The first principle of animation- Squash and Stretch | Taylor A. | Skillshare

Playback Speed

  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

The first principle of animation- Squash and Stretch

teacher avatar Taylor A.

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

8 Lessons (33m)
    • 1. Bouncing Ball intro

    • 2. How do I Maya?

    • 3. Making that happy bouncing ball!

    • 4. The last technical stuff you need to know!

    • 5. Creating our first bounce!

    • 6. Adding a bit of flare with some roll!

    • 7. What we've been waiting for!

    • 8. Some final thoughts and a bit of something wacky!

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

This is an introductory class for any and all skill levels to learn from.  Animation is broken down into 12 basic principles and this class will cover the first and most underappreciated/misunderstood, squash and stretch!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Taylor A.


Howdy everyone!

My name is Taylor Arnold, a graduate from Texas A&M University. I am currently at the Digital Animation Visual Effects School in Orlando, Florida. I am very excited to begin sharing what I have learned with the rest of the world!

My specialty lies within 3D animation but I am well versed in modeling, rigging, compositing, and rendering and will hopefully be making videos covering a full range of topics!

See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • 0%
  • Yes
  • 0%
  • Somewhat
  • 0%
  • Not really
  • 0%
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.


1. Bouncing Ball intro: Hey, guys, my name is Taylor. I'm gonna be going over some animation with you today. Actually, we're gonna be going over the 12 principles of animation one principle per project. So the 1st 1 is gonna be on squash and stretch, which is, in my opinion, the most important in the most underappreciated principle of animation. So the 12 principles of animation were actually developed by these nine guys, the old men of Disney in the 19 thirties. And they developed this way to show off animation and give a step by step procedure to give life and meaning to their characters movements. Because without these principles, animation looks kind of stale and boring. So these are the 12 principal squashing stretches again at the top because it's the most important. But we'll be going over all 12 of them in different projects. So squash and stretch is the illusion of flexibility and wait and just intent that would otherwise without it would be lifeless, meaningless animation. So to show you something without any squash and stretch, which is what we'll be doing a ball bounce. Here's what it looks like without squash and stretch, as you can see it just It's boring. Yes, it's bouncing. It's probably more realistic than the picture that's over here, because there is no way that you're going to see this amount of stretching on a ball or a bouncing ball in real life unless you were filming it at a ridiculous amount of frames and so on, so on. But with squash and stretch, you can see the animations a lot more interesting. It's much more fun, vibrant. The character has meaning and intent behind his motions, so that's what we'll be creating. You'll have something cool to show your friends, and you'll understand this principle a lot better. The program will be using its Autodesk Maya 2016. You can get a free version toe learn on off their website. I posted the link right there, and they are a great program to use, especially if you're learning. This is actually still the industry standard that a lot of companies use. So if you can learn this, you can get your way into animation on a professional level. So without further to do, let's get our scene and start learning what my is 2. How do I Maya?: everyone. So this video is called. How do y Maya? So I'm gonna get you started really, really fast to go over a lot of information so we can get jumped into for the next video. So this is your my interface. Your view port is right here. You have your channel box over here. We'll get into that later. And you have all these wonderful times up here, and they all do a lot of stuff. So to move around and you're seen to start, you hold Ault and left click to rotate Ault in middle, click to pan and also right click the zoom. You can also zoom with the scroll bar on your mouth. All right, so up here, we'll just start with the polygon. Um, Sphere, since that's what we're gonna be using for a ball bounce anyways. Good place to get started. All right, so we've created a sphere in the scene, so you can see it's already got manipulators on it. For how doe? I'm have to move it. If yours does not have this, don't panic. Hit the w key to bring up your translation manipulators so you can move it along the X axis with the red busy with the blue and the green does the Y axis. You can also move all these values up here by clicking one of them and mental mouse clicking in the scene. As you can see, you can also move multiple ones, but usually that gets a little dicey. So you want more control, so it's easier if you just move along one axis at a time. So if you hit the geeky, you pull up your rotations again. Bread for yellow since it selected last issue or along the X axis, blue is along busy and green rotates along the white. And then our pulls up your scaling to make it bigger, Smaller again. Green blue, Right, Easy, people. All right, so over here on the left hand side, you have this little button called your outline. Er, this will pull this thing up in. This will be your best friend. Your outline, er lays out everything you have in your scene. So if I have a sphere in my scene and I come over here and create a cube, it automatically shows up in my outline. Er, which is really good when