reaches sell
for it cannot boss why? Because cell phone
does not produce any power and it is considered
as an open circuit. How we can solve
with this problem, we cannot produce now any power. So we put here
diode, better tools, the settling this diode called a bypass diodes in order
to pass this cell. So as the current that
passes through here, here, here, then at cell
four cannot boss. So we give it
another pause here. So rosy dye D4 and through
Z load it as if it cancels. Is this cell. Benefit of white boss
died is that it passes z cell when the cell does not
generate any electricity. When a shadow is cast on a panel wizard by a
tree or a building, for example, it decreases the amount of
electricity produced, the power z panel chiding of jobs to one cell in a
module only one cell which consists of 67 I'm with you
will consist on 60 cell can efficiently decrease
the power by 33%. So you can see is
that a module like this one consists of
a sickest T cells. If one of these
cells is hidden by shedding or z shadow
of z3 or a building. This can reduce the
efficiency of z cell by 33%. You can see how the shedding analysis
is really important. You have to keep
beaker fall from Z shedding effect
on your own site. Okay, now let's discuss a very important thing which
is called Z tilt angle. What is adult the angle here? Delta angle here is the
angle beta officer BV panel. That delta angle of z photovoltaic PV array is the key to an
optimum energy yield. Is this angle. Affect the Z power from Z. From Z. Because Z, we want the Z sum to be perpendicular
on Z BV binary. We have to tilt it by an
angle called the tilt angle, or incline it by an angle
called theta or tilt angle. Solar panels or be
very most efficient. So when Zr perpendicular to z, some race Wednesday sound ray is like this one is
perpendicular on ZB, ZB V band and produces the maximum power or is the
maximum possible power. Also, this angle,
we have to use it, which is the angle between
Z panel and z horizontal. This angle will cause
a shadow from Z panel. When sun here hits a Z panel, it will cause a shadow here. So we have to both Z panel and Z next to one at a distance D called design module
row distance. In order to prevent
disease selfish heading. Again, when sunlight
hits a Z panel, it causes shadow under eight. If we both Z panel, this one here, it will
be affected by shed. So we need to both Z
panels at a distance between each other to prevent Z shedding effect or
selfish adding effect. This distance should
be at least three. W, where w is z. Z width of Zinn panel. This one multiple
advisory and both z next abandon this density
here is three w. Now Z, optimal angle here for BV panels according to your
own position on the wall. See here a map. For example, here at this region where my
own country, Egypt, you will find here is that
the optimal angle for z delta angle be between
2060 degree, 70 degree. For Z maximum or Z. Most efficient the
power from Zi Zhong. Boating here, Z
pattern at an angle 26 to 70 degree will produce
z most efficient power. This exhaust the an
approximation that range here. Therefore, according
to 0 regions of the world to give you a point of reference as 0 delta angle means that zip panel
is lying flat down on its back facing
directly opposed winds this angle equals 0. It will be flat and
facing upwards. As the inclination increases, that panel would be adjusted to face more and more
towards the front. Okay. When this angle increases, it will be more to the front. Now in order to find Z
third angle accurately z. First thing we would
go to this for a website to find z
latitude of your own place. Latitude and the z magnitude or longitude will be held before
in our program, baby says. Now Z accurate
method is that you might manual calculations for our latitude up to 25 degree according to her own place on ZMapp or will take a latitude and the
multiply eight by 0.874. Altitude between 25250 series
is degree or 50 degree. Take your latitude,
multiply it by 0.87, and afterwards let you
will add 3.1 degree. For over 50 degrees are
most ideal angle will end up being
approximately 45 degrees. Of course, I obtained this
an accurate method from this website called Solar
parents footwall take.net. Another easier method by
going to this website. Now, this website you will find that z angle here
will be between vertical. Z angle provided is
between z vertical, not between horizontal
and cPanel. And you will find here
Z, optimal angle here. A changing with z. Months of z are of course is z position of the
sun is not constant. As the angle it changes as Rosie moles of Z, as you've see. This colors is also as
this one. Let's get back. This one is obtained from the same website which
will provide this debt. I have two references him
saying to them for providing us an awesome a
very important map. And thanks for
their information. Now, this angle will it changes through,
I would say here. Now let's go to this website and go to this website and see
how we are going to use them. Now for our first website, which is provided by
nasa in order to find z accurate angle or the accurate latitude and
longitude of your own position. We will double-click here. For example, I'm
living in Cairo. Now. I want to select
the My own country. So I will click on point
here and then select here. You will find here Z latitude, longitude of Z position
here Z latitude and longitude values are used also
in our program, be racist. Now another thing we can
do of total findings is that we go to our
calculations here, you will find between
25 degree to 50 degree. The exam, let me do
it and multiply it by 0.87 of towards
that adds 3.1. Let's get back here. Calculator, for example,
Z latitude is 30 degree. And multiply it by 0.87 and then add 3.1 degree. Finds that Z best angle accordingly to this
method is 29.2 degree. Actually in Egypt,
in my own Cairo, in my own country, Kyle will use at delta
angle of certain degree. So this method is
very, very accurate. Now if we'll get back to z map, you will find the year
for my own country. Z optimum is 26 degree TO such seven degree line
is between this range. Okay? This is a very important DMSO and the accurate tool
obtains his values. Now let's go to z. This website, the same website to find any
important to Theta. What is this debt? Now I would like to choose
my own year and date. I will tell you now why. For example, from
11 at 2018 to 2018 again, december research T1. Now I would like to find
z data for Z radiation. Obviously son in this position
through our one-year. Now if I go here and select sizing and the boiling of solar parents for
photothermal applications. Click on it and zinc
click on Submit. You will see is
that xn outside is processing the data or data for this position will see now important information which
will help you in designing. Now we will see
is that here from January to December, 31, December 2018, you
will find years the kilowatt hour bear
meter squared per day. So this is the amount of energy produced a bear you want
IT area in one day. This you will see that here. For example, for teen April, 7.71 kilowatt hour per
meter squared per day. This is a very
helpful information for yourself and you can
use it in designing. Now, Amazon or
data kilowatt hour per meter squared per day. You will find here is
that it gives you each of these values and how
long is that you remain. For example, Z value 8.9 kilowatt hour per meter
square is for 60 days, 0.1 is for 14 days, and so on. So you can get the
average of kilowatt hour per meter square bear day. I would say by analyzing
disease curve. Now the second the
meso Gucci said here is by going
to this website. Let's go. Solar angles calculate. This provides us with data
for going or having ankle. For example, I shows in
Egypt and z SHE scale. Now you will find here it gives
you z optimum angle in Z, or Z optimum tilt angle. I would see, for example, in January 44 degree, February 52 degrees,
60 and so on. But remember that
z optimum angle here is between z
vertical and cPanel. But here, this one and this
one is from z horizontal. 44 degree here. For example, means
that between it and z, horizontal should be
90 minus 3060 degree. So you will see
if you draw here, add vertical or horizontal line as the angle here, 90 degree. Therefore this angle between
Z panel and the horizontal, 90 minus 3060 degree. This is another solar
English calculator from this awesome Mozart.
38. Importance of Charge Controller: Now let us discuss an important component which
is solar charger controller. What is a solar
charger controller, as well as charger
controller controls is the current in and out
of the battery. It control Z current
inferring the ZP3, the current coming
out of the battery. Number two, it protected
ZP3 from overcharging. We have to protect the ZP3 from overcharging in
order to increase its lifetime and prevent overcharging which will
decrease its lifetime. Also see charge to control, regulate voltage
entering Z battery. Of course, we will go on the z voltage to be very high to deliver the
z over voltage. If z voltage is very low, Z solar and social
control increase it. If it is a larger value, it will decrease it. Z charge controller
contains a DC shoppers, DC shopper, and
post DC shopper to step up the voltage and
step down z voltage. We have here at. So a lot
of charge controller, solar panel having positive and the negative
terminal for example, all of z array, for example, z positive entering the
solar social controller, z negative two solar
charger controller. We have here positive and
the negative two z battery. You have your positive and
the negative two DC loads. So again here an example of
solar charger controller. Here, z is solar panel z positive and the
negative entering the Z charge controller. And two terminals for ZP3. And here two terminals
for our load. Or we can take from here from Zebra three of course two and inverter 0 charge controller also protect the Z
battery from over this a charging according to
depths of this surcharge. As we remember that each battery has a depth of discharge, for example, 80%, 50
percent, and so on. So we use the shorter
contour to cut of Z circuit and the
abbreviation DC battery from exceeding its depth
of discharge in order to increase Z a
lifetime of Z batteries. Also it contains sensors are to protect the ZP3 from
high temperature, so it increases the
lifetime of ZP3. So z sensors are used to protect his battery
from high temperature because Z temperature affect the Z efficiency of Z battery. Therefore, by controlling
the Z bathroom or cutting off charging
way will help, but to increase the
lifetime of z by three.
39. PWM and MPPT Charge Controllers : Hi everyone. In this video
we would like to discuss z, different types of that
charge controllers. What are the types
of surcharge or controllers used
in our BV system. Number one, z
pulse-width modulation, a charge controller,
number two is the maximum power point
tracking charge controller. What is the benefit of
the charge controller? We said before that's
a charge controller is used to charge our batteries or by providing a suitable voltage for a
charging Z pattern is. And the difference between these 21 of them keeps its economy to constant and steps down
when Z DC voltage, the maximum power point tracking changes the voltage and current. Now Z pulse-width modulation. What does z bolts width
modulation controller means? Now we'll find the ear to
be V balance together. And z are connected, z positive here and we have Z positive boast of
connected to the negative. And we have both deaf and we have negative.
