The universe as we know it | The Learning Hub | Skillshare

The universe as we know it

The Learning Hub, The stuff of life.

The universe as we know it

The Learning Hub, The stuff of life.

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22 Lessons (1h 46m)
    • 1. 1.Introduction

      0:55
    • 2. 2.The Universe & our solar system

      7:20
    • 3. 3.The Sun

      6:22
    • 4. 4.Mercury - The swift planet

      4:29
    • 5. 5.Venus - Morning & Evening star

      4:50
    • 6. 6.Our planet EARTH

      8:04
    • 7. 7.Mars - The Red One

      6:19
    • 8. 8.Asteroid Belt - Home of ceres

      5:42
    • 9. 9.Jupiter - The gas giant

      6:11
    • 10. 10.Saturn - The ringed planet

      5:13
    • 11. 11.Coldest planet Uranus

      5:08
    • 12. 12.Neptune - The last planet

      5:15
    • 13. 13.Kuiper Belt - Pluto's Home

      2:20
    • 14. 14.Comets - Cosmic snowballs

      4:51
    • 15. 15.The Oort Cloud

      2:45
    • 16. 16.Cosmic definitions

      10:30
    • 17. 17.Oumuamua

      6:31
    • 18. 19.The great attractor

      4:58
    • 19. 18.Tabby star

      4:31
    • 20. 20.Boomerang Nebula

      3:20
    • 21. 21.Feats in space

      7:41
    • 22. 22.The First picture of a BLACK HOLE

      5:00
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About This Class

Hello all !!

I came up with this course due to an extremely amusing encounter. My 7 Years old daughter found a very old textbook of mine which included Pluto as the 9th planet & she asked me why she can't see it in her textbooks. So I explained her the good old story of Pluto loosing its planet status in 2005. That gave me a drive to create a course that can help anyone to remind what lies beyond. I personally enjoyed making this course. Following are some important points covered.

1.Our solar system including comets,dwarf planets and asteroids.

2.Comprehensive description of all the 8 planets and the sun.

3.Cosmic definitions like black hole,black body, CMB radiation, Supernova, Nebula, Kuiper belts, Oort cloud etc;

4.The NAVAGRAHA system in Hindu astrology.

5. Mysterious events,objects and anomalies in the universe like Oumuamua, The great attractor, Boomerang nebula etc;

6.Brief description of all the major attempts made by mankind to the space.

7. Achievements in the field of astronomy and cosmology (The 1st pic of BLACK HOLE)

If by going through this class, you end up looking deep into the night sky, that would be a total WIN for us.

Best Regards

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The Learning Hub

The stuff of life.

Teacher

The Learning hub aims at providing classes which are useful for everyone. We have best in class instructors to teach you some of the most trending and must have skills in the market.

Most of the classes are in English (India) language and are very meticulously prepared for the students,creators,enthusiasts and professionals. The curated classes include areas as such graphic design,audio and video editing,photography,illustrations,lifestyle,teaching and academics, and the list goes on and on.

Our faith is in our students. They grow, We grow.

Namaste.