you're having trouble seeing something. Like right now, I can't see my cube. So if I were to click off it, there's no way I could select my cube. So if I came over here and selected it and hit W to move, I could move it out. And now I can see my cute easy enough. All right, so over right underneath it. You have this, but this is your curve for your graph editor. Have you want to call it? This will show all of the animations that we dio in a line format. So if I would create a quick animation, I will explain. I do this later. But as you can see, we have the rent for the X blue for the sea and green for the wine. And these are all the translation values that I just set. As you can see right here, as soon as you said a key, they'll turn red. So just keep that in mind again. We'll be going over that in more detail when we start enemy. So now we're gonna set up a shell for our scene. So these shelves up here are basically quick tabs to get anything done, so you can also. So if I was to go to the polygon, you can go appear and create a polygon through the drop down menu. These air just faster. So we're going to create a shelf that has everything we're gonna need for this project. You're gonna come over here to the gear, click it and click New Shelf. My own also does not like things that have spaces so used a, uh, under bar instead of a space. So I'm gonna call this one Fall under bar. Yeah, you shall. All right, so now I have a totally empty shelf and we can start feeling with other things that we're gonna need. So I know I'm gonna need to create a polygon sphere, so I'll go to the create town polygon sphere. So do a control shift and a click, and it adds it to yourself. So this is good. Whenever you're working on a project and you know you're going to be going back to the same tool over and over again instead of having to go through here and find it, you can add it to your shop. So we're gonna also need to create a nerves primitive and a circle. So control shift click. Good edit. Delete by type history, control shift, click and modify Frieze Transformations Control shift, Click. Now, I know you don't know what those do yet. Don't worry. I'll be going over those in depth in the next video. I just want to get you started and get yourself creative. So now we have everything set up in the next video. We're gonna make our bouncing ball and get ready to start animating. 3. Making that happy bouncing ball!: everybody. So in this video we're going to be creating that little bouncing ball. And before we get to animate it, we have to do a few things. We have to create some controls by which to move it by because you shouldn't animate geometry itself. My really doesn't like that. And it kind of gets angry. So first will create our spear using the shelf that we've already made. And then, as you can see, minds in the wire frame mode, if you want it to be in the textured motor, it's a solid ball. Click this button right here. All right, so first off, let's move it up past the grin. So mine. It likes to work in whole numbers when it creates its geometry. So all we have to do is come over the translate why, and move it up by one. Now, it should be perfectly on the grill. All right. Next we have to make some controls. So we'll come over here to the are the nerve circle that we made and click it now. Nerves won't show up when you finally render this. They're just there purely for control points. So we're gonna name this circle P L C. Now, this is gonna be your starting position for your model. This PLC will never leave wherever your model starts. So if your model started here, the peel say will stay there even if the model comes all the way over here. Okay, Is just the general starting point. So now you see over here, since we scaled it up that we have values on our scales, Will control should never have values on these. So we're going to use the button that we made over here f t or freeze transformations and cancel that out back toe one. All right. And then we're gonna use the bunt right next to it called delete History. That way it deletes the history, and we have no ability to accidentally go back and make this the numbers again. All right, so now we're going to create another circle, and then we're going to scale this up a little bit and call this one the move tool. Okay, so our move tool has to be centered on our object. So select your object, go into a wire frame mode and there's a lot of different ways you can do this. I like to do it this way. That I'm going to show you. It, in my opinion, gives better results. So select your model. Go to display, transform, display and rotate pivots. You see, it gave us that little circle in the center. Now we select our move tool. Hold be and move it to that circle. Now, this move tool is directly centered on our object. All right, So I'm gonna go back to shading mode just cause it's easier to look at and we're going to go to our move tool, and remember that we have these transforms on it. We have to freeze and delete history on it. Okay, so now we're going to go into the outline. Er, and I'm gonna tell you something about parenting. So parenting in Maya is a way to get geometry to follow Well, Children geometry to follow his parents. So we're gonna parent our move control to our PLC. So click the move Control child two parent and hit the peaky. You'll notice in our outline er that the move tools now under the PLC. So when the PLC moves, the move tool moves as well. But when the move. Tool moves. The PLC stays where it is. So it goes down the chain. All right. Now there's something called constraints. And if I had a lot more time, I would go into what those are. But since I don't, let's just do one. So we're going to go up here to rigging mode and then ruin select our move, tool shift, select our geometry, Come over here to constrain in parent. So now when you move your move tool, the sphere should move with it. All right, so that's the general rig that we're gonna be using for our bouncing ball for the next video. We're gonna go in to set up some attributes to create that squash and stretch, and then add a little roll to it so it gets some actual realistic motion. 