What happens here? That saying here
which happens is that z voltage produced it forms a EBV banana in
this case, for example, which is a constant DC voltage, 54 volt, I think 5454 volt. Now we have, we can connect the 54 to directly to the battery. But if, what if z
voltage, this one is, this voltage is higher than z amount required for Z pattern. For example, if I
would like to provide the battery and instead
of 54, for example, I would like to provide 48, for example, I would
like to provide 48 volt. So how can I do this? You'll notice that this
is the input and I would like the output to
V0 with average to be 48 voltage is going into the battery to charge
eight. What happens here? In order to do this, we add Z pulse width modulation, borrows width modulation
controller or charge control. So what does this mean? This is used the two, and instead of providing
AT constantly DC, provides it in the
form of pulses. For example, here. You will find that
here this is a patriot t. This is a period T. You will find that zeta
is a small part here. This part is the
unbalanced node, which is which when it
provided z4 volt voltage, 54 volt for a certain time, t on Zen for a certain and uncertain
time provided the 0 voltage, for example, as you see here, this
one, this one here, you will find, for example, at 0 duty cycle and we'll
understand what does this mean? 0 voltage provided to Z battery. Now Twenty-five percent
Twenty-five percent a year. Twenty-five percent on
and seventy-five percent of Twenty-five
percent of the cycle on and seventy-five
percent of 25%. It means that it provide the Z 54 voltage for
quarter of this EIC. 50% means that it
provides is 50, 50%, 50% of the balls is 54 volts and the ozone
half is 0 voltage. And 75 volts like it
means that 75% of it is 54 volt and
twenty-five percent, which is 0 voltage. 100% means that we are providing our voltage
for all of the time. What does this mean? It
means that when we do this, when we change the duty cycle, duty cycle means that Scikit
is the ratio between that on videoed by him at
which we provide our voltage to that
total videoed. Twenty-five percent
means that we are providing ratio between T on those are duty cycle
time or is aperiodic time? The ratio between them
is Twenty-five percent. Twenty-five results at
twenty-five dollars, a cycle is our voltage ends
up remaining. Bod is 0. What will happen when
we change that TO on, when we change the Z pulse width here it's called the balls. With the modulation, we audit changing z appalls
of Zippo voltage. You'll see that
here does this ball is different from this one, different from this one. This one, this has a
higher width of balls, balls of z, which
is obviously false, is high, lower
widths, lower width. By increasing the width, we would have a higher
output voltage. Is the equation is like this. This is from z power
electronics course. Z v, which is going
to the battery, is equal to the input
voltage V in both, which is 54 volt. In this case, V in both. Multiplied ball. T on t. Over t is the output voltage
to a battery is equal to the input voltage to
zap also do modulation multiplied by z on barrier
over the total period. So as we increase that Yuan Shao would
average will increase. By using this weekend, he changes the
width of the balls and the kind of changes
the output voltage. Now what happens here is
that we reduce the voltage. So the voltage is reduced as the input voltage is
reduced after it goes out, and the current is constant. In this case, we don't
change the current. The current is Connie
stand, cone is done. The voltage is decreasing. Current is constant. So
what does this mean? It means that z power, which is equal to the voltage
multiplied by the current, voltage multiplied
by the current will be reduced. So
what does it mean? It means that we are experiencing losses in
the power generated. Power here is reduced. Why? Because when we
reduce the voltage and the current constant z power
but reduced is reduced. Okay, So this is one of
the biggest disadvantage of the balls width
modulation control. Okay, let's use that laser. Now, the pulse-width modulation, PWM stands for pulse
width modulation. Instead of a steady
output from the control, it's in doubt a series of a shortage charging
pulse to a battery, a very rabid on-and-off switch. You will find here
on Zen off, Xin, on, Xin off, on and off in a very short time,
very small time. Okay. Zach controlling constantly
checks is a state of ZP3. Usually checks is that state of cemetery in order
to see if it is a charge or this charge it or needs to be a George faster, which means that we are going
to provide longer pulses. Or it is already a charge it, which means that
we are providing lower policies or we
need to cut it off, or we will provide
that full voltage. It depends on the
state of the battery. In a fully charged
battery with no load, it may just to take
every few seconds, just to giving up
every few seconds. Why? Because it is already charged and send the ashore
tomorrow's Tuesday pattern. In a discharge battery is a
pulse would be very long and almost continuous like
this 100% duty cycle, or it can be 75 duty cycle in order to charge the battery. Now the broth of this
method is number one, this controllers are
inexpensive, it is very cheap. You can buy it for
less than $350. Z pulse-width modulation
controllers are available. Insulin is up to 16 bits. This is a maximum
available current. Boss switching modulation
controllers are durable. Most always a passive
heat sinks died cooling. It is used it to it
can be it is durable, which means that they can dissipate the heat
produced by using, of course, the
heat sink cooling. This controllers are
available in many sizes for a variety of applications. Z cones or disadvantage of
this method is number one, there is no single controller
sizes over 16 bearing. You will find that the
maximum size is 16-bit. In order to have
more than 16-bit will need malt tablet
numbers of pulse width. Modulation Controller
is the medulla. Modulation controllers have a limited capacity
for system gross. See that Zach
capacity is limited. Z losses as the voltage will be reduced and z cannot
remain constant, so z power will be reduced. Now the second type is the maximum power point
tracking a charge controller. So what does this do simply, we remember that Z maximum
power point dragging is used to provide Z maximum power. It controls or it
changes the voltage, and at the same
time it changes the current in order to
satisfy the same power. For example, in
the previous case, when we have, for example, at 28 volt, for example, 28 volt entering Z controller, we need to step it down to 25. For example, the
step-down in the voltage. The maximum power point
tracking will increase the current in order to compensate
the reduction in voltage. So in this case, we will have the maximum
power will be produced. So the maximum power
point tracking, and maybe we tee
this our ultimate in controllers with prices to match but with the
efficiencies in z, mine T for 94% to 98%. They can save considerable money on larger system
since it's a provide ten to 30% more power to ZP3 charge as impulse
modulation George them taller, can have losses up to 30%. So it means that we are
losing a lot of power. But the maximum power
point tracking, since it changes the
voltage and the current, reduces the voltage and
increases the current. So the efficiency is very high. The maximum power point tracking when we use the
voltage coming from the PV panel to their values suitable for
charging the battery. But we'll keep the current at a higher value y
in order to make the current power sources that z power is equal to z voltage
multiplied by the current. When we reduce the voltage to
be suitable for Z matters, we will increase the current at the same time in order to
make the power constant. In order to make
Z power constant, in this case, z power
produced will be seen. Csi advantage of this
method is number one, the maximum power
point tracker offer a potential increase in a
charging efficiency up to 30%. Controllers also offers a
potential ability to have an array with a higher input
voltages NZ battery bank. If we have an input
voltage to a controller, very high input voltage rather than higher than z
battery nominal voltage. Then this controller will
be able to satisfy this, or we able to handle
this amount of voltage. You can get up to 80 amps and z previous one or the
pulse-width modulation, maximum or 60 and bears maximum power point tracking of our grid flexibility
for system gross z, this muscle, this
muscle is number one, z are expensive of course. Sometimes it ghosting
twice as much as matched as March as Z balls. Width modulation Controller, Z, maximum power point tracker. Do you want to order
generally large, not in physical
size of Congress as a means that z takes the
same amount of power. Buds up also is modulation will produce lower amount of power. It is generally higher in
or larger in physical size. But z, which is usually used, is the maximum power
point tracking because of course
it saves us power. It has a high efficiency
locked like z bar. So as a modulation
despite being expensive. So the maximum power
point tracking is z1, which is usually used. In this video, we discussed the two main types of
charged or controllers used, which is F, maximum
power point tracking and z balls width modulation.
40. Junction Box: Now let us discuss an
important thing in the solar cell or an important
component in solar cell. Junction box. What is our junction box as ANC sandbox is an
enclosure on dual, whereas the BV strengths
are electrically connected. Junction box assembly,
Z connection, or is that where the BV
strings are connected? It is attached to the
back of the solar panel, or TBT, which is layer firm. It wires usually
afford connectors to Kazaa and it is output
interface of the solar panel. When we're applying
our pseudo modules, we have to look at something
which is really important, which is called the
IB of a junction box. Junction box is simply the IB is called as the
ingress protection. You will find that for air completely watertight
junction box it carries IB 67. Now we have said
Zajonc some books, it is just standing closer, whereas their BV
strengths are connected. It's connected at the
back of the solar panel. It can usually connect to
Ford strengths together. Now we will find that there
is something which is really important when purchasing
a junction box, which is called the IB or
the ingress protection, you will find that the
IB is a value which is for any electrical equipment
such as transformers, junction box, and so on. So the IV has two values
or more TO values here. One of them represented their
protection against dust. Value, which is the protection against the liquid or water. So this value has
a maximum value of six and the maximum
value of seven. This value represents the
protection against the dust. This value represented as a
protection against liquid. For good junction box, which will help us to
completely watertight. Or a completely
watertight junction which is resistant to, to water, is having an IB 67. It is really important to make sure that the junction box is a watertight to be able
to withstand rain. Most of photovoltaic junction
box I have about why the function of this
diode is to keep up our flow going in one direction. So as you'll notice at Windsor, sun goes through that BV cells, our BB cells convert solar
energy into electrical energy, ends up our floors from the solar panels into our
load and the batteries. When we don't have
sunlight ZAB battery will it started to give our toes EBV cells would like to prevent his power from
feeding back into the panels. Windsor is no sunshine's. Those are diodes will
allow the passage of the power or current
in one direction. In forward biased, it will be a short circuit and
allows a current to flow. In the reverse advice, it will be open circuit
and prevent is a current from going
through the panel.