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Transcripts

1. 1.Introduction: Yeah. 2. 2.The Universe & our solar system: Let's talk about the greatest mystery off all the time. The universe, the universe is the sum total of all existence. It is an entity off time, space, matter and energy according to the Big Bang hypothesis, which is the most acceptable theory off all time. The universe came into existence some 13.8 billion years ago. So at the very beginning, all the matter was compacted into very small ball, with intense density in finite density and intense heat that we called singularity. Singularity is basically a point in which all physical laws are indistinguishable from 100 . Space and time are no longer interrelated realities but Mars together and sees to have any independent meaning that it's what single a divorce and from that singularity something beautiful the month. And that is what the universe Villiard and in this use Universal's. We are having our solar system. So from junior was prospective. When we see our solar system would might not be one will into a green. Absent. Many scientists think that our solar system was formed from a giant rotating cloud of gas and dust known as Solar Nebula as the nebula collapsed because of its own gravity. It is spun faster and flat and indoor disk. Most of the monetary in WAAS pulled was the center to form our son. Other particles within the disc collided and stuck together to farm XT right sized objects named us planete symbols, some off each combined to become the straits comments, moons and planets and some unfortunate planets. Those who are not able to clear their neighboring listens became dwarf planets like cities . The solar wind from the sun was so powerful that strapped over most of the lighter elements like hydrogen and helium from the innermost planets, leaving behind mostly small, rocky worlds like Margaret Venus, Earth and moss. And in the outer reason we are having only gas giants that are made up of mostly hydro's on an ilium like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus. And by looking into our solar system. Son is at the center. Mockery is the first planet. Second is Venus, thirties, earth, forties mask. So this four planets makes the inner circle Artur. They're basically the inner planets. After months, we're having Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Match day forms the outer planets in between Mars and Jupiter. As you can see, the asteroid belt in which a loft Planet cities is located. As I told earlier, dwarf planets are what they are planning. Symbols which are unable and basically what we can say unfortunate, unable to clear their neighboring areas. And one more conception is that Jupiter's gravity withheld sees toe become a planet itself . Apart from disaster belt, there are two more straight bells as well that Waas called frozen and hater, and they are under the influence off job. Then we have Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. After that, we're having keeper better in which brutal is situated. And who doesn't You being there? Blue lost its planet status in 2005. The star closes to our earth is approximates and jewelry, and our earth is the only inevitable place in which life consistent. Now, just let's learn about some important facts about our solar system. The outermost layer up the sun is called corona, which is visible on Lee duty and clips. We're going to discuss all these things in the coming lectures. Step would. I'm just briefing you about, you know, the planet that rotate from east to west are Venus and Serena's basically in normal raid the planet would it from west to east, Just like but the planet. Those so apposite fashion our Venus and Uranus in a planet like Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. I already told in outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The smallest planet off our solar system is market E. It could help in blue door, but Ludo has lost its planeta stiffness in 2005. The brightest planet of the solar system is Venus, and it's also the hottest. Why that I will tell you in the next lecture Evening or morning star are between off. Art is also Venus. Blue Planet is obviously our planet. Read or fear your dusty, That is mosque. The largest one is the Jupiter. And Jupiter is also the fastest, fastest rotating planet as well. The slow is rotating planet is Venus. So this much information that you got in this lecture, I like you too. Make a list off all the planets and try to find out if they are having moons are not. And if they're having how many and which are making news. Thank you so much. It's you in the next lecture 3. 3.The Sun: in the last lecture. How, given your assignment to find out the number off moons or satellites the planets are having . So let's discuss them one by one. In what we're having. More Mars. We have Phobos and Deimos in Jupiter's. We have Calisto, Allora, Europa and Ganymede. See, we're discussing on Lee the major ones. All right, So, Calisto, Allora, Europa and Ganymede are off Jupiter's, in which Ganymede is the largest set light. The side of Ganymede is is somewhat school in Pomona. Chorister In sudden we help Atlas. Pichon Dantes, Phoebe area. Um, Alan, you're Enas. We're having Miranda Titania Bell in the area and in naturally help. I didn't let it. So if you have noticed off, the planets are having satellites with the same way. That is second and that do not headings that like the name title. Now let's talk about the structure off our solar system and we will begin with the sun itself. The sun is by far the largest object in our solar system. It contains 99.8% off solar systems. Must 0.2% is what we call the rest of the planets the mitral, the steroids the golf planets, so the sun is the largest object that is located in our solar system. The planets which orbit the sun, follows the old shape but that call ellipses, in which son is slightly off center off each ellipse. That sense composition is 70% hydrogen, 28% ilium and somewhat lesser than 2% off metal. And this changes slowly. Over time, the sunken was high does into helium. In its core, the outer layer of the sun exhibited different shelled rotation. What is a differential rotation? Different probation in different areas, like it takes a 25.4 days to complete its rotation. If we considered the creator and near the bowl, it takes somewhat 36 days. This odd beer really is due to the fact that son is not a solid body. The sun's power is somewhat around 387,000,000,000 megawatts and is produced by nuclear fusion reactions. Surface of the sun, it's called fordo sphere, and the temperature there is near about 5800. The sun has certain sports that are called sunny sports, which are cool reasons, as compared to the other reasons it's about 3000 and 800 calories. They look darker also has comparison with the surrounding regions. Sunny sports are really complicated and it's not well understood by us, and its interaction with that sense magnetic field is not yet stablize properly. There's a small reason known as the Chroma spear that lies abode of photos, fear in which I organized there, which we can see in a total solar at tips. What a solar eclipse is, how it happens. All this thing we're wonder. Discuss in the coming lectures. In addition to Heat and Light, son. Also amid low density stream off charge particles called solar event, which propagate towards the solar system at about 450 kilometers per second, the solar vin and the much higher energy particles exacted by solar flares can have dramatic effects on Earth. Renzi from power surges radio influences. Two beautiful are robberies in the northern end of the atmosphere. The first present to study the Sun Waas Parker Sooner PLO. It was named after solar astrophysicist using Parker. It was the first spacecraft off NASA to be named after any living person. The scientific goes off. BSP are Parker Solar probe was get remind the structure and dynamics off magnetic fields at the sources off a little bit. And to data mine what MacInnes Astle rate and transport energetic particles. It's another goal was to explode the strip last money of the Sun and its influence on solar vin, an anesthetic particle formation. Chris flew off energy that hits Corona, and that's little Irving. Basically Parker Solar Probe Waas. Aimed at slowing the solar events and the particles emitted from sort of flares off son. And this data will also be useful in improving for custom mazel eruptions, Johnson and subsequent space weather events that in backs technology on Earth as well. A satellites and asked Monti MySpace. So that's it for this lecture. In the next lecture will be understanding about the closest planet to the sun that is a mockery, Thank you very much, seemed the math lecture 4. 4.Mercury - The swift planet: the close this planet, but the sun is mockery. It is named after the Roman messenger to the gods. It has wanted gravity off out, and it takes about 88 days, toe are big person and rotates on its axis. Tone exists once every 59 are days because off the slow rotation, Ah, single day on mercury that is midday to midday takes 176 days. It's exit build is remarkably small at three by 100 offer degree, which is much smaller than any other. The Earth heads UN exulted off 23.4 degrees, so you can imagine how much small Mulcahy's axel bill is. Next. Thing is mockery has almost no atmosphere and is blasted and eroded by sun during the day on exposed to call the space during the night. This means that it undergoes some of the widest temperature variation compared toa any other planet in the solar system, with temperatures ranging from minus 100 in 80 degree Celsius to scorching hit our 430 senses. It also has highly created rocky surface, and it was a zoom Hell Island core earlier. But now we know that it's having a molten core. It's also the more created planet in the solar system because they don't have any self hill components. Most graders on the mockery are named after famous artists and writers like Gallo, this planet Ear, Abedin, Beto, one Kokusai. So all the names off the creators are basically after some artists. Awesome famous writer, the largest in back grader, our mockeries gallo. This planet. Despite off being the closest planet to the sun, it's not the hottest the hottest planet is in done Venus. And why is it so that people discussing the next lecture it is the second highest to densest planet in the solar system, and the first, highest and sister planet is open it. It is not known who discovered Mercury in the first place. Some conceptions air that that the first mentions off Planet Mercury was found in so 1,000,003,000 B. C. Markey also has wrinkles called Loubet scripts. There, miles high and hundreds of miles long. There you can compare. You can compare them like the plague Jews in our planet, but they're wrinkle. Plato's in mockery. Basically, there are only two missions to Margaret. Let 1st 1 waas money. Not then spacecraft, which perform three flight passed in 1974 to 75 napping about 45% off planet Mercury surface. Mark, your Iwas, recently studied by the messenger spacecraft, resented its orbit on 18 to March 2011. And it was the first man made for upset to ever do so toe, enter Mercury's orbit. The next mission to Mercury will be S s happy Colombo, which will ally arrive Mercury in the late 2000 Brandy Fife. So that's it for Planet Mercury in the next lecture. Villain Dust Animal Planet Venus. Thank you so much Soon the next lecture. 