The Theory Behind Electronics - A Beginners Guide | Idan Gabrieli | Skillshare

The Theory Behind Electronics - A Beginners Guide

Idan Gabrieli, Pre-sales Manager | Cloud and AI Expert

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62 Lessons (3h 52m)
    • 1. Course Introduction

      3:33
    • 2. Software Setup

      1:47
    • 3. Current, Voltage and Power - Starting with the basics !

      1:07
    • 4. Atoms and Electric Charge (OMG?!)

      5:58
    • 5. Electric Current

      4:38
    • 6. Voltage

      3:56
    • 7. Power

      7:14
    • 8. Summary - Current, Voltage, Power

      4:38
    • 9. AC/DC - Two best friends ?

      0:49
    • 10. Direct Current (DC)

      2:14
    • 11. Alternate Current (AC)

      3:30
    • 12. The War of Currents

      3:29
    • 13. AC Wave-forms

      1:38
    • 14. AC Socket - Hot, Neutral, and Ground

      3:51