41. Wiring of Junction Box: Now how we can wire our junction box when
wiring strings together, which happens in series, positive to negative and so on, the voltage will started to increase walls current
state constant. Wind, water wiring our
strings impairing. The ball step is 2s are positive and the negative
two then negative. The current will
start to increase while the voltage
stays constant. So again, modules in order that they are
connected in series in order to increase
the voltage. Because they are
connected embedded in order to increase
the current. You will find in order to
connect his him in theaters. Zappos step is connected to
the negative about here in, in connection for the apparel, the ball step is to the positive and negative
is to the negative. Image of the junction box. You will see here is
a wire and it has its negative and positive
and Annas or wire, this one is coming
from a string, and this one is coming
from another module. Now let's see how our
strings are connected. You will find here is that
heat is assumption books. We have here an input a and m would be or
Shannon, AN channel. Z are two strings. You will see a string one, string, two, string three. And for each of the
string are into the junction box and another
one here, another one here. You will find that each
of them are wired in parallel loans that DC compiler in boots ads the inverter. The total number of modules on each of the
channel is different. But the number of modules on each string within channel
a and B are the same. You will see here
is that we have it, it in joules. Okay? Now we would find that
we connected it here and this one here and this
one here and this one here. Now in order to connect to this one in series and parallel, we have to see how we can open our assumption books and the
Connect disease strings. Now we are going to
see a video of how we are going to wire
our junction box. Now first thing
we're going to do, you will see here is
that we are going to Windsor junction box in order to connect the
hour. Of course is. Why. Now we all went
our junction books and you will see here zeros, both Steve and here is negative. And you will see outside
of the junction box so we can see whereas the
both Steve and whereas inactive it is just
a mentioned die on the outside or the description
of Zajonc sandbox. Now we would like to
make sure we'll just use a dc ammeter to see is that this is both step and
this is negative. Zara V1 is positive, and then the black
one is negative. Now let's just see how
he will connect to them. He was adjustable tier, just the symbol for the positive and another
symbol for the negative. The positive is the red and Zach negative is the black one. Now we are going to just
bored of this outlet and see how we are going
to connect a wire. You will see it
as a positive and negative which comes
from the string. Now we will make it through this hole until this
one looks like this. Then we're going
to screw it again. Now we have the two terminals, Zappos, Steve and Zen active. We would've started to
connecting zap positive with the positive ends and
negative with a negative. Now watch carefully
how we will try it. Why did he do this
in order to SaaS the **** bam in boating
gate inside this holds. Now we will see now just to lie exists. After we have connected the
positive ions and negative, we will need to close
that junction box again in order to prevent
anyone from blame. You will see here in
the out-of-the-box, here is a positive
and here is negative. Assumption books is
really easy in order to. Now we have learned in
this video how to wire the junction box and everything
that jumps on books.
42. Function, Types and Data Sheet of Inverter: Hi everyone. In this video we
would like to discuss a z function of z inverter in solar energy system
and the types of inverters or inverters. So first, what is the
function of the inverter? The inverter can be used in converting DC input voltage or the DC input coming
from BB panels or from hepatitis into AC power, which is used for our
AC loads assembly. It converts DC into AC output. Dc input which have a
fixed value like this. Like this is, this is our input. Exists z voltage with
Cornerstone devalue was trying. This is a value which comes from the EBV panels or
from Z batteries, converts it into
sinusoidal wave like this. The output should
be at sinewave AAC, or it can be like this. First one. This one is
your sinewave board, which have those known
to have any harmonics. But this one is and modify
it sine wave-like this one. You'll see that it
looks like a lot of this is also a sine wave. This one is also a sine wave, but modified sinewave, not be your sinewave
have harmonics. Of course is your sine wave is better than they are modified by the modified xi bar Zan zip
your sine wave inverter. The inverter is an electric
or equipment that convert the Z direct current or
AC or DC direct current from the pathways or
from the PV panels. End-to-end, end alternating AC current or alternating
current or AC, which is used for AC loads, as in our homes. Is it all such as the motors, the lighting theologian
does the air conditioning, everything, every
appliance inside our home is depending
on their AAC. You'll see that here. This inverter, DC to AC. You'll see that here,
the output, it doesn't, it's not clear so much, but the output here is 220 volt. Is see the output of
the inverter here, which comes from this
socket or this branch. This part is the output, the three part is
that line neutral and this one is the output. The output is 220 volt. The AAC is a frequency
50 or 60 hertz, so it is able to produce both of their 50 hertz frequency
or 60 hertz frequency. Now was that first type of
z inverters is on grid. That grid tie inverter on
grid or girth or inverter. So what does this inverter Do? You will see that here in
the grid-connected system, where our PV panels
is connected to is at grid and connect it to our home. So as I inverter here, takes the DC from that finance, the converts it to AC, which goes to the
grid or XY utility, and at the same time
goes to our home. In order to feed our appliances. The inverter produces
AC power from DC and provides it to the grid. And the twos are customer. You will see that here on
our diagram, ZAB PV panels, DC voltage goes to the inverter. Then the inverter
converts DC into AC, which goes to the main
distribution board, the four-hour home or and C panel for our
whole and disease. This panel is also connected to the utility in order
to take power from Z inverter or supply power from the utility to a consumer. You will find that here
in the on-grid system, we use a technique
called net metering. Net metering here. It is a difference between that generated power
ends the consumed power. For example, if our PV panels
are produced higher power, then my own consumption
partners and produce higher power or higher energy
consumed, energy required. So the difference between them, the difference
between the generated power ends are consumed. The power will go
towards the grid. So we fed the power
tools or utility, we give power to the utility. Now in case of having a low-power or low
generation of BV panels. In this case, we need more
power to fit our loads. In order to do this,
we absorbed but power from the grid meter here. C is the difference
in between them. For example, if the power
going into the grid, zingy power goes from the
inverter like this to the grid. If from the grid to see house, then it will be like this. So this one is generated
power to the grid. This one is the consumed
power from the grid. The difference between
these two powers is the amount of energy, which is the customer
going to be. A grid tie inverter converts direct current or DC current
into alternating current. This alternating current
should be suitable for injection into an
electrical power grid. Of course, is the
inverter should be automatically synchronized
with the grid. We cannot connect the
annual worth or with the grid without satisfying the BV code or is that
synchronization conditions? The value is normally
120 volt RMS at 60 hertz or 240 volt
RMS at 50 hertz. You will find that the
requirement of connecting the inverter Tuesday grid depends on the BV code
or photo-voltaic code. For example, in my
own country, Egypt. The phase difference between
the phase difference is z angle Phi of Z AAC generated. The difference in between
the utility can be up to 20 degree to which
the degree difference between a frequency difference between the inverter
utility up to 0.3 hertz and z. The France in voltage, as I remember, plus or minus 5%. Because there is a code for that distribution and the code for that BV code, or photovoltaic, plus or
minus 5% of the voltage. And the total harmonic
distortion is the harmonics or is the total hormone
social and factor B. Then, as I remember also 5% also injected DC current the boys are inverter
should not exceed the SC. Injection. Injection should
not exceed buoyant. 5% of the rated power, AAC. Rated power, rated power, will find that according
to her own code, Z. According to your own country, because they differ from
one country to Amazon. For my own country, is
that phase difference between that Z inverter and utility should not exceed 20 degree and the
frequency difference should not exceed 0.3 hertz. It can be higher than 50 hertz. For example, 50.3 or
49.75.3 or higher, and 5.3 hertz is a
voltage should not exceed plus or minus
5% of utility voltage. The total harmonics
should not exceed 5% that DC injected boys, the inverter should
not exceed 0.5%. Also find something
here is that Z inverter in our country, Z BV system should be
three-phase system. We cannot connect to single-phase z are
always three-phase. Why in order not to increase Z unbalanced or the
unbalanced in utility. Because if we inject
a single phase, one of the three phases
will be overloaded. Or Zanzibar as our three
phases zones are two phases. So we have to connect to a three-phase balanced system or a three-phase balance at
solar system to our grid. And minimum connected power
in Egypt, for example, five kilowatt, because the five kilowatt
is a three-phase system. Now these values of, of course, can it change according
to her own country? So you'll have to seize that BV could of your own
country in order to understand the
conditions required of connecting the
inverter to a utility. Remember also that you
can not connect to an inverted to utility
without a certificate, you have to be an installer, which is a certified by
Renewable Energy Agency. So you cannot just to connect as a normal person, toes a utility, you have to have
a certificate or become a certified
installer according to the agency itself or XY Renewable
Energy Agency itself. Also in this systems
at grid-connected the, we don't need any batteries
because we take power from the utility in case
of absence of sun, we take power from Zotero, HE or solar panels does
not generate enough power. No pattern is required to
store any energy here. In this system we
use net metering. Net metering is a difference in between as generated
and consumed us net metering technique in which a customer is paid according to the difference between
the generated energy and consume the energy. Meter, of course, calculate Z generated and
consume the power. In order to inject electrical power efficiency
efficiently and safely. Tuesday grid, that grid tie
inverter must accurately match the voltage and phase of that grid sine
wave, AC waveform. Of course, as we said before, the conditions of synchronizing
the inverter with a grid. Both of them should
have the same voltage, same phase shift, or according to our own code, it can have a small deviation or a small difference
between them. For example, plus or minus 5% of the rated value of
voltage and the phase, phase difference of 20 degrees. This can differ from
one country to another. In case of folders inside
utility or regret, the inverter automatically
shut down in order to prevent hazards to maintenance crew in the grid and
the public safety. Does this mean? It means that let's see
here what will happen. Assume that we have a fault
in this transmission line. Fault connected to the ground, or one of the phases
connected to the ground. Now what will happen, we disconnect is as
circuit breakers, which is related to
the transmission line, is the power on the
transmission line in this case, or distribution
system in this case, because you are connecting here towards
distribution system. In this case, z power will
be equal to 0 because z, z phase here connected
to the ground and the weeds connected
czar circuit breakers. Now what will happen
if someone comes here, a little person here like this? This one wants to fix this broken lines,
this broken line. Now the maintenance crew goes to Z AB broken transmission line or a broken distribution line. Now what will happen is that Wednesday come to
touches this one, they may expose the