5. 5.Venus - Morning & Evening star: the third brightest, objecting out sky is Venus. It is also Tom. Thus the sister planet or the twin planet off. It is closest to Earth also and is named after room and God is off love and beauty. The Bologna ins referred to Venus as bright green off the sky. Venus is the only planet in the solar system to be named after the female figure. Bright green off the sky, witnesses the second closest planet to the sun and our bits in almost circular orbit. At 808 million kilometers, Venous takes about 225 days to rotate around the sun and rotate at the incredible, slower it off once Harry wanted for two treaties. And that, too, in a clockwise direction. And this direction can be seen from looking down on the sun's Not You're Enas one off the outer planets. Also, Spence, similar to Venus that is in a clockwise fashion, oclock with direction one day on Venus that it's unwise to some guys last about 117 Earth days is gravity on the surface is 90% off. That offers. Venus also comprised off the atmosphere, which comprises, in turn off carbon dioxide with thick clouds off sulfur dioxide in a stressful Venus is the hottest planet. That's a very major question in our solar system. Marquetry, being the closest to the sun, is still on the hottest. It is heart was not that must heart like Venus. The reason being that is mercury. It's not having atmosphere, but Venus is Venice's having atmosphere, and it absorbs on the Sunday night that this it's having greenhouse effect gases. So these green house gases give the planet at a reasonably constant temperature of 460 degree senses. And this is the reason the greenhouse effect makes Venus the hottest planet in the solar system. Venus has a very vic magnetic field, and the atmospheric pressure off Venus is 92 times more than outs. That is the reason why Venus don't have any creators like margaritas because you did this immense is atmospheric pressure in its atmosphere. The meteoroids deaths raise those who are trying to penetrate, gets killed instantly, get question stank, lead you to this huge atmospheric pressure. In 1990 NASA's Magallon spacecraft orbited the planet from 1990 to 1994 and it was deliberately crashed into the planet. Venus Waas last studied by Europe's Venus Express spacecraft, which orbited the planet from a prayer 2000 and six until crashing into it, some somewhere between January 2015 a rocket motor failure prevented Akatsuki from entering its orbiting 2010 causing it to orbit the sun for five years before being inserted into orbiting December 2015. Using his fastest sees then, Akatsuki has been getting out. Scientific studies on the Venusian atmosphere tilled it. So this waas about our twin planet Venus. In the next lecture we will understand our home planet Earth and its beautiful satellite more Thank you so much soon the Max lecture. 6. 6.Our planet EARTH: our home, our planet and a place in which billions off intelligent life exists is the only inhabitable planet in the whole solar system. Yes, I'm talking about our planet out in this lecture will try to understand the existence off Earth about shape, the motion, the rotation, the earlier revolutions and the some gender animal ease dead other planets. We'll also discuss the formation off wound. So let's begin with it. For 2000 years, Ancient astronomical believed that Earthwatch static and had other celestial bodies external, other planets circling around it. But in 15 43 Copernicus was the one who published his own son centric model that was called Hallyu Centric Story off the solar system. This is a state that sun is the center and all the other planets civil around. I love Earth is the only planet in the solar system which is not named after any mythological god or goddess the world Art comes from old English word our time, which means ground. I'm, if I ask you, was the shape off our planet many off you might answer. It's a spherical some would refined on sensing that, sir, joyed. But I bet to differ the size, the shape off our planet. It's not joy. It's not spherical. It's basically a blade spirit Are Alex Side Waas. It's like a spear that is compressed at the polls and bulging a sacred. So the actual shape off our planet art would be our blip fairy, right are al upside. Our art has five motions. Five basic motions. If I ask you how many emotional tell you'll say it rules around sun and individuals around its own axis. No, it has five different kind off motions. The 1st 1 is obviously around one axis. Second is the revolution around the sun and God is its processes are verbals like a spinning top. If you have lost babe late on some other any main your childhood, you must understand that it has a wobbling effect. If something is spinning, it also opels around sexes and processes. Do you do this wobbling disposition motion for every 25,800 years The position off our police start the potion off our post in is toe So the position of the Palestine are basically the port Unstoppable change. At present, Polaris is alot Paulista and after due the 25,800 years, Vega would be a one new coolest. The fourth motion off Earth is that it follows the sun in Sons travels through the Milky Way. Because sun is not stationary, Sun is also travel. It's and it's also devolving as well as it moves with the Milky as the entire galaxy travels through the universe as we know by the Big Bang theory that you know what is expanding. So the Milky Way, the Universe galaxy in which will you? It is also moving, so the art is also moving along along with it. So these are the five basic emotions off has the most circular orbit about the bind. Digital 167 Incentive city is there, reactivated at Angola 23.4 degree, and that's that Guilt is supported by and stabilized by moon itself. So let's know how the moon waas farmed at the first place. It is believed that the moon was found when a large Marthe sized body impacted the earth, causing enough material to be that dead, which eventually coalesced into them. As I told only also, the moon has had the fact off stabilizing its eggs irritate. So that started as soon as the moon has been formed. It is patted stabilizing the arts Exile build right after it. It's been made also. Muni is the main source off the Earth's ocean tights. Why? Art is bulging from the center from the critter. That reason would be moon itself. The clarity off more because with the moon what happens basically the box in off the sea that is a phasing the moon It bulges out of the crater and due to gravity in the exactly same side off the others exactly same place off the other side will also bus. So this bulging this country is bulging for millions off here Baljit good himself. So that goes for the shape of the earth. The moon is 3474 kilometer in diameter. That is 27% that off art The orbit of the moon is somewhat t lack 2 62,004 left 5000 kilometers. It has also been affected by the gravitational pull of the earth, which has over time cause the most rotation. Toby slowed on build measures the time it takes to arbiter This is why the same side of the moon always faces the earth and we can only see somewhat 55 to 59% not the complete what's all. So rotating with the artist. Art is protected by solar surgery. Radiation by a strong magnetic field generated by moment off its core, which is mainly comprises off more tonight. So there are many, many factors busy, billions off factors backed. Let the in habitation in the planet possible. But I hope in the near future we will also find they will definitely find a planet which is exactly assume like Earth and X and life exist in it. Thank you so much soon the next lecture. 7. 7.Mars - The Red One: Marts, the fourth closest planet with the sun and the last Vestal planet. It is named after the Roman God off our eighties. In Chinese astronomy, it is called Firestone. An ancient Egyptians called it the The orbit of the Mass is freely centric at around 230. Do you or take 20 million kilometers? Mass takes about 687 earth days to orbit. It has certainly similar dealt, like about 25.1 bigness and some rotational speed and rotational period. Basically, it's 24 hours and 37 minutes. This, too, is also similar to, but do this to similarities with our planet. It is assumed that Mars also has seasons in the same way as the others. March is about half the size of the art, with a diamond it off 6790 kilometers. However, it's MAZ is only one tent off arts with gravity on the self is being around 37% off microphones. The tallest mountain on solar system is on Mars, which is 21 kilometers. The largest dust storm, which is glasses. No solar system also like this in Mass on the long largest known a volcano that this all in past months is also present here, which is three times as high. The Mount Everest is. Mars also has the largest known canyon in our solar system that is called valleys marineris , which is 4000 kilometer inland. Budnick limiter right and sound kilometers deep because moss no longer longer hell any magnetic field to protect itself. Martha's lost its origin atmosphere due to die sets off the stool out of its interacting with the atmosphere, which in done because at times to be lost into space, the two means a collects off masses, Phobos and the most. Now, let's understand, what are the missions to Mars that has bean carried out by the mankind? The Mars Exploration drawers, Spirit and Opportunity landed in 2000 for for the 90 day mission. They both exceeded their mission objectives with spirit, eventually feeling in March 2010. And Opportunity has his mission or by 5 42,090 Mars is currently hosts two different functioning spacecraft like the Mars Odyssey. Mass experts. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Exumas, Chris gets Orbiter, Mars Orbiter Mission and Exploration Gore Opportunity on the Mars Science Liberty class city, also inside a lender from NASA, has reached March surface and noticed the first art quick. The near future mission includes a whole host off spacecraft to arrive by 2022 2021 1st one is not as Mass 2020 Mission, which will include a lender and, surprisingly, to help it navigation. A solar powered through Exumas 2020 with the second part off yeses ExoMars mission to search for life. It will comprise the roar to land in 2021 a public competition is open. Toe named the Rule, which is going on right now. Hope Mars mission are Amman is a United Arab Emirates orbit. Adore I by 2020 and India's Mars Orbiter mission to would be the Indian space of sects. Organizations venture. It will possibly consist off here or better and a possible lender like 2021 2022. Now let's learn about some fun facts about Planet Mass. There was a very mystic findings on the surface of the mosque that was called Face on Mass , but you can see here it was a photograph captured by Viking first in 1976 and 80 steered a commotion in the general public because people thought that intellectual life, intellectual things, still existing Mars and marshals can read about. But eventually this photograph. Waas Nothing better solution. Second pretty important and a video coincident related factors that the satellites off the mask for Warden demos worried about In the book Gulliver Travels by Jonathan Swift. That was 1 51 years before they were discovered amassing debt. The leader really misdeed as well. Thank you so much, See when the next election. 8. 8.Asteroid Belt - Home of ceres: between Mars and Jupiter lies the asteroid belt, which comprised off thousands off rocks left over from the formation of the solar system. These rocks vary in size from microscopic particles up to Siri's, the draft planet, which is 950 clement in time. All of these microscopic particles golf planets and asteroids that lies in the strike belt , all of them on the ground. Thousands of rest rates are dealing that straight back but half off. The entire moss is made up off four basic upsets. One the cities. The dwarf planet. Second is Vester Bolas and Eugene Estoppel as amusing out asteroids. No, listen, listen. What draft plan It is basically your planet is celestial body orbiting a star that is massive enough to be rounded by its own going but has not cleared is neighboring region off planet decimals and is not so. If Second celestial body comprises this kind off teachers that particular celestial bodies , Mourners a cough, it has to have sufficient master or commits compress you strength and a Jew hydrostatic equilibrium. It is thought that Jupiter's strong traditional influence may have prevented the S traits to coalesce together into larger objects. such as a planet. As we know, Egypt is the biggest planet in the solar system. It's cloudy, is intense. Its gravity is so much that it prohibits the asteroids near the asteroid belt. Oh, go less together. Outside, off the street belt itself, there are three clusters off asteroids, which are very much in Jupiter's influence. Dessert frozen asteroids, which albeit a hidden behind the Jew bidder. And the Hilda Asteroids, which are we prize for every three Jupiter orbits the sun. This particular asteroids are in Jupiter's Langlands is points. That is the idea off traditional step gravitation. Forces can also throw this asteroids in a straight belt out off the belt and send them towards the inner solar system at Streit's are similar to comments, but they lack the comma, which appears like a day. We'll discuss about comics in a brief details later on in the course, but right now you need to understand the difference between expert and comet. Comets are basically made up off ice and dust, so basically, when comet with just the sun a dailies and record due to the intensity of the sun, that tale is called coma and that comma is not presenting this price. Does the MSM difference really differentiate all of them? Meteorite meteorites and comets and asteroids? Droplets added the definition and every distinct cushion will be provided. Ah, one really important point about their strike belt is that it is who point to 3.2 astronomical unit from the sun that is 3 29 to 4 78 million kilometers away. Now let's understand water astronomical unity's astronomical you need is roughly the distance from Earth to the sun. However, that distance varies. US art are big person from a maximum. The maximum distance off Earth from the sun is called opinion and to a minimum that its perihelion and back again once a year, orginally consumed as the average of arts opinion and perihelion Since 2012 it has been defined us exactly. This sugars this many meters, as you can see in the skin. Uh, about a approximately about 150 million kilometers are 93 million miles. The astronomical unit is used primarily for measuring distance Vidin, the solar system or around others. It is also fundamental component in the definition off another unit off astronomical land like the classic one Positive is equal in tow. 3.0 it into 10 power. 30 kilometers. So that's it for thy straight. Back in the next lecture will understand about the biggest planet in the solar system that is Jupiter. Thank you very much. Soon the next picture. 9. 9.Jupiter - The gas giant: Jupiter is the fifth closest planet to the sun and is the first off what we call the outer planets. It is by far the largest planet in the solar system, having 2.5 times as much as mass as all the other planets put together. And so one thousands, the mass of the sun. It is named after Roman King off God's and God off. This guy Mesopotamians called Jupiter has got my dog, and it's a Greek cooling off juice. Jupiter orbits the sun once every 12 years at about sound 80 million kilometers and is comprised of guests off 75% hundreds and a 24 Bosnia. It is presumed to have a rocky core surrounded by a sea off liquid metallic hydrogen, which forms a ball. I've one leg 10,000 limiting diamond Jupiter's total diameter is one like 42,984. In the upper atmosphere is a cloud layer, which is 50 kilometers thick, and the cloud comprises off ammonia crystals and other compounds, which are ends into banks moving at different speeds at different if you line up, allow on earth one after another 11 earth lined up then we can complete the Holy Creator off the Jupiter. The Marshal Jupiter gains, in fact, equivalent to 317 arts. The moon system off Jupiter has three tires. First is the inner Mel's, which is also called the Amalfi a group. It has Mehdi's at Bestia, a multi and keep Galilean moons. But because it was discovered by Galileo in 16 10 it consists off Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Ganymede is the largest satellite in the whole solar system, and this Galilean moons are also called saurian satellites. And the idea is the outermost. This out of basically not having the particle definition off moon because they are basically the captured asteroids due to the gravity of Jupiter. So basically, Jupiter has, or on 67 moons in its on it that is known to mankind. Judah also has a mentoring system around it, and it is the foot brightest object in the sky. First being son, second being moon thirties Venus and 1/4 1 Sweet Jupiter has a enormous strong inside it, which is called the Great Red Spot, and it's been losing for or 300 years the size of the great Red spot is so intense that it can consume three whole Earths inside it. It's basically a large, stable Stonewall Tex laying between two layers of Jupiter. Considering it's size, Jupiter rotates very quickly, having one rotation at just under once every 10 hours. This means that the equator is having a very last centrifugal force, which means the planet has a pronounceable. Its diameter around the quitter is 9000 kilometre greater than the time it, um Izzard at the polls. Jupiter has the second lowest exit eight in the whole solar system. The first lowest is obviously off the monkey. The exhibited Absa bitter is 3.17 tickets approximately. Jupiter also exhibits similar phenomena that happens in art itself, that it's called Aura, the aura occuring in Jupiter. Basically in the Northern Hemisphere off the Jupiter is ultraviolet in nature. As you can see now, let's understand some of the missions to Jupiter. Galileo became the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter in 1995. The Cassini probe three passed in 2000 and in mist Jupiter's atmosphere, revealing many unknown features. The new I origin poor probe flew past in 2007 and it's way too brutal and studied the Jovian moons, magnetic field and a ring system. NASA has also a very important mission for Jupiter that is called Joe. And the next plan mission to the Jovian system will be European Space Agency's. It S is superior. I see one explorer are juice, which is due to be launched in 2000. So that's it for the biggest planet in the solar system in the midst. Lecture, villain decision about said it. Thank you so much. 10. 