4. The last technical stuff you need to know!: All right, everyone. So this is where I left you off last time. We just created our move control, and we have our PLC parented the move parented under the peel seats. All of this is set up. Now we have to create the actual squash and stretch. Now, this is going to get a little complicated again. Don't feel bad if you have to pause it or if you have to rewind or have me go over something again so the squash and stretch is actually called a deformed. So what you're going to do is you're going to click on the spear, go up to here where it says the form we're gonna go to nonlinear, deformed. And luckily enough, it's called squash. So go to the wire frame months. You can see it. So currently our squash is set to the centre. So if you look over here under you're out liner, it's a squash one handle. So your squash one handle is set to the centre. And if you click on the input over here and find factor, middle mouse, click and drag, you can see it's quashing, which is awesome squash and stretch. The only problem is it's squashing from the center of the ball, not the bottom. So what we have to dio is we have to set your squash the former to the ground plane. So luckily, it's already set it to translate value for us. So if we set this to zero, it will set it to the ground plane for us. But now it only works on half the sphere. So we have to tell it that we wanted to dio zero as the lowest value. And remember, we set the ball up one. So let's go up one more to for the high value. So now when we moved the factor, it should scale from the bottom. So it looks like it's hitting the ground and squash it. All right. Now, it's gonna be real complicated to go into this control over and over and over again when we could just create a attributes on this move control and it works better. So what we're gonna dio is going over here to edit goto, add attributes and you're going to just call it squash. We're gonna say minimum value, negative one. Why not? And a maximum value of one you could make those anything you want, but I'd say those are probably the lowest and highest you want to go. So it ad And then we're going to create another one called role. And then we'll leave the minimum and maximum with those to infinity because we want to build, to roll over and over again without having to stop. So hit. Okay, you know, added and close the window. Now we have to do something a little complicated. So click on your move. Control good at it and go to connection editor. Now, what this is going to do is allow you to set one of these controls to something else. So we want to go find her squash control and click that and then pick what we want the squash control to connect him. So click Cardiff former through here or through the outline. Er, move this over. Click squash. I want to connect to the factor. So reload the right, which will put all of the squash stuff in here and find where it says factor right there. So now if we close this, we click on the move tool and we click squash and middle mouse and drag. Now we have the squash control in the move control. Now we have to do roll roll Israel simple. We just want the geometry of the ball to roll. So what we're gonna do is go here, Click Role Connection editor. And then we're gonna click the geometry of the bowl every load that. So let's say we'll pick one. Access to roll upon will roll on the Z axis. It's usually Z positive is where people generally move things towards its a good standard to set. So we'll go down here to rotate open, rotate and click rotate. See, we have to hit roll first rotate, see their ago. Now it's all set, and part of being an animator is troubleshooting. So mine didn't work all the sudden. So I had to sit there and go. All right, What did I not do? So if something's not working, just sit there. Think for a second. Where Where did I miss? All right, so now we have our squash and our role, and we want to make sure our squash follows our move. So just like we did for the move in the PLC click squash handle shift Click the Parent, which will be the move tool and hit P two parent. So now we can move our character, and we can squash it wherever it iss. 5. Creating our first bounce!: Hello, everyone. So we finally get to do all the fun stuff. So all I've done since we were last here is I've taken my ball off the main floor with the PLC, and I've moved it up here that way. It has some air to go through before it hits the ground. All right, so I closed my outline, Er, because I don't need it for now. And I'm a open this thing down here. The curve editor. So the curve editor is a graphical representation of all the animation we're doing. So that's a long winded way to say. It shows all of our animation in lines. So what we're going to dio to start our animation is right. Click on our move, tool. We're gonna hit the s key. You notice everything here turned red and we've got two dots down here, so that s key. What it does is it sets a key and says on frame one down here on the time slider. This is where this object should be. So now we're gonna move down to will say frame 12. Why not? So moved the frame 12 and we'll put the ball on the ground, moving on Lee in the why and the X axis since our role goes along the Z axis. So I want to make sure that I get it plastered onto the ground plane so I'm a go into will , say the front via and move it down just enough