two electric hazards. Why? Because we have
the inverter here, which will provides power to Z appliances at home and
provides power to the grid. So it will inject the
electrical power to the grid going into maintenance crew and gives him electric hazard. In order to prevent this electric hazard zone
from the inverter at my home. The inverter when z grid itself have a fault
or have a problem, the inverter is disconnected
automatically from the grid. So no electric cars as well. Now here's an example of xy grid tie inverter
uses at this one has a power of 500
watt or 0.5 kilowatt. You will find that
Z maximum exists was this grid tie inverter. You'll remember that we
don't have any batteries. So we don't have any
charge controller. So Zach grid tie
inverter here contains the inverter velocity
z charge controller. It has two techniques together. You see that here it works in the maximum power point tracking technique
range of the DCM, both from 1848 volts. This is the input
from the finance and it automatically
has a charge of control in order to charge Z
inverter itself and to convert that to AC funds
at the MBO DC range, that range which can
satisfy from 15 to 60 volt NZ recommended OR z value at which we can produce the maximum power
is from 1848 volts. This is the maximum
power point range dc. And you will find the years at. Let's delete all of this. The value of the voltage at which produces the maximum Bower is from 35 to certain nine volt. And the open-circuit voltage
is from 42 to 46 volt. So here this value
is 35 to 39 is the maximum voltage at which we can produce Z
maximum power. Okay? So this one is the value
of the voltage which can produce as the maximum
power of z inverter. This value is the range of Z,
nearly maximum efficiency, but the maximum value
is at 3539 volt, at which it will produce
the maximum power of 501. And the output of this
inverter is 230 volt, and the range can be
from 192160 volts. Now we will find that this
inverter have two inputs. One which is the red and
the one which is the blank. Does this to represent us. That red one
representing z positive. Zach collected all
of EBV balance. Or if we have an
off-grid system, then it will be z equals
to f of z patterns. And z negative here representing z negative of Z benefits. Now, this one will
produce an output AC, which is suitable for our loads or connection
to the grid. Now another type
is called the Z of grid system or the
off-grid invert. This type of inverters is used
in the off-grid system or the system which is not
connected to the grid. You will find here a
group of solar panels, which is connected to charge controller in order to
charge the batteries. Charged the batteries. Then after charging
the batteries, we take from Z batteries to that solar inverter or
the off-grid inverter, and provides power to the
consumer or the user. So we'll find the year
of z power inverter at pure sine wave
B or sine wave. Why pure sine wave? In order to increase the
lifetime of our equipment. This one is two kilowatt. This is the output power. You will find the units. This one is lying and
neutral and Z line, neutron and else, okay. So this is inverter, this is the output or this is the output of the
inverter here to fit our loads and z and what comes up
from the other side. Now you can find that this
one is a pure sine wave. So pure sine wave is this one. This one is that your sinewave and the latter form
here or the step form. This one autosomal divide
is a modified sine wave. Sine wave or a pure sine wave is better for the lifetime
of the equipment. It is more expensive is
enzyme modified wave. The solar panels fed DC
power into batteries. Okay, solar panels
provides power to DC to AC batteries using our
solar charge controller. This system is upgraded or not connected to the
utility of grid. It means that it is not great thigh or not
grid-connected. So it's not connected
to the utility. Is use the MBB places which
have geographical obstacles, making it difficult to
connect to the grid. If I have, if I am presenting in allocation
which is consisting of mountains or does not have any or difficult to
connect to the grid, expensive to connect
those regret, we use the off-grid system
in order to provide power to our home without
depending on the utility. The inverter takes is that power and inverts a z power from the battery and inverts it
to AAC is c is the output, and the input is DC. Input DC. So it provides AC
power for our home. This system needs a
better is in order to fit loads at night because our son, but presented at
daylight only and at night we need to
provide power to our home. We use batteries
in order to store energy for for
using it at night. Of course, in this
course we will learn how to designs off-grid system. And the on-grid system will
know how to select this. Solar panels controllers. A better is the inverter
or everything about this is that your
sine wave inverter is better than modified part
higher cost zap your sine wave causes the loads to have higher lifetime Sans
and modified wave. Now before we go to
the hybrid inverter, We will go now to a video which shows you how to connect
the zone of grid inverter. Now here's a symbol video which will show
you how to connect the power inverter or sitting up on off-grid solar inverter. Now this video is provided by a do it yourself wallet channel. Now someone will ask me, why do you provide us videos from YouTube or showing
us videos from YouTube? Because those are channels
provide help before videos, which would can help you
not in solar energy, but in other categories. So you will see it is
held before for you too. Subscribe to different
channels in order to learn from them and
increase your own knowledge. That's why I showed
you videos from different channels
which show you a practical and the
total **** before for you in order to
understand the mode. Now this one is a pure sine wave inverter,
power inverter. This one can produce a
continuous power of 601. Now we'll find that
the input voltage is 12 volt from Z batteries. I would 120 volt AC 60 hertz. So this one is a fixed value in both 12 volt output,
120 volts AC. The first thing you
will find that here, and this side we have two
parties, one which is the red. One is that black. We connect as a boast of
obviously better is Tuesday read and z negative
two is at Lake. Now let us see this. Go here. And z from now you
will find here is that Z positive and the negative,
clear and helpful. Dc 12 volt and
negative is the blank. Now you will this one, this wheel and this one. You will rotate
them anticlockwise in order to remove them and add Z blog or z of xy battery. So you'll see that here. We will remove it, exists. Let's take it back. You
will see that here. Here move the z part
by rotating like this. Let's see, by rotating
and moving anticlockwise. Now with an extra step
is that we are going to add z positive here
and the negative. And then we will add that again. Lives is positive, which is
negative, which is the black. And the both of
which is that it. Now, here's what do you, you showed both Zach, black feather stars and
negative first, Zen z positive. Remember that when you
both ZAP or Steve, It may find your main
finds that there is a small spark and coordinate
to Z value of 0 voltage. When you connect it here. Remember, of course
are not to touch it, not to get an electric shock. By doing this, you
connected it now, z positive and negative. Now, you can see that this
inverter has two outputs. One which is a USB, which can be used. The two charges, the
batteries and the ozone one, which is used the two USB port in order to charge Z patterns. And this one is used
to connect AC loads. For example, a charger for
more pile or anything you, for laptop or anything, you can connect it here and
use it to supply power. Now you can see that
here it is used as a USB port in order to charge a small component
or electric component. Now another one which is
the load connected it, surcharge are here to battery, connected it to
another anti-pattern. You won't store
charge this pattern. In this video and
this small video we learned about the
grid system connection. Now let's take it back and
see what is the meaning of Z hybrid involved. Now what is the hybrid inverter? The hybrid inverter
is Brian Murray use the Fords at
grid thigh purposes, but also has the added
feature that they provide backup power to your home Wednesday electric
utility fields. Remember that in
the on-grid system, we talked z power
from solar panels, connected it to the inverter, invertible watts
power to the grid and from z grid using XYM
method, technique. And the inverter provides
power to our house. Now, wait, remember that at every old or condition of all day or having
z power all day, the inverter provides power
from the solar panels during daylight and at night we
take power from the utility. Now we will find that
something difference here. The difference is that if we have a forward
tones or utility, we said that when we
have a bolt-on utility, the inverter automatically
disconnects, forms a grid. Now, when it's disconnects
from the grid, we don't have any
power to our house. In order to fix this problem, we add z over z of grid system, which is that battery. We have ZP3, we have z grid, and we have our home. So as the battery itself
or it can be AC generator, whatever it is, it
is a backup power. The customer often use the
hybrid inverter systems with solar panels in order to keep the power going
during applied, I would of z grid or
a fault on Z grant. So we takes about from the
solar panels to the inverter, inverter recharging
the batteries. This one inverter
includes, of course, inside it's the
charge controller, is it is integrated inside it. So the inverter
charges the batteries, provides power to our house AC power by inverting the AC to DC. And at the same time
provides power to the grid or takes
apart from the grid, the two-hour house
using zai means panel. Now in case of z power out here or the outage of
Ziebarth from the grid. We invert Z power
from the battery and write it to our
house or our home. Hyper power system is
the best of both worlds. You never need to worry
about being without power. We take a bunch of
off-grid system. The advantage of on-grid system, off and on grid system together combined to as providing
us with the hybrid system. But Z problem of this system, it is very expensive
because the batteries, we have batteries,
we have our grid. When I've inverters, we have
more different components and difficult more than Z
on-grid and of grid systems. Sometimes instead of
patterns we have generated. So you'll increase
the cost on yourself. We will see that here, an
example of a hybrid inverter, this hybrid inverter,
hybrid solar inverter. We'll see we have an LCD display in order to two
boards are settings for Z hybrid inverter. You will find here
z in both Fords, the battery inside it better the input plus and the minus
positive and negative, which takes us from Z buttery. We have that BV input terminals plus or minus from
the PV panels. We combined all of
our PV system and the connected it to z
BV in both here, we have our BV
plus and minus 4s, EBV, zap, better
input plus and minus. And the finally we
have our AC input. And the AC output is the ACI, which we can take from it and satisfy our loads or postpone. And the AC input from the grid funds that
this is a hybrid which contains all of this
wall components in one. You'll see here is that
it's supplies our loads. They exit from Z patterns or takes apart forms
hepatitis or a charge, z batteries, whatever
is the case. And forms a utility
connected to the utility and the connected tos
or soul or BV balance. Now another type of
the inverters which is used in water pumping systems. We have this system
which is very simple. We have the solar panel, which will provide the
DC power, of course, it to an inverter, which is used in solar
water pumping cases. This one will provide power
to a three-phase motor, or a single phase motor. Motor is a pump which is
used for pumping water. It can be a submersible
or underwater or surface surface motor
or a surface pump. According to this, you can't
find z inverter amount of power required and the forearms
or solar panel required. We will also go
into add the design of water pumping
system in our course. Now another type of z inverters, which is used as a string and centralized inverters autos
difference between them. This one is a string
inverter case, and this one is a
centralized inverter case. C is a string. As
a string inverter. What does mean? It means that for
each one strength, we have inverter funds here 12344 panels are
connected in series, forming one string z positive, and we have the other
side which is negative, which provides of course in DC and connected to one inverter. Inverter here for
this one string, for this string 1234
connected in series, all of them are having the positive and the
negative connected to one inverter and its southern.