10.Saturn - The ringed planet: second, the sixth planet from son and second largest in the solar system. It is named after father off God Chipata in Roman McCloskey. It is the fifth brightest object in the sky, first being son, second being moon powered Venus for Jupiter and fifties the center. It is also nicknamed us during the planet because off the ring system it comprises, there's a very peculiar thing about Second is that it gives off or Enezi, then it receives from son. This unusual quality is believed to be generated from the gravitational compression on the planet. Combined with the fiction from last amount of helium founding its atmosphere, the Saglam has the composition off 96% hydrogen and 4% off. It is the sixth closest planet to the sun and has a radius that is nine times that off. It's like I told earlier you have to line up 11 Arts in order took our the creator from one side to the other side of Jupiter. Same in case off certain, one can say you have to line up nine months. Saturn orbits the sun once every 29 years at about 1400 million kilometers and is mainly comprised off guests and its presumed to have a rocky core surrounded by your C off liquid metallic reforms. A ball, some 56,000 kilometer dammit. The upper layers are thought to comprise off liquid water. Ammonium I causal fight I frozen and Liam. Second score is quite hard. 11,700 degree Celsius is the cloud. Layers off Saturn are similar to doze off Jupiter, except that the banding is vicar. But why does Satyam has a slow orbit and also called us Loubet? So, gosh, that means will they stop the old? It has more than one trip, the moons and a smaller moon. Let's right in India are the important that lights off. Saturn Begum is the second largest satellite in the solar system, and this through satellite data in India. They are fruits, and that's Saturn and Jupiter altogether forms 92 dozen off the entire planetary Moss seconds Ring system are named US ABC be Evinger in order off their discovery. The rings A, B and C are visible from Earth, and the longest gap is between the Ring system A and B. That gap is called Cassini. These things were foreseen by Galileo in 16 10 who quite understandably was confused by them and thought satin was being accompanied by two other planets which set either side off it. The rings accidents from 7000 kilometer to one like 20,000 kilometers above the surface of set. There are evidently two major missions to Ceta. 1st 1 is the Cassini spacecraft. You must not get confused with the Casoni that is the longest gap between drink system and be and the Cassini. This is Catherine E. This is a spacecraft that that proved to in anti into the orbit of Set and in 2004 and it release Who's Innsbruck Vision. Enter Titan's atmosphere. Early in January 2005 the huge its probe successfully landed on the surface off Titan, sending back images and data during his death int and from the surface, Cassini has made many flight pastoral seconds more Andre system, making many new discoveries, including meetings and weather system. Thank you so much soon in the next section 11. 11.Coldest planet Uranus: Uranus, the seventh closest planet to the sun, and the third largest and forth heaviest off the planet is diameter trees near about 50,000 kilometer, which is four times that off Earth with a mass or 14 times that cover. It was discovered by William Herschel in the year 17 81 and at the very phones. He believed that it was a comet, and he proposed its name Us Gregorian Cedar's after King George. But the name was exacted by the scientific community, and later it was named as unions by John Body after Greek God, you don't know our son once every 84 years at about 1,002,900 kilometers. But its unusal with the fact that it spins on its side with the exhilarate off 97 degrees that is, it's having a wreck brigade are basically a clockwise rotation, just like Venus. This means that it's more, and also it's friend Ring system also orbit in plane perpendicular to the plane on the it is believed to be comprised office. Small, rocky, cool, surrounded by your deep mental of water, ammonia and meeting. This is intense, surrounded by an atmosphere of hydrogen and helium and meeting with an upper crowd. Yeah, Another art oddity. OPEC clarity in your illnesses affect that. It is very cold. All the other guests Jane plants. I meet more hit radius in that they issued you two very hot girls. But you're enough. That's not. Our temperature off minus 224 degree Celsius has been measured in your anus atmosphere, the coldest in the solar system. Uranus has the second most extensive ring system off the solar system. After second, the Venus speed can distant 900 kilometers per hour in the atmosphere of Venus. It is also lightest off the four guest dates, and it's the Gord ist planet one off our Klay element. Uranium is named after Uranus in year 1989. The moves off the jury arenas are named after escalated by Alexander Pope in Villain Sex Feel Like Babylon by Pini and Brenda Miranda have ice Kenyans on many strange looking spear physical areas. Uranus has 27 known moves. Besides, ranging from war 1500 kilometre diameter down to under 20 the moon consists off ice, rock and other press elements. Some of the inner moons undergo gravitation interaction with each other, which may in many millions of years, Lito instabilities and license there waas Onley one mission to the arenas by Mass as well voice spacecraft. The flight by occurred in 1986 and resulting in the discovery off and new moves on to new things. It also measured the chemical composition off that Masya and photograph the planet and its moves the status still being studied. And in 2016 researchers claim toe help discovered evidence for two new moons which may be causing disturbances in the innermost rings. Ah, Uranus Orbiter and probe mission is in the study stages and its plan to be lost in the next lecture, Givi know about natural, the last planet in our solar system. And after deck they will discuss Meza celestial bodies off our solar system, but from planets like planets start belt that we already discussed. So we'll discuss people belt. And they also understand about the comments and the no good as a stone that Hindu might Lawzi Holtz Thank you so much. See you in the next election 12. 12.Neptune - The last planet: Neptune is the eight closest planet to the sun and is the last planet in the solar system. It is similar in size and composition to your arenas, with a diameter of 49,000 kilometer and Mars off or 17 times that offer due to his blue coloration. It is named after the Roman God off see beside No option orbits the sun once every 165 years at about 1,004,500 kilometer. This is a 30 times a distance from the sun to the earth. That means it's about 30 astronomical units. It means that the strength of sunlight at natural is a one person office strength napkin spins on it. Sex is with the tilde 20 degrees, which is quite similar to that of Earth, and this rotation is every 16 hours. Our element of July 2011 Napkin completed its first orbit since its discovery in 18 46. I, like your genus almost completely bland. Cloud Lier is presenting natural Naturists weather system are more pronounced, with great back spot stone being seen in the southern and another atmosphere and other visible spendings. It has the second largest spoon in the solar system, first being the great red spot on Jupiter. Here we call it the small dark spot, which is equivalent to the size off our moon. The gravity off Neptune is second largest in the solar system. For slots is being Jupiter. It has an extremely friend ring system, and there are some 14 known moons still dead. The natural drink system comprise off three men dings with Ready I between 63,000 kilometer and 42,000 clement, which appears to have a clumsy structure in which deform arcs rather than complete rings. It is believed that gravitational effect from Nuta, Neptune's moons make house. This camping's, as I told earlier inaction has 14 known moons. Off reached Brighton, which is somewhat 2700 kilometer in diameter, is the most significant. The next classes moon. It's Proteus, which is on Lee, 420 kilometers in diameter. Brighton is the only moon which orbiting retro kid motion. That means the a positive a Shinto, most on it, and it is thought to be captured by just 30 the other than it created some of it. Titan is also the oldest known object in the solar system. Mark my words. Uranus is the coldest planet. It's not the coldest celestial body natural system. The coldest, a celestial body in our solar system would be frightened. The satellite off like Uranus, Neptune has been also instead on leave, once again by NASA's with a new spacecraft, the fly by ocurred in 1989 and resulted in many discoveries, including now choose weather systems, drinks and six more wounds. It also provided an acrid MSM went off Neptune's Mass, which allowed Discover seances in the orbit off Uranus and Neptune's to be sold. There are currently no missions plan visit Natural since the Net you know, Bittern Commission was dropping throughout the Uranus orbiter and probe mission just like gold in the early election. Uh, so this can close the planet's off our solar system. In the next lecture, I will clarify about keepers belt in the coming lectures, really discuss about comets and after that will proceed to the max section in which we're going to talk about some unexplainable events, objects and Celester bodies in the universe. Thank you so much soon. The next lecture 13. 13.Kuiper Belt - Pluto's Home: keeper belt lies beyond Neptune's orbit. The ultimate clearly and Fluto are in the keeper belt. Ultimately really is also called a boathouse and 14 emu 60. It is a doughnut shaped region off icy bodies beyond Neptune's orbit. Millions off, icy up, sexed, collectively referred to US keeper belt objects are plan snapped union objects. It is occasionally called us the Edgeworth Keeper. It is a circumstance disc in the ultra solar system extending from the orbit off map June toe approximately 50 astronomical units from the sun. It is similar to their strike belt but is far lesser, somewhat, 20 times as white and 20 to 200 times a small C. Like that's right. It consists mainly of small bodies or gremlins from vendor solar system formed while mania strikes are composed primarily off rock and metal. Most keeper belt upsets are composed lastly, or frozen wallet tiles such as methane, ammonia and work. As I told earlier, keeper belt is home toe. Three officially recognized dwarf planets, brutal ho mia and making make some of the solar system's moons, such as Neptune's at Brighton a seconds. Phoebe may have originated in the region because, as we have discussed in the previous lectures. You know that writer is a captain. Upset my Neptune and same thing goes for themes on this song. So that's it for keep a belt. In the next lecture, we will understand about comments. Thank you so much seeing the next election. 14. 