to wear that lying meat. All right, so go back to our perspective, you and you see it's created two lines here. So this red line is the translation of the X. In the screen line is the translation of the why or how far it's moved over this way and how far it's moved down this way. So if we scrub between the two lines, you can see my has already done some animation for us, and it's made all the in between points. Now this doesn't really look natural, and it's missing a key component called Ease in and Ease out. So we'll go over here and we'll create an in between of our own. So we'll go to frame for and we'll move it rate about here. So we want just a little bit of wait time before it starts the sink. All right, so that looks about good for what we want now. All right, So if you look at our curve, think about when a ball is dropping. You want kind of the same distance to be traveled all the way through. So we may have missed our mark a bit when we set our first frame so you can go back and edit it. So we're our frame 12. Let's move it over a bit more to about there. So it's got more of a straight line because we're not losing any Moe mentum as it goes this way until it hits the ground. So that looks a little more real. All right, so let's greater first bump. So it's a frame 18. We'll go up to there. All right, so we got our first bump up and we'll go to the same amount of frames over and we'll go back down now. We can go back to frame 12 and copy the translate. Why value that way it stays the same throughout our entire animation. Looks like I got lucky, and it was the exact same value already. Us. All right, now, this curve editor is gonna be a real asset to you. but you have to treat it right. So if you look up here, we have all these buttons appears that showed different line structures. So this one is a spine structure, which is what my animations currently doing years may not be doing this. So if yours doesn't look like this, click this button and it'll set it to how minus All right now what we want is we want When it hits the ground, it's a been impact. So let's select the direction when it's coming this way and hit this one. This makes it linear, so it has more like more umph when it hits the ground and we want the same way going up that way. When it comes through here it bounces and hits the ground again. So again, we'll set this side toe linear hope. From there we go decide to linear, and we'll go a couple frames over and set the next motion. So I'm running out of time on this five minute video, but I'm going to set up another couple bounces, and then when we come back, you get to see it and I'll show you more about the curve editor and how to get a good animation out of it. 6. Adding a bit of flare with some roll!: Hello, everyone. And welcome back. All right, So what we did last time, what was We set up our first jump and since you were gone, I set up a couple more bumps just to give it some more animation to work with. So here's what we've got so far, it's got a pretty straight line in the X. You don't want it to be perfectly straight. You want to add some variation just so it doesn't look stale and boring a linear. Um, I went through all of these impact points and selected each side because this for a sec, I selected each side of the curve and hit this button right here to make it linger again. That gives it some more. So now what we gotta dio is we'll start with the role. So to see our role, our spirits grace. So we're not really gonna see anything. So we're going to do something. So we're gonna go up here to the hyper share which will open this up right here, and we're going to search for something called Checker, and it just creates a to D texture that looks like a checkerboard. We're gonna move this aside. Scale it down a bit so we can see everything. And then you all to middle mouse click to move around in here. We're gonna Middle Mouse Click this and drag it onto our sphere. Now you don't see anything yet because we don't have textures turn on. So if you go over here coincidentally, there's a checkered ball. If you click that, it will show all of your textures and all of your models So we'll close our hyper shader because we don't need this anymore and we'll click on our ball and we'll go to frame one so we'll go to our role. Our role is set to zero. So we're going to Dio is we're gonna pick a couple frames and just add just a bit of role in the direction of the about. So that seems about right for that motion and then two here we're gonna roll a little more , and then to the next point, we're going to roll a lot more because it just came off about so it's got some impact. It's a momentum Carry that roll over carried over a little more and so on so forth and you'll get to the end of your animation, no matter how Maney bumps you made, and you can click on your roll over here now you can't see any of it. But if you hit a, it'll zoom all of your stuff in. So look at our curve. Are curves pretty straight. We've got an outline or here. So if we click there hit W in this section shift, click and go down, we can get our curve a little straighter. And then once we get to the end here, he really doesn't have a lot of motion. So we don't want as much role for this bit just enough to carry him through that little bit and will hit play and watch that all the way through. And if it goes a little too fast, you can always stop it and scrub through so you can watch it a little more death, and that looks about right to me. All right. The next time we come back, we'll be adding our squash and stretching or really start to come alive as a character 7. What we've been waiting for!: All right, everyone. And we are back with our ball bounce, and we're almost done with setting up our past. All right, so where we left