What does this mean? It means that for each one
strength we have one inverter. And then the output, which is the ACR, all
connected in parallel. Each string have
one inverter and the final output is
connected to Giza. Now in centralized the type, all of our BV parents are
connected to one inverter. We have some string, but I told us our string
to another string forming an array
which have a positive and the negative terminal
and the dyes in order to prevent flowing over the
current tools panels. In case of z, I would put
Z gets off no sunlight, which means that no
outward forms the panels. In order to prevent this
reverse about from ZP3 tools, panels that we have to add, reverts to bites
or blocking bytes. Now you will find
that all of this, which form is one array, is connected to only one
centralized inverter, one large inverter, that each string here is
connected to one inverter, String, incessant
string type inverter. String connected
to one inverter. Inverters are
connected in parallel. You'll see one inverter here
better to another inverter, better to another inverter, in better providing
that total power. Okay? High reliability, high
reliability in this case. Why? Because if we have of course exists inverter
have a fault is in z OS or two inverters or the other inverters
rule is still provide power to our system. That we have high availability since it's the odd
all in pattern. And if one is our zingy, others will provide power. If one inverter has a fault use asked
lowest part of z power, not the total power as
a centralized inverter. You see here in
centralize the inverter. We have only one inverter. So if a fault
occurred in this one or a problem of
Gordon's this inverter, then we laws that total power. But if a fault occurred
in a string inverter, only one inverter is our end. All of the other
inverter exists. But the problem is that needing the largest space due to the requirement of larger
number of inverters. You'll see here in
the centralized, we need one inverter,
just one inverter. But in the string
inverter we need the large number of inverters
connected in parallel. It will need largest base. Due to having larger space. Then it won't cause
us more cost. And of course, a larger
number of inverters, that means higher cost. Centralized. All students are connected together forming the larger LE, or strings are
connected in parallel, forming one large array, which is connected to one
centralized inverter. Zap problem is losing is a total power in
case of default in the centralized inverter
will find that in case of Z mega scale or large
scale BB system, we use that string
inverters are large. Number of string inverters are like hundreds of inverters. Instead of using one centralized sometimes if
you use one centralized, sometimes we use
string inverters. Most of them can be
used in large scale or mega watt generation. Now you'll see here
another image for this. You will find here that
this one is a string, string, string, and all of the strings or embed
forming one larger array. This string will provide
positive and then negative 21. Large centralized inverter. To provide power Is
three-phase power. Now in this case we have
one string connected to one inverter String
to connect it to one inverter, String
to one inverter. All of them are in parallel. So we have a string
inverter case and centralized inverter case. Here is also, we can have one parallel was
one in one inverter, one panel was one
inventor, one Bannon. And in this case, this is called micro-inverters
because it's connected with one banana only. This system has a high cost, but high efficiency will understand it in the
next two slides. Now we see is that
the central inverter, it takes that DC from all of the solar arrays
or the solar panels. Strings better into EHRs are forming array or
group of arrays. Then we have a combiner box to combine all of this
power together. Zen providing ZAP positive
and the negative two is a central inverter which will
provide power to the grid. String inverters, group
of strings in battle. String number one,
which provides to an inverter giving AC DC, giving me storing
extra inverter, and giving AC, DC to
invert or giving AAC. All of this are embedded and couldn't get the
two's agreement. So now we understand
the differences between a string type and
centralized inverter. Another type is the
micro-inverters. What does the micro-inverters
do in a set of using a string inverter
which is used as a tool, a string and invert it. We use micro-inverters. This one is used for each panel. One panel have one
micro-inverters, each abandoned have
its own inverter. Will find that it is
a power sine wave, sine wave, sine wave output. You'll find here
is that it works with the maximum power
point tracking technique. So it has a charge
controller inside it. What can be from 22
to 60 voltage DC. And the output in this
case will be from 90 volt to 140 volt AC
according to what? According to the input to it. Okay, The output here
is 50 or 60 hertz. Now you can find that
here we have 12, this is positive and
the negative is, this is a DC input. Number one is at negative here. The number two is positive. So it comes from what comes from the BEV battery with the male and the female and the connected tos
or DCM mode here. Number four is used
for and then now, or it can be used for
wireless communication in order to communicate with
all of the micro inverter, in order to control them
or to get z data from Zim. You will find here it is
working on the technique of z power line carrier technique or communication be
LLC communication. Now we will find that this one, number three is this
one is the AC hours. This is used to provide easy outward positive
and negative. You see is that in this
case we use one inverter, one micro inverter is
used for each panel. It converts DC, our directory to AC
suitable for Zack grid. High efficiency
about high cost if system as number of
inverters increases, as number of panels increase. Now you'll find the
year two schemes for that micro-inverters. We have a single-phase
micro-inverters, single-phase scheme, and three-phase scheme will find the Arians a single phase. We have only one phase
line and a neutron. You will find that the
ball step and the negative goes to the inverter
from each abandoned. And z inverter converts it into DC with a line and a neutron. Also bylaw number to provide the Z positive and the
negative twos I inverter. The inverter converts it into AAC was positive and negative, and its other I n, the number of inverters. All of them are
connected in parallel. Then it will provide us
with line and the neutral which goes into a
circuit breaker or a switch in order
to turn it on 12. And the meter to calculate z power
provided Tuesday grant. This meter. Z amount of power
injected to the grid is calculated by something which
is called fit in therapy. What does feed in tariff means? It means that that amount
of money or the amount of dollars or amount of centers
bear each kilowatt hour, but provide this to the grid. For each one kilowatt hour
provided Tuesday grid, I will take for example, $1. This is just an example. According to feed in tariff. Feed in tariff. Let's write it. So someone may ask
me, feed, feed. What does this representing? This representing z over z cost. For example, dollar for each kilo watt hour or for each energy kilowatt
hour provided to the grid. So this sort of
representing z equals in the contract with
the grid yours, a utility for each one kilowatt hour
provided to the grid, how much dollars I will get. A three-phase electrical scheme. You will find here is that
we have panel, panel, panel in the panels
and in inverters. Now in order to provide
the three-phase, remember that in the
three phase system, we have Z a, B, C, red, yellow, blue, or whatever
according to the system, three-phase system plus
xA neutral and the grounding for the protection for as a grounding of course, connected from Z inverter
to it because it is a metallic structure
in order to prevent these are electric shock
from the inverter itself. So we have to provide
the grounding against leakage account balance
connected here, providing AAC is this one
is C and this one AC. You will find that
inverter number one, for example, provides
two phase number. A. Neutral face numbering ends and neutral ends the
ground fault protection. Inverter number two provides for phase number of B
and the neutral. And the ground for protection. Number three provides two. Phase number c, neutral
and the ground. Then after this
panel number four, it will be a. And
then you alternate. Number five, B and C and the neutral and it's other y in
order to provide balance. On this three phase, since it provides power
to the three-phase, we try to balance is a
three-phase by providing inverters equally
across the three phase, will find that global inverters connected to phase
a and the neutron. Another group connected to
phase B and the neutron, another group connected
to phase C and neutral. This is how we can connect this app micro-inverters in
case of a three-phase system. And how can we
connect with them in case of a single phase system. Now with the inverter
size and data sheet, you will find that the
inverter size usually is a single phase is less
than ten kilowatt. Size available in less than ten kilowatt is a single phase. But the three-phase
kind of start from five kilowatt and higher. And sometimes you can find
less than five kilowatt. Usually for larger
scale or mega scale, we use a three-phase inverter, senses our power in mega. In this case, we'll use
a three-phase system. Single-phase is used for a small-scale or small
power generation. Now, here's an example of
the inverter data sheet. This is a data sheet for Sonny
Boy inverter unemployment, which is a famous
company for inverters. You will find that
here we have signing 0.4 thousand T L21, sign a boy, 5
thousand T L21 does. 4 thousand and demand for
1000 means the amount of kilowatt generated
at rated power. This is the rated kilowatt. Rated walked 4 thousand to what is the
rated output power? Or four kilowatt. This one is 5 thousand kilowatt, 5 thousand watt,
or five kilowatt. I'll find that in any point, for example, is a 4 thousand. You will find that the
rated power here is the output rated power
at 130 volts, 50 hertz. Give us 4 thousand to what? The written part for
5 thousand is 4,600, not 5 thousand,
the bottom 4,600. You will find that
the output here, Z maximum at Bear onto power
AAC is the maximum AC power. The maximum hours,
the apparent power is 4,004 volt and bear inverter. Remember that inverter
can be used to provide DC power, sorry, not DC, but it can provide active power and the reactive power because it is an inverter by controlling it by using
different techniques. And so as a inverter itself, we can inject active power or P, and the injected
reactive power or q. So the apparent power of b
plus j Q is 4 thousand volts. And birds, this is a
maximum apparent power, or S. The Sony poll
if five thousand, five thousand volts and there is the maximum power which
can be generated. Maximum. They'll funds generated
grid voltage at this rated power is 230 volt
and this one to 130 volt. You can also see
that phenomenon, AC voltage, which can be
controlled at 120 volt, two hundred and thirty
two hundred and forty two hundred and twenty two hundred and thirty
and two hundred and four. And this is a nominal
AC voltage values. And you'll find that z
equivalent to current for each of them is the
output currents to on-demand 20 gives us 18 to higher voltage
means lower power, lower and bear, because we need to provide the
same amount of power. 230 volt AC gives us lower
amount of current, 230 volts. You can steam 0.7 and bear
Z maximum Albert current, which can be provided
by an inverter. Maximum amount, 22 for this
time and 22 for this time. And total harmonic distortion, which metal representing
the harmonics enzyme is the voltage less than 4, 4%. So in easily they
can be connected to the grant because the total harmonic
