Ultimate Ableton Live 9: Part 5 - MIDI & Audio Effects | Jason Allen | Skillshare

Ultimate Ableton Live 9: Part 5 - MIDI & Audio Effects

Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

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52 Lessons (4h 34m)
    • 1. Intro

      3:09
    • 2. MIDI Effects

      3:22
    • 3. Difference Between MIDI and Audio Effects

      4:36
    • 4. Arpeggiator

      8:24
    • 5. Chord

      5:45
    • 6. MIDI Effect Rack

      6:07
    • 7. Note Length

      3:09
    • 8. Pitch

      2:13
    • 9. Random

      4:11
    • 10. Scale

      5:55
    • 11. Velocity

      3:06
    • 12. Three Types Of Effects

      4:06
    • 13. What Are Time Based Effects

      3:11
    • 14. Simple Delay

      8:46
    • 15. Ping Pong Delay

      5:56
    • 16. Filter Delay

      6:07
    • 17. Grain Delay

      12:29
    • 18. Chorus

      9:17
    • 19. Flanger

      5:18
    • 20. Reverb

      11:03
    • 21. Beat Repeat

      9:58
    • 22. Looper

      3:58
    • 23. What Are Frequency Effects

      4:16
    • 24. EQ3

      3:59
    • 25. EQ8

      4:36
    • 26. AutoFilter

      6:20
    • 27. Amp

      2:52
    • 28. Cabinet

      4:08
    • 29. Corpus

      7:41
    • 30. DynamicTube

      4:39
    • 31. Erosion

      3:58
    • 32. FrequencyShifter

      7:58
    • 33. Overdrive

      4:52
    • 34. Phasor

      6:47
    • 35. Redux

      6:40
    • 36. Resonator

      6:28
    • 37. Saturator

      6:48
    • 38. Vocoder

      14:59
    • 39. What Are Dynamic Effects

      2:49
    • 40. Compressor

      11:32
    • 41. Glue Compressor

      3:01
    • 42. Limiter

      1:41
    • 43. Multiband Dynamics

      4:14
    • 44. Gate

      6:08
    • 45. Auto Pan

      2:57
    • 46. External Audio Effect

      2:37
    • 47. Vinyl Distortion

      2:06
    • 48. Spectrum

      2:05
    • 49. Tuner

      1:51
    • 50. Utility

      3:03
    • 51. Wrap Up

      1:45
    • 52. SkillshareFinalLectureV2

      0:36

About This Class

For years I've been teaching Ableton Live in the college classroom. As a University Professor, my classes are sought after, and, frankly, expensive. I believe Ableton Live can be learned by anyone, and cost shouldn't be a barrier. This class uses the same outline and syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost.

This is Part 5: MIDI & Audio Effects

This is a really deep class - tons of content, tricks, and tips. I'll go through all of the Ableton Live Instruments in this class, with considerable detail on each one. We will also talk about synthesis tricks and tips, getting most out of your samplers, and tons of production tips. Topics include:

  • MIDI Effects
  • Arpeggiator
  • Chord MIDI Effect
  • MIDI Effect Racks
  • Note Length MIDI Effect
  • Pitch MIDI Effect
  • Random MIDI Effect
  • Scale MIDI Effect
  • Velocity MIDI Effect
  • Audio Effects
  • The three types of Audio Effects
  • ALL Ableton Audio Effects (and how to use them!)
    • Simple Delay
    • Ping Pong Delay
    • Filter Delay
    • Grain Delay
    • Chorus
    • Flanger
    • Reverb
    • Beat Repeat
    • Looper
    • EQ Three
    • EQ Eight
    • Auto Filter
    • Amp
    • Cabinet
    • Corpus
    • Dynamic Tube
    • Erosion
    • Frequency Shifter
    • Overdrive
    • Phaser
    • Redux
    • Resonator
    • Saturator
    • Vocoder
    • Compressor
    • Glue Compressor
    • Limiter
    • Multiband Dynamics
    • Gate
    • Auto Pan
    • External Audio Effect
    • Vinyl Distortion
    • Spectrum
    • Tuner
    • Utility

I will be making 6 (six!) complete classes in order to bring you the most comprehensive manual on Ableton Live production techniques ever created. Each class has Sets, sessions, and experiments for you to try on your own and follow along with.

J. Anthony Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater.

He currently is a professor atĀ Augsburg University and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for other classes by J. Anthony Allen:

  • "I've had Live Lite for a while but never quite understood how to use it because of the different options in how to arrange audio. This course explains exactly how to do that and get the most out of Live."
  • "Great overview - I would start here for sure if you are just getting your feet wet with Live. clear and to the point. session walkthroughs are great. looking forward to more"