14.Comets - Cosmic snowballs: comets are cost mixed nobles off prudent guesses, rock and dust that orbit around the sun. When frozen. They are similar to size off a small town. When comets orbit brings it close to the sun. It hates up and spewed dust and gases into a giant, glowing head, which is lather than most of the planets. The dust and gases form City, which is also known as comma it, stretches away from sun for millions and millions off mines. There are 3576 known comets treated and likely billions off comets orbiting all Son in the Keeper pile, that human, more distant club. Let's discuss about the major comics that's been discovered by the mankind First is hardly Do, which was discovered by Malcolm Hartley in March 15 1986 using skim its spell scope and deciding observatory in Australia. Next one is Swift Tuttle. It takes 133 years, completes orbit around the sun, really resembles a chicken leg, and the necklace off the comet bodily are 19 p is a small and misery us approximately 4.8 kilometers, or 2.98 miles. Haley, the most famous comet because it marked the first time astronomic understood comets could be repeating visitors off one night disguise until the time off. English Astra Mommy Admin Helly 16 56 to 17 42 believed that comets were to make only one passed through the solar system. But in 1705 Haley used Isaac Newton story off gravitational and planetary motions to compute the orbit off several comets in ancient times. Like in books by Best Tree, it shows Buber looking at what later to be known As you can see here East Time, Healey returns to the inner solar system. It's Nicolas sprays ice and rock into space. This debris stream results in two week mitt your showers each year at that credit in me and our units in October. Next is black opine Zainur. It takes 6.59 years to orbit. Doesn't Anke is a small comet off near about 4.6 kilometre diameter and is a hypothesized who have led to the demise off dinosaurs. Let Bob, also called the great comic in 1997 is the last comet with a nucleus measuring 60 kilometers. I saw was the subject of most coordinated comet observe a ting campaign in the history off mankind. Well, NASA spacecraft and Isis that is International Space Station observed and detected all songs on the final station. It's multi 1,000,000 year journey from Would cloud the solar going or not. Last but not the least, Shoemaker Levy, nine. It is believed to be captured by the gravity of Jupiter and then crashed into Jupiter in July 1994. NASA had spacecraft in pollution to watch for the first pain. Ah, collision between two celestial bodies in the solar system. So this goods are lecture about comets. In the next lecture, we're going to discuss about a very mystical thing in our solar system. The Far and the lady boundary off our solar system. Boot camp. Thank you so much. Seemed the next lecture. 15. 15.The Oort Cloud: would cloud. It's a theorized shell off icy object that lies beyond capable. It is named after Dextre MoMA. Ian Would, who first terrorized its existence, Would cloud is roughly a spherical and is thought to be origin off most of the long break comments that helping observed Like Hillary the cloud particles is authorized to be the remains off the disk of material that formed the sun and planets. Astra Normals now refers to these family objects as a protoplanetary disk. The most likely theory is that the material now in good cloud probably formed near the young sir in the earliest, a box off solar system. The old cloud is very distended from the sun, and it can be distributed by nearly nearby message office. Star Nebula are action in the disc off milky. These actions, no cometary nuclei out off their orbits and send them rushing headlong was the son. Objects in the cloud are referred US. Transmit union objects RT and use. This name also applies in the Keeper belt results off committed in clay that contains ice dating back to the ocean. Off the solar system is presenting the clock planetoid Sedna, which was discovered in 2003 thought to be the member off Inner Would club astronomers believe that long period comets that has orbital period longer than 200 years have their origin in the club. With this, we conclude our section off solar system in the next section, we're going to have a really marvellous discussion about some unexplained anomalies. Celestial bodies on many one things. Thank you so much soon the next lecture. 16. 16.Cosmic definitions: in this particular section, we're going to learn about some unexplainable things, objects and celestial bodies, and we are going to explore many mysteries of the universe but plateau that you need to learn certain costing definitions and parameters. I would recommend each and every one off. You do not skip this particular election because this lecture will provide you the foundation going to spend many concepts in the coming elections. So let's begin with it. First, we're going to understand what a black bodies Ah, black body is an idealized upset that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation, which falls on it without passing through and without reflection. The radiation omitted from a black bodies, mostly infrared light at room temperature. But as the temperature increases its past to omit visible Cleveland's from red to do blue and then a little while it light at ready hiding bridges. Black hole Black hole is the Joab space time remaining after the cloudy off a massive body has constance toe sitting down to a point. It is. It is a reason off empty space, with the point like singularity at the center and an event origin at the outer edges. It is so dense that no normal matter or radiation can skip its gravitational field so that nothing not even light can I would escape. And for the blackness is justified. It is thought that most Galaxies have supermassive black hole at their heart. Cosmic microwave background radiation or CMB radiation cause me micro bill background radiation, or CMB is the afterglow off the big back. Ah, microbial radiation which still uniformly for me, it's all off space at a temperature off around minus 270 degrees Celsius. That is about three degrees Celsius off absolute zero. It is considered to be the best evidence for the standard big bang model of the universe on the basis off the sea and beyond. The understanding off this CMB became know about many you know, Marcel. Anomalies like the Boomerang Nebula, the Great Attractor and many, many more animal is that president in the news? Next is the cosmic rays, their high speed, energetic particles about 90% off, which are made off Prepon that originates from the space that impinges on arts atmosphere. Some cosmic rays are generated by our own sun, somebody, supernovas and somebody as yet unknown events in the farthest reaches of the visible universe. That dumb Ray is a Miss Norma as cosmic particles, right individually, not in the former Ferrari on beam of particles dot Maida matter that gives out no light and does not interact with the electromagnetic force. But who's presents can being thought from gravitationally sat down? It is estimated that there may be between six and seven times US most dark matter as normal . Bright matter in the universe. All those exact nature remains a mystery like ideas a convenient you need for measuring the last distance in the universe. It is the distance that light travels in one year, which, given that light, travels at somewhat three like kilometer per second. So it works out to be 9.46 trillion kilometers in a year. Neutron star Austan that has shrunk under its own gravity during a supernova Ivan so that most of its materia has been compressed into new drugs. The proton and electrons, having crushed together until the march living only neutrals. Neutron stars are very hot, quite a small, typically 22 tactic limiting Demeter only, but they are extremely dance and have a very high surface gravity in accordance very fast off Pulsar is a kind of highly magnetized, rapidly rotating Afghanistan next year. Ah, supervisor capitalists make explosion caused by the collapse off all Matthew Star, which has used up all of its fruit for a short pain. Such an explosion may outside an entire galaxy off 100 billion old lady stars. It leaves behind a cloud off brightly colored gas called US Nebula and sometimes a highly compressed neutron star or even a black hole. So basically a supernova is the generator. Rafi, let's say you don star Ah, black hole as well. It's a next year's Aurora or a australis, or Southern nights, our dynamic display off light that appear in the Antarctic disguising Linda. Same thing goes on Aura la borealis are liberals are also known as northern polar lights. Is that same phenomena which occurs in our earth, do to them close off, son Aurora Australis, focusing the southern part in the Southern Hemisphere in the sudden pole and horrible lilies are causing the Northern Bulls their natures light show. It is the name given to light emitted by atoms, molecules and ions that have been excited by energetic charged particles. The common colors off this Orel Australia's Sonora. Morelli's Our Bill Green and pink in spiral cartoons, arcs instruments by Native Start. Ah, by any start is the star system, composed of two stars that orbit a common center. The primary status brightest and the second day's referred was the companion star. Meet Your Media is a flash of light that occurs when a meteorite bonds upping Earth's atmosphere. It is also known as shooting stars. Maybe our showers. Really, it ought mature activity that occurs when art collects with many meteorites. Our individual shower happened at the time each year and has always Mitchell's appearing to radiate from a common meet. Your Right is a rock fans base that survives us. It passes through the earth's atmosphere and falls with the ground. Meteoroid is a small rock that out with the Sun Nebula, as I told you earlier, it's getting. It's both from the supernova itself is a cloud off interstellar gas and dust. Some noble I present stellar nurseries. That means that will ask you part two solar systems. Other nebulous represents teller Previ ous. What gets can destroy us that broth. It's a smaller start of the Lomas it's cooler and less luminous. Tender son. Red Giant. Ah, cool star Nearing the end of its cycle, they're expended up 100 times diameter, Arabism, then Allen's belt. It's a door better off Charles particles from a solar wind traveling Earth's magnetic field about the atmosphere. Radiation John Off Josh particles surrounding art is what Van Allen's Belle the ship off then islands belt, is determined by Earth's magnetic field. Let's shift are shipped in the line. Often, object spectrum was the red one. That should be, in the case, that an object is moving away from jobs over the last of the other shift, the faster Dobbs at this point last but not the least balsa, while says belonged to a family off objects, all neutron starts. As I told earlier, the birth off Neutron Istana let it be nebula or the black hole is after supernovae, so the pulses belong to this family. Off objects you don starts that form when a star more massive than the sun, run out of fuel in its core and collapses on itself. This is about what happened to our son, also someday, but not in the near future are very far, far future after pulsar itself, it creates a monster explosion called the supernova. So you can understand this cycle how it's happening. Um, you don't start, which collapses again, creates a super unwind, then open one can again you but nebula. Only one neutron star again and tackle. This is how the clock off the, you know, sticks. Thank you so much soon the next lecture. 