distortion here is 4%, which is less than five
percentage is required. Now we'll find here also that frequency 50 hertz, 50 hertz, z AC power frequency 50
hertz or 6050 or 60, can provide both of them. As the range of AC frequency. It can operate at
a frequency from 45 to 55 artists for 60 hertz, 50 to 60 to 65 hertz. So this is a range of the frequency which
you can provide. This one is the range of
the frequency which can provide and connected to it, or is there a
connection to the grid? The displacement
effect of cosine phi. It can be from the range
of from 0.8 lagging. Two or 0.8 leading. All of these techniques is for electrical
power engineers. Electrical power engineers
can understand me well about this in bold and datasheet. You can find here also the
maximum power DC power, maximum DC Bar at
cosine Phi equals one. What does this mean? It means that the
maximum DC power, which can be given, which is 4,100 watt and 5,201. What does this represent? This represents
the DC power input from Z balance or
from Z batteries. Those are Sonny Boy.
43. Construction of Hydro Electric Power Plant: So now in this lecture, we're going to discuss the hydro electric power blend. What is harder electric barbell In it Assembly A power plant which we depend this on is a potential energy of water in order to turn or operate our turbines in order to generate electricity. So we'll see here. In this figure, we have the construction off the hydro electric power plant. You'll see Here are is a war a damn a control gate. Binstock as you narrator after Brian a powerhouse and transform and, of course, is a river off the water. So now let's discuss is the importance of feature component number one the damn what is important off the them or the reservoir. The dam is constructed on a larger ever in Haley areas to ensure sufficient water storage at the height that them for Mazar larger is of war behind it, Zeit off the water, liver cold as water head, which is this one in the reserve, or deter minds how much off the potential energy is stored in it. So this reservoir contains the potential energy off the water, which reduces their their energy required before interest. The control gate, What's the control gate. It is that the water from the reservoir is allowed to flow through that Binstock which is this one? Those after pine. The amount of force which is to be released in the penny stock can be controlled The buyer control gate so that control get controlled The amount of water to be released. This rules have been struck by off course opening and closing this gate. When the control gate is fully open, the maximum amount of water is released. This rose up in stock. So when this one is a fully opens therefore the maximum amount of water will bows. So what is the pain in stock? Binstock is a huge steel pipe which carries water from that is a war does after buying the potential energy off this water is is converted toe kinetic energy as it flows down throws a Binstock and this kind of energy off course rotates. Is that rpai? Now what is a water turbine? A water turbine is a water from the pain in stock is taken into the water turbine. The turbine is mechanically coupled to an electric generator. This one the kinetic energy off the water derives at Zetter. Buying this water drives a turbine and rotates it, and the consequent pleases, you know, literally gets driven. There are two main types off the water tower pines. One of them is called the M, but set their brain. Second. The type is a reaction turbine. The difference between them is the impulse temper. Brian is used for large heads, and the action turbines are used for the low and the medium hit. That's the difference between them. The last component is the generators, as generator is mounted in the powerhouse and it's mechanically coupled to that are buying soft. This one. When the turbine blades are rotated, do does a kind and manage off the water. It drives judge, generator and electricity is generated, which is then Step the Abu's help of transformer for the transformation purpose. So as you know, that's a generation is at 3.3 kilovolts, for example, and then it goes to a step up transformer. Is this transformer step right upto 120 kilovolts, 500 kilowatts of 150 kilovolts, 1500 kilovolts any amount off kilovolt according toe that type off the transmission line of course you told decrease the losses in the transmission lines. Now there is an important thing which we should discuss is the surgery tank. Let's see it now. Now the important thing is a surge hitting. So what is the surgery? Think that search tanks are usually provided in high or a medium head power plant? When there is a south and reduction in the load on the turbines, the governor closes the gates also after buying to reduce the water flow. This is also prevented by using the search sitting in which the water level rises to reduce the pressure. On the other hand, the surge tank provides excess water needed wins. The gates are suddenly opened to meet the increased load demand. So simply you will see here is the same as before. There is a war and seven in Stoke and since the turbine and then connected toe the generator, you will see it and distancing, which is a surgery tank. This surge tank has a gate which open and the closest according toe, the water flow or sediment. So when we need water, this surge tank will provide water since a decrease abrasion and there is a war on the water comes out of here and takes toe direction here and the year. So it decreases of pressure on the wall. This tank wins a load, decreases therefore thes gets closes and therefore it provide this water here. The water is stored here, so decreases the pressure on somewhat 11. But when the demand increases, we will suddenly opens its gates and therefore the water will come from here and to come from here. So that surgery tank provides excess water in the need off excess load or, in the requirement off, producing more electricity. And it stores the water in there when there is a reduction in salute.
44. Nuclear Power Plant: Let's discuss is a nuclear power station. A nuclear bowl blend or a nuclear power station is a sermon power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor seven or to similar power stations. They it is used toe generate esteem, which drivers a steam turbine connected to an electric genetic which have reduced electricity. Now, let's see is a structure off their nuclear power station in order to generate electricity. Now we will see here for us is a reactor vessel or the nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor is the heart off the stage in its a central part that actors, of course, heat is generated by control. The nuke nuclear fission With this heat, air coolant is heated as it is bomblets rosary actor and their boy removes their energy from very active. Hit from the nuclear fission is used toe raise steam, which is Aransas rose after points which in turn powers there electrical generators and off course we can use in the nuclear reactor off course that you're running, which is a very heavy metal, that is our abundant owners. And they found in the sea water as well as most trucks and of course, this reactor is brought surrounded by a protective shield since it produced radio activity . And of course, this protective chills event that radioactive material from escaping or releasing into the environment and of course, is that many actors are equipped. Do is a dome off concrete to protect is a reactor against both internal and external impact . So simply what happens here? Random here, which has a very high temperature You tosa nuclear fission. And then you will see here this water which comes from here. Of course, you will see here a cycle for their the Hoat. You're on you and therefore there will be a hate extender with water and therefore this hot water will produce this team This team will cause is that they're buying Toby moved. And the boldness off this steam turbine is to convert is a hit contending the steam into mechanical energy. Therefore it is a couple does a generator. The generator convert is a mechanical power supplied by the turbine into electrical power and therefore they will see here AC condenser, which convert is that team in tow called water In order to bus it again here, Toby it and converting it into steam. And, of course, that generator buses room my step up transformer. Anything goes toe transmission lines, but you have to know that there is an important thing, which is the emergency power supply. Most of nuclear stations require two distinct sources off power feeding station surface transformers that are sufficiently separated infestations, switchyard and the Guaracy bar from multiple transmission lines. And even with the absence off this to their front of our sources, we also the nuclear position is equipped with emergency power in case off any problem. So, as we said before and I will say it again, you will see that inside nuclear position we will have more example supply. Why, in order to have the cooling system still be operating, because, of course, a visa the cooling system stopped. Therefore there will be accessed. It will happen or thousands of people will be killed. The end destruction end, of course, that radioactive material will be spread. Throws the entire area
45. Geothermal Power Plants: Now let's discuss that geothermal power. The geothermal power is a power generated boy. Geothermal energy. The geothermal power is considered to be a sustainable, trainable source off energy. Because I hate extraction. ISS more converted with the nurses. Heat content is, as you said, my ball stations are similar. Toe us, our esteemed toe point cinema power stations heat from a fuel source. In case off our courses and geothermal, you'll see that they hate source off course. The it's the score, which is used to heat water or another working fluid, is that working float is in use to turn after pine over a generator and thereby producing electricity. The fluid is then called undertone in tow, the heat source. Now let's discuss that the front of types off their Geo Cemal Bar Station number one is a dry steam power station. The dry steam stations are the simplest ends. All the society. They directly use the same esteem off water at 150 solicitors or greater toe turns after pints, CNN's a condenser. Water cools and is emitted back into the soil so the hot water comes here and sense. Of course, there is a control valve, ear and another control valve ear. And then this hot water for the steam bosses Rosa turbine, producing a mechanical energy which rotates the pine and then coupled the wizard generator producing electric energy. And then, of course, there is a condenser here where it bosses, again in tow, is injected back into the soil. The other type is a flash steam power station, the flash steam border station. In this time, the freshest importation body. High pressure hot water into lower pressure tanks and use the resulting flesh. This team toe, Dr Sattar points. They require flow temperature off at least 180 solicitous, usually more. This is the most common type off the station in operation today. The flesh steam plant issues juicer, Mel's reservoirs off water wisdom Britcher greater then surround. And 60 F or 182 solicitors without water flows up. Sorrows are wells in the ground under its own pressure. As it flows upwards. Pressure decreases on some of the hot water points. Interesting. The steam is in, separated from the water and used toe power, a turbine on a generator and, of course, the remaining steam or the remaining called the water will return them back into the soil, so we'll see a same as before. They're very hot water. Of course, that Richard is greater than here. Bosses through a tank in which would you have a lower pressure? The Flashes team bosses, Rosa turbine producing electricity on them bosses through a condenser and turned back here . And, of course, a cold water. From here comes this room that subsurface or their sorry again.