off, we have our Miocene. We have our move tool. We have our translate, why? And our translate X along with our role set up. So here's what our animation looks like so far just scrubbing through it. And the only thing is missing is some squash and stretch. So I asked The ball falls, gravity is going to start acting on it. So wolves keep on our current key frames. It just keeps things cleaner. And, um, it's it's less red along the timeline, and it just looks nicer and cleaner, so we'll keep on our key frame. So on frame four, Well, good, or are squash and will stretch it by just a little bit. You want to be realty tender with this? I'm ago 0.5 You see, it's already added just a little bit to it. I'm gonna go all the way up until the impact. So our impact is on frame 12. We're gonna zoom up closer. Actually, we can look at the front view we like just because we're working on Lee in one direction. So I'm going to zoom up close and the frame before our impact should have the most stretch on it. So I'm going to do something a little ridiculous and we'll say point for and we want to rotate this so it goes and starts toe arc into the fall. So rotate it like that. Well, say roughly about there, right? So as it hits the ground, it should zero out its rotations, and it should start to squash in the negative. That way it looks like it's hitting the ground, squashing, stretching for the ground impacting and then the frame rate after it shoots off into this direction. So we want the squash to instantly go at words like that. And then again, we need some rotation in the direction it's going. So this will look like this stretching, stretching impact upwards. So at the top of every arc, the ball is going to zero and it's rotations, and it's gonna unscrew itself. So the top of the ark is are the top of the parabola of your jump is gonna be the neutral point for the ball. The ball isn't getting active downwards is not getting acted on upwards, so it's going to zero out its rotations and it's squash before continuing back down again. So again, this is the frame rate before impact. So whereas squash it our stretch it out just a bit, we want to make sure as the ball loses momentum, it also loses some of its squash because there's no way you're going to get Mawr squash and stretch out of something than you would have when it was hitting harder. So squash stretch stretch squash on this one, see your rotation and down a bit will say negative point to and then up on the next one. Now this is all artistic. So if you want to go more cartoony and some more squash, I mean, it's your animation. It's art so it can look. However you want it to look, I'm just going for a simple non complex will bounce to give you guys an idea of how this works. You can take this and go absolutely nuts. I mean literally. The sky's the limit. So that's it. Brandy 0.15 squash. That way we're gonna rotate. See that way? Impact and as I'm going through, and I'm getting toe lower impact points. I am slowly decreasing how much squash it's getting. So it's that negative 0.1 there. It's a negative point to their It's a negative 0.0.45 there because of that huge drop. So up here, this is kind of the apex of this art, because it's just a small bounce. So I'm not gonna add much squash or stretch on this one at all. It will do 05 and just a slight rotation Come up to here. See you around, you're out. And then the exact same negative value here. So negative points. Terrified Tate. See what year Here we go. A little bit of rotation hits the ground now. Negative points here to your rotation and as it rolls it unscratched itself. And there you have it 8. Some final thoughts and a bit of something wacky!: Alright, guys. So just some final thoughts for our series of videos here on the principles of animation, squash and stretch again. I am Taylor. If you have any questions over what I've gone over, uh, please don't hesitate to put them in the comments. I will always respond to them. Thank you all for watching all the way through. I hope you got something out of this. Here's a quick little animation. I did Maybe 2030 minutes. Um, just throw some polygon cubes in here. I skilled them up, and I did the exact same thing I've been doing with you guys through this whole video. Went to the curve. Editor. Um oops. I turned off my curves. So if you want to, um, make it to where all you see is the spear and your polygons in the scene. So it's easier to look at, um, for when you're done with it, go to show, hit none, and then hit Holly Gagne. And then that'll show on Lee the polygons there. But I want to grab this guy. So this is my move tool. And then these are my curves. So exactly the same as we've been doing so far. Except I have a linear hit here for when he hits this guy. But all the same principles, all the same motions. My translate, Why looks exactly the same. Nice swooping curves hit, occur, hit so on. I've got squash and stretch. You can do this video with what I've shown you. You could do something crazy. You can have walls all over the place. The ball can have life. It can have direction. It wants to go. It's art. It's technical, yes, and that's grounded in physics. But it's still aren't. You could do whatever you want with it. The Balkan have a mind of its own and start spinning around the pain. As long is it is grounded and physics, and it looks like it's moving. Riel are realistically, brother. It will look right. So animation is all about taking something or an idea and making it really so it doesn't have to be a 100% plausible. A rubber ball can have life in motion in its own. But again, I hope you enjoyed our videos. I hope you got something out of them. I'll be doing another set of videos on the second principle of animation, so I hope I get you guys back here for that