17. 17.Oumuamua: only one more. The first confirmed interstellar upset in our solar system. The object is known as one I 2017 You one, which was letter nicknamed us more more. It was do small to appear us anything more than a point off light, even in the largest telescopes. But we know that it must be, Ah, highly elongated object because it very dramatically in brightness or every 7 to 8 hours breed. It'll be a brightest when it's full length. Face the art as you can see the middle image, and it deemed dramatically when it was pointed was the art left and right images you can see here the brightness, so variation repeated or in war as the object tumbled through. The space scientist conclude that the interstellar object or more must be very longer did because of its dramatic variation brightness. They also conclude that events on the surface must have limited jets off gases, giving the object a slight boost in speed. The interstellar upset Oh mama, perplexed scientist in October 2017 as it with the past earth at an unusually high speed off somewhat 87.3 kilometers per second, the comets and asteroids from our solar system moves that of much floors made off 19 criminal bosses. What we know is that it came from outside the solar system because of its high speed 87 going three kilometer pass again, and the project treat followed as it ripped around the sun. Scientists are confident that all more more was needed beyond our solar system. It entered our solar system from graph direction off Constellation later, but it's impossible to tell, very actually came from the reason toe. More, more. It's unknown. The object flew by earth so fast that it's a speed couldn't be due to the influence off Sun's gravity alone. So it must have froze the solar system. Adam, already high speed and not interacted with any other planet. It's project trees, hyperbolic byproduct kings. This object as it passes within the view of the telescopes, scientists can see that this high speed up that won't be captured by your son's cloudy it won't circle back around again on an elliptical path. Instead, it will follow the same shape of a hyper bola. That is, it was keep on going out of the solar system and never come back. It doesn't look like a comet, but it behaves like one, as we have discussed earlier in the last section are calm. It is a small, icy body that, when heated by the Sun Delap's Akama ah, fuzzy atmosphere, and they'll made off Walt a material vaporizing off the Comets body. At first, scientists are zoomed. Oh, more more wants a count Comet, but because it appeared in telescoping misses a single point of light without a comma scientist then concluded it was an asteroid. But when astronomic start object waas accelerating ever so slightly, they realized that a comma and jet might not be visible to the telescope. You stops of it that setting off all time materials are what you call outgassing would explain by oh Mama Waas. Accelerating the subtle, unexpected way when Onley gravity from our solar system is taken into account, it must be long. Get it. While it is impossible to take a closer for for for more more, it's dramatic variation in brightness or time suggest that it is highly elongated. It is tumbling through space. The unusual brightness variation also suggest that the object that's not rooted around just one axis. The upside appears to make a complete rotation every 7.3 hours. What we don't know is what does it actually look like? All that aspirin, almost house seen off. Oh, Mom was a single point off light. But because of its project tree and a small scale acceleration, it must be smaller than typical object from the cloud. You're not completely show what it is made off comics for more solar system. How a lot off dust. But because none is visible coming off memoirs and just conclude it may not have very much at all, it is impossible to know what materials make up more. We don't know. We're Did it actually come from? Oh, Mama came indoor solar system from another star system that collects, See? But which one? Nobody knows for sure. What is it doing now? After 2018 or more more, Waas no longer visible two telescopes, even in space. But scientists continue to analyze it and crack open more mysteries about this unique interstellar. Thank you so much Soon The next lecture 18. 19.The great attractor: There are many mystical celestial bodies in the solar system and beyond. But union was is the home off many mysteries. The greater practice, in my opinion, stops Don The Great Attractor is an apparent gravitation anomaly in the intergalactic space in the centre off Lenny Kia supercluster, in which our milky these present it is also known as John off audience that is very difficult to up. So invisible villain this is Do do some off skewing effect off of our own cannot dictate that is not even explain in science till now. This anomaly suggest a localised concentration on Mars that is 1000 times move Masi down the making itself. On that note, let's see a panoramic view off infrared sky showing all the Galaxies outside me giving, as you can see here, Ian Nothing. The earth is nothing but back off it. Dust particles we can see, but we cannot reach. Not yet. The great attractor. It's powerful enough toe or gum, The dark energy, which constitutes 71% off a grimace. In the next section, people were discussing about dark energy as well as black hole and many other concepts. The cunning that you do us so for the time being, start to understand that impact off the great director The magnanimous figure the great attacked a holes the parent holes This great attractor is 1000 Galaxies come towards it and pick up a spit on the way this phenomenon Waas discovered a long time ago in 1970 by nest Ramos first began making detailed map of cosmic microwave background radiation artsy and be ah light residue after the big bang. That was what cosmic microwave background radiation Waas What astronomic is found in their observation? Dead Our making The galaxy is having slight temperature variation from one side So that another one side of the milky waas a little warmer than the other. This particular observation Let a jury that something humongous is present around us. This can correct Galaxies like magnets. Astronaut must know for show that all off those in our supercluster, including our milky headed, was the great prank. No one really knows for sure if it means an eventual danger door planet or not. But everything is getting attracted to the great Thank you De will never be sufficient enough to understand all the mysteries off the unit Waas. But you know us is a last thing. Something is that is not unexplainable by bio on my mind, but with the gradual development in technology. I think in a couple off the gates are you in centuries, they might be able to crack. How? The clock off, You know us. It's But it's still Yeah, Mom, Small human beings. Thank you so much Soon the next lecture. 19. 18.Tabby star: the signs or planet hunting has truly taken off in the 21st century, with the transit mattered. Leading the V When a planet passes in front of its parent star related toe, our line off site, some of the star's light will disappear for a short file. This led to the discovery off many exoplanets, and this is the transit mattered that I'm talking about. Nasa's Kepler spacecraft observed a very unusual behavior, which they called Debbie. We cannot call it the actual star or planet or exuberant yet, but it just got its name afters discovered the better. Bless him. It is also called the Blue T F. It's not the washing, your thinking. It means there's the flux. So prior. Do proper get. Let me tell you how to calculate the flux in astronomy. Flux us many different definitions and mathematically, there's a different definition regarding that. But flux us. But US astronaut Mishcon concern is particularly different. That's Rama's just lift method of floods, often upset by collecting light with a telescope, sending it through a known filter and then data mining. The flux is the power bi unit area, and the area is given by the size of the periscope after calibrating the detector, using standard starts and correcting for the absorption in the atmosphere, the flux in the filter band is no. This whole process is loaners for dramatically. So after that, mining the flux off the baby star, it was came to know that the property eat exhibits I don't quite bizarre. First of all, it exhibits a huge drop in its flags, which was about up to 22%. Most of the planet's causes less than 1% off the deep. It also fades slowly ordered gets with vocational, frightening events, which no other similar and idea known to do. The oral brightness fractured around the dips rather than the smooth, increasing bickley seen in other planets. No involvement. A mission what so ever, which all of the entities with large flocks dips processes is not at all. A single in front of a mission can be seen from Pakistan. This created are huge puzzle industry. NAMI Circle. Some of the popular explanation for this bizarre anomaly involves a complete illion mega structure, which waas, which was actually in fact supported by many, astronomic the possibility off having a villain made a structure in such a distant place in the universe. WASA possibility. Second, continuous bombardment, off comments or the tie Bista. This two possibilities. This two possible explanations are there for Palestine, but one very small explanation tops both of them. The blue color light that was getting broad and drag light that was preferentially transmitted from the baby spa can lead to a conclusion that what's ever wants causing the flux deep has some dusty. Or is it? Yes, is the dust particles surrounding Debbie that made its animals behavior possible? But still this explanation is also true tickle. We are not having exact evidence for the same thank you so much seemed the next lecture. 20. 