46. Simulation of Synchronous Machine Connected to Small Power System : Hi everyone. In this video we would
like to simulate Z synchronous generator in power system and having
a transmission line, having another swing
bus or swing generator. We have a city phase fault. We need to know what is
the effect of happening of the three-phase and after reaching
steady-state condition. So all of this we
will see now how we can simulate it inside Z MATLAB. First thing we are
going to click on new Zen Simulink model. We will choose a blank model. Now, starting here with
our Simulink model, for a single, we need a
synchronous generator. So we are going to the
Simulink library as always. Then we will type as
synchronous machine. Will find here is that
synchronous machine you'll find here to add type, which is the cilia
and the machine. And the machine will see here is that we have a
synchronous machine in Bertie on it values, fundamental better unit values. And do we have here a
synchronous machine, baryonic standard. And we have a synchronous
machine in Z or iSCSI or units or the
fundamental SI units. So in this system we are
dealing with power system. We need here to use that
berry on it venues. In order to use that better
unit values already chose that synchronous machine,
baryonic fundamental. Right-click and add block
to the model on title. We have here our
synchronous machine. Let's maximize it a little bit. So we have here our
synchronous machine, and you'll notice that
this synchronous machine will be generated. So ABC is the output of the generator or the three-phase
output auto-generated. M is the measurement board. We have BM or Zen mechanical
input power to the machine. And do we have Vf or the excitation voltage
enter to use the machine. For the synchronous
machine itself, we would need to add here Z, mechanical input power
and that field voltage. We can make the VL, the voltage you
can understand and make them mechanical
power constant. But two are not going
to do those as well, going to do something the
front inside this video, we are going to use
our control system, such as a hydraulic turbine
for the generator itself? Or does that Bob
mechanical power? And we'll use for z field, we will use an excitation
control system. We would use here
a different thing. We need a closed loop
in order to control or controls the excitation and the control Z mechanical
in both those degenerate. Going back to Simulink. First, we need the excitation
excitation system. It will Control Z field voltage. Will find the excitation system as this one or this
one, whatever. Right-click, Add block
those a model on tightened. This is the excitation system. This one is excitation system, which provides that field the
voltages to our generator. Now, we need that buy-in
or hydraulic turbine. High, draw, lick, lick, dirt or by right-click
and add block, does the model on tight. Okay, so we'll have here
our mechanical in biopower, which is in-between generator, synchronous generator, and we have Z control or
excitation system, whichever provide
this field of voltage a to Z I synchronous machine. Now we will find here we need an omega France be
a reference omega E z electrical power or
electrical power generated. And d omega is our
variation in z is bead. Omega is that bid outwards is bit of xij generator or speed of the generator itself
and radian per second. We're reference,
reference voltage for their excitation
system, 3D and V-Q. And as a voltage stabilizer, if we have a stabilizer, then we will add here. We wouldn't have stabilizer
and connect it to 0 supplies. We don't have one, so
we'll use our ground. And then choose any one. Which one, which one
that says Add link. Adds a block to the
model entitled, okay, let's see if
it will work or not. Selecting this one like this. And entering here. So if we don't have a
voltage stabilizer, which you know is it is something which is called
Z power system stabilizer. If you have it, then you
would add a block for it and connect it to here. If you don't have it,
then you will make it 0 by connecting
it to the ground. Now we need to dereference omega reference
and the reference. So we need a constant. Right-click and add
block does the model on titled tags, this one here. We'll make 123 blocks. Connect this one here. Double-click this one here, and click on it. This one here. Collect on it. We have z, omega France, Francis bead
embedded unit system be a reference embedded on it. And we reference these
values is used at two megs. A control loop or Zach laws the lobe to reach
a steady-state faster. According to the
Simulink program itself. If you look at the MATLAB
going to MathWorks website, you will find that
that beer reference default value is 0.75. I will tell you now something
if you make it one, if you'll make it
0.75, whatever, you will find that z-value of
the abbot will be the same. It is just the **** bit to
reach a steady-state first. Now we have, we need
omega e be mechanical, mechanical power or electrical
power, and z omega. How we can get these
values and IVD and V-Q video and the VQ is
direct excess voltage. V q is q axis voltage. Remember that this one
is a hydraulic turbine. Since it is a hydraulic turbine, then it is salient machine. Double-click here it is at
salient type machine. Why? Because the hydraulic
system have lowest bid. So we use salient, the type synchronous
machine and z round or z non salient is used for
Z faster generators such as the diesel generator. How we can get this
value simply by using the boss selector bus selected. First time, we will add block to the model on title bus selector. This one. Let's make
it bigger like this. Take it here and control. Control. You will
find that control plus I use the total
flip X0 block, get z measurement ear, and both adhere to the bus. Now what is the value is needed? Omega0, b, dW, Vdb Q. So double-click,
delete the signals, select all and delete. Then first thing we
need z omega AB. Okay? Let's choose all of our values. First, we need the
DQ components. Let's see dq components, which is V D and V Q. Going here, VD select stator
voltage V-Q component of VD, and the component of VQ is required the Ford is
excitation system. In order to reach a steady-state
for Zack laws, the loop. We need heat says speed. So speed is related
to the mechanical. We need BE, which is
electrical tower. Select. We need that d w and omega e. Omega e, which is rotary speed. Select the we need that
variation in being DW. Select. So we have 123123
and we need VD week. We have VdV dequeue. We can add another
thing for ourselves, which is a load angle. Here we need the B naught
means that I would act a bar. Note here that Z
electrical power. We find that it is
b0 and b0 all which means that our robot or related to the
Albert active plot, since we need only the
act about for this lobe. So we will select
it and select this is one where it is it
mechanical electrical power. Delete it. This is the one which
is required for 0 B0 all or the mega electrical
output active power. And do we need load angle in order to see what happened to the load angle delta
Forza generator itself. Going up here, we need
also the stator current. Let's see, whereas
the stator current here select to see, for example, Z sets or current IA, what will happen to it due to the presence of fault and
the reaching steady-state. The first one is
stator voltage V d. So take it here, VD, Lexis. And second one is a
state of voltage V-Q. So take here, this
one, here, V Q. Or you can just go to here, stand at it with the mouse. You'll find that the one is a mechanical rotor
speed omega m, omega m. This one. Here is the number
for z d w, dw. Number five is the
load angle lift. Okay, leave it now. I would add to the power
p naught, B naught here. Now we need to seize delta
and the z guarantee. We will use a scope, scope block to the model on titled Zen control and drag. Now we will connect this
first one to z Delta. This one is z load angle. This is a scope for
Z stator current. Okay. Now we're provided feedback obviously Albert
from z measurement back to Z, Z hydraulic turbine controller, which is the governor. And here z excitation system, control for the
excitation system giving feedback from
the measurement board. Now we need that a, B, C and the output connected
to add transformer. We will assume that we
have of our system. So that power generated here will be connected
to a transformer. Transformer connected to
our transmission line, then TO another generator
and embedded with eight Z load and z
three phase fault. Now going back here, we need Z transmission
line or the transformer first transformer,
transformer transform. Now what the type of
the transform menu do? We need a three-phase
transformer? We need a primary and secondary. That's all what we need. So it is a two winding,
primary and secondary. You will find either
three-phase transformer, three windings, one primary and two
secondary transformer winding only primary
and seconds. This one is that
one needed ad block the OSI model untitled. Legs as they exist. They exist one here. And the final is this one. This is a three-phase
transformer. Now if we double-click
on Z generator itself, you will find the parameters
for the synchronous machine, such as the power generated
involved and Bear power. And the line to line
voltage in automatic, and the line to line ends our frequency of operation,
which is 60 hertz. Now here's a line to line
voltage of the power generated is 13.8 kilo volt, or 13,800 kilovolts,
1300 kilo voltage, only certain 0.8 kilo volts. So this is the
voltage generated and this is a frequency
generic, okay? We will make this one delta delta star
connection to rule, but reduce that
delta connection. This one will be a delta and
this one would be his star. This is a step-up transformer. Now Z parameters, we
need the input voltage. This is nominal power
frequencies is 13, okay? We need the voltage of the
primary to be 13.8 kilo volt. We have here a bar three, which means ten power three. We need is a primary to be
similar to the generator. So 13.8, so this representing z0 is 13.8 multiplied by
temperature three, representing z kilo
volt in both two. Transformer itself. And the output of
the transformer, we will assume it
is at 230 kilovolt. 230 kilo volt mix up on
uncertainty kilovolt. We have here I delta
star connection, delta star connection
transformer. We need now our
transmission line. Here, transmission line,
transmission line. You'll notice that there's
a different configuration for the transmission line. For example, you are
going to z bimodal. So as you're bimodal, which is similar USDA
for this library, which is the power Library, is a three-phase, since we have heat as
three-phase system. Like this, three-phase
in both three-phase out, we need as three-phase bimodal. This one, three-phase
bisexual multiple ad block to the module on titled exist. They exist one here,
this one here, and this one here.