  • "I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

Transcripts

1. Intro: 3rd 1 Talk about what exactly Weaver is. Here's wherever Imagine. Uh, you are like an really kind of craft this line be doing exactly what I needed to be doing. It's a little bit. It gets more dense as we move down. It's almost like here we see our kick and our snare are hitting the threshold. And our high hats are No. Hey, everyone welcome Teoh, able to live five midi and audio effects. This is the fifth class I've made where I'm covering everything we need to know about Ables . And my hope is that you are a person that wants to thoroughly, thoroughly know able to live and that you will join me for this class and the other able to live classes so that you don't learn just a couple tricks, but you learn the whole shebang and how to use the whole program. What we're going to do in this class is everything here and here, all of the effects. That's like everything in this list and everything in this list. This list is relatively shorter, but both these two lists there are a lot of stuff here. Now I'm gonna show you how to use all these effects. What? They dio a little background on how some of them work and theory behind how they work. And also, I'm going to show you some good case examples of how I like to use them in combination and by themselves. Thistles In effect, I'm gonna build in this class where we're using on overdrive a ping pong delay a reverb and e que a beat repeat and a filter delay all to do all in one complex effect. So check it out. It's gonna be tons of fun. We're gonna cover all of these things and how to use them. It's a really thorough class. It's like 70 videos or something long. So I hope you decide to join us in this class. I hope you have a great time cause I know you're gonna have a great time and you're gonna leave this class knowing everything there is to know about how to use audio and MIDI effects in able to live and a lot about just how to use audio effects for any dog that you happen to be interested in using. A lot of these effects are really standard stuff reverb delays. Uh, limiters, Gates, compressors. All this stuff really standard stuff. So please join us on the inside and you will know all there is to know about using audio effects. 2. MIDI Effects: Okay, let's get started. We have a ton of stuff to cover in this class, so let's dive right in. And the first big topic we're going to look at is our MIDI effects. Now, we have encountered these very briefly in a previous one of my able 10 classes here where we looked at adding velocities to something I think we did that, um, ages ago in the able to class. So 1st 1st things first. Couple little things. Ah, about MIDI effects. So we confined them over here. Here are many effects. There are 12345678 of them. OK, you ah should have no more or less than eight. There are always eight of them. These are the ones that come with a built in. And you can't, as far as I know, ad any many effects to this, um, in the same way as audio effects. Remember, I talked about this, I think, in the very first class, but I'm gonna talk about it again to refresh our memory. Um, when we look at both this audio effects and media effects tabs, these are effects that come with a Bolton and for both of these two tabs hoops, audio effects and many effects. You you get what comes with the program. Now, you may have less audio effects if you're on. If you're not on a built in sweet if you're on one of the light versions of able 10 or something like that, that's not the full program. You might not have all of these, and with many effects that might be true. You might not have some of these with the light version. I'm not sure, actually, um, what they take out for the light version on many effects. But, um, if you have sweet, you should have all of these and you should you will have no more than that. Those are just the ones that come with able to. Unless you're on a future version of able to. I'm on an able to live nine. Um, let's see exactly what version of live Amon Ah, 9.1. Ah. So if you're on a future version like able to live 10 at this current time in my life, I can only imagine what that is, but there might be more. I don't know, but enable to live 99.1. This is what we've got. If you add effects too able to live as a MIDI effect or an audio effect or any kind of effect that's made by 1/3 party anyone else and there are millions of these around the Internet, you're going to be adding them here to plug ins. Those are almost all audio effects, but can be midi effects and can be instruments also, which is this tab up here? Um, instruments are the same as what I just said. These are the ones that come with able to, and you will have no more than these ones. All the instruments we talked about in the last able to in class, which was four able to live for, um so audio effects here they all are, um, many effects here. They all are. No. In this class, we're gonna cover all of these and all of these and then also performance things and things like that. So let's dive into our many effects. And let's first talk about what makes him different. What are is different between audio effects and many effects. Mediafax work very differently. So it's diving and talk about that in the next video 3. Difference Between MIDI and Audio Effects: Okay. The difference between audio effects, enmity, effects. Easiest way to describe this is to load up an instrument first. So let's put an instrument on here. Let's just put an analog. Okay? Now I've got an analog. Now, audio effects are going to go after an instrument because they're gonna process the audio, right? So if I put an audio effect on here, let's do an obvious one. Like a Let's do a simple delay. Simple delay. I throw that on there, and that comes after because this can process an audio signal. Right. So now I have a delay on there. If I had a midi effect, I added this arpeggio later, which we'll talk about what that does in a second. But for now, just follow me on the basic concept here that goes before the instrument. Because this process is MIDI data. Now, if I get rid of both these effects, remember that in an instrument here, this takes data and turns it into sound. Right? This is a synthesizer. So data comes in here and we know that that's data because we've got the little dots showing us showing us data and what comes out is an audio signal. And we know that because we have these lines, right? The green bars show us volume. This shows us data that shows us volume. So this gets converted to sound in the instrument midi effects. Can Onley do stuff to data there? Like data effects? Basically, so they can rework the data that's coming in, but they don't do anything with sound. So if I go back to what I was just doing here's my arpeggio. Gator data coming in. Data coming out, right? If I drag this to the other side of the instrument, it doesn't let me do it right, because it needs, ah, an instrument to do something. It needs, Ah, data to do something. Sorry. If I had an audio effect again back here, it's gonna automatically put it at the end. If I try to put this over here, it's not gonna let me do it. All right, What would happen if I deleted the instrument? This happens. It says I need an instrument because I've got data coming in here. Data coming out there. Nothing going in here because nothing creates sound there, but sound coming out. So when I play. Now, I'm gonna see data coming in. I'm gonna see data coming out, and then that's the end, because this needs audio. So I need an instrument. Okay. So I don't need to have an audio effect. I could just do this. Um, and now we're going to use this. Are appreciator is going to do different stuff to our midi, and it's gonna pass it to their now. Another way to think about media affects is to think that they, um, don't change the sound, necessarily. They more reorganize. The pitch is going in. Ah, and parameters of the pitch is going in like the volume, the velocity and things like that. So this particular one, if I play a group of notes, it's gonna spread them out and play them one at a time. So I'm gonna play three notes at same time now, right? And I'm gonna hold it down, Theo. Right? So I'm just holding down one chord of three notes, and it's playing them one at a time, right? That's what this does. It's not changing the sound at all. It's not adding a delay or anything. It's just separating out the data that I gave it into rhythms. That's what this particular effect does. So it reorganizes our data but doesn't change the sound necessarily. That's all happening in here. Cool. So something like an equalizer is not a midi effect, because that changes the sound right. We need to have sound for an equaliser to change something like in our Pesci ator or would be another good one. Um, the pitch. This one will change the pitches that come in into other pitches. So what? It's gonna change the data coming in, right? So that's the difference between MIDI effects and audio effects. There are much less MIDI effects than there are audio effects. Um, because you can only rework the data so many different ways. So with that said, let's dive in and let's just go through all eight of these and check him out one by one and let me show you how to use them on what they are. We'll start with the AARP educator, but let's break to a new video to do that 4. Arpeggiator: Okay, let's start off with the AARP educator. So I just showed you a little bit of the AARP initiator, but let me walk through how it actually works here. Now arpeggio Gator is very common effect. It's probably one of the most common, if not the most common, um, midi effect that you'll find in electronica, music and things like that. It's I end up throwing AARP educators on stuff a lot of time. Honestly, if I've got, like, a core progression going in a track, and I'm kind of getting bored with it needs something new to do, throwing arpeggio later on that bad boy and see what happens. Um, so it's a great effect for that. I also have another AARP educator effect that I do with strings that maybe I'll show you in this video as well. So let's dive in. So first thing arpeggio gator comes from ah, AARP. The word. It's kind of like harp. It relates to the word harp. So imagine how heart plays. Ah, harp is often going and playing notes up and down, Um, and not as often playing big groups of note all at the same time playing them one at a time . So what this does is it takes a group of notes that you give it, and it plays them one at a time. Arpeggio hates it. The musical term, right? So let's give it some notes. So Ah, instead of playing on my keyboard, I'm gonna draw some notes here so you can see what I'm doing. So let's give it a nice a minor chord. So I'm just gonna do this. So when we go a c and e. Okay, so three notes, OK, a minor chord. And let's move that down and knocked it just maybe to just for fun. Okay, Now we're not gonna hear anything, right, because we don't have an instrument on here. So first we need an instrument. So let's go to Operator. There's my corn a productive way. So now this court is happening and it's just sustaining right forever loops around. It just keeps playing. So how can we make that more interesting? It's go to many effects and let's throw in up in arpeggio later on it. So, I added, Are appreciator just the default and now just out of the boxes is what that does So remember. Hopefully this makes sense. So what it's gonna do is gonna take those three notes. It's gonna play them one at a time, over and over. It's basically going to make sure only one is playing at a time. Look at that MIDI file so you can see what it's doing, right? So it's only playing one of those notes at a time. Okay, we've got some style changes we can do here. We can say So right now it's playing up. So it's playing. Lowest note toe highest note. Weaken, say, played down, right? We can say Play up and down. So let's go up and then down it's going up and then down and then up and then down. And it's always resetting on the downbeat, Um, some weirder ones here. I'm a big friend of random, random, other and random once, so don't repeat notes. Let's do that. All right, let's do that. Okay, so now we're on totally random, okay? And then we can change the speed right here. Right now, we're at an eighth note. Let's change that to a 16. Now, remember, um, that they are Pesci ater doesn't add notes. It only plays the notes you give it. It just plays it one at a time. Right? So this eyes what this does with an arpeggio Later you give it long notes. It makes him short notes way can also do a couple of other things here. We can transpose, um we can set some re trigger repeats and things like that. But the main thing that I always go to with this is what I want the order to be and I often just latch onto random. And what do we want to speed to be? Eighth note 16th notes. Ah, triplet. Some kind of triplets. Something like that. So it's at its 16th note, right? School. Change the sound to make it a little shorter sound. Right, So that will change. That I just made with this envelope isn't is not in the media effect. I just thought it would sound interesting, so I changed. It could also do something with the gate here to simulate a similar thing. But eso that's the appreciator. So it just plays are notes one by one at a given rate. And in the given order that we tell it in the order is this style. Let me show you my string trick because I actually really like this. So I believe I have on here string libraries, orchestral strings. Ah, sounds And let's do violin groups file in section. It's just, uh let's do lo gatto llegado means long notes. Okay, So if I turn the AARP educator off, this is what we hear. Nice string sound. Now, what if I wanted to make ah, cool harmony happening, but I wanted a lot of motion in it. This is just like a trick I do all the time. If I want to string section just to, like, fill out a, uh, basically, use a string section as a pad, but I want rhythm in it and I don't want them just holding this cord. This is what I'll do. Putting pressure greater on it. Said it too. Random said it for at this tempo. I don't really like 16th notes comes. Go slow down. Okay, that's pretty nice. Now I want a harmony, right. And our pressure gator is only gonna let us have one note at a time. So what I'm gonna do next as I'm going to duplicate this whole track And now I've just added a harmony. Why? I didn't change any notes. But my are Pesci ator is set to random. Right? So the odds are most notes are gonna be, ah, harmony. Maybe I'll set the 2nd 1 at a slower rate, right? And now, if I really just want to get cool with it, I could change the cord. Let's say at some point the cord goes from this a minor to, uh, g major. Okay, so second court is a G major. So now I can do this. Cool chord progression. So here's my a minor, the AARP educator. Two sets of random notes. We'll switch cords back. So you get this this ah, lot of motion out of a single cord, right? It's very useful trick for just adding ah, layers and intensity into your track just by using the AARP educator. That's a trick I like to do a lot of time. Um, great. So that's our appreciator. It's fairly simple to use. Just remember the style, how you want it to work and the rate are the two most important things. Rate is our speed, and it's set to 16th notes. Unless we Turner. It's set to divisions of the beat unless we turn the sink off. And then it's just gonna be milliseconds just really hard to make musically interesting. It just turns in a mud really fast. But if you're doing something more ambient and might be better for you, that's the AARP educator. Great, Let's go on and look at the cord. Many effect next. 5. Chord: Okay, let's look at the cord midi effect. So I'm gonna throw that on here. I still have my violin section and stay in the violin section. It was a little more enjoyable to listen to than the other one. So, um so here's what I've got Here is what it looks like. It looks like it's totally disabled right when you load it up. But hold on to that for just second. Not gonna do one more thing just to make sure that this is easier for us to hear instead of these three notes going to go down to just one note. So here's just the note I have and I'm gonna disable. I'm gonna turn off the cord. Many effect for the second, and so we can hear What? God. So here's what we've got to single. No, no arpeggio Gator. Okay, so what? The court does fairly simple, actually. All it does is add more notes on top. Right? So Ah, that note that we're playing is a What is Ah, a. So what I could do here is if I want to add another note on top of it, let's add. Ah, see, I could go plus one plus two plus three. Right, Because a one higher than A is gonna be a sharp one. Higher than that is gonna be be. That's 21 higher than that is gonna be. See, that's three. So you just count up half steps. So now I'm gonna have to notes, right. If I want to add another note, let's add that right? Had another note? No, no. And I can keep adding notes that way. Take that one note and turn it into a chord based on what I'm defining here, that we could go to our presets here and look at some various chords that they have set up for us. Jazz for dummies. That's kind of fun. Ah, and remember that it's always going to transpose. So if I did this, let's do what I did before and make another note. This one a g right right is gonna keep transposing when we change the pitch, it's gonna everything's relative to the picture giving it so it the notes are all going to change, but they're all gonna add these extra notes. So what I'm hearing now is for every note that I play in my keyboard. I'm actually hearing five notes because I hear the one that the MIDI track is playing. Plus these four. So don't forget about that original pitch that's in there. No, this is also why we might not want to give it a full chord. Right? Let's do that. So here is my initial triad. If I give that to it now, it's going to transpose all three of these notes. It's gonna add all of this stuff. It's gonna add four notes to each note in there, and I'm gonna end up with his giant cord. Right? So this works better on individual pitches. Um, now that's cool. So we can turn a pitch into a accord right with the cord midi effect. Pretty simple. Pretty great. What if I wanted to do something a little more interesting with it? Let's go back to my individual note. Theo s. So now I'm just giving it one note, and it's turning it into this big chord with the cord. Many effect. Now let's have some fun with it by also adding an arpeggio later, right? So check it out, goes in. My single note comes in here, gets turned into a cord. And then that chord gets handed to the arpeggio Gator, which is gonna play it one note at a time and then that gets passed to the violent section , make it a little more interesting. So now I could change what pitches are happening. So I can basically change the core just by tuning the court settings here. So now I've added and too many effects, right? And that's okay. Um, what if I switch the order? What's gonna happen now? Right. Why is that happening? Let's let's file or let's trace our path here. So a single note is up here. Single note is going into the arpeggio later. They are predators. He's one note and it's gonna play that no one at a time according to its rhythm. And that's only one note. So it's gonna output Dinging, ding, ding, ding, ding, ding, ding ding a single note over and over and over because only got one note to choose from that's going to go into the court, which is gonna take that single note and make it into accord, which is gonna make us just hear the same court over and over and over and over. Right? So the order matters here. This is going to be more interesting. Right? Great. So now we have too many effects that we know, and we know a cool way to use them together. Right? So let's talk about the MIDI effect rack. Next, right? It's next in our list. We know, too. So I might as well use it. We've looked at audio effects racks. We looked at instrument racks, so let's see what we could do with a midi effect rack. 6. MIDI Effect Rack: Okay, let's look at our MIDI effects rack. So I'm starting off here where I just left off. So I've got a cord being made, so I'm giving it a single pitch. There's my single pitch. It's in a and my So we're turning it into a chord here. And we're using the AARP educator here to separate out that cord and play each note one by one. So that gives us that right. Now, let's use a MIDI effects rack. So we've got one here, and we've got a couple of settings here. We've got our pressure gators chance or appreciate er's scale drivers things like that. But let's make our own. So I'm gonna turn these into Iraq. So I'm gonna do is I'm gonna select them both and then command G that turns these two effects into a MIDI effects rack. Right? So there, in this little case now, So now we can pretty much do everything that we could do in, um, the audio effects rack. Ah, which oh, maybe we haven't looked at the audio effects rack yet. Actually, we've looked at instrument racks. Um, but we're gonna look at audio effects racks shortly when we go start going throughout all the audio effects. But for now, um, it works the same as, uh, an instrument rack. Pretty much so. We've got a chain on that chain. We've got both these two effects. Let's make another chain. But I'm just gonna control click down here and say Create chain And in this one. So this chain has both the cord and arpeggio later, so it should sound the same, right? But it's also playing through this one which doesn't have anything. So it's just out putting, as is the single note. So let's put in this one. Um, the cord. Let's put a chord here without the arpeggio later. So let's make the settings the same here. So plus three plus two plus five. Three Teoh five. What was the last one? Seven seven. Okay, so now I have the same cord, but no. Are Pesci ater on the 2nd 1? Right? So what could I do with this now that I have it in a rack? I can do all kinds of fun stuff I can control. Which chain we here by any of these things up here. So, by key, by what key we play, I could say when we play Ah, Loki don't are appreciate When we say play a high ki add the are appreciator That's what that's gonna dio or I could say in between cross fade our Pesci ator That's what that's gonna dio, right? So we're right in the middle here so we're hearing a little bit of no arpeggio Gator. That's pretty cool. That's pretty cool effect. Ah, let me turn that off for now. So let's make those both full and look at a different one. We could use the velocities. So when I play a high velocity Newr appreciate er I play a low velocity used the arpeggio gator and cross fade between. So here I'm all blasting at new or appreciator because I entered these notes This one note manually and it's only one no, and I'm not changing the velocity. It also it's all going to just stay right where it is because the AARP agitators gonna keep the same velocity unless I use a velocity midi effect, which is right here, and we'll get to it eventually. Um, let's try the chain. So the chain selector we saw this before. Let's stretch that out almost all the way. Let's make that half. So when So remember, the chain selector is just this orange thing and I can map this toe en enough So when I say this knob is halfway be turn on the arpeggio air Turn off the arpeggio eater Okay, so when this knob is down here, we've got arpeggio Gator on an cord on when it's up here. We've got no arpeggio later on and when we're in here, we're gonna be cross fading. Let's try it. What did I do? I left this on and I didn't think that There we go. Okay, moving up. So there's a lot of interesting stuff you can do there. We can also assign Macron's that we could also do when we looked at the instrument racks. So you know, different things we could add, Um, you know, the rhythm, the speed of our appreciator. It's at 1/16 note right now, but I can easily just control click on it laughter macro one and set that wherever I want and do it. I remember that. So that's our midi affect racks for familiar with instrument rack. It should be no surprise um everything works about the same, except we're using MIDI effects. When we start doing audio effects, you're going to see how we could do a lot of the same stuff. But we can build these really complicated and really dense audio effects, so it's pretty powerful stuff, so hold on to that till we get there. But know that the media effect can be really cool to just jazz up your harmony and do whatever you want a deal to make it all the more interesting. 7. Note Length: Okay, let's talk about the note length midi effect. Now, this is again just what it sounds like. Um, not terribly complicated. What this is going to do is it's gonna make our note duration longer or shorter. Um, which Ah, good use of this. Probably one of the better uses of this is if you have a lot of midi notes and you want Teoh, shorten them all at once. So I've opened up another track here. This is Ah, just a piano piece of mine that I'm working on. And here you can see, I've got ah pretty dense section with several different note lengths right now, if I had a situation where I just wanted to make these notes shorter, the easiest way to do it would just be to drag him shorter like that. But if I had a situation where I wanted to make all of these notes be the same duration and not have to go through and nudge everything around one by one, um then the note length midi effect would be really handy. So here's what I've got. Ah, so let's add the note length and now all the notes on this track are going to be the same middling, right? So that's just right out of the box. It's gonna make him all the same length. Now, if I go down here and look at some of my settings, I could do a little bit more with it. Um, I can shorten them all even more like I'm really, really short e really long thing. And then I can use this gate parameter to adjust a little more flexibility. That's basically what note length does. We've got a couple settings here. We can change from looking at no time, Teoh looking at rhythmic duration so I can set it. Teoh 1 64th Notes are really long. So the sink mode is just gonna change between time and our milliseconds and divisions of the beat. Ah, we can also send it to be the note off, which is like the end of the note to these things where we're setting how long that is, which is more a function of an envelope in our synthesizer. Right? That's gonna be this the release stuff. Um, so that's where we get decay time and things like that. Release velocity most of the time though. When we're using this, it's to note on and it's just a shortened all of our note length. Ah, little bit. Right, um, so kind of unify. Ah, whole chunk of midi notes to be the same rhythmic value. It's really useful for that. So that's it. Pretty simple. One. Let's move on and look at the pitch 11 of my more favorite ones. 8. Pitch: Okay, let's look at the pitch. Midi effect. Another really simple one. This one has, like one now, so I'm gonna load it into my same piano riff. Here. Here's my pitch. In fact, pretty simple, right? It's a transpose. Er it's going to add a certain amount of notes to what we give it. Not unlike the cord one. Except this is for everything. Eso let me turn it off here and now we're not gonna hear anything because my transposition is at zero steps, right? Sounds the same. But I could move it up. Let's make it two steps higher. You know, all my notes are going to be two steps higher, right? So here's where this is fun. If you want to make something really crazy, I can automate this clicking on the parameter. Make a point. I don't know here and then another point here and now we've got some crazy automation happening here, right? So you can do some pretty fun stuff. Here, combine this with ah, in our appreciator. Maybe. Ah, this random one that we're gonna look at next and you're having some fun and making some weird stuff really fun. Really fast So if you like making weird stuff, this one's great. Um, or if you just have a whole section of stuff that you want to move up in active down, inactive, and you don't want to go through and adjust all your midi notes. This conceive you the time by just throwing this in ad plus 12 and you'll be up inactive 24 b two octaves. So it could be really handy for that. Okay, let's look at random. 9. Random: Okay, let's talk about random. So for this, I switched over to something. Ah, a little bit easier for us to hear. I've got an operator and it's just playing 4/4 notes like this. No. Okay, so let's just throw the default on here. So here's what we're looking at. Um, first of all, let's look at this plus zero minus. This is just gonna show us whether or not it's moving the pitch up or down. Or not at all. It's on zero. It's not moving the pitch it all right, cause we're just hearing it. Toe weighted plus means it's moving the pitch up minus music me and that's willing to pitch down. Chance is the probability. Remember, this is random, so the probability that it's gonna pick a different pitch. So right now it's at zero. We move this up, let's moving around 50 40. Now we've got a 50 50 chance it's gonna do either the original bitch or a different pitch, and in this case, it's always gonna be up because sign down here, I can either say take the random pitch that it's chosen and add it to the given pitch or I can say Subtract it from the given pitch. Or I can say both basically randomly decide. So if I say buy, it's gonna go up or down by this choices thing. Okay, so this choices in scale thing is a little confusing. Basically, right now, I've got a 49% chance that it's going to choose a new pitch, right? If it does choose a new pitch, it's going to randomly choose a number between one and 12 in this case, depending on what this is set to one in 12. And then it's gonna multiply that by this scale number, okay? And then it's gonna add the result to our initial pitch. Okay, So since this is set to one, that means it's going to be a random number between one and 12 that's gonna get added or subtracted toe our pitch. If I want it to be more extreme. Move this, Teoh. Now I'm gonna get some higher notes and some lower notes than before you move this all the way up just to start crazy stuff, right? So that it sounds less interesting in this context. But what if I just did What if I did this. Let's do that. And then let's do this back down, t o turn our chance up toe. Now, that's pretty cool sounding to me. It's got some kind of sixties bleeps and bloops sound to it. But, um, let's think about a more practical use for that. I can think of one really quick would be. What if I had this set to drums? Right, Um, if I controlled this pretty well and got this tuned in exactly how I wanted it and then added it as a second layer to a drum kit, um, you would get a lot of, like, really aggressive break stuff, like, kind of crazily. And you could render that as the audio track after you recorded it a little bit of it and then edit it and get some really cool breaks that way, Um, or just beats that way, s so it can be really fun for just generating ah, whole bunch of stuff. So check it out. Um, try it on a drum track. I think you'll like it 10. Scale: Okay, Only two more. Let's talk about scale. This is a really fun one for generating ideas to me. I use this one a lot. Um, and, uh, it could be really fun. For just like, you know, you need a new kind of sound in a track you want to organize. The pitch is a little bit different to get a different feel. Um, this is a good way to just kind of bang it into another scale. So here's what we can do. Um, I've changed my midi, uh, clip here just to be a major skill way just so we can hear that nice and clean. We've got a nice major scale. Now, let's look at the scale. I'm gonna load up the default. No. Here's what we're looking at. Um, we're looking at a note comes in. And what the scale object or the scale midi effect is going to output right In this case. Ah, when a C comes in, a c goes out when a c sharp comes in, a C sharp goes out when a d comes in a d goes out. Okay, so the end is the out in this case, so no change the way we could see the notes coming in. And now let's say when a D comes in, that's this one. Ah, we want a e to come out. So now every time a D is played ah, it's gonna go into this effect and it's gonna say Nope. And it's gonna make it being e and then shoot it out. That means we can change the entire key. Or if you follow music theory more basically, what that means is that we can alter the mode on the fly with this thing. So let's look at some of the presets here because there's a lot of them. If you have a push controller, these should be familiar to you because you've probably seen a lot of these here. So let's say, um, see, majors, what we've got now let's take our major scale and turn it into a minor scale, right? So now every time a d happens, it's still a D. But every time an E happens, it's an e flat, right? That would be an E. That's any flat. So now we're forcing our major scale into the shape of a minor scale. This is very much like putting a square peg in a round hole except with a lot of force and turning that square peg into a round hole. Um, that's how this works. So we can say, Let's do, um, a gypsy scale through a lot of really fun scales that you should explore if you haven't Hungarian Gypsy scale, Slightly different E 00 I don't know. Fridge in this fun. They're slightly different, the whole tone, one of my favorites. So you can basically take a whole piece of music and say, OK, this is now in a different key. Let me try it on, um, this piano thing that I was showing him a second ago Let's cue that up quick. Okay, Where did I have looped? Doesn't matter. Let's say this, okay, lets to say that's pretty chromatic. So let's just say that's no in F major. So now it's an F major. Now, this is an interesting one to point out here. Um, this is just a major pattern, but this base is now set to F B A S E not B A s s so that the root is basically now set toe f so it's gonna basically feel like I made a major scale thing. So check this out. This works really well for my kind of music because I like to do ah pattern of something for a couple times and then switch to the mode of it. That's like switching the scale that it's in, basically, so I might do this. We turn this off. It's got this chromatic feel. Teoh. Time that switch it. I'm gonna drop in to see Major. Not too different there. Let's go, blue scales. So remember that it doesn't really matter what octave you're in. If if you say a D is now an E flat than every D that comes in gets smashed into any flat. So this could be really valuable, um, to show to basically just change the entire feel of a pattern. Cool. So check out that one. It's it's a little hard to wrap your head around sometimes because it's it's a pretty dense one, and the this grid graphic can be really confusing. But once you work with it a little bit, you'll start to see it. Just remember that a diagonal all the way across means what comes in What comes out is what comes out. So like that means totally unaffected. So play around with that one. It takes a little bit to understand. 11. Velocity: Okay, let's look at the velocity. Many effect. The last one in our series of many effects. We've actually looked at the velocity Midi effect really briefly in previous classes. But let's look at it again. So I'm still on my piano groove here. Let's add velocity to it. So here's what I can do is velocity. I can push it or I can pull it or I can randomize It s so I can say make it more aggressive . Basically works as a compressor kind of a thing. Um so as it comes in in different ways, don't let the highs out. Don't let the lows out right? And all of that is great and interesting. But what's much more interesting to me is the randomised function. So let's put this all back to where it was more or less. Okay, here's my randomize things. So this is especially useful and a piece like this where it's totally piano, and I'm kind of trying to make it sound like it's a really pianist real pianist is not gonna play perfect velocities. So what I want to do is randomized. I'm just a little bit so I'm gonna push this up. See how that line becomes really blurry. Let's go extremes you really owe. So some notes are really loud. Someone's really quiet. If I do something around here, gives it a much more natural feel. Just saying the velocity is going to be somewhere in this great area and it's gonna kind of add this light amount of random ization, which can be really fun now. When we looked at this before, what we did was we mapped the velocity to a parameter down here. So what we did before was we In our instrument, we set the velocity of something to be entirely dependent on, um, a randomized velocity. So we got really interesting rhythm effects by doing that and percussion effects by doing that with, like, a high hat or something like that. So there's a lot of benefits to that cool. So those are our many effects. They're relatively simple. And when we come to audio effects, the audio effects could be a little more complicated because we have frequencies and stuff rolling around. And remember, many effects are just manipulating data in different ways, right? So our pitches are velocities are note lengths, um, adding pitches, removing pitches, random izing pitches, things like that. So that's really all. We have the ability to do with many effects, but you can do some really important things with them, and they can be really fun to experiment with, so play around with those hasn't fun with it. 12. Three Types Of Effects: Okay, So the next thing we need to do is talk about our audio effects. Don't. I'm gonna try to go through every single one of these and tell you how each one works. Ah, and for a couple of, um, some tricks that I like for using them now, some of them going to spend more time on than others. Um, somewhere just quick And like, you know, it does a relatively simple thing. Uh, and some of them, even the more complicated ones I'm not going to go into, um, an insane amount of detail in each one of these. I could probably make a whole class devoted to some of the effects, like a compressor. You know, like, there could be a whole class on how to use a compressor because there are different styles of using it and all this other stuff. I'm not gonna get it all that I'm gonna talk about how ah, when you put one of these things on an audio track, what it does Ah, and how it sounds. So each one of these videos, there's gonna be a ton of them going through each one of these, and I don't want to make him an hour long each so, ah, little bit surface level. But not really, because we're going to talk about every single one of these. So we'll see how it goes. Now, that being said, um, I'm gonna organize these into four groups. I'm not gonna go in order alphabetically like I did for the MIDI effects, because the media effects kind of worked out that way to where it was a logical way to do it for the audio effects. There's a much more logical way to do it. I've rearranged some of them in a different order so that ah, it'll make more sense. Um, as we go to him, just trust me on that. But the four big categories that we're going to talk about, um are the three of them are the big categories that we often used to talk about audio effects, and these would be good to get in your head. Um, they are, uh, time based effects, frequency based effects and dynamic effects. So what that means is a time based effects is something like delay, right? It adds time. It extends time onto the sound that we give it it adds more time to it, right? Like a delay. Frequency effect would be something like an equalizer, right? It changes the frequencies that are in the audio that we're hearing. It's a frequency effect. Um, a dynamic effect. It will be something like compression would be a dynamic effect. But, um, just changing the volume of something dynamic is a fancy way of saying the volume. So things that adjust the volume of our sound right, So those are the three basic kinds of effects, there are a couple effects that that can do double duty. Um, and there are a couple of effects that are just weird. And but even when they're just weird, they tend to be, ah, frequency effect mostly, or a dynamic effect, mostly. So I'm going to categorize those as they come, so all of our effects fall into one of those three categories. Now, I've added 1/4 category here, which I'm just calling other things like this utility plug in. This is like, Ah, technically, it could fit into one of those three categories, But, um, there are a couple that I call just other like a tuner, right? There's a tuner It's actually kind of not really in effect, but kind of So we're gonna put it in there. Technically, it tells us something about the frequency, but it's more of, ah, more of a utility than anything else in this utility. One is obviously utility, so we'll talk about those later. Um, don't worry about those for now. They're they're all fairly easy. Um, so those are three big categories. Now we're getting it started with time based effects, so those are the ones we're going to dive into. First, we're gonna go through all of this and find our time based effects, and I'm going to start going through them in the list of the next out of No. 10 videos. Or so after that, we'll do frequency based effects. And then, after that, dynamic based effects dynamics are sometimes ah, the hardest ones. Understand? They're a little more abstract, so the time based ones are usually fairly transparent on how they're working. Like you put a sound in, you hear two sounds out. You know it's adding time, so let's dive into those first. Here we go 13. What Are Time Based Effects: Okay, so it's quick talk about time based effects before we dive into all of them. So I have queued up here, just little Drumlin, turn it down a little bit. We'll just keep going because it's nice. Zambian citing. So what we've got here? Let's look at a simple delay. Actually, I'm gonna turn that off because it's kind of annoying to talk over. Okay, so a simple delay, I'll turn it back on in a minute. Um, I think you one of those up, and I'm gonna go over each of these effects shortly in their own video. I just kind of wanna talk big picture for a minute here. So a delay, Right. That's a time based effect. It adds time, right? Right now we're adding more time to it, right? So it's a time based effect. Now that's the obvious one. Now there are less obvious things, and I just want to point out some of them really quick just to make sure that we're all on the same page here. About what a time based effect is that one. A simple delay adds kind of a lot of time. What if we had one? That added just a teensy tiny bit of time. That would be a reverb. So reverb is basically a time based effect. It's just adding very, very, very, very small amounts of delay. That's what this early reflection means. Kind of early reflection. Means like, Ah, imagine the sound hits the wall and bounces back right away. Um, or it goes behind the mic or something like that. Um, so even so, it if you think, is this one a time based effect or not, although it doesn't feel like it's a time based effect. Think about the alternatives. Is it affecting the frequency? Not really that free. If we put a pitch in to this, the pitch we get out is gonna be the same pitch. Just gonna be have more reverb on it is a dynamic effect. Isn't making it louder or quieter? Not really. Right. It's It's still the same volume going is it is going out. Look here, right? It's not really doing anything to the volume, so that means it's probably a time based effect. Um, river makes it sound farther away, but it does that by very, very, very, very, very short delay amounts basically we, we give them slightly different names, but, ah, that's how reverb works. So ah, remember, that's not all. Effects is it's so transparent that their time effects or frequency effects or delay effects or, ah, dynamic effects think about the bigger picture. What could what bucket do they fit best into, I guess, is what I'm trying to say and when we get really interesting is when we start to combine different effect types like a dynamic effect with a time based effect and things like that , um, and and making really expressive effects that way by having multiple kinds of effects in there, we'll get to that later. Um, for now, just quickly review 10,000 foot view of what we're talking about when we talk about time based effects. Now, that being said, let's dive in and look, it's, um, detail into our simple delay here 14. Simple Delay: Okay, so we've got the same drum live going here, right? No problem. No. Let's add our simple delay under this bad boy. So I've got a simple delay here, and I just put the default on here. So let's walk through our settings really quick. We know what a simple delay's gonna do, right? Cause it's right in the name. It's a delay, and it's a fairly simple one. That's why we call it a simple delay, so it's gonna add a delay to it. Um, now, the most important thing to find when you're looking at a delay effect is the dry, wet mix, right? Other than I guess, the time amount of the delay is important, too, but the dry, wet mixes easily misunderstood. So here's what this means. It's at 50% right now, all the way to the left is dry. That means all we're going to hear is the dry signal. The dry signal is with no effect on it. So right now, even though the delay is on, I'm not gonna hear it. No delay, because we're on Lee. Hearing dry all the way wet means we're not going to hear the dry signal at all? No, let's think about that for a second. What that means is that our initial signal we're not going to hear it. We're only gonna hear the delay of that signal means if I set so right here. I have a setting for the delay Time of the left channel and the right channel if I set him to be the same. And then I launched that clip. It sounds the same, right, Theo? Only difference is that it started a little bit later, right? You heard me started, and then it comes in. So here. I'm gonna start it right now, right? It's late because we're not hearing the initial were on Lee here in the hearing. The delay. So that's weird. Um, that is often not what we want to do, but it is also the exact correct thing to do in some situations. So, uh, for our situation right now, I'm gonna walk you through that other situation just second. But for our situation right now, where we've got this delay on a track, we want to hear some dry in some wet, and we might want to hear more of the initial and have the delayed sound be kind of quiet. That would be somewhere around here. Now we just got a little echo of it or we might want to hear a lot of it for just straight up right in the middle. So watch out for that dry, wet mix. Now I'm going to talk about the case where we want it all the way wet in just a second. I'll get to that in a minute, but let me walk through the timing that we have here. So what we have here is a number of 16th notes after the beat. So 1/16 note later to 16th notes later. 34568 and 16. Those are options. So 1/16 note later is going to be a single 16th delay, which is really quick, right? Instead, it really right after the other to 16th notes is gonna be an eighth note. Three is gonna be a daughter date Note. Four is gonna be 1/4 now, So if you want something that kind of feels like it's got a little shuffle to it, little off the beat stuff, you want probably one or three. Um, because two is gonna be an eighth note and four is gonna be 1/4 note. Um, we can also hit the sync button and just dial in milliseconds if we want. Um, now we have control for left and right channels independently, which can be fun. Let's do two and three, right? So the left and right channel are separate. If we want to simplify our life, we can hit this link button and now left and right are always the same. It doesn't even give me choices for, ah, the right channel. It's basically the right channel, muted because it's not muted. That's wrong word. Ah, it's disabled because the left and right channel are gonna be the same. Uh, and then we have our dry, wet mix. Now, Ah, we also have feedback. You can think about feedback as running the delay signal back into the delay signal. So it's going to get delayed more and more and more and more and more as it goes back. So let's do something relatively simple. Let's set it to to 16th notes. So in eighth, note left and right linked. I drive what mics 50% and I'm gonna turn off the feedback kind of a lot. So it's like building on itself, because the feedback are the delayed signal is being delayed again and again and again and again, right? If you do it 100% and then just Oh, actually, if you do it 100% it's gonna feed back 100% every time. It's gonna get louder and louder and louder. And then eventually computers gonna explode. Which is why it won't let us go to 100%. It needs to make each loop through the feedback a tiny bit quieter so that it doesn't build on itself. This will be a lot, So feedback can be fun to play with. It can also be dangerous and tricky. Okay, Now, let me tell you about. So that's the simple delay. Ah, effect. Now, let me tell you about a case where you'd want the wet mix all the way up, often times with time based effects. What we do is we don't put them right on the channel. Here. We put him on a bus right here. So this is a send over into these two channels. Okay, so I'm gonna do it. I'm gonna get rid of this channel or I'm gonna get rid of this effect. So now I have my normal drumbeats. Nothing on it. Now, by default, able to nine gives you a delay. A simple delay on ah effects send be. So all I have to do is turn this up and then I'm sending to this channel something. Just mute it so I can show you what's happening here. So by turning this up, I'm sending the signal out to the output. But also to hear right and on this be I have a simple delaet. So a lot of the time, this is just a better way to organize our sound. So if I turn this on, I want in this case because I'm sending this signal over there. I want this dry, wet mix all the way up because I'm getting the dry from the track here. So here I want Onley wet, because what that means is that this volume right here for my son, this is now essentially my dry, wet mix, right? Turn it all the way up. I get a lot of wet. I turned all the way down. I get only dry. Another benefit to doing this is that if I have a ton of different tracks and a ton of different clips on the track, I want to be sure they all have the same delay. I just do that now. They're all have the same delay, and I don't have to go in and futz with the delay. Everything's gonna be in sync. It's not gonna get to money. Now. The biggest reason for doing this is because it keeps our dry signal nice and crisp. Um, it doesn't get muddied up by the wet signal because we still have that dry coming right through here without any alterations to it. So, um, that's a case where you'd want to do that. And so you can always put in effect on Ascend here. You can always make a new send. Ah, insert return track. That's what you'd want to do and make one just like that. So just control, click somewhere. Insert return track. Ah, and now return. See is here. And I have a see now that just came up here. If I delete that my return goes away, Um, by default, you're gonna have a reverb on a and a delay on B. You get rid of those if you want. Um, but they're there. So if you just crank up, be you've got a symbol delay happening. Cool. So and you could add more to be If you want, you can make a big custom effect here. You can do whatever you want. So those are cases where you'd want the dry, wet mix all the way up. Um, on the send their and the return truck. Great. Let's look at another one. 15. Ping Pong Delay: Okay, let's move on and talk about the ping Pong delay. Another kind of delay, but this one has a little special feature in it. So here's ping Pong delay gonna load one up right there. So, uh, I'm gonna turn it off and remind you what I have in my track. Okay? Just the same drumbeat. Sooner or later, I'm gonna switches to a different drum beat or a different sound or something, cause ah, I don't know how long I can handle just this one simple little beat. But it works for now, so I can turn this on and have a look at it. So this part right here should be pretty familiar, right? So that's how Maney 16th notes were going to delay. We've got fade feedback and a dry, wet right Ah, sink or just dialing in milliseconds. When were sink means used? These buttons and time means use the just time. So down here everything is pretty familiar. Right up. Here's what's different. All we really have here. It's fairly simple. Actually. All we really have is a band pass filter, and then a delay. So what that means is that we haven't talked about accuse yet. Um, but a band pass filter is a type of filter, which means that it's pulling frequencies away, right? So this is one of those effects. That's kind of could be two different things. It's primarily a delay, though, Um, because that's its biggest function. Um, so it could fit into the frequency based effects. But, uh, I'm gonna show you why. I think it's time based effect. So, um, what a band pass filter does is it picks a certain band and let's just call that a range of frequencies and let's those through and it throws away everything else. So the way I've got it set up now, if the over here on the left side of this graph imagine that's our lowest frequencies on the right, that's imagine, that's our highest frequencies and vertically. Imagine this is quiet at the bottom and loud at the top. So what that means is that on Lee, the stuff in the middle is going to get through the rest of the stuff. The volume is being pulled all the way down, right? I could do this, and now only the stuff at the top is going to get through right. Everything else is gonna be pulled down. Now, here's why. That's kind of interesting because, um well, let me just do it. I'm gonna turn my wet all the way up, so we're only hearing the effect. Okay, let's set this to an eighth note here, get a little bit more. Okay, So now all we're doing is delaying the really high stuff. That's all we're hearing right now. I've got a good amount of feedback on here, so we're gonna hear it a couple times every time it delays. If you really want to hear the feedback more, set it to an odd number because it will be a symmetrical. Um Okay, so now we're just hearing that high stuff. But remember that what this is doing is it's not filtering out the signal. It's on Lee taking that filtered chunk and using it for the delay. So if I pull the dry back in its unfiltered So now what I've got is a drumbeat. All the frequency of the drumbeat. No effect on it. But the high frequencies I'm taking and I'm adding a delay toe Only the high frequencies Onley this stuff, get it so we can hear it pretty well. There we go. Okay, so that's pretty cool. Basically, I'm essentially adding a delay to my high hats and my really high frequency stuff. I put right in the middle, right? This is what we're doing. This is what we're getting. And I go all the way dry that Let's try putting on the low end just on our kicks right now . Just my kicks are delayed. That's gonna get kind of out of control pretty fast. So, um, one thing I want to point out here that you might notice is as I pulled down towards the dry signal, we get a little bit louder, like we're getting more and more volume as we get louder or as we get dry. And that is one of the reasons that this would be another good one to put over on a return track because we don't really have that problem. If we set this all the way dry and put it on, it's gonna put it on my delay track here. So amounts I'm on return b, going to get rid of my simple delay and just have the ping pong delay set the dry, wet set all the way wet. Now I'm gonna play it. Send some to be I'm sending the kicks there again. Let's do this stuff. Here we go. All right, so now we have the delay happening. But as I go as I pull the delay in and out, I don't lose any volumes in my dry six, right? I'm just adding that to it. So that's one of the main reasons, as I explained in the previous thing. But in the previous video, But, ah, after I recorded, I thought it didn't explain that really well, So, um, that's one of the advantages. Probably one of the biggest advantages of putting these time based effects on a return track is that you can get that really clean signal Ah, in your main track by adding it after the fact. So So that's our ping pong delay. Cool. Uh, let's move on and talk about another kind of delay 16. Filter Delay: okay, up next. Let's talk about the filter delay. So we've looked at a couple different delays, and this one is kind of like the last one, except a little more supercharged. We're gonna call this a multi band delay where we've got. So in the previous one, we had one of these, right? We had one band pass filter, and then it went into a delay. Right now we've got three of them. So what's there are a couple other things that are different about this one. So I'm gonna turn off the filter right now, all we have is a what we would call like in the old days, or we would have called a three tap delay. So basically, what that means is we've got three different delays that weaken set to be three different things. So if I went tap, it would go tap, tap, tap, tap that I would hear it three more times. In addition, my ritual, depending on how my settings were, so I can set my delay time using the 16th notes if I like, um, let's set him to be right in a row here. So 12 and three. So I should here dead at at, uh, right like I should here for my initial and then for And in fact, let's make this will even a little more obvious by it's going to go to my like these, like, built in clips here and just see if I can find Ah, just actually that word. What I'm looking for here is I just want a single sound. So I'm gonna do that. I'm gonna tell it. Not toe loop. So all here. Is that do right? There we go. So Okay, now we're hearing a lot more than four because my feedback for each one is on various levels right now. You're a decade ago, so I also have panning control with these. So the top one by default is panned left middle one center and, ah, bottom one, right. I could change those That could make him less extreme. I could do whatever I wanted with it, right. And that click we're hearing at the end is probably because of that. Let's shorten that. Just a hair to keep it clean. Here we go. And we have a volume for each one Now. This is a little bit different than before, right? Because you'll notice my dry, wet knob Here is not a dry, wet knob. It's a dry knob, right, It's on Lee showing me the dry. So what that means is that this is how much Dr Signal I'm gonna here. And this is how much of each delay I'm gonna here if that makes sense. So it's kind of like this is our dry signal. And this these are our wet signal volumes. So I could do is I could say I want to hear all dry and a little and kind of a lot of the top one less of the 2nd 1 and even less of the 3rd 1 That would be fairly typical so that it kind of has a fade out. Right? Cool. Now, in addition to all of that, we can turn on this band pass filter so we could say I want my lows to delay in a certain way my mids to delay in a certain way and my highest to delay in a certain way. Right? So now I've got three different delays happening for my three different areas. So let's try to solo these. So with these buttons. I'm turning off the the entire delay line. Right. So now all we're gonna here is this top one. So let me launch a loop. Okay, Let's meet this one to you so you can just hear what we're doing here. Can you turn that on? So there's this extra little thump in there. Put that one right about there. Let's put it right there. It's kind of cool. All right, Let's had our 2nd 1 like that a little bit higher. Now it's on the same delay amount, so let's change that one. It's kind of cool like that. Is that 1/3 1 for just the highs? That's your only that one for a second. That's really crank that one up. Okay, so basically, what we can do is we can adjust this filter toe only let through the frequencies we want. We can delay them independently of each other. We can set a certain amount of feedback for each one independently. We can pan them independently, and we can control their volume independently as basically three different delay lines. And then we've got a dry signal. So that's our filter delight. Um, basically ah, supercharged delay that we saw earlier. Um, other than that, the only thing that's different is the way it handles this dry, wet mix. But that's about it. So just think of that is building on the previous one. All right. Next, let's move on to the grain delay. A little weirder one. 17. Grain Delay: Okay, Next. Let's look at our grain delay. Now, this is one of those ones that lumping it into a time based effect could be inaccurate. I'm gonna do it for our purposes. Um, it is both the time and pitch effect eso frequency or time. Um, because it's a granular effect, and we're going to see a couple of these now, so this is kind of its own category of facts. It fits into one of our three categories, depending on what they're doing with the effect but granular effects. So let me just first explain what granular effects are Basically, what they are is they're relatively new. Um, it was for a long time, computing power just didn't have the juice to be able to do these kinds of effects. So, um, And when I started doing production stuff and sound design stuff, you could do granular effects, but not in real time. You had to, like, set up a process and then hit Go and then let it compute for, you know, overnight usually is what I did. And then you come back and listen to what you had. Um, so ah, it's probably in the last I don't know, six years or so that we can do it in real time. Ah, in programs like Live and others, eso basically what happens in a granular effect is imagine your sound goes through a paper shredder. That's basically what's happening. So the wave form goes into this paper shredder and chops it up into these. So instead of one audiophile, you've got many, many, many little tiny audiophiles like really tiny. This is a very high end paper shredder we're talking about here. So you've got all these little tiny audiophiles now. What can be done with all of those is that they can be rearranged. They could be overlapped. They can be, um, pulled apart. There's a lot of whole new effects that weaken Dio once we do that so we can run this thing through the paper shredder, get all these little tiny audiophiles do stuff to them, and then put it back together and end up with some kind of wild effects. The most important thing you can do with that is you that lets us adjust the pitch independently of the time so we can slow things down, Um, and keep it at pitch, and that's a granular ah, process. To do that as you know, able to live does that all the time under the hood. So this granular synthesis is built into able to live all over the place. So this effect is using that process, um, in to basically make a delay of the granular process. So let's have a look at it. So it's called a grain delay. Now, each one of those after you run the thing through the paper shredder and you have all these little tiny audiophiles. Each one of those is called a green Writes ahead. Sense granular effect is a whole bunch of grains, right? So a grain is a little tiny audiophile. What we're gonna do here is use ah, delay process to adjust both the ah Tambor the sound of the audio that's going into it and the pitch. Ah, by delaying and reordering to some extent, those grains cool. Okay, So, um, let's look at the actual effect now. Now that you know kind of the back end process of what's happening now, this one introduces this X Y coordinate thing, which I'll look at in a second. It's actually, um kind of unnecessary to really understanding the effect. The rial effect is this stuff here. Um, well, in and this stuff the this row of numbers. You know, this now, right? It's a delay, its settings for a delay. We can turn it off and just type in milliseconds if we want, or we can keep it on sink and be able to see Ah, the number of 16th notes that we're working with, right? So you know that already, um, up here are our settings. We have six settings here, so let's go through them. I'm gonna I'm gonna turn our dry wet down to about 50. So dry, wet. We know. Right? Um, that's a familiar one. Let's start with this frequency here. Now. Frequency is elusive. Basically, what this means is the size of our grains calling it frequency kind of makes sense if you really understand granular synthesis, but I don't want to go into that. Basically, this is the size of our grains. Uh, let's hear what it sounds like. So I have loaded up here. This sounds good on that. Sounds good in a lot of stuff, but just for, um, demonstration purposes, I have this singer here singing Ave Maria set some of these back to default. Okay, so I've got this delay on here, so it sounds pretty clean. It sounds just like a delay right now. Right? Let's listen to just the wet. Pretty normal. Now, let's turn this frequency up. Oh, okay. Not a lot. We can hear, right, cause we're not really doing anything to the grains. So typically, bigger grains are going to get us kind of wilder sound. But let's do something to them. So let's say let's hear a little bit of both. Okay, so now we've got just simple delay happening. We're hearing most of both. Let's turn up. This spray spray is going to be randomized green size essentially, so it's gonna add some random elements to it. All right, pitch is straight up pitch so we could add an octave in here by hitting 12. All right, sounds a little chipmunk e. Let's try negative 12 go down and active and let's add some random ization to that pitch. So now it's randomly in this area, and then let's add some feedback. We know what feedback is. It's gonna run it back into the grain delay a second and third and fourth time. Let's lower our pitch. We're sorry. Thank you less. It's just the wet. So we're now somewhat terrifying. Let's get rid of our pitch. I still have random pitch on here, but some of the dry back in so that wobbliness we here is a function of the grain size and also the spray because they're both kind of the grain size. Let's create this all the way up. That's large grain size. This is really small grain size. Okay, So and let me review that just one more time. So are six settings here. Frequency is the grain size spray is a random ization of the grain size pitch is add. Ah is a straight up transposition. Basically, um, randomized pitch will randomize the the pitch variable. Here, feedback is feedback. It's gonna run it back into it and give us more of the delay through feedback and then are dry wet mix. We don't and our delay settings down here. Now, let me talk about this grid thing. We're going to see this in ah, bunch of other effects. Um, the most important thing here is to realize that these buttons over here are related to this and not on off buttons for this. You could only have one of these selected at a time. Um, so if I hit pitch, rand pitch turns off. So these do not turn these settings on and off. That's something I see students do a lot of time. Um, so don't make that confusion. These air all on all the time if you want him off turning down zero. What these do What these buttons do is they set the vertical coordinate of this dot and these ones down here set the horizontal coordinate. Right. So let's say we want to control the frequency and the pitch right at the same time. What I can do is select frequency over here, pitch over here. And now I've got ah, frequency adjustment when I go up and down and a pitch adjustment when I go left and right , right. You can see that happening here. Pitch frequency. Right. So now we can kind of move this around and be really expressive with it. That's the whole point. If we wanted to do something different, let's say we want a dry, wet mix and feedback. We could do that right so you can see those moving here. When I go up and down, it's dry, wet. When I go left and right, it's feedback. Let's hear that. Let's do something more obvious. Pitch and frequency. Right now, a lot of controllers that you might work with will have, um, an X Y coordinate thing on here. If you work with any of the iPad controllers for a Bolton or, um, some of the physical ones Ah, they'll give you this kind of X y grid and you can map stuff to it like this. So it's handy for performance. But remember that, um, it's extraneous to our actual effect here. This is what we really care about. This is just a cool way to control this stuff, right? So don't let that could confuse you. So we're just setting what we want the X to be and what we want the y to be. Right. Um, So then the question is, what happens if we select pitch and pitch? No. It controls it both ways. Both X and Y moved the pitch, so you're kind of fighting with yourself. That would be silly. to do, but you can do it if you want. So frequency and pitch or whatever you want. Cool. So that's grain delay. It looks more complicated than it is. Um, and at the same time, it looks way less complicated than it actually is because all that grain stuff is actually very complicated stuff, but it's all hidden from you. Um, these are our settings that we really need. This X Y thing is just a cool way to control our actual settings, which are just these six things over here, maybe seven. If you want to count the Delay Length Corp great. 18. Chorus: Okay, Next up is our classic chorus effect. Um, now, if you're a guitar player, you've probably seen a chorus effect. It's built into a lot of amps. It's also a popular effect pedal. Um, so let's talk about what a chorus effect is real quick. Um, a chorus effect is a teeny tiny delay, Um, usually upwards of, you know, 10 to 20 milliseconds. So that's barely That's not audible as a delay, right? You're not going to hear that as two distinct things that's too fast. So the way we hear that the way we perceive it is as two signals happening at the same time , but kind of slightly out of phase from each other or not. But it's the wrong use of the word phase. Um, just slightly not perfectly together, I guess, is a good way to say it. Imagine this, Um, imagine Ah, two people singing. Ah, the same exact thing. Um, and no matter how perfect they sing, if they are humans, it's not going to sound like one loud person, right? It's going to sound like two people, and that's because of all those imperfections in those very, very, very minuscule delays Um, and that's a chorus effect. It's kind of like a chorus singing right. That's why we call it that. So, um, now there's one other element to a typical chorus effect, and that's what we have here. Is that that very tiny delay? We tend to ah, start moving it. Ah, and that gives us a little bit of motion in our sound. Right. So we've got a teeny, tiny delay and then we're gonna Ah, keep moving. What? That delay is to give us a little ah, change to the sound over time. Okay, let's look at our implementation of that in a Bolton. So basically, what I have here is here's how that x y thing again. Ah, well, look at that in just a second. Um, we have three kind of four things here. Let's say four. So first thing is, we have a high pass filter, and then we have to delay amounts, and then we have modulation for those delay amounts, and then we have our dry wet and our feedback control so we know what those are. So let's walk through those first. Ah, high pass delay. Our sorry. Ah, high pass filter. um, we're gonna talk more about you Accuse later. Ah, but I introduced you in the previous couple of effects to a band pass filter band pass filter lets certain bands or a certain area of frequencies through right and throws out everything else. What a high pass filter does, is it? Let's high stuff through and throws out the low stuff. Um, now that makes it sound a little different than it actually is, because by saying we're gonna let the high stuff through and throw out the low stuff that implies that all we're going to hear is high stuff in reality, the way you would use a high pass filter in this case, and the reason they included one here is that often we don't wanna put chorus effect on low stuff. So we're gonna put this fairly low, and we're just going to throw out in this case, I have it set to 192 hurts. So that means ah, 192 hertz and lower is going to get thrown out. That means most of our frequencies air going to come through. Um, I'm letting almost everything through. I'm just throwing out the really low stuff. So let's actually can I turn off? I don't think I could just turn off everything. Well, maybe I can, actually. Okay. My delays are all set to zero. My modulation is set to zero to turn that off just to be safe. And let's just here, just hear this beat. I'm on all the way wet. So let's hear what my, uh, high pass filters doing. So now I said it to be really high. Let's set it to 4000 hertz. Close enough. So now at 4000 hertz or four kilohertz. Um, so now all we're hearing is four kilohertz and higher. Everything below 40 kilohertz is getting thrown out. So our base is gone because it's a high pass filter. But if I want to hear everything, I said it down there below to below 20. Hertz is not We can't really hear that. So if I want to just get rid of the low, low stuff like those kicks right about there is where I lose the thumb Penis of that kick about their Okay, so now that's going Okay, So now that we're cruising on this, let's add one of these delays in here, so I'm just gonna push this up. It's gonna crank it up 20 milliseconds. We don't hear much of anything, right? Same reasons before. When we look at the simple delay, all we're hearing is the wet 20 millisecond delay by itself. You're gonna hear anything. We combine it with the two. Right now, it feels like two drummers playing imperfectly. Let's make him a little closer even. Remember this delay time? 6.7 milliseconds. That is impossibly fast. So it's so slight. Okay, so we're not modulating it yet, Remember? Actually, let's modulate it now and then. We'll talk about DeLay to in a second so I could use this X y coordinate. Or I could just dial in using the two boxes down here. That's all. This X Y thing is doing is it's letting me control both those at once. Let's crank that up. So I've got amount in rate rate is the speed of the modulation, which is basically going to make it go like this. It's not going to show us that, but on the actual interface here. But that's what it's doing, and the amount is how extreme it's doing it. So how much of it is doing it? So if the amount was really low, it's like this is gonna be going like that. And if the amount is really high, it's gonna be going like that, right? And speed is just how fast it does that. So let's crank that up and crank that up, Okay? Now, when we hear only the wet, we do hear a little something funny going on, right? Because of that modulation. Okay, let's add in our delay to delay to has three modes we can keep it off, which is what it's set to now fixed, which means that it is not gonna be affected by the modulation over here. It's just gonna sit where it sits or modulated, which means it is affected by the modulation over here, so I can set it to a different amount and still have it be modulated. I'm kind of digging that sound right now. Actually, case I've got to delays going. I've got a modulation amount in a rate I can go extremes by hitting this. Multiply the amount by 20 right? That's basically you're like, extreme sound effect. But let's see that offer Now, that's a few back in there. Okay, You hear my bass frequencies air getting really gnarly. So let's turn up a high pass. All right? We're getting too many because our amount is too high. Try changing polarity. Okay, let's pull some of our went back in. I guess that's kind of a cool sounds. Let's apply this to our singer and to see what happens now. You can really hear this rate slow that down. So we just slowed down the rate. Still doing it. But it just doing its slower right? Change the amount. Is that here? The wet? Try the extremes, Honor. Yeah. All right. So you get the point. We've got a high pass filter. We've got to delays. We're gonna modulate those delays so that they change Over time. You've got dry, wet and feedback. Great. So that is a chorus effect. 19. Flanger: So let's talk about the Flander. The Flander is related to chorus. It has a lot of similarities, but quite a bit different sound. So what? We've gotten a Flander basically, on a conceptual level is the Flanders gonna create two audio signals that air delayed and then we're going to modulate those against each other. And it's actually pretty similar to a phasing effect. Um, and are the the way that you end up hearing it is that in a Flander, you tend to hear that motion that we did with the chorus. You tend to hear that more extremely, um, in it. And it has this this kind of up and down feel to it all the time. And that is achieved with these LFO sections over here, which we'll talk about in just seconds. So let's walk through this. So we have a high pass filter again to get rid of our our low pass. Actually, that's just Let's just hear it right out of the box. Let me just load up a fresh one here, Flander. Turn it off. Here's my beat. Cancer years. I beat unaffected. And let's turn on the Flander. Yes. So you hear that rising and falling. Right. Okay, so here's our high pass filter. Same as before Are dry, wet mix were on all the way wet right now and our X Y coordinates. That's controlling the delay time and the feedback. So the delay times the amount of time those two signals are off from each other and the feedback is the amount to which we're gonna send it back in and create a feedback loop. The envelope affects our incoming signal. Ah, and how it's going to be treated for the flu and effect. So how it's gonna be adapted for use in the plan. Ah, and we've seen envelopes before, right? We've seen ah ah, lot of envelopes. If you took the synthesis class, you know how envelopes work Very well. So with this, we can adjust kind of fine tune the way that it's gonna be treating our, uh, signal as it goes into the flame defect. The meat and potatoes here off that kind of rising and falling is here in the LFO section. So what we've got is we've got the amount of the LFO in the shape of the LFO. This could be really fun to mess with. So again, if you took this in this class and remember LFO as well, it stands for low frequency oscillator. So this is a sine wave shape. So it's going smoothly up and down We did a square wave It's just gonna be all the way up All the way down All the way up All the way down right? Let's dio triangle suit This one is a saw tooth which is gonna ramp up You're always gonna hear it ramping up and etcetera. Let's go back to a sine wave rate is the speed of that ramp up. Let's turn it up So now it's going up and down very fast. It's a square wave Now it's only up and down. Go back to our sine wave and the phase Now the phases there's actually two lfo is going here on each of those two signals that were created in the phases basically going Teoh, uh, separate them apart. And if you set this to beat sink offset will also push them apart from each other now that setting it to a beat parameter can be really fun. Basically, I'm gonna set it to 1/4 note and a triangle crank up my amount. So now you've added a rhythm effect to it, Right? Because there's this new thing happening every quarter note based on the LFO amount and shape. So you get that off beat, feel to it, and we can control it with the X y to get some fine tuning in there if you want. But that is the Flanders, so it's very similar to the chorus, but also different in the result. The way that I think about the differences between Flander and choruses is that that ramping up and down sound is much more prominent in a Flander effect. Ah, you can make it more prominent in a chorus effect, but ah, it kind of lives more comfortably in a Flander effect. 20. Reverb: reverb. So we're gonna talk about reverb. Um, you probably know what reverb is. You've probably heard it before and added it to stuff. Um, but let's do a tiny bit of investigation and talk about what exactly reverb is. Here's wherever it imagine you are in. Ah, a room. Ah. And in that room. Imagine you're in a small room, right? Like any kind of small, like a bedroom or something like that. And there's You and a friend are in there, and you're standing on opposite sides of the room, and you want to tell your friend something very loudly. So what you're gonna do is you're gonna yell hey to your friend, right? You yell. Hey, you looked right at him and you yell it, um, or her, um, So the sound coming out of your mouth and aiming at your friend Ah, and going into your friends here, that is our direct signal. That is our dry signal. Let's call it right. It's going out of your mouth into that person's year. That's our dry signal is going from point A to point B. Direct but sound doesn't work that way. Um, in the in addition to the dry signal of your voice going directly into your friends here. That sound is also going all over the place. Ah, and think of it as traveling Onley in straight lines. So that sound is going down and hitting the floor in a straight line and then bouncing up into your friends here and when it gets to your friends year from that way, it took a little bit longer path. So it's going to get there a little bit later, like a teensy tiny bit later and a little bit less loud, right? A little bit quieter and a little bit later. Now, in addition to that, your voice is going. Teoh hit the walls on the side of the room and bounce off and eventually into your friends year. They might bounce off those sidewalls and then off the back of the room and then come back and hit your friend's ears from behind. So again, those are even going to be Ah, little bit later yet and a little bit quieter yet, So all of those sounds of the bouncing of the sound off the walls of the room are what make up. Ah, the sound of a room, right? And that's what we call reverb. It's the bouncing rounds of those sounds. Now, if you're in a recording studio, we put all this fancy stuff on the walls to make sure that, uh that is as limited as possible so that when those sound bounce and hit the walls, they don't bounce back. They just kind of get sucked up into this foamy stuff. I don't what we call this, but you know that foamy stuff, Um so that helps us eliminate reverb as much as possible, right? So when we apply reverb to something, what we can basically do is shape the space, make it feel like it's in a different space by adding though all those extra tiny delays to it, and simulating bouncing off all the walls and filling a space out. That's what reverb is. Okay, so let's look at our actual reverb here. So we have basically six areas here, but really kind of only four. Let's say for that sounds easier. Um, we have our input processing area, so basically, let's ah, fine tune what's coming into it right? And then we have our early reflections are global controls. And then this diffusion network. Now I was when I said six, I was gonna count chorus and these settings over here. But this is kind of all part of our diffusion network. That's really are Well, yeah, Let's let's get to that in a minute. So let's go with input processing first. So let's go with our drums here. Okay, So here's the river we have now. Sure enough. Right. So we've suddenly put this thing in a pretty big space. Let's go all the way wet with our reverb here. Down a little bit. So talk of it. Okay, so now we're hearing nothing but river. Right? Okay, so let's do a little filtering here, and let's take out some of the really low end is just for taste. Uh, okay. Now, pre delay, you can think of pre delay as like, in my example, before of you talking to your person in the room. That person is really the pre delay is kind of like the ah, the initial point A to point B. Right? So if I'm yelling at my friend and I'm in the same room, if that friend is one foot away from me pre delay is like, basically non existent. If I'm in a church and or a big cathedral and that friend is all the way on the other side of the cathedral, then pre delay might be a little bit significant, right? Because could take a while for my initial voice to get to them. So but most of the time, just in general, keep your pretty delay is pretty short. Um, in general, for musical purposes, unless you're doing some crazy sound is, I think keep it real. A pretty tiny okay. Early reflections, uh, in the metaphor that I'm using. Early reflections are like the first bounce backs the first bounces off the floor or whatever that get to the person, not the ones that get all trapped up on and make the big echoey. Sounds like most of what we're hearing right now. So ah, these convey very psychologically motivated. These early reflections can really start to tell your brain unconsciously, the kind of space were in in just a couple of milliseconds. So it is important to futz with these and, um, get them just how you want, Uh, global. Ah, basically, the quality and this quality is really going to come into play when we look at our CPU usage. If I go, Hi. You heard a little hiccup there. And then I saw my CPU monitor up in the top right corner here, Jump a couple notches. Um, and that's OK. I can leave it on high, however composite for a second. Um, if I'm gonna leave this on high, it's gonna eat up more, um, of my computer usage, which could slow me down. So that is another good reason why this would be a good effect to put on Ascend and a return track over here, right? Ah, which is what a Bolton does by default in live nine. We do have a reverb over on our return track by default. So there's a river here. Um, the reason for that, the reason it saved the CPU is that we can go to high here. We can send a whole bunch of tracks to it through the sends here, and then we won't. We're only using one river, So if you're doing a big session and you're gonna use a lot of reverb, that's a good way to save on CPU. It's also a great way to make sure you're using the same reverb. Um, you can experiment with using different kinds of rivers for different kinds of stuff in the same track. Um, however, if you're trying to emulate acoustic instruments, um, be really careful about that, because when our ear hears two different kinds of reverb Ah, things start to get confusing. It starts to sound like the recordings of the two instruments were made in two different spaces or something, and that might be true. But if that's true, you might want to hide that fact with the reverb. Emphasize it. So be careful about using different kinds of reverb. So for now, I'm gonna go back to my track here and just keep walking through this quickly. Okay? The diffusion network. We have decay time. We have the amount of time that are reverb is going to last. So this is kind of like the big bouncy stuff. Are we in a cathedral like this, or are we in a smaller space? Right, so big cathedral small space. This freeze function is kind of fun. It's not terribly useful for strict emulation of a river. What it's gonna do is basically, it's gonna hold on to the ringing sound whenever you hit it, you know, So it's not practical just to put on something, but for, ah, some compositional purposes and production purposes can be really fun because you could automate this turning on, like at a drop or something like that could be fun. Okay, then we have a chorus effect and our extra effects here. So we're are dry, wet amount. Now, remember, for our dry, wet amount if you're on a return track, going to be sure to the dry wet is all the way up, right, That's important. If we're not doing the return track deal, you can set it to taste. Got additional settings for a diffusion and reflection. So the crafting of reverb is actually an art all in and of itself. Someone could write a book. I'm sure somebody has written a book about different kinds of river verbs, Um, and dialing in the perfect reverb for the perfect case. That's not my bag. So, um, in my experience, your best Going gentle with three verbs. Uh, don't put him hugely on stuff. Don't make giant re verbs and put him on things and don't use them to mask other things. But, um, you can find other people that are like reverb ninjas that will walk through Exactly. You know, the perfect settings for different situations of river. But for my taste, I like to put a gentle amount of reverb on stuff when it needs it, but never go real high. Um, even the river we're hearing now is a little too much for my taste. Somewhere around here I'm pretty comfortable with. Here's no reverb. Here's my river. So, uh, I'm a subtle list when it comes to river, but other people like a lot of river, and that's totally okay. Remember, reverb is best used on the bus track. Ah, using the send and receives sending return. Sorry. Um, so be sure you experiment with that when you're working with river. Okay, we've got two more in this section to talk about the repeat and the looper. Ah, these are both really weird ones. So let's dive into those 21. Beat Repeat: Alright, it's time to talk about beat. Repeat Now this one can be really fun that this one is a time effect but its handling time a little bit differently. It's not a delay in any shape or form. The way we've looked at delays, it's more a reorganizing of time, Right? Um so let's just dive in. So you've probably you may have stumbled on beat, repeat and tried to do some stuff with it. I'm gonna go through kind of the main settings here. So what this is going to do is it's basically going to chop up our sound and serve it back to us in different ways. It's not really going to do that. What it's actually going to do is, if you imagine it's gonna grab onto, ah, little slice of sound, hold onto it and then spit it back at ah, certain interval or weaken kind of randomize that interval a little bit. So let's try to make heads or tails of this thing. So the first thing to think about when you're looking at beat repeat is focus on these three knobs, interval grid and gate. OK, Ah, let's just start with those three and then we'll look at the others later. So interval is How often is it going to grab one of those little slices? So every bar is what I'm saying here could say, every two bars, every half a bar. Let's just leave it on every bar. So every bar grab what? That's what grid is. Grab 1/16 note grabbing ace note. Grab 1/4 note. Whatever. Let's leave it at 16th. Note. So every bar grab 1/16 note and then play it back for me. How many times? Eight. That first number there. That's basically what's happening there. So let's leave. Let's say, let's leave that at eight. And let's just hear what we just did. So every bar grab 1/16? No. In this case, it's gonna be the 1st 16th note of the bar and play it eight times. Oops. I put that whole thing on the wrong track. I put him on my buster, my return track. I was gonna drag it and drop it back over here and get rid of my river. Now, let's hear it. Okay, So what we're hearing is my first beat. Every of every bar is my 1st 16th note. Sorry of every bar is repeating eight times. I could say repeats for the whole bar if I want. So now we're going out for 1/16 right now while we're here, let's let's talk about these three settings over here. Mix, insert or gate mixed means we're going to hear both the dry and the wet basically repeated . And the beat the beat. Still going right? You could still hear it underneath. Happening. Insert means whenever it's got something to repeat mute the dry Onley, play the insert and then, uh, a mute the dry. So in that case, we're Onley in this case now we're only gonna here the repeated things. Let me go back to doing this eight time. So now what? We're here is Onley the repeated stuff for the first half and then the rest of the beat will come in for the second half, right? And then gate is gonna be on Lee, play the repeated stuff, don't play anything else, Okay? So I'm gonna leave it on insert for now, because that's fun. Okay, so every bar grab the 1st 16th and play it back eight times, right? Pretty simple right. Okay, let's say we don't want the 1st 16th We want a different 16th. That's where this offset knob comes into play. If we can shift that, let's say grab the 2nd 16 right? Okay, that's pretty cool. Ah, we're getting We're getting there. It's gonna get more interesting. Doory Variation Variation is a randomizer for this grid option. Okay, so Ah, what we're seeing now is every bar grab the 1st 16th or somewhere around there somewhere around the 1st 16th Ah, and play it back eight times, starting on the 4th 16th Note beat too, right? Oh, you know what? I misspoke? Variation is controlling. Ah, the rhythm of the playback. So that's yeah, that's actually still the grid. It's just multiplying the rida. It's basically adjusting this. It's not adjusting. Which note it's taking its adjusting. Ah, the rhythm that it's gonna be playing it back at. Okay, so that gives us Ah, well, more rhythm variation. And it's choosing Ah, variation of the grid setting. Okay, let's go down to chance down here. Chances all the way up chance means what is the probability that this thing is gonna actually turn on that? It's actually going to do it right now at 100% which means every time it's going to do it. So let's go down to about 50%. So that means half the time it's going to decide to do the function that we've outlined up here. Ah, half the time. It's not Okay, so I'm getting a little bit of variation in here. Just give me a little bit of life, right? That's kind of cool. I couldn't We turn this down so it doesn't get so gnarly. All right, let's throw in some pitch elements. So, with I have to pitch controls here, this 1st 1 is gonna be fairly static. It's just gonna change the pitch of the repeated stuff. You can see here that the 1st 1 is still yellow in the restaurant orange. So this one is the original pitch. The repeated ones are transposed down by 12 semi tones. Right? So what if I wanted to do that? What if I wanted to make it change over time? That would be this pitch decay. So now you can see this is yellow. This is orange. And it's a Grady int in between. So every time it does that the pitch is gonna go down over time, right? So this pitch decay means pull the pitch down over time. Same thing with the volume over here. I can turn the volume up or down of the thing of the repeated notes. Four. I could have the volume decay like that. I can also add in a filter. Here, to my repeated stuff, is a band pass filter. So let's just try toe mess around with this a little bit. What if I said every 16th note? Grab 1/16 note with Variation and a 16 and repeat it eight times. Let's just say four times and take a chance. Lower. Let's put mics on. Do we hear? We still hear a constant beat variation all the way up to 10 but if we adjusted gate on this, let's just hear what we're doing here. Let's go up 100%. That that's less interesting. Stick it back down to this, que all the way up. Here we go. Okay, I'm gonna stop doing that now, because I've been criticized before in these classes for just goofing around too much eso I'm not gonna go around anymore. on this. You get the point. Basically, um, were slicing up the grid of the beat and redistributing it. Um, in wheel time to add some cool little glitch effects Works. Really? Well, I'm beats, right, cause that's why it's called beat. Repeat, But don't be afraid to use it on other stuff to, um I've had some good luck just using it to chop up, um, other sounds, Let me repeat. 22. Looper: okay. The looper loop around putting into a time effect. Because it's just what it sounds like. It's, ah, basically gonna capture something, and then let us use it either instantly or later, um, in a couple different ways. So this is much more of a live performance effect. Ah, Then I would use for a production effect, so hopefully we'll talk about it again when we talk about performance, Um, in the second half of this class, Um, but I want to introduce it now in contact. So just a quick overview of what we're doing. It's basically a little recorder. Okay, so ah, but it's a recorder that listens to our tempo and our beat. Three years I'm gonna do I'm gonna launch my drum beat here. Um, now, I got a couple different settings. I'm going to say record for one bar. I could just leave that alone, and it'll kind of choose for me. And then this setting here means this is kind of our magic button. Okay, this is gonna record after it's done recording. It's going to It's basically going to record one bar, then plus means add another layer on top of it. play, it means start playing. So that means this is like a multi function button. So I'm gonna record. Okay, now I'm playing back. Actually, I added many layers. So now I can stop my clip playing. Hey, my clippers gone. We're just hearing this, right? I can reverse it right here. Reverse it again and it stays right on tempo. Now, that's cool. Let's add my singer into this loop also just to see what happens. Okay, I'm gonna stop that clip. So now we're just hearing the looper. This is what the looper grab. It's got the beach in a layer and it's got the singer in the later right. It's getting pretty wild. That's the reverse it. That singer is gonna sound pretty much the same. Okay, now, um, So now imagine this for a live performance. Imagine you're jamming with a guitar player, right? You can pull them in there. You can You can grab, you know, four bar chunk, you know, and then record them in. Ah, play with them, and then have a loop of what they just did. And to start adding effects to and remixing live. Right. This That's where this is really powerful. Um, I'm gonna point out to other things in here. Um ah. Clear when we're done, hit the clear thing to flush it out to start over. Don't forget about that. Um, and this dragged me button. Check this out. So I've got something in here, right? I've got this crazy singer drumbeat loop If I was doing something more with it, like if I was performing and I had a guitar player plugged in and I just recorded him and I wanted to start over with this looper, but still hold on to that. What I can do is I can click and drag right here and throw that onto a track. Now I have I feel that that's really loud. So now I have that loop I just made in its own clip like it's not going anywhere. It's like, basically recorded audio at this point. So that is a looper. There's a lot you can do with it. Um, I'm not quite set up here to give you the full demo of it, but, um, it's great for live performance. Um, so check that out. We'll talk more about that later when we get into more performance stuff, but I want to introduce it now. 23. What Are Frequency Effects: All right, let's move on to frequency type effects. So affects that mess with our frequency in one way or another. Um ah. Lot of these, we consider to be kind of sculpting effects, meaning that, like, we're going to trim off some Ah, some frequencies or boost some frequencies, um, or just kind of finally craft the frequencies in our sound. Let me show you what I mean. We're going to see these kinds of graphs a lot. Um, when I'm looking at here is the eq you ate in the E. Q eight has this feature that lets you push this graph all the way up into this big area here. Um, we'll talk more about the e Q eight shortly. So I'm not gonna stress out about what it's actually doing right now. Um, right now what I want, you understand? It's kind of big picture frequency sculpting. So, um, when we look at these kinds of graphs, here's what we're seeing. We're seeing and kind of talked about this earlier when we looked at the band pass. But we're seeing volume boost or decay the decay, but ah, pushing the volume higher, going up and lower going down. So when this line is straight, I'm not doing anything to the volume. If I do this, I am making the volume louder in this frequency range. And I do this. I'm making the volume quieter in this frequency range. If I don't do anything Ah, that I'm not doing anything. So this means it's staying as it is in the audio file and pushing it harder. I'm pulling it away. So along the bottom access here is we see our frequencies. So are low. Sounds are on the left, are high sounds are on the right. So if I want to boost high sounds, I'm going to do something like this. And now everything above this point is going to get boosted as it gets hot. As the frequency gets higher and higher, it's gonna get boosted more and more until it gets about here. And then it's gonna level off and just be boosted. Ah, from this point up, right? So that is called a high pass filter. Because the high frequencies are passing through a low pass filter would be something like this, the low frequencies air passing through. Although this isn't a extremely accurate representation. We should do something more like that if we really want to show what a low pass filter is. Um, and in most cases, we won't have filters that are just high pass and just low pass most of the time using these kinds of graphs. Anyway, what we're gonna have is, like, I'm gonna boost a little of that. I'm gonna take a little away there. I'm gonna boost up a little bit there and maybe maybe craft something like that. There's a lot of fine tuning weaken do here that I'm trying to avoid showing you the whole ah effect right now. Ah, but just so you know, that's how these graphics work. And they're gonna push frequencies and pull frequencies. We can play something through it and we can see the frequencies of it. I have the volume pulled all the way down. Okay, let's look at that again. Okay, so here's my kick. If I want to boost that kick right now getting a much bumpier kick, I want to get rid of that kick. You could do this right now. The thumb Penis of that kick is gone. So frequently based effects. Let's dive in. We're gonna talk about an equalizer and e que First, we're gonna talk about the E Q. Three first, and then we'll be often running and we'll be right back to this EQ eight. But first, we're gonna start with the Q three. 24. EQ3: Okay. The E Q three is what the e Q three looks like This is ah, fairly simple on this is actually the simplest equalizer plug in that we have. Um, So what we have here is three bands, and I want you to try to latch onto the lingo that I'm using here, too. So three bands, What that basically means is we have a low amid in a high. This is kind of the same thing as if you looked at like, you know, if you have, like, a certain kind of stereo or your car stereo, there's probably like a adjustment you can make for the lows, the mids and the highs. Right. This is basically that same thing. So what we can do is, um, we can push up the gain of the low, the mid and the high, or we could reduce it or push it. This is pushing it. This is reducing it, pulling it down. And we can also just turn the whole bloody thing off so we can just hit that button sake. No Morelos Down here, we can give it a little bit of definition on what low, medium and high means here's our low frequency center and are high frequency center. So what that means is basically the this is basically the top is basically the bottom that we're focusing on more or less. So let's cue up our drum loop. Okay, let's turn this off. Okay. Then he turned those back up. It's gonna set these all back to zero. Okay? So we shouldn't hear much difference right when it's honor when it's offering. So now let's take it. And let's just cut out all the lows just by hitting this fun, right? So you can just pull out the lows put back in, pull out the highs, pull it back in the mids. Less useful, but can still be fun. So it could be fun. You could even do stuff like this. Let's do like, um, you know, you could just pull out the lows and then slowly pushing back in that way. The best thing about the E Q. Three. In my experience, the most usefulness Ah, for it comes from mapping these keys the low, mid and high button and then using them and more of a performance setting. So it remember our key mapping? I can go command k to turn everything orange. I'm gonna map this to the number one map this to the number two. And I do. This mapping is by Click on it, press the number or the letter or whatever I want. I'm gonna map this one to number three. So 12 and three command K to get out of here. Now I can play my groove and I compress three to kill the highs. One to kill lows. I could place all three at once to kill the whole thing. They pull back in the mids. I could do this, you know, kind of roll back in the mids and the other two back on so I could make more of a performance thing out of it. This doesn't really give us the flexibility to really sculpt our sound. All that great with just these three parameters. For that, we need something with a little bit more control. Um, So what we need is the e Q eight is the next kind of level up from this. So in the same way that this has three bands low, mid and high, which is why we call it E Q three. The E Q. Eight has eight, but there's a lot more flexibility in the Kuwait, so let's jump over to the EQ. You wait now and I'll show you what I'm talking about. 25. EQ8: okay. I have an e Q eight cute up here. No, um, we got a lot of controls here, so it looks like we have four points here, right? Because there and each one of these points we can call a band, remember, a band is really just an area of frequencies that we can control. But that's only because these 1st 4 are on. I have four more that are not on by default that I can turn on. And now I have eight points. Right? So I can really kind of craft this line to be doing exactly what I needed to be doing. Now, in addition to the eight points, I'm gonna turn actually the's top four off just so I can keep it. Kind of relatively simple. So I'm only looking at 1234 Now, In addition to that, I have these different shapes. Right. So this one is going to be high pass. In fact, let's make us even more clear by just turning on one one band. So here we have high pass filter, right. I can adjust it wherever I want. Cool. Here I have the opposite low, low pass. I can put it wherever I want. Right, Um, now for each one of these while when you select it, you've got controls over here, the frequency. So if I select to now, I'm working on the frequency of to Right. So here's the frequency going this way and this. We would call the cut off frequency and other synthesizers. You'll see this and effects. You'll see this label is the cut off frequency. That's right where this point is. And it's basically the point at which the e que starts to slope out and down. That's the cut off frequency. We also have this Q setting. The Q is basically how wide it is from about here to here. So if I make it wider, it's gonna go down. If I make it. If I increase the Q, it's gonna get a point on it, right? So that is the cue setting, Um, and each band has that. We have other points in here. Ah, point like this is just, ah, cut, right so we can say like, I really don't like that frequency right there. So let's take that out. And with this one, you can adjust the gain and the frequency and the Q. You could make it nice and wide and then pull something out. Right? Ah, also, let me show you the thing I was showing you earlier. If you want to get this nice and big, you can hit this arrow right here, and it will take up this part of your screen. You can adjust it by putting your mouse right over there and one of the cool new features in live nine. I think this was part of Live nine is that it actually shows us away form in it while we're playing it right so we can see where our frequencies are. So there's my kick, my snares right in this area. So if I want to push the snare, I could do that. You know, I can experiment around. I can add more points and start poking around right. One of the great things to do to start understanding the e que as to explore some of the presets that air in here. I think I'm going to do it. I'm gonna throw the drums preset on here. It's to kick e Q one. Let's throw that preset down there. So Here's what it has. It's got a boost, a little cut right after the kick, and then we're boosting all the high stuff, too. So this has a really stumpy kick. That's pretty cool. Let's look at its kick e Q. Two and see how that's different, All right, We've got a low pass with a steep cut off the end, and we're really boosting hard here. It's a lot of different kinds. Let's try one of the snare one is just out of curiosity, the more mid range heavy, low, mid heavy. So experiment around with finding just the right thing for an e que? 26. AutoFilter: up next. Let's talk about the auto filter. Um, now, this should be a little familiar. Um, from some of the other things we've looked at, we have kind of three sections. Here we have. Ah, the envelope Attack and release. We have the filter section. This quantities beat is a little bit different than what we've seen before What that's actually doing. And then we have our LFO section. So, um, this stuff up here is all our standard filter stuff, right? So I've added a new clip here. We turn this off, so we just hear it. I wanted something a bit noisier because noise is where this is really easy to hear. So I added this this built in clip that was on my hard drive, right? So there's a lot of, like noise in there, which will make us fairly easy to hear. Um, so let's just do what we've got. Nothing really, uh, mind blowing here. So it's that are filter to where we want it. And let's do I want to do something that's really obvious to us. So let's dio a band pass filter right in the middle. Put it right there. OK, So where we're cutting out a lot of the lows. Some of the highs Ah, and various other stinks. So here's our frequency. Here is our Q. So we could widen that or take it down. Now, Um, let's talk about this LFO because what this is going to do this is the auto part of the auto filter. The LFO is basically going to make it go like this and it's gonna move back and forth for us, given a certain shape and speed, right and amount, right? So whenever we see an LFO, we look for rate in amount and a shape. So we have the sine wave shape here. Amount is again how much it's going to do it. If the amount is little, it's gonna go like this. The amount is a lot. It's gonna go like this, right? So let's make this reasonably wild here and then the rate is the speed. How fast it's going to do it. We can go buy, hurts to do a freestanding LFO, or we can set it to divisions of the meat. Let's do it. Let's make a fairly slow division of the beat, about half notes so two per bar. Um, and then I'm gonna turn this phase all the way down. For now, I'm gonna talk about phasing just second. Now, let's hear this. Okay, so you hear that filter moving back and forth, right? Okay. Cool. Um, let's slow that down a little bit more even. OK, now, let's look at this. Quantities beat because this is a little strange. The way this works as if it's off, it's not doing anything. It's were We're hearing exactly what we expect, based on how I just explained it when it's on. What that means is that the cut off frequency is basically going to snap to a new location to its new location. Ah, on whatever 16th note, we tell it. So if I say every 4/16 notes, um, than what it's gonna do is so 4/16 notes is one beat, so every beat, we're not gonna hear it smoothly moving. We're gonna hear it move on the beat on Lee. If that makes sense, let's hear it. So it goes to a spot, stays there, gives this next spot, stays there, goes to its next spot and stays there. That's much to an eighth notes will be twice as fast e get this that so It's kind of adding another rhythmic element, which is kind of fun. And again, if we don't want it was turn it off. Okay, Now let's talk about this phase kind of last thing in here now, the phases, What's actually happening here is that we actually have to. LFO is going with this. We're controlling to l A phones at once. One is heading to the left Channel and one is heading to the right channel. And when they're perfectly in phase, as this is with it being set all the way to zero, then we hear it as such. We hear it as a single LFO operating on both channels. But if we pull it out of phase, we essentially make a panning. Ah, LFO is well because one that's those two elephants go out of phase. Then we're going to hear a lot in one signal and then a lot in another signal and then a lot in one along the other. So if I pull this about 1 80 is like, perfectly out of phase now, it's gonna be moving left and right. Um and it's going to sound like a panning effect as well. You don't have to do it just at 1 80 You can offset it more to make it less, uh, symmetrical. We're turn it off and then we don't get the face. The panning effect. That's the auto filter. It can be kind of Ah, um, covert auto pan. Although we have a separate effect for that that will look at shortly. Um, but its main function is to get kind of a rhythm going with a moving filter, and it's great for that. 27. Amp: okay up next we have to the next to videos we're gonna be talking about. Ah, a couple of simulation effects. So, amp and Cabinet. So let's do am first. Ah, and these two go together fairly well. So amp is a pretty straight up simulation, ample flyer simulation effect. So we're gonna imagine here that we have a that were running the signal out of a Bolton into a big guitar AMP and then out of that back into a bilton. That's what we're simulating and were virtually doing that. So with this, we have a bunch of different flavors of distortion, basically, although not this isn't a straight up distortion effect because we also have some clean effects that are that are nice. So let's use my Mutis for second and let's use my Ave Maria's because it's a nice clean thing. Let's try to treat this like it's an electric guitar. Okay, now we're running it through this, this blues setting thes air just presets up here. Here's the clean one. Let's hear the difference between Theoklitos setting and no setting. I like pretty trouble heavy. We could pull that trouble down, so we still have this three band EQ You in here? Let's let's go Hard core. We've got a dry, wet mix that we could way could really just push it. Make it stereo, mono or stereo. Theo. Jimi Hendrix. So there's a lot you can do with this fact. It's relatively simple. We've got ah C 34567 basic settings. Ah, for that are basically presets for the AMP emulation of traditional ah amplifiers. And then we got a three band EQ. You. We can push the game to get more distortion on it on and then pull back in the volume Dry, wet presence is like an extra e que ah mono or stereo. Relatively simple, um, at a bunch of classic distortion to it. Okay, so that's an AMP. Emulator in the AMP. Effect. Now let's look at Cabinet. 28. Cabinet: Okay, so now I'm gonna add cabinet to this, and you don't have to use amping cabinet together, but it makes some pretty decent sense. Um, now, if if you know a guitar player, if you are a guitar player, you have access to ah, guitar, amp right and guitar amps have two pieces, actually. Bass amps, really any kind of instrument, AMP it has two pieces. It has the amplifier, and then it has the cabinet. The cabinet is what holds the speakers. And the way that cabinet is configured can contribute to while does contribute to the sound . Um, I'm actually sitting in front of, for example, my Fender de Ville AMP, which is a guitar amp that is configured with four tens. So let's get into what that means. Right here. So what this cabinet plugging is going to do is gonna emulate that cabinet and you put together with AMP. You've got a whole rig emulation happening, right? So I just said four tens. That's this. What that means is, the first number is how many speakers on the second number is the diameter of those speakers. So different cabinets have different size. If it's just got one speaker in this case, we're gonna give you a 1 12 inch speaker to 12 and speakers. Four twelves for 10 or a 4 10 base cabinet. It's gonna be a bit bigger. Eso mine has for tens, but also set up to four times. Now, I know that when I mike my guitar amp, um, there are a couple tricks to finding its sweet spot. I know that I want to put him like, ah, near off access so not pointed straight at it, but off from the center. I want to use a dynamic mic because I'm gonna scream on this thing. Ah, but you can use a condenser or a dynamic mic basically. And now we're emulating. You know how to capture this thing. And do I want to put two mikes in front of it or one That's basically what we're doing here . So let's say to, and I want to mix it with the dry signal. That's not something you would normally find and a guitar. Maybe in an acoustic you would if it was like an acoustic AMP. You might get a dry, wet signal, but let's go all the way wet So let's just hear this cabinet. So that's what the Cabinets doing here. Is it off? Okay. And then let's turn our amp back on now. I still have this set, too. Well, I think I screwed up on my setting. Serious. Let's just turn it on. Let's go to a rock. Just a rock setting to the game Down a bit. Mostly wet. That's you. That Theo s So what we're getting here is Ah ah, very warm amount of dirt in it. Right? The similar way that you would get out of a nice, good ah amplifier setting Ah, in ah rock situation. But we can apply it. Teoh. You know this soprano singing Ave Maria, which is fairly funny if we really wanted to rock out, could set it. Teoh. Actually, these settings are pretty good for that, um, in my cabinet. And let's go back to our lead setting. That's crank our gain, prolonging down and go all the way wet with both. Now it's just super compressed and gnarly, but that could be really fun texture to work with. OK, so that's cabinet cabinets. Relatively simple. But what it's doing it is designing. It's designed to emulate the cabinet of ah, a traditional amplifier for an acoustic instrument. There you go, 29. Corpus: up next is corpus. Corpus is of fairly complicated. Ah, effect. And one that we could do a lot with. So the best way to dive into this one is too. Think back to if you were in the synthesis class Ah, you'll remember our discussion of what physical models are. And this is very related to that. Corporates has a lot to do with physical modelling and that it's emulating physical things , right? So one way to think about that is, um, imagine that this drop down here has a number of different things in it. And imagine that these things are sitting out in the open, Let's say, a Merima. So there's a marine bile in the open and what? And instead of hitting that member with a stick, what you're gonna actually do is throw your sound at it. So if we took our let's take this Congress sound and say what would happen if we threw a conga? Adama Rimba, That's what would happen. That's very gentle, but the right idea. So basically we're hitting the marimba with the conga. Another way to think about that is that the marimba is the resonator for the conga sound. Right. So Ah, we have four different sections here to corporate. So let's will start with looking at this middle section. Um, so we've got different kinds of things. Let's look at a beam. Okay. So I'm just gonna get this one going. Actually, I'm gonna turn this over. I'm gonna set it toe loop so I can hear it a couple times when I had it. Okay, so here's our beam. Now, here's our couple of our settings. I'm not gonna go through all of these settings. Um, but our main two settings are the decay in the material. That's what's maps to our X y here. So as we increase the decay, we're gonna hear more ring to it and less ring Teoh. And as we increase the material, it's a little bit. It gets more dense as we move down. It's almost like, Ah, this beam turns into more of ah, piece of pipe like a plastic tube almost as we go down. So it's changing. The tambor quit a bit. Brightness is brightness. So if we increase our brightness way, get more upper frequencies in harmonics is we get more upper harmonics and we turn that up . So more pitches in the higher range and more pitches in the lower range way that was gonna reset. Thes listening left and right. These are I imagine we're making this thing. We've got to Mike's on it. Ah, this is essentially the placement of those mikes. And hit is where we're hitting it. Like, kind of Imagine a snare drum Sounds different when you had it close to the room or farther away from the rim. Those are our main settings to corpus. Okay, Next, let's look at this section over here. Now, since we're heading this thing with our sound, it definitely has a pitch. And so here's where we can tune that pitch the of the resonator thing so we can tune it with the tune. Fine tuning is gonna let us tuned by the scent and this we can actually only get access to When were side chaining with the Corporates which we can set up with this button over here on this spread is going Teoh separate the two ah oscillators in a way not quite oscillators but the to resonate er's to make a more ah to make a more full sound to it. Almost like a chorus effect. In a way, that pitch is driving me insane thing to its de phone. Okay, next, let's talk about the filter section. So this is becoming pretty familiar to us. We can turn on a filter, and we know what all of this does right? Were set up with a band pass filter. We could do a lot of stuff with it. Ah, we have two extra things that we haven't seen before Here, the width now, which is going to increase our stereo spread and the bleed. Uh, the bleed nav in this case is going to give us, um ah, little bit more of the high frequencies that we may have lost in the processing of over here. For example, if you're set to be on like a low bandwidth sound and you're getting kind of a muddy sound , you can crank this up to get some of those high frequencies back. Okay, then, last thing, let's talk about this LFO section. So this is really familiar to us after we've seen the auto filter, right? So if we turn it on, we can give it an amount and a rate Let's sink it to the beat. Let's put it around two. Then we have phasing. Offset. Right? Same stuff. So now we're moving up and down coal. And don't forget we can change the shape if we want. Now let's try to do something more interesting to it. So now I've got same settings. I just threw in This'll clip that I was using earlier, not a membrane sound. You make my telephone a little less extreme. No way. It's more interesting. Try different clip. This is interesting. Let's go all the way went with this. So now I just turned thing. Sound this loop into this thing, which is pretty fun. I could even tune it a little bit more. Ah, a piano wire that were hitting our drums on Just really interesting. That's corpus. It's a pretty complicated tool, So explore this one a little bit more. Maybe check out some of the presets, see what you can find in there. Ah, and start playing around with it and applying it to your sounds and see what you get 30. DynamicTube: Okay, let's quickly talk about the dynamic tube effect next. Um, this is, in a way, a distortion effect. It's definitely a frequency effect. I mean, it's altering our frequencies. However. Ah, note that this is a much more subtle effect than something like the amplifier affect the AMP. Effect. What this is doing is adding a subtle amount of of, ah, tube. I'm trying to think of a better way to say tube A tube is like a tube. AMP is like a kind of AMP that has a very warm, ah, much warmer sound to it. And what we're going to try to get out of this effect is that tube warmth, um, more so than aggressive distortion. However, there is a way to get some aggressive distortion out of this thing. So, um, let's walk through it. So we have a dry, wet mix. I'm gonna leave it all the way on. What? Um, just for now, output. This is basically a volume boost, Dr. Is how hard we're gonna push this thing. So if we want to get some distortion, we're gonna push it all the way up. But even in that setting, it's not terribly uh, distorted. So let's do it. Let me do something nice and smooth through here, OK, here's our Ave Maria kind of in love with this little audio file. Turn it down a little bit. OK, let's push that drive all the way. Seeing the distortion I'm getting from pushing that all the way is still subtle. I guess it's distorted quite a bit, but it's not like, really mind bending distortion, but it can give you some of that warm kind of distortion that that we like. In some cases, I can adjust tone, typical settings. Now this bias is important. So what this bias does is it's a little confusing, but it basically forces the tube to not process, uh, linearly any more. Um, the harder you push it, the less linear it gets. So ah, that's a fancy way of saying, um, it starts Teoh break apart as we push it harder and harder. Now, this is where you can get a really gnarly distortion sound if you want to. It sounds almost like a really saturated sound, which what that sounds like is this. It's very delicate, right, so that supporting gnarly and hard to work with distortion, but it's kind of a cool sound. It's kind of that. It's almost that, like Supersaturated Trent resident guitar tone, um, our old friend resident guitar tone, um, that he used to use on everything, But not quite. I mean, there are better ways to do that, um, than the way I just did it. So avoid pushing this really hard to get that kind of sound. So what we can get here? Let's put throw down in Trumpy. So I'm gonna dial it in to a spot that I think has a nice, warm, distorted tone. Okay, that's not bad. It's got a little grit to it. I'm gonna turn it off so we can compare. Okay, here's unaffected, right? The kick is a little more pitchy, but it gives us a little bit of that distortion. So this is a subtle effect. You might want to use this at the end of your mix just to kind of, um, add some of that analog warmth to its or simulated analog warmth to it. Ah, or something like that. So, um, just remember, it's a tube effect. It's going to give us Ah, dirty amount of warmth. That's the way I think about it. 31. Erosion: all right. Next step is erosion. Now this one is one that I hear people talking about incorrectly, often as a bit crusher. Ah, it's not a bit crusher. Ah, we'll talk about big crushers later, but erosion is it? I guess you could say it kind of has a similar sound. Two bit crushing, but it does something totally different. Bit crushing is when we basically lower or simulate lowering our sampling rate s so that it sounds like an old video game. That's not what this is, but this is is it's actually, if you want to know the kind of, ah technical term, it's using something called convolution. Um, and what that does is essentially it can take two signals and basically used the frequency material of one signal in the rhythm material of the other signal and combine them together . That's basically what this is. Um, our our first signal that goes into it is our clip. And the second signal is one of three things noise, wide noise or sign. So we know what noises. It's noise. Ah, wide noise is the same as noise, except it's gonna be two separate Ah, streams of noise going out both channels versus unjust noise. You're gonna get the same stream of noise going out both channels. Why it is going to separate. So it's going to make it feel a little bit wider in our mix. Um, in the stereo field and sign is a sine wave. So it said it to noise. Um, and let's turn on our loop here. So I got a couple settings here. We can adjust the frequency. We can adjust the width just kind of like the queue. Except we're not really looking at an e que. Here we're looking at here is what are No. Well, it isn't you. It's the cue of our noise. So once we get that tow where we like it, let's do that. The amount is how much we're gonna mix in to our track. And what these are going to do is it's gonna blend the two. It's not just gonna put noise. Play noise at the same time is their track. It's gonna, uh, involve them together is what we would say. Let's start inching that in There it is. So we're really getting it on a kick. Their try wide noise. Let's try a sign. So a sign we can adjust a pitch. The frequency. Okay, let's try this on our darker loop here. Hoops noise. There we go. So what we're doing here with erosion is where come taking our signal of the clip. And we're combining it with a signal of noise in a way that basically the noise adapts or adopts. I should say the rhythm elements of the clip and then we mix the two together is what's happening so it can add a good amount of noise to your track. It's got may be limited uses for my personal taste, but I've seen a lot of people do some really cool stuff with this one, so check out erosion. 32. FrequencyShifter: our next effect that we're gonna talk about is a frequency shifter. Let's throw that on there. Now, since you're watching these videos one after the another probably hopefully taking some breaks in between. I just thought I'd point out that it's a new day to me. Um, so I took a break after that last one, and now I'm a new day. So I've got us some new clips to work with here, Um, maybe I'll add more. But I kept our ave Maria because that's just really resonating with me that added to different percussion once, just some little things to work with. So ah, fresh start. Um, okay, let's talk about frequency shifter. So what we've got here is pretty much what it sounds like. Um, but there are a couple little hidden surprises in here that we can do. So we have two different ways that we can Ah, just the frequency of the audio coming in. We have basically ah, big adjustment and a fine adjustment. Right. So with this, we can do some really wild stuff. Let's do I ave Maria. Ah, I mean, we can go to real extremes with this. That's pretty quiet because that lets, due to some drums here. Eso big extremes on the frequency adjustment. Um, that we have a fine tune. So this fine tune we could use to make, um, we could actually make kind of a chorus effect with it. Ah, if we did something like our ave Maria on just shifted a little bit. And then when this wide mode, right, Because what's happening in this wide mode, I believe, is that we're we're now looking at a spread. So it's it's going up by four hertz in the right channel and at same time, down by four hertz in the Left Channel. So it's basically like fanning out. So it's basically pulling it out of tune with itself, which can give us that kind of chorus sound a little bit. So that's the wide setting. We have two modes over here. Shift and ring. So shift is what we're hearing. Now it's going to shift. The pitch ring is a ring modulator. Uh, ree modulators air Carling of complicated to explain. But I'm going to do a, um, very quick explanation of a ring modulator and just say that, um, what we're doing when we shift is we're taking the original signal and adding this signal to it right, We're shifting it, adding that single to it in a ring modulator. We're taking the original signal and our new signal that's shifted, and we're multiplying them together. So with shift were adding and bring modulation. We're multiplying a little more complicated than that, what a ring modulator does. But that's kind of the essence of it. So you can imagine that if you multiply two signals the resulting signal signals. Actually, because there's kind of more than one that's generated in this process. Um ah can be very big and small. I mean, like, it's ring modulations. Very finicky kind of thing, right? So here's the shift. Let me turn this spread off. Let's go back to just normal. Don't forget, by the way, that when you adjust one of these, you just click on it, hit the delete key, you go back to its default. Okay, so let's add, that's just at 100 hurt. Something real simple. Okay, that's where we're at. Now let's switch to ring modulation, right? So it gets very gritty and hard to control, but ring modulation does have some really cool stuff we can do with it now into addition to that, we have our old faithful Ah lfo, right? So let's go back to a simple shift. Ah, 100 Hertz. So this is what we're hearing. Let's adding an LFO so we got to give it an amount, which is how extreme it's gonna be and then a rate of how fast it's gonna be. So let's have our LFO shift every beat. So now that the shifting of the frequency is happening on the quarter note and then we have our phase and offset like we've seen before, um, to give it a little more spread and ah, rhythmic make a little more dynamic rhythmically. So that's our frequency shifter. Not a very complicated 10 don't forget about the dry, wet mix. So if we shifted and we want to hear both, we can still get the dry in there as well. Ah, great. So, um ah, good use of this that I might recommend is like maybe taking it onto a pad and, you know, setting this 20 bumping this up Just a touch. Maybe setting the wide putting the wide setting on, set your driveway to about 50% and then see how that affects a pad sound. Um, in fact, too much talking. Let's do it So I'm gonna go Teoh Doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo doo instruments must go throw in a preset here. Let's do something nice. Let's do an operator. Go to a pad that's nice. So that over there, let's just make a nice chord. Let's do a nice big D minor chord because it's a D minor kind of day. All right, there we are. So now let's go and go over and just throw my frequency shifter with all its settings, as is right on there. So here is my synthesizer. Here's my frequency shifter. So I've got a de tuned Just a hair. Maybe even too much. I've got the wide on and dry, wet halfway. It's set to shift, not ring. Mom, my LFO is on. Let's turn that off. That's bypass this. Here we go s so that's adding like a good amount of motion and a little bit of color to our pad. So it's a nice effect just to kind of fatten up. Ah, pad sound like that to try that out 33. Overdrive: all right. Up next is overdrive. Overdrive is another flavor of distortion. Um, but it's Ah, it's not strictly speaking, on Lee for distortion Overdrive. This basically means we're pushing our speaker harder than it's designed to be pushed. Were over driving it right, and that tends to generate distortion. But it's not your super, super gnarly, um, distortion that you can get with other effects. So let's look at what we can do with this. So let's do Let's to our phone group here. So here's our front group slow funk group. Here we go. All right, now let's turn out over driving of the default preset. Turn the volume down a little bit. So here's what we've got. First thing coming in. Imagine the audio's flowing down in this one. So we come in, we've got a filter, right? So with this, we can decide what bands do we want to distort. We want to start the whole thing like that. Or do we want to distort just the highs or just Salo's right? Let's do a fairly wide one just to get a feel for it. Remember, this X Y coordinate deal is just affecting our frequency and Q settings down here. Okay, Drive the amount of Dr we can turn it down. Now, remember that the one thing about a Dr Effect in overdrive effect like this is that when we go all the way to zero, we're not necessarily getting zero like we're still running it through the EQ. You were still giving it a tiny bit of Dr. It's kind of strange that way something's gonna crank it up and just really pushed this hard, right? Okay, so this is a cool example, because to me, what we're doing to those kicks is a little too aggressive. So let's take those kicks out of the mix. And I think our dry, wet mix get some of that kickback. So we're pushing our drive as hard as we can. Now, tone is kind of like an after the drive, e que basically what we're going to get out of tones. If we crank it up, we're going to get some of those high frequencies back for doing this kind of thing to know tone. A lot of June Dynamics is the dynamic range, and we're gonna talk more about dynamic effects later, but basically, there is a tiny compressor in here in this effect, and what that does is, um, alter the dynamic range and dynamic ranges means, uh, stuff that's loud gets quieter. So if we want Teoh basically turn that compressor off, we're going to turn this all the way up. That's going to give us a bit more distortion, and it's also going Teoh. It's going to not alter the dynamic ranges much, which let me say that one more time. I don't think I got that quite right. That means is that if there's loud stuff and there's quiet stuff, then what a compressor is going to do is a compressor is gonna level those two things out. It's gonna make the quiet stuff louder and the loud stuff quieter, and it's basically gonna flatten the range. So if we don't want that to happen, we can turn that up more. If we do want to let it happen, we can turn it down a little bit more, and then we have our dry white mix. All right, so we have a really crunchy group here, right? It's kind of fun. We could bypass the whole thing with that. Go. Um Yeah, So that's our our overdrive. Check out some of the presets. There's a nice preset in here, just called enhance. Let's check that out really quick. Here it is, right? Dynamics all the way off. Dry, wet Knicks Barely there. Just a tiny bit on. It's mostly dry, and we're just adding these top. Let's bypass this. It's very subtle, but it's a good example of how an overdrive effect can be used for just kind of sweetening a signal rather than just ah adding a whole bunch of distortion to it. So subtlety my friends. All right, let's move on. 34. Phasor: Okay. Up next is the phaser. So let's talk about, um, what a phasing effect is. Let's just first just hear it. Okay, Here it is. It's off now. So here's just our loop. Okay, now, here it is. On more extreme here. Now, what's happening here? Is that basically what a phaser is is it's a series of filters. Um, that has the ability, Teoh, um, flip the phase of our wave form. And now what that does is it makes it so that it has varying amounts of energy at different points in the way form. Let me explain that a little easier. So I'm gonna jump over here to analog. So this is a synthesizer. This is this particular synthesizer right now has nothing to do with phasing. The only reason I'm pulling this up is to show you these two way forms right here. So we're not going to use analog. Ah, I just want to use this little graphic. Okay, so just to be clear here, this is kind of a dangerous teaching thing, cause I'm introducing something else when I shouldn't be, but, um, stay with me as long as you can, So, um look at these two way forms. There's away form here, and there's a way for him here. Right when they happen at the same time. Uh, we here a strong wave form, right? If it's the same pitch, the same speed we're going to hear. Ah, very strong, solid wave form. Imagine this point right here. The highest point in both way forms is one. And imagine this. The low point here is negative one. That's basically how it's working. So what we're going to hear is just add those together right here. We're gonna hear one and were getting here. One we're gonna hear two. That's a big number. And that's great. Um, now, if they were out of phase from each other completely now, they are perfectly out of phase from each other. Actually, let me make sure it's actually perfect, because it would be 180. Okay, now they are perfectly out of phase from each other. What are we gonna here now? We're gonna hear one the highest point, and we're gonna hear negative one. The lowest point. So what's one plus negative one? It's zero. Right. So over here, we're going Hear Negative one plus one, which is again zero. Right, So they're gonna cancel each other out. This is called phase Cancellation. Now what a phaser does That doesn't do exactly this. But it does something more like this. Now we're gonna have one against less than one, right? And so we're gonna alter the strength of the signal at different points. Now, if we put an LFO on that bad boy, we're gonna be moving this thing around. And that's going to change the relationship of the wave forms which will make the energy of the sound move. Right. Okay, let's go back. Fazer. That's what a phaser does. So number of poles, This is, like, basically the number of notches in our filter. Um, that are gonna affect the signal. Earth is basically, like, the color of the signal. Um, I'm not really clear on why we call this earth in space. I like it, though, because I am. Ah, Star Trek nerd. Um, so space is just honor off Earth gives us more color settings. You have a dry, wet mix, and here we have our main filter of which are all our filters are generated from, so we consider frequency and feedback. And then we have our envelope that we've seen 100 times, right? So this is kind of the center frequency of which we have a what's called a four pole filter . More on that in the future. Here, let's try it on our singer. That's really hard to hear on that. Let's go back to our drums. Okay, so that's a phased sound. That's a phaser sound. Let's try adding in our LFO. We know how left always work now, right? So now we can feel that energy in the way for moving around right back and forth, different areas. And it kind of generates this windy sound like this type sound from that motion, right? And now, down here, this phase is a little bit separately, but if we turn all down, we won't hear it as panning. So much way will hear it as panning. And if everything else so it's cool is weaken set the rate be on the beat. It's phase of 1/2 note. Make it pretty aggressive right now. That's kind of a cool group. Every time that snare hits that phases right at the top. Great. So that's a phaser. That's kind of a little explanation of what a phaser does. Um, if you want to know more about this Google phase cancellation, there's some actually pretty cool tricks you can do with phase cancellation. It's also an acoustic problem in a lot of studios. If you're working in a studio, the reason that we don't like the sound to bounce around a whole bunch is that it can cause phase cancellation, and that can ruin a recording. So look out, phase cancellation. All we really need to know about it for right now is that basics of how that works. When the phase, when the two signals are in line with each other, we get good, strong signals when they're out of phase from each other. Um, we get varying amounts of signals, and when they're perfectly out of phase from each other, we get nothing. So now you know what a phaser is and how to use. Able to face her 35. Redux: next up is Redux. So earlier I was talking about I think we were talking about erosion, and I had said that erosion is often confused for a bit crusher, Um, when it's not, But re ducks, on the other hand, is in fact, a bit crusher. So what I have set up here is ah, bass synth, um, and reduction after the basin. So I like, um, this effect on his base since you can make these cool like, kind of, uh, justice style like really gnarly based sounds with this really easily, um So I'm going to do set this back to its default. So what is bit crushing? There's two things that it's doing. Um, a typical bit crushers doing one is ah, either changing or simulating changing our bit rate are bit rate. If you remember back to like, I think the very first class we talked about, you know, our export settings. Let's just go look at it. When we export, we export at a sampling rate of 44,100 a bit depth of 16. So 16 bits we could go higher, lower, so that's just one of the ways we can do it is with these settings. It's the This is basically the standard for like digital. Like a CD. A CD needs to be at 44 1 44,100 sampling rate and a bit depth of 16. Now, if we lower this bit depth more, we start to get into Ah, not enough resolution to be able to hear the sound accurately. What that means is, think about, ah, old school video games. They were eight bit, right? Um, old old old school video games were like four bit. Um, that just means there's not a lot of space toe hold information. It means more than that, but that's kind of a summary of it. So if we pull down our bit depth eventually, it sounds like an old video game, right? In fact, let's start this just to clean it up. Let's start it on our singer because I think we'll be able to hear the Oh oops, Stop that! You're our singer. OK, so right now I've got no bit reduction happening. Let's just pull down Theo. The bit rates right now we're at 16. It's gonna inch it down slowly. - Okay , so it gets noisy. Now, there's another thing we can do here to make it even more interesting. We've got this down sample now. What down sample means is where the sampling rate of 44,000, 100 or 48,000 depending on how you're set up. Um, what we can do is we can notch that down by an order of magnitude is basically what we're looking at here. So, basically, if I say ah, down sample by 10 What that means is that every I think something like I can't remember exactly how the math is set up in this particular bit crusher by think an order of magnitude of 10 would mean something like every 200 samples gets played. Right, So it's gonna throw out. It's gonna take a sample and throw out 200. Take a sample throughout 200 is gonna make our sampling rate really low really fast. We can be even more aggressive by hitting this hard. Let's do it as soft. Even that I'm getting that old computer game sound. Let's put our bit rate back up. Okay, Let's take that out. Let's hit it hard. Okay, so that's getting that That really big crushed sound already. Okay, now let's take this effect back over to my baseline and show you what I wanted to show you . So here it is. Off. This is just a little. I was kind of fun. Structures on. That's just down. Sample it a bit. What about their? I'm liking it. Right, so you can get these really gnarly sounds. Especially good on base sounds, I think, um, by using bit crushing basically could make it sound like an old video game. Really easy. There's a whole genre of music based around, like eight bit. Um, sounds what they call it. There's a word for it. It's, uh, tip tunes. Um, chip tune is like low bit rate stuff. Um, people are really into it. So it's really fun to listen to. I really kind of dig it. So check that out. If you like this sound. And if you want to turn something into kind of a fake chip tune song, throw a bit crusher on it messed with it, and eventually ah, you could get that setting to where you want. So that is the reduction. It is a bit crusher 36. Resonator: next up is the resonator. The resonator can be a little complicated. Um, and it can help you to understand a little bit about cords and, uh, pitch structure. Or you could just use your ear and you'll be just fine. Um, So what the resonator does is it basically it's kind of like an e que where it pushes certain frequencies but their relative to a starting pitch in this case. So let me explain that again. Imagine you've got, um, a ah, piano, right. And you put your sound inside the piano and then you close the lid and then you hold down the sustain pedal of the piano and you just scream that sound right, that's going to if you're holding down the sustain pedal of piano, that's going to resonate Certain strings, depending on what the sound is, some strings are just going to start resonating. Um, it's called sympathetic vibration. Um, that's one thing. And then if you take that and now, instead of holding down the whole sustain pedal, we're gonna just hold down certain notes we're not gonna play those notes and make pitches were gonna hold down those notes so that the string, convey, vibrate and just resonate based on the sound we're giving it, right? So that's what a resonator is. It's like putting all kinds of pitched things around the sound and just letting the sound resonate those things. Right. So, uh, down here is us just defining what those sounds are right. We've got a filter coming in that we can set to kind of tune what is going to be the actual thing that resonates the other things. What is going to basically be the impulse to the resonator? Um, we can design how we want that filter toe work and then we've got are five resonator is here, so our 1st 1 is just the sound of it. So here's what I've got set up here Congo riff. They know what I want to do is try to get a little bit more out of this a little pitching this out of it, right? Pitches turn on this resonator just out of the box. So here's what I have now I'm gonna dial in this root note, say it's a thing doesn't need to be related to the fundamental pitch can be. If you want, we could just go all the way wet. If we want on, then we don't really hear the fundamental pitch now, fundamental pitch meeting the pitch, That is the sound. And this is a percussion sound, so it doesn't really matter very much now, what I'm gonna do is set the rest the other four pitches here relative to this one. So if this is an E, I'm going to set this up, do a four. That's gonna be a major third. If you're in the music theory, I'll set this one to a seven. So that's gonna be a perfect fifth now, making a major chord. And let's set this 1 to 12. It's gonna be an octave. So now every time that sound is hit for every attack in here, I'm going to be hitting that whole cord is gonna be resonating from it right now. If I change my fundamental pitch down all of these, adjust with it, right? This one didn't reason. E o. I already said that one. So 47 12. Ok, let's sit this 1 to 19. Okay, so now they're all of these are relative to this one, so we could do some cool stuff with automating this and you don't have to set him to 47 12 in 19. That was just a very kind of relatively boring ah, setting that I just came up with. Um I just dialed in a major chord here, but you can do whatever you want. You could do something really chromatic, which would be something like this. Let's do it's gonna be a little more chromatic, kind of dark sounding. Okay, let's look at a couple of other of our settings while we're here way Have a game for each one's weekend, pull back and fine tuned the way that chord speaks. So maybe we just want to hear this nine more and this one more than the others. We can really dial this in way confined tune hereby sense pulling these out of tune sounds kind of sad. Gonna leave those off for now. I've got a dry, wet mix here with gain. I could push the residents a little bit more if I want, and I've got this decay time. So how much it resonates now when we're in mode A here. What that means is that it's kind of set up to be like a piano, where the lower frequencies air going to resonate more than the higher frequencies. And would be it's more flat. So, um, if you think about sitting at a piano when you hit a low note, it resonates longer than high notes. Something on the guitar, right? Like if you hit really high note on your high E string of a guitar, it goes being It doesn't resonate real long unless there's like, a lot of distortion on it or something. So those are basic functions of the resonator. You can have a lot of fun with it. Check out some of these presets that air in here. You can do some really cool sounding stuff. Quippy floor went down a little bit. Go. So enjoy that. Have fun experimenting with the resonator. 37. Saturator: Okay, I'm next. Is saturate er Noah saturate er we kind of have to effects in one. So let's look at the We have a saturate er and a wave shaper and saturate. Er is kind of a wave shape in and of itself. But hold on to that word wave shaper for a minute, we'll get there. So what a saturated does is we're emulating Ah, old school analog distortion by pushing our signal above the point where it clips sometimes a lot above the point of where it clips. Um and so we're basically simulating clipping without actually clipping. So let me just kind of walk you through how that's represented here. Um, So here's our level. Okay, so you see this line right here, That line is our kind of simulated peak, right? That's where that's unity. That's where we're not supposed to go above, right, so we're, like, right on it, Right. But if you look at my actual signal over here, I've got tons of room. I'm just fine so I can drive this and go way over it, and it's gonna distort because it's going way over. But again, my signal is just fine. So we're simulating going way past that point where we're supposed to go and there's a couple different ways we can do it. Right now. We're on this analog clip mode, right so we can go way above that and we get that kind of analog distortion. Got some other forms, some other modes that give us slightly different flavors of distortion. I think this one is giving us a peek right at the top, then coming down, which is kind of resulting in a little pitchy. Nous. And here's our old school are new school sort of digital clipping. So if I really crank that, that's the digital clipping, which is less appealing on the digital clipping and the analog clipping. I believe you can use this soft clip where you can basically get this really gnarly digital clipping and then just tone it down with that isn't helping us a lot. Here's our analog clip E tone it down makes it a little more, ah, desirable that way. So these are the different modes right now. Let's look at this. So we've also got, you know, a filter in here. Basic stuff that we've seen 100 times before. Let's look at the super cool thing Really powerful effect. And that is this wave shaper. Um, Now we're kind of doing a wave shaper, and by pushing it by designing a system for how it's going to push it, right, so it's gonna push it more. Ah, as it gets higher in volume, right is going to basically push it more unless, ah, wave shapers gonna let us have a lot of definition over that. And this is where we can get some really gnarly sounds. So in order to do that, I need more controls. I'm only I'm not seeing any way to actually shape this wave. I've selected wave shaper, but I need some controls to actually shape that wave. So what I want you to do is hit this button right here. That's where the rest of our controls are. This guy right here, if you want to do anyway of shaping first job, is to hit that button because we need these controls over here. Okay, so let's see what we've got. So, Lynn Neary, Lynn, I could never say this word. Right, Lynn near Lanier E ality, Lanie Reality No, Lynn Neary aren t wow. Anyway, the amount to which it is Lanier. So if it's just flat, nothing is pushed. The more we vertical, we make it, the more we're pushing it, let's leave it right about there for now. Also, the amount of DR is related to the amount to which it is in the near curve. Remember, that sine wave gave us a little pitchy, nous And now we're basically adding more of those things is kind of like how many cycles of the wave do we want waken increase this dampening which will actually make us It'll just make sure that we hit zero on the grid here. Right depth is gonna incl crease dramatic nous of our peaks, which is going to give us more, um, dynamic variation Pull our drive back a little bit. We can hear this a little better, and the period is how many peaks we have. So if we really crank this up, we're going to get a lot of a small wave forms in there. Now, wave shapers are a favorite tool for, um, that distortion. That's like, um, like the Trent Reznor guitar tone. I always call it He I believe runs most of his guitars through a wave shaper, and I read once he does it using this old old old school program, and he's got to keep like a Mack running like OS four around or something like that. Ah, using this program called Turbo synth. It was actually an awesome program I used to love using Turbo sent, but it's long gone now, Um, but let's see what we can do with this, so I just really drive the crap out of it. You know, I'm getting that really, uh, compressed, saturated sound. It's basically pushing the signal way past unity, clipping like crazy and then and then giving it a hair cut across the top. Right is what it's doing. So everything is just going well past unity, and they were chopping off the tops of those peaks to make it fit into our nice, well controlled signal. Over here, that's what saturation is. We're just squeezing everything we can out of that signal, and then we're just give a little haircut so that we can control it a little bit better. So enjoy the saturate. Er, play around with that, um, play around with this wave shaper and really getting some cool sounds out of it. I think you like it 38. Vocoder: all right. Last one of our frequency based effects. And it's a recorder. So we probably come across vocoder is before, um, you know the sound of a vocoder. You've heard it a lot. Um, the kind of classic vocoder song is Ah. Oh, Superman by Laurie Anderson. Um, the modern classic vocoder sung is ah, hide and seek by Imogen Heap. Check out both those two tracks there. Very interesting and use a vocoder almost exclusively. Um, both of them, I think, have a couple other sounds, but not much like it's mostly vocoder. So what a vocoder is is it's going Teoh, let us tune our not I was about to say tune our voice, but it's not limited. The only voice it doesn't have to be a voice. Um, we can use its two in anything. It's important to realize that it's different than auto tune. Vocoder is not auto tune. Um auto tune is a separate thing. Ah, and what a vocoder does is it's it's better at taking an impulse like our voice or a drum or anything and applying a cord to it, right? So let me just show you how it works. So when I load one up, So I've got it loaded up here on my drum track. Okay, Now I'm gonna turn it on, and I'm going to set the carrier to just noise. So I have a couple of options here. So noise, uh, just noise. That means, you know, a noise burst is gonna come through, and we're gonna use the impulse of our audio signal of our drum signal to Ah, and we're gonna modulate it with noise. Basically what them is what that means. Things kind of like convolution that we were talking about earlier, right? We've got a lot of noise. Got some settings for it. Now, that's interesting, but let's modulate it with something better. So I'm gonna go external here. So external modulator means point me to a track that we're gonna use as the modulator. Right? So I'm gonna use this pad sound. So let me just solo that to refresh your memory. Here it is D minor chord, OK? No, let's hear it with the pad modulating the drum loop and I'm muting the pad, actually, so we're not gonna actually hear the pad out of its channel pads gonna go over here. Modulate that. And then we're only gonna hear this channel, right? That's pretty cool, actually, because we're getting that d minor chord is now controlling the drum groove where you can think of it the other way drums air controlling the D minor court. It's almost like a side chain effect, But it's not side, Jane. It's kind of side change in a way I guess you could think of. Now, here's where we start to get into the cool vocoder stuff. I'm gonna go back into my clip, my mini clip. I'm gonna just change this a little bit So I'm going to do so. I've got this d minor chord I'm gonna add another chord That's gonna be Ah, g chord Let's go G d or am I That's actually do G d. E. So it's kind of any minor chord. It's a weird cord, but I think it's gonna sound fun. And then we'll add another chord. Let's add Ah, see, I've got a G e. Let's maybe do a C major chord. See e and a G. That's not right at all. C of d There there's a I E. And let's add one more cord. Um, something that leads us back to a D accord. And a cord would be great for that. Let's go. Here we have an A. Now I need a c sharp, and I mean cool. So here is my core progression. I'm gonna solo it like that last chord. Patina to minor. So there's my core progression. Now let's head back over to our vocoder. Turn off this track the pad. So we're only gonna hear the pad through the vocoder now, wear some drums with that. E could put some of the dry back in e. I could hear only what I think. That sounds actually really beautiful. Okay, What I'm gonna do now is I'm gonna add an audio track, and I'm just gonna record in my voice. We're gonna do some kind of daft, punky sounding stuff here. So, um, with my weird audio set up here, I might have some problems doing this. So let me go into my preferences. It's gonna walk you through. I'm gonna do this. I want my input device to be a my built in, which normally I'd want it to be my motew because that's what my microphones plugged into. But that's gonna cause problems because my microphones plugged into the computer, which is running through my screen capture software and blah blah blah. So I'm just gonna use the built in microphone. You'll find that when you do this. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna record myself talking, and then I'm going Teoh, um, vocoder it. I'm gonna use the vocoder on it to add all kinds of pitch. So I'm not even going to try to embarrass myself by singing Was gonna talk. The quality of the audio recording isn't actually super important because we're going to get most of the equality from the vocoder. Ah, OK, so ah, armed to record except monitored off. So I don't feed back like crazy. That was gonna record. What should I say? Um, I guess I'll start talking. This'd is the ultimate able to in live class five, and we're doing some really cool stuff. We're learning about the vocoder right now, and I think it's Superfund, and I think you will, too. Goodbye. Okay, here is my signal. It's boosted. Just touch. Now, I might need to throw a compress around there, but let's hope not and just see what happens. So what I'm gonna do is I'm just gonna take this clip over here where I already have my vocoder set up. So my vocoder is set up to listen to this pad. Well, let's just see what happens. Everyone. So, um, this is, like, out of time, because I recorded all that. And while I was recording that, I said, why am I still hearing the drums in that? If you were thinking that too, I felt like I was obligated to chime in with the solution to that because I was thinking about it kind of all day was wrong. And now I'm editing that video. And, um, I realize what I screwed up. Why you're hearing the drums. So what you just heard and I'm gonna play it for you again into second. What you heard was, um I recorded my voice speaking through my internal microphone while I was playing the drums out loud. That was a problem. So in the audio file of my voice, the drums were also coming back in, and the recording of my voice had the drums in it, Which is why the vote coded signal sounds still like it's got drums in it, while at same time there is inflection of my voice in there. But it's also got drums. That's what was happening. If you caught on to that, if you latched on to that when you just watched that, then you get a gold star. You in the prize? Um, if you didn't, then that's perfectly OK because I didn't either, Actually. So that's why we heard drums, or at least, like, solid percussions still happening while the vocoder was going in that last bit that I just did. I'm gonna play that for you one more time and then move on. So I just wanted to point out Ah, I'm not to Ah, my ego is not so big that I can't point out my flaws. That was a flaw. Um, so, uh, if I would have shut everything off and then just recorded my voice, I wouldn't have had that problem. So that's what happened. Um, experiment around with it. There's a ton more you could do with vocoder. I'm not really giving a justice, but, um, I just kind of wanted to give you a big overview of the vocoder This is one of the effects that we could write a book on. Uh, I'm sure somebody has so check out some of the other settings. Some of the presets that you can do with it. Ah, and have some fun with the vocoder. I think you'll like it. 39. What Are Dynamic Effects: Okay. Our third big group dynamic effects. We're gonna be talking about dynamic effects in this chunk. Dynamic effects is it's a fancy way to talk about volume and effects that are going toe change our volume. But it's not just like, uh, you know, there's more than the volume could go up and down, right? Um, waken just say, yeah, there's a dynamic effect. Turn the volume up and down Now there's more to it than that. For example, Um, let's look at this way form. We're looking at here and hearing we see clearly these points are kicks, and these points are snares right? And are Hi, hat or shaker? Let's call it a high hat. Are these other points in their quiet? Right? Well, what if we wanted to level that playing field? What if you wanted to bring out our high half? There are things we could do that would do that. Um what if we wanted Teoh A. Just the spread of frequencies in the left and right can turn up the spread of dynamics in the right left channel. What if we wanted quiet stuff in one channel in loud stuff in Watertown? You can do that. It's kinda creepy effect. Um so dynamic effects are really important there, often less dramatic than the frequency and time effects. But that can be really important for mixing. They can really they can. Sometimes we really important for producing and just writing the track because there's some things that you just can't get over, um, that you might need to do. For example, one of the first things we're gonna work on in the next video is this example that I use all the time for like, a stage whisper. Basically, what that means is if I whisper into a microphone and I yell into a microphone without clipping it, uh, how can I make those sound the same volume? But still give it the feeling that I'm whispering, right, cause if I literally whisper and then I literally yelled and I mix that So my yell is at a good volume for the track. My whispers gonna be inaudible, right? Um, if I said it So my whisper Is that a good volume for the track? My yell is gonna be way were clipped. So there are some things I can do is to flatten that out and make it so that the whispers still sounds like a whisper. But it's had a good volume, and the yell still sounds like a yell. But it's not clip so well, look at that. That's called compression. We're gonna do that first, Um so as a dynamic effects are, they are different kinds of volume adjustments for the track, so let's time it. 40. Compressor: possibly the most widely used of ah, dynamic effect is the compressor. So, um, let's work on the compressor. We could say that a lot of the other dynamic effects, not all of them, but a lot of them are actually variations of compressors. So here's what a compressor does. I sort of talked about this earlier, but, um, so you've got a loud signal and a quiet signal, uh, in the same clip, let's say right. So, like the drum thing, let's actually pull that up here. Um, maybe this might be a better example. Okay, let's look at this one. So here we've got a kick. Let's assume that's a kick. I think it is. Um, and here we've got high hats. Okay, let's assume that's what those are Now. What if we wanted to bring out those high hats? We can't just do this and boost those. Well, we could, but it wouldn't be. We'd have to manually do it all the way across, and it wouldn't be the best way to do it. What we could do is at a compressor, which is going to depending on how we set that compressor. It can push this the volume of the loud stuff down and the volume of the quiet stuff up right? It's it. Ah changes the dynamic, Um, of the two. So a simple way to think about a compressor is that it makes the quiet stuff louder and allowed stuff quieter. Right. Um, let's try it on this clip. Um, so let's say I want to bring out those high hat, so let's throw a compressor on there. Sorry to get one. Let's get rid of one of those. Okay, so here's what we're looking at with a compressor. Ah, the able 10 compressor gives us three ways to look at stuff. My two favorite ways. Actually, only look at all I'm gonna show you all three of these ways because they show us more or less the same information, but in different ways. But this is the traditional way that will look at a compressor when these two are kind of unique to able to. But this middle one is more traditional, So if you're going to be looking at a compressor in another program or another compressor enabled him, you're probably gonna be looking at something that looks kind of like this okay, so we can move this dot in the middle, right? I'm not gonna go over all of these settings and everything, but ah, because I just really want you to understand how this is working. Basically, what's happening here is this is our dynamic range is quiet stuff. This is loud stuff, right? And this is the amount of squashing that's happening, okay, squashing being the technical term for pushing the volume down. So if I set this to be like this, so a straight line, that means that if this volume of thing comes in, then this volume of thing goes out. If this volume of thing comes in, this volume of thing goes out, so it's not doing anything, okay? And we can tell it's not doing anything because this g r that stands for gain reduction. That's the amount to which we are altering most of the time, reducing but altering the gain. The volume right now that's not showing us anything. I pull this down. Now we are reducing the game. So we're seeing some of that gain reduction show up here. So what's happening when I change this? Let's do it. Something kind of dramatic like that. Okay, so now the volume is being unaffected down here. But as I go above this point, it flattens out, which means something that comes in and is super loud is going to get pushed down a little bit before it goes out. It's not totally flat. If it was totally flat like that, that means everything that comes in all volume that comes in all signal that comes in is going to be either boosted or reduced to meet to bay. Basically, sit right on this line. Ah, in terms of volume, like it's always gonna be right there. It's going to totally flat, no dynamic change. Now you can imagine when this would be a really bad idea. This particular thing I have dialed in right now is often a very bad idea. This is like extreme compression. And that means, like, let's think of, for example, like, um, the recording of in orchestra writes very delicate. There's a lot of dynamic contrast doing something like this. What we have set up here to an orchestra would completely ruin that performance, right? It's gonna make everything the same volume. It's gonna sound terrible. Um, so let's hear what this does to our drumbeat. So listen to those high hats, right? There's loud is the snare drum. Now. Sometimes it's hard to tell without really focusing your ear on it. But listen carefully and think about the snare drum and the high at They're the same volume now concerned that compressor off for a minute, right? Very different now. One thing that's happening here and I'm gonna leave it running to see that first kick is shooting outside of our output. The reason that kick is getting through and it's not being reduced the same way everything else is because it's hitting too fast. So what we can do is down here on the attack and release Weaken dialling. How fast this thing is going to respond to the signal. If I pull this back and say respond faster. Here we go. Now we got it. So now it's latching onto that kick fast enough, and you can you can feel the compressor here because when that kick hits, you can feel it. Get pushed down and you can feel almost the kit, get pushed down and then have to ramp back up. It ramps back up extremely fast. In fact, that releases the rant back up. It's 50 milliseconds, but and we could reduce that. But then we make craziness, so you have to be a little delicate on that. But whenever you do compression like this, you're going to hear that kind of bottom fall out of stuff. Sometimes if you're doing really extreme compressing like we're doing now, let's do less extreme. Okay, so now our gain reduction is a little, you know, more tame. And what we're really doing here is we're pushing that kicked down a little bit. We're boosting those high hats a little bit, and that's a little bit ah, more in line with with what's happening. So I want to point out one other thing here. The dry, wet mix. This is unique to able to. You don't I believe you don't see this in most compressors. A dry, wet mix. Most of the time, the compressor is honor off. Um, this comes out of I'm not gonna go into this too much, but there's this. There's different styles of compression. There's like New York compression and all kinds of other kinds of compression. Um, look it up look up New York compression. Um, but what that means is that we're basically going Teoh, compress it and then mixed some of the un compressed signal in like this. So Ah, and this is new and live nine. I think that we have a dry, wet ah, on our compressor. Let me show you. Ah, these other views just so you can get a different visual of what's happening. So if you look at this one, this is actually really nice to see what's happening here. So in light grey, here we see our signal. Here we see our threshold and we can adjust it by clicking and dragging. And then this line here is is the gain reduction so we can see the amount to which it's being reduced. Right? So I pull our threshold all the way down. Now we're being reduced, like even more like way more. If I push it up, make it more subtle. Now we're just pulling a little bit out of these. These really loud attacks here are getting more reduction, and stuff like this in between is getting almost nothing. Right? Let's look at the third way of looking at this one's a little bit simpler. Here's our threshold. Here's our outputs volume boost. And here's our gang reduction so we can no dial that in to give it a lot or just a little. It's just a little compression. So that's how compression works. It's a volume balance, or if you will, now, let me use this whisper example. Ah, here is an audio file where I've whispered and I've yelled It's kind of a tame yell because I didn't want to clip my mike, which it looks like I did a tiny bit, but let's just hear it. Oops, Let's kill that drum loop. This is me whispering and this is me, Ally. Okay, that was my Muppet voice yell, But that's OK. So what if we want to put this in the track and we want both those volumes to be good, right? Ah, this is ah, pretty good use for a compressor. Let's throw a compressor on that. Look at it over here. I'm just gonna flatten those guys straight out, right? Let's just hear what happens. This'd me whispering. This is May I right. So you heard my whisper was suddenly loud and my yell was suddenly quiet her, which made them the same volume. Now the bad side that happened with that is that it's screwed up our signal to noise ratio . And we got a whole bunch more, um, noise. So we might want to be a lot more delicate about that. And this is me. I This is me whispering, and this is me yelling right so that our reduction is going. This is an artist, and this is me, Ally. So there we can see what's happening a little more clear, this one, this is me whispering and this is me. I So it's even ing out my whisper and my yell. So what's cool about that to me is that there's some kind of, like psychological effects to that where it still sounds like I'm whispering. So if you put that in the context of a track, you still get the feel of a whisper. Because the sound of it, you know, all the upper frequencies and stuff is still a whisper. And a yell is still the sound of a yell. We've just tamed the volumes a bit. So in the context of a track that works mighty Okay, all right, So that's compression. It's a balancer of volumes. Ah, if you remember only one thing about the compressor. Remember this. A compressor makes the loud stuff quieter and quieter. Stuff louder. Right? Cool. Let's move on to a different kind of compressor. 41. Glue Compressor: up next is the glue compressor. Now, this one works a little bit differently, but it's still the same basic idea. So the idea is that we have something that's going Teoh, uh, alter our dynamic space a little bit. Um, this one also has some kind of secret sweetness in it. It's designed to model an old, um, bus compressor. Ah, that was really popular. And the idea is that we put it not on a single track, but on a group. So and it helps kind of bring everything together by compressing it all at once and kind of sweetening it. It's a very subtle effect, So let's try it. So what I have here is I've made ah, little quick little beat. Um and so let's just hear what I've got. Okay? So a pretty simple little thing. Ah. So what I'm gonna do to use this glue compressor is the first thing I'm gonna do is I'm gonna group all my tracks together, so I'm gonna shift click to get all four of my percussion sounds. And this isn't just for percussion. You can do this with a lot of different stuff. I've seen a lot of people just put a glue compressor on their master track even and just use it for the whole mix. Um, but okay, so I've got force my four percussion selected. I'm gonna command G. I'm gonna put them all in a group, Okay? And let's call this, uh, drums. Oops. Trump's. Okay, So now all my four drum tracks are here. Now, I'm gonna do is I'm gonna go to my glue compressor. I'm going to drop that right on the group. Right? So now it's affecting everything in the group by being in effect on the group. You can do this with any effect. By the way. You can put it on the group if you want. Okay. So what style is in a little bit way have that dry, wet mix again? So we can We could, you know, push it really hard by pulling that threshold down and then mix in the UN compressed. Okay, so that's not bad now, Like I said, it's a subtle effect, so I'm gonna turn it off for a second. Just listen back on. So it's subtle, but it it can really help control your mix. If you've got something where there's Ah lot of stuff going on, and it's just not feeling like it's just kind of jelling together. Try experimenting with the glue compressor. Ah, you can have some really good results on it in the right situation. 42. Limiter: I'm next is a limiter. Now I'm gonna go back to my beat here, Just my loop that I got here. In fact, let's try it on this other one. What a limiter does. It's kind of like a compressor. Um, it's like half a compressor, right? So what eliminator does? It basically says this is the top volume. We're gonna call that the stealing and nothing shall pass above that. Basically, when you hit that ceiling, you are done. I am pushing everything else down. No delicate adjusting of the volumes like a compressor dies. This is brute force. Do not go above the top. So let's turn it on so I can push the gain a little harder if I want. But basically, here's my ceiling. It's set to zero. That's my top. I can lower the ceiling and see my gain reduction here, and you kind of hear its effects. But it's really more of a mixing effect. You know, we're basically compressing it here by just pushing it way, way, way, way down. So this is an effect that you would want to use in the mix. Um, to maybe control a signal. That's that's just getting too out of control. Um, this might be something good that to combine with. If you're using, like a really aggressive distortion effect, that's kind of getting out of control. You can put a limiter on it just to make sure that it doesn't spike above a certain point or something like that. So, um, it's a good effect to help control your mix a little bit more. 43. Multiband Dynamics: okay. Up next. Is this multi band dynamics. Now, this is a bit more complicated one, but it's basically, um Ah, three band compressor. Right? So we know what a three band effect would be. That means we've got a low, mid and high frequency range is what we're talking about here. So we've got three different frequency ranges, and we're going to apply compression on each of the frequency ranges separately so we can compress the lows separately from compressing the highs and the mitts. Right. Um, so you might want to do this. You've got, like, a bass track that you want, you know you want, um, maybe you've got a bass track that's to Basie. And you want to pull that down a little bit and get it under control. Things like that. This is really more of a mastering, uh, plug in. I see you use a lot for mastering stuff, and mastering isn't quite my bag, so I don't know it. Super. Well, um, so let's just walk through a couple of the parameters here. So our main we've got kind of three hidden tabs down here, and this one is time below and above are three. So time is our attack in a release Times right. Attack! Release, attack! Release! Attack! Release! Tack willies below is our settings over here how far it's gonna go and our ratio and above is our upward compression. So let's do something like this. Let's get rid of the below. Let's only do upward. I kind of randomly set these when increase my threshold a little bit here So you can hear what's happening here, right? When I adjust these the different threshold I consent my ranges over here my high and my low in the mid is always gonna be in between can adjust my input volume in my output volume . Now, if you're mastering, you might want to do something like this. Um, first of all, we haven't talked much about mastering in any of my a built in courses. But here's my official Ah, explanation on how to master attract the foolproof way for mastering a track. Are you ready? You gotta track. It's ready to go. You're happy with the mix. You bounce it out. You're like, Ok, now it's time to master this thing. What is the one thing I can do? That's gonna make this thing sound awesome. The one mastering trick that you need to know. You ready? Here it is. Send it to a mastering engineer. I'm serious. Like it's worth the money. Um, it's not as expensive as you would think. And, um, mastering is like a ah, very fine art. And it takes it really takes a hell of a near, um and a lot of you know, there's a lot of math. There's a lot of stuff that I just have never wanted to devote a lot of time to learning. But a good mastering engineer can turn that thing around and just make it really pop. And you'll you'll be so thankful that you did it. Um, I have a mastering engineer that I send all my stuff to. Um it's the best investment you could make for your tracks. Wait till you've got a group of tracks. Send them all out. Ah, to someone who's really skilled at mastering, and that is not me. So multi band dynamics check out some of the presets. Um, you can explore some of these and fool around with it, see what you think, but basically what we're doing is. We've got three compressors and we've got an e que set up with three bands. Ah, low, mid high and then separate compressors on each and then a master output. 44. Gate: up next is a gate that we looked at a limiter, and Ah, Gates is kind of like an upside out limiter. Um, so let's take a drum track here. Now, What a gate is gonna do is it's going to say, um I'm going to set a threshold, and that's gonna be a certain point of volume. And the gate is basically going to be The threshold is basically going to be the floor instead of the ceiling. So what that means is that the volume of the signal coming in has to be that loud. It has to hit the threshold in order to reach the output. If it doesn't hit that threshold, it doesn't go through. So it's like setting this bottom rung, and then everything has toe exceed it for you to hear it either exceeds it and you hear it or it doesn't exceed it, and it gets wiped away. So let me tell you, ah, example, I had recently where ah, gate was the perfect solution. Um, I was in a recording studio recording a, um, spoken word thing for it was like this narrative for this play. It was kind of weird. Project but there's a spoken word thing and the, um So we had this voice actor in there and she was talking and ah, it sounded great. We got a really good sound out of it. But every now and then there was a band rehearsing in the next studio over. And because we were doing just this very quiet spoken word thing, you could hear that band, um, practicing in the recording very faintly at certain points. Very delicate recording we were doing and very loud thing they were doing. So I put a gate on it. So what that means is that when she was talking, when there was signal coming through, then the gate was open and all the signal was coming through, which means even the noise from the band was coming through. But when she wasn't talking, and if I could set this up just right and I did after a while of working with it that in between the words, the gate would close and nothing was let through, right? So we would still technically here the band when she was talking. But it would be mixed in with the sound of her voice and It was very quiet. So it worked. Um, it basically pulled it out. So when the signal is below a certain point, the gate is closed. When the signal is above a certain point, the gate is open. Right? So it's kind of all or nothing. It's still like I said, whether is this threshold And it has to hit above it to go through. But it can't differentiate between what is, in my case, what was the intended spoken word and what was the noise in the background? I can't do that. But what it can do is say, if the signal is above this point, open the gate and then at a certain point, close it. So let's try it. Eso I'm gonna bypass it and turn the sun. Okay, Drum groove Get turned on this gate. Out of the box. All right, let's have a look here. Here we see our kick and our snare are hitting the threshold, and our high hats are no right. So Ah, there's two things I can do. I can adjust the return threshold and the top threshold. Now, what those mean are I believe it's thistles. Our main threshold and it's adjusting both of them. And the return is a relationship to the main threshold, which means it has to on its way down. If the time doesn't run out, the release doesn't hit. It has to exceed the return threshold in order to reset. So file that away for a minute. Let's just think about the threshold. It's actually just put these on top of each other's to simplify it for now so we can see our way form are kicking. Our snares can lower that to get some of the high hat. But let's say we wanted to try to fill throughout that high hat, and we wanted to make a sound less goofy. But we could do is we could adjust the Holden release times to see if we could get it just right. That's a little bit better, so it's not sounding as chopped up. So if I wanted to work with this and make it some even less chopped up, I might pull that released back just a hair more, and then I might throw a really, really, really, really tiny. We were about here just to try to cover up some of that that choppy sound. But that's basically all we're doing is we've got our release time, and then we're setting their threshold to where we want. If we only wanted the Kicks, consider it right at the top in between the kick and the snare. Now we're just getting the kicks. We're getting a tiny bit of the snare on that 2nd 1 because of this release time. Yeah, we go. So it takes a lot of experimentation to make a gate really useful for this kind of stuff, but it is a useful effect. You can think of it as I always think of it as an up, upside down limiter, although technically it's not an upside down limiter. But ah, it's that gets you in the ballpark of of what a gates doing. Remember, there is a threshold. When the signal goes above the threshold, open the gate. If it doesn't hit the threshold. If it's too low, gate stays closed. We'll come back to this concept of gate later when we talk about Max for life, because they could be really important in ah, the Max for live stuff in the next class. But for now, let's stay on effects 45. Auto Pan: Okay, let's talk about auto pan. Um, you might be wondering why did I include panning in the dynamic effect section? Um, well, it's actually pretty logical if you think about it. Panning is really just increasing or decreasing the volume in one of the two speakers right in the left or right speaker. So Ah, in a lot of ways, it is a dynamic effect. So this is you remember our auto filter, right? We basically had an LFO on a filter, and it moved the filter Auto pans very similar, except applied, depending. So, um, I'm gonna put on headphones now. I think you should to If you're just listening on your laptop, this is gonna be much more useful if you put on headphones. You might not be able to hear it if you're not, um, so I'm gonna start my loop. Okay, so I've got an amount, and you can see a nice representation here right now. I can already hear it jumping back and forth between left and right. I can change the speed of that. Console that down. Let's take the amount all the way up so that we go extreme left and right So now we're moving right, moving left back to right, right? So that's the speed we're going. Don't forget we can make this division of the beat every 16th note switch. Slow that down every quarter. Note. Switch sides. We can change the shape on the slow this way down so we can see what it's doing here even slower. That's the real change. The shape could make it a little bit more square. Basically, by doing that could also do these making more around so sawtooth triangle make more around and random a stew random on 1/4 note. That's actually pretty fun. It's almost a glitch effect. So fairly simple, right? It's It's an LFO on a panning thing, which is adjusting the volume of our signal across the to speakers of our left and right signal. Nothing too fancy there, but, ah, an understated effect. You can do kind of a lot with it, and it's and putting this amount of to 100 is not the ideal way to go, but doing something like like maybe even this random with the raid on 1/4 note, but like adjusting the amount down to maybe 25% like this much more subtle effect that I think will really kind of increase your mix and make it nice and, ah, give it a little some kind of hidden motion that people might not immediately notice. But ah will benefit the whole mix. 46. External Audio Effect: Okay. External audio effect. Now you remember external instrument. Right? Um, we talked about that in the last class. When we're going through all the instruments the external instrument was designed is basically just a rounding mechanism to get us out of our computer into another. Some, like an analog sent or some piece of analog or digital, but not in our computer year. The external audio affected the same way. Let's say you've got ah, guitar pedal that you really love. It's got like, a distortion. That is awesome sounding, um, you can if you want to use that with the external audio effect. What you would do is he would queue it up on a track. Um, you would set how you want to send it out. Now, what you would do is you would set it to your audio interface. So let's say I've got an audio interface set up, which I actually do. I'm gonna try to switch over to it, even though my, um, screen capture software is using it. I think it's gonna let me do this. Okay, so I have an audio interface hooked up that has a lot of outputs. So now that I've configured it. Aiken, say audio too. And I can say Channel five. Let's just say case So now all the audio on this track is going to get sent to my audio interface, Channel five. And then what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna run a cable out of channel five on my physical interface, and I'm gonna run that into my effect that I'm going to run in a ah cable out of my effect and back into So now, Now I'm going to say I'm gonna run that back into channel seven, and I'm just randomly choosing channels that I'm not using right now. Okay, So I'm gonna go out of channel five in this configuration, into my pedal out of the pedal into Channel seven and then, Ah, I can just use that effect as normal. I can dial in my effect on my guitar pedal or whatever I want. So that's what this external audio effect is designed to do. It's basically just gonna route audio out of our computer using our interface in this something something you want to do with it and then back into our computer. Ah, in a way that doesn't cause feedback, which is slightly delicate, which is why we want to do it with this and not just routing on our own. It's much simpler way to do it. So that's external audio effects. Pretty simple, actually. Um, yeah, Enjoy. 47. Vinyl Distortion: all right or almost done. Um are vinyl distortion. This is one that's, you know, pretty simple. Um, what we have here is basically what we're gonna do is we're gonna mix in the sound of playing. Ah, old record. Right. So let's ah, let's bypass it for the moment, start my track playing. Now, if I want this sound like an old record I'm gonna do, I just go slow this way down. It's gonna clean this up a little bit because that beat just didn't sound characteristic. There we go. Now let's add some vinyl to that. So all I've got here is we've got some e Q for how I want it going in there. And then I've got this crackle. I do have also hear this sort of kind of like the convolution thing we were talking about. It's basically a little drive, and just to get it blended in there a little bit better. But if I stop my clip, I can just hear the vinyl distortion. I can fine tune it exactly how I want and, uh, the volume. So it's pretty simple effect. You know it. It's going to simulate that you're on an old record. Cool. Enjoy some vinyl distortion 48. Spectrum: Okay, next up is spectrum. Now spectrum we could file away as another of the mastering tools spectrum doesn't do anything that we can hear. What spectrum does is it shows us with our eyes what we're hearing with our ears, right? So it's a way to visually represent what's happening. So I throw spectrum on a clip and I can see my frequencies going this way, just like Aneke you my volume going vertically. I could put my mouse over a point and see that readout in the lower left corner of it showing me that this 0.180 hertz approximately f sharp to, uh, and the volume the yeah, the volume that my mouse pointer is at negative 51 decibels. Um, I could do some settings here. I can only look at the Left Channel. I can look at the right channel. Both the refresh rate, uh, and Aiken to the linear or logarithmic scale. Some other, you know, technical stuff that gets more into the mastering engineer. I can also just like r E Q eight. I can pop this out into this big space up here to see it much better. And, you know, this is going to be used to tell us a lot about our signal. If it's, you know, if we're not liking a certain frequency and we want to track down this contro us that, um, help us isolate frequencies, boost frequencies. This is the kind of thing that a really good mastering engineer is going to sit and stare at for a while and, uh, really start to understand the signal before doing anything to it. So, um, it looks pretty, but its basic design is to really show you all the frequencies that are happening in your in your track or your clip and help you to find tune them for like in, like, a mastering situation. So play around with it. It's fun. I like it. 49. Tuner: All right, let's talk about the tuner. Tuner is a straight up utility plug in, um, that we can use to show us the pitch. Now, I actually find a lot of use out of the tuner just for production. Here's why. Um, if you pull a sample in and you want to make a synthesizer out of it, you want to pull it into a synth and treat it like, um, a multi sample or something like that. You got to know what pitch it is. And if it's out of tune, that could be a problem. So ah, here's what I do. So I just recorded my voice singing a pitch out of tune Ah, I'm gonna lie to you and tell you that I intentionally singing out of tune. But in reality, I I just Okay, so here's this is just looping me singing pitch. Okay, so now I'm gonna go over. I'm gonna turn on my tuner. I'm gonna look at it. Okay, so it looks like I almost saying Aggie, but I was a little flat. How flat? Let's take a look here. So I'm just going to stare at this for a second and see, I see upwards of 22 low of about 14 12 trying to say I'm gonna, uh, split the difference. Say, about 18. Now, I'm gonna go over to my clip. We're gonna go to sense, because that sense not this one. That's the whole pitch. Going to go to the sense and say about 18. I'm gonna raise that about 18 cents. I'm gonna go back to my tuner and we're green, which means we're pretty in tune were wobbling around the pitch, but everything wobbles around the perfect pitch. Um, so I just pulled that in tune. So now if I'm gonna make a synthesizer out of it, it's at least in tune to start with, right? So that's how you can use the, um, the tuner to help you design. Ah, Maurin tunes synthesizers. 50. Utility: all right, The last utility plug in there we're gonna talk about actually the last audio effect that we're going to talk about. We went through the whole bloody list. Crazy. Um, so the last utility plug and I want to talk about is the one conveniently called utility. Um, this one has a lot of useful tricks to it. Um, so let's play. Ah, let's throw it on. Um, get rid of that for a minute. Throw it on this. So here's what utility can do it can you A couple different things if you have a DC offset issue in your audio clip Ah, you can hit that to help resolve it. You can just mute the whole thing, which this is actually more useful than you would think. Um, when you're working on a very complicated effect, especially in an audio effects rack which we're gonna talk about next, I think, um, the having basically throwing in a mute button that you can automate can be really helpful . So remember if sometimes you just need a mute button to throw in there, we can boost or, ah, take away, reduced the game and weaken set the channels now this is where things get really useful to me the most of the time when I've had to use this utility plug in because somebody sent me an audio file where it was like a drum sample and it was recorded in stereo. But one channel sounds great and the other channel sounds terrible. So what you can do is say, OK, only give me the left Channel or swap channels or only give me the right channel, and then you can still panic how you want. So basically, we're we're converting a su mano signal and summing it together. Um, so here's the panning of what we've done to that channel. And then if he said it stereo, we have a with control, right? You've got a phasing problem. You can adjust phasing here, so it's fairly simple. But when you're encountered with an audio problem, like a channel is is nasty and you want to try to get rid of a channel or you get a stereo recording. Um, but one channel is empty. That's happens kind of a lot specially on voice stuff. Someone will record it in stereo, Um, but they only use one Mike And so there's a stereo recording in one channel is empty. Um, so if you just play it in a clip, you're going to hear all of the signal on one side and nothing on the other side so you can throw this utility on there. Let's say these signal is in the right channel. Say okay, right channels the only when I want panic center. And then you've basically done what's called a mono some of the signal and, ah, you fixed the problem. Basically, that's what utility can do. It can just fix our problems that you may have mostly with an audio signal that that's been recorded. 51. Wrap Up: All right, everyone. We have reached the end of the fifth of the able 10 classes. Now, here's the deal. I told you that we were gonna cover deejaying in this class, and I had to split that into another class. So that is coming very, very shortly. I wanted to get all this stuff done, all of the effects done to really get you up to speed on how everything works. And the problem is that this class ended up being like, however many is 60 some videos. And when I added in all the deejaying stuff, we got over 100 videos and, ah, lot of the online platforms for classes won't let me do that. Um, so I had to break it into a separate class. So, uh, but I think this class is great on its own, and it stands on its own, and it's gonna be really great for you. Um, which I don't know why I'm telling you that now causes the end, and you've already taken it. But I hope you had a great time. Um, please keep an eye out for, uh, my able to live six class, which will be on controllers and deejaying techniques. It will be out very shortly on then. After that, we'll do a max for live class, and then you will officially know everything there is to know about able to live, and we'll achieve able to ninja status. So I hope you had fun Who pay Check out some of my other classes on. And, uh yeah, I guess that's all I have to say. Um, have fun. Making some noise with some girl affects seeing the next class. 52. SkillshareFinalLectureV2: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.