20.Boomerang Nebula: the Boomerang Nebula is located some 5000 light years away from that it is located in the constellation Centaurus. It is also known as the Boat by Nebula. Because of its shape, Keith Taylor and Mike Scattered called it Boomerang Nebula in 1980. After observing it would Anglo Australian Telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory, they were able to see only the code shape leading to the name. It has been an compelling mystery for astronomers since 1995. The Swedish eso Submillimeter telescope are dusty as a S. T. I. In chill concluded it to be the coldest object in the universe. Colder even then, the space itself. The mystery off this nebula became apparent when astronomic noticed that it appeared to be absolving the light off the cosmic microwave background radiation or CMB radiation. As I told earlier in the very first lecture of the section, CMB is the left door energy from the big bank and polite the natural background and drop this piece. The CMB is at somewhat minus 270.4 degrees Celsius, and for the Boomerang Nebula observed this particular radiation it had to be even called under CMB radiation or cost me my career background radiation. Subsequent observations will that the Boomerang Nebula is in fact, 2.5 degrees Celsius lesser than the cosmic microwave background radiation in 2015 some 20 years after the discovery of the Boomerang Nebula as the coldest object in the universe were able to understand. The reason behind it, according to a team of astronomic, is who used at Akamas Last Millimeter Array or Alma, situated in Atacama Desert Shield. The answer. May Nuala Small companion star plunging into a red China with subsequent is action off most off largest on matter, creating an ultra schooled outflow of gas and dust in the process. The gas cloud, which is the result off for jet being fired from the Centre Star, is expanding at the speed thank times faster than a single star could produce on its own. After conducting measurements with al mind, she'll the team concluded that this is what is driving temperature lower than that up CMB in the Homeland Nebula and hands fort, making it the oldest opsec, or to call the celestial body in the whole universe older than the space itself. Thank you so much. Soon the next lecture 21. 21.Feats in space: This is going to be a constantly updated section in which, if there's any major discovery in the field of astronomy or cosmology or in the field a space exploration, we will be updating each and everything in details in here. So let's begin Mitt the top Most discoveries are achievements in the field off space exploration. The very first would be the first human orbit that are it. Waas on a braille 12 1961 was struck, one that carried the first human being into space. It can be the cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, who made a single orbit off the Earth in one hour and 48 minutes after this first human in space exploration, USSR launched a series off six Watts stocks in two years and the last one remaining the space for 94 hours and travel somewhat 16 leg miles orbiting around that name. What stock is also seemed very family because it's a place in Antarctica as well, which is basically the coldest placing. 2nd 1 would be the first spacewalk. It was done on March 18th 1965. What struck two was launched in 1965 and during its orbit around the earth it let Alec here are keep a week later. No out off the spacecraft by means off air lock. All this time he demand that hurt to those ship and took pictures. And also that this two men will free fall before re entering the war. Talkto this spaceship completed 17 orbits in 26 hours. 3rd 1 would be nothing else. The first spacecraft that soft landed on the moon Luna nine was the one among the cities, or 24 unmanned Soviet spacecraft launched between 1959 to 76 whereas Luna one became the first manmade object to orbit around the Sun. Luna nine Agenda success off soft landing. This was followed by more lunar probes, and the last spacecraft do not. 24 successfully returned back with lunar soil samples dug from 70 feet below the moon's surface. 4th 1 is the first human walk on the moon. It was done on July 2019 69. It was that time Ben Milan strong along with Advent e l. During Junior and Michael Collins left in Apollo 11. For them. Four days letter Abalo, 11 tons down on the southwestern edge of the sea off tranquility and this is what he said. That one is small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. Indeed, Armstrong's journey to the moon will be always remembered as an event which marked the power of science and technology space exploration. The first picture, which get transmitted from Mars Waas July 20th 1976. Viking First wants one of the first robotic US spacecraft launched by you. See NASA to study mosque. The spacecraft was launched into space on August 2019 75 and after one long year off orbiting around US, it was able to map and analyze last expenses off the surface off Mass and bring back important inputs about whether and two tiny moons, Phobos and Deimos, that orbited the forces Spacecraft, which makes close fly by off a comment WAAS Joe Toe Joe was the first our solar system exploration mission, initiated and implemented by the European Space Agency, are it was released into the space with the aim off. Amazing on analyzing the nucleus off Haley's comet, which would come within 506 men limited radius of the art on March 13 1986 the first large Optical space Telescope Waas lost on April 25 1990. The Hubble Space Telescope Our Majesty is still date regarded as the most sophisticated optical observatory our place in the orbit offered. It helped better mine the first accurate rate at which the universe expense. And this rate. Waas eventually called the Hubble constant. The forces spacecraft to orbit and land on a steroid waas render views, Shoemaker. It was the first table spacecraft to orbit around the asteroid and then finally landed on it on February 12 2001. The near spacecraft are not near Earth. Asteroid Rendezvous Shoemaker spacecraft was launched in 1996 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA The launch off the first private manned vehicle was done in tow. June 21st 2000 for Michael. Mr. Melville on a bacon test pilot, was the first commercial astronaut and person who traveled to space on a privately funded the spacecraft. It wasn't in the year 2000 for Van Melvill piloted Spaceship One and made his maiden flight past the edge of the space. The last but not the least, the fourth spacecraft. Our aircraft returns toe art within the samples often Asteroid June 13 2010. Higher Bushe is a Japanese spacecraft that was launched into space in May 2003 and it landed on their stride. It'll cower in November 2005. It landed back on Earth in 2010 and brought with it valuable scientific that down he took our it brought with it some 1500 grand's less than 10 micrometers each and they are still being and license. So these were some of the major space exploration fees that has been achieved by the mankind. In the coming lectures, we will be updating about some new arguments as well as some feeds some unimaginable feats that waas like a science fiction somebody gets ago. But if you're making possible like I told you, this section would be a constantly updated section. So as soon as any new atyou mitt or any any new discoveries there, we're going to upload it here. We are going to add a lecture here. Thank you. So much seen in the next lecture 22. 22.The First picture of a BLACK HOLE: astronomers How taken the first our image off a black hole which is located in at this plant galaxy. It made this 40 billion kilometre across three million times a side of the Earth and has been described by scientists Powers of Monster. The black hole is 500 million trillion kilometres really and was photographed by a network off eight early schools across the world. It was captured by the event Origen Telescope on tht on that block off. Eight linked telescope bus pulled earlier. Professor Hannah Funky off Read about university in the Netherlands who proposed experiment , told that the black hole was found in a galaxy called M 87. It has a mask 6.5 billion points that off the sun and it is one of the heaviest black holes that we think exists. It is definitely a master, the heavyweight champion off black holes in the universe. Now let's understand that device that made it possible to take the first hour for the graph off Black Hole. It was the event Origin Telescope R E s t. It is a project to create a large telescope. Harry consisting off a global network off radio telescopes and combining data from several very long baseline interferometry or V L B I stations around in simple language, we can say that this network off telescopes are making the earth itself was a giant telescope. This network off telescope has eight mezza, even origin telescopes. 1st 1 wasin alma child that is Atacama Large millimeter. Every it is located in seal that is in the South America. 2nd 1 is as a are submillimeter, airy, located in Hawaii. Thirties SPT or South Pole Telescope. 4th 1 is the S empty or Submillimeter telescope located in Arizona. Okay, Frist one is the full dove will take telescope in China JC Empty or James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, located in Hawaii L M P Large Millimeter Telescope, located in Mexico in North America and last but not the least epics or Atacama Pathfinder experiment again. Located in chief according Toe, the European Southern Observatory. It's Atacama Last millimeters or submillimeter Array. Alma. About the secret compartment. That event Arjun Telescope us. I told earlier, alone recorded or a pack a bite that means of one million gigabytes off information on the black hole. This kind of information has been collected by all the other telescopes as well. This kind of information is too last to send over the Internet. The fiscal hard drives that recorded this data was sent by airplane on input into computing clusters called us Corey later that is located at the A mighty haystack ups of a train cam bridge. This first image off a black hole shows a bright ring with her dogs and respond. This particular thing is a bright disc off gas orbiting the super Massoum behemoth in the galaxy M 87. On the spot is the Black Hole's Shadow, the Amaze Alliance with expectations of what a black hole should look like. Based on I Instance General Terry Officer Activity, which predicts how space time is bob by the extreme ass off a black hole, the searchers are going toe. Add some more telescopes that would allow them to extend the image to better capture the jets that spew from the black hole. The researchers also plan to make observations using light off slightly higher frequency, which can further sharpen the image, and even bigger plants are on the origin. So that's it for this particular update. Just keep your eyes open for the future updates in this particular section. Thank you so much for taking the courts