Now what is Z? Next step, we need to add Z load and we need to add
as three-phase generate. So z naught will
be load. The load. Let's go down and see
as three-phase node. Three-phase, see it
as are a lesson. We're going to add a
block to the model and tightened like this. We need also a three
phase fault. Fault. Fault. Why is the fault in order
to seize the response of the power system to Z fault having as three
phase fault connect ad block to the model on
Python. They get here. Then control I control
our first Zen control. I flip the block like this. Now we need finally
voltage source. Voltage source. Now, the voltage associated used is a
three phase source. Right-click Add block
to the model on titled. We are here simulating a power system as if we are
dealing with A-bar system, having guy synchronous
generator, transformer,
transmission line load. We have another generator
inside our Grid and z, three phase fault
or getting here. And we need to see the
response of our system. It takes this one here,
control or he likes this. Now connect this one here, a to B to C to C By exists and
connect the a, B. C is fault a, B and C. In addition to this, we will add a load here, Control and drag care
air exist one here, a, B, and C. Now let's see all
of our components here. For example, if we
look at x0 bimodal, yours is that here we can
see is a frequency used. Second stimuli artist.
And you'll find here as 0 sequence positive, negative z lying
lands in kilometer. All of these values
is available here in order to change it
as you would like. Now looking at our load, load configuration is why
connected load and grounded and denominator phase to phase voltage or line-to-line voltage is one
hundred ten hundred. Here, Z line to line
voltage, as we'll see. The secondary,
this is a primary. Secondary is 230 kilo volt. So we will make
this 130 kilovolts. Where is it here? 213 kilo volt. We can make it ie, sitting, okay, 230 kilovolt apply. We can make capacitive
reactive power 0. And that after Board 0, assuming the resistive load here we are going
to do is the same, but the voltage here is 13.83. Because here z voltage at Z primer here is 13.8 kilo
volt line to line voltage. Makes this 10 and this one z. We have here a load
at the generator and we have another load I have towards Z
transmission line. Now let's see is that
three phase fault. You will find here the
front two parameters such as default or resistance. The ground that resistance,
resistance, capacitance. And you can change these
values as you would like. Number two, you can find
here is that Z fault here. Short-circuit here, is
occurring between phase a, phase B, phase C,
and the ground. So this is a three-phase symmetrical
fault with the ground. If we make it remove
this one and this one, then it will be between
phase a and the ground, which means at line
to ground fault. If it is like this, then between two
phases and the ground, so it is line to line to ground. Will make it like this. Then it will be line to line to line as three phase fault or getting between the three
phases only without the ground. But the most severe one is
three-phase with the ground. Now we will find it on other
things, switching times. What does this represent? Representing the
innocence of applying the fault and the innocent
of openings default. So at one over 60-second, Z fault will be connected to this line as if we
have a pdfs fault. And at the time of five of our 60-second Z fault is cleared or remote
from our system. We will assume app buoyant one. And assume buoyant to. Now what this is, this is our swing phase, phase to phase voltage. And let me make it also. What is the value that we choose to under
uncertainty as I remember, 200 and don their uncertainty
kilo volt, okay. So 230. Okay. We chose that
face-to-face voltage apply. Then. Okay. What does this do? This is if you look
at the load flow, is this is a swing degenerate. What is that swing generator? It means that it is
the largest generator in our power system. It supplies the remaining load, and it is the largest
generator in the system. We'll find here is
that this one supplies to supply the loads,
this one and this one. And this generator also
chairs with a certain power. Now we revert our power system. The only thing remaining
is z power GUI block. Again, what is the benefit
of z power GUI block? Ebola goal we go II
block is usually to analyze our system or sold with z equations in our system. The ODE or z differentiate
equations in our system. Okay, linear or
nonlinear equations. In order to finally see z
final values in the scope after and before the default
during transient conditions. So here if we apply as a
continuous starting run, you will see that
here it will take a longer time in
doing the analysis. You will find here, look
at the tongue itself TO 0.55 multiplied by £10 negative
cities, Sarah, and 0%. So it will take longer time
in solving our spar system. In this case, what
does the MATLAB do? Let's see now what
does the MATLAB say? Go here. You will
find that here. You will find that we,
as it has a method called as a phase or
simulation method, is this method is
used the two studies, or electro mechanical
oscillations of power systems consisting of larger than haters
and the motors. So as an example of this
message is a simulation of a multi machine in
a three-phase system. So in order to study is that electro-mechanical
oscillations when a photo or a variation in the load
angle delta in assist him having larger than
a leader's group of generators and motors. In this case, we'll use
that phasor solution. Let's get back here. What is the phase of
social and how we can do this simply by going to zap
continuous double-click. And you will find
here in the block, you will find the
results or solver type is called desert
continuous time. If you click on it,
you will find that this grid and vasopressors are three different methods
of solving our system. This grid simply takes
samples of time, funding or assembled
time if we make it 0.1. What does this do? It
simply Apply and Okay, and I will show you what. It will happen if we
choose this option. Now, if we open any scope like this one, look what will happen. You will find here
at every instance of 0.1.1.1 will find that
after solving it, it will give us this
value for which one load angle that add 0, it has this value at 0.1, it goes down to is this value. Then add another o after 0.1, it will go to
another value after 0.1 goes to another
value and so on. So basically here what happens? It divided Z system and towards a solution into
discrete or steps. It's always the
steps, as he told, was the Apollo system in steps, it's always at
0.1.2 points three. Then we connect them
together as a step function. This is not a continuous
solution. In this case. We use z solution which is called design phase or solution. The frequency is 60 hertz. Now someone may tell me now, when I double-click
on z power GUI, I can't change this one from continuous to
any other values. It is constant and
they cannot change it. So how can I open this one? You can go to Z settings or right-click and
configuration parameters. Then go to this over here. And you will find here is
that we have the solver. You will find here we have
a different the types of solver for the ODE or the
differential equations. Here, different methods. You can choose any of them and you can read
about each of them to understand when to use them or which one we should use. So as an example,
weekend use this one. This one which is called
dizzy Vygotsky champagne. Okay. I think I pronounce
it correctly. This is one of the
methods of solving ODE to Albertsons together one, Andy is a student, Vygotsky and champagne. I think. I don't know how to pronounce
it any way you can choose, for example, this one. And you'll find that when
you select this one is different from this one and you'll find
different solutions. So for example, we choose
this one and Apply and Okay. You will find that
when you double-click, you can now change it from
continuous to any value. I'm talking about with previous versions of
Z MATLAB program. Now click on, Okay. Now let's see if we
start the simulation. Let's make it 30, for example, and store disaster
simulation at 630, similar to the previous
values you will find the exact simulation is
now faster than before. Now the simulation finished. Let's see the values. We apply default at 0.1
and declare date at 0.2. So the first one here, let's see this one is the
load angle that Double-click. This is the load angle delta
and its variation with time. So Z, load angle at first, except breast drowns
and condition and very high frequency oscillations due to the presence of fault. And afterwards the
fault is cleared, you will find that the
power system is going to do that steady-state condition. Now let us see almost one. This one is a stator
current, double-click. Like this. You will find here
adds up beginning. It was too high
frequency oscillations. And the higher value, you will see that 55
means five per unit, which means five times
its rated value. Find very high currents, very high frequency and
high currents due to what? Due to a basis of fault. And then clearing this folder. This will cause high
frequency oscillations. Then Zika and stores to
go into the steady-state and finally becomes steady. So this is the load angle
and this one is z current. Now as an example to show you is that if I change
this one too, for example, one Xin run. Let's see what will happen to our system or winnings there. Load angular scope,
nothing to change. It is the same. The current
is less than one video on it. Lesson one body on it. This is how to simulate a
power system in MATLAB. Now, let's see
another thing here. Now. If we change the
silhouette, for example, if this load is ten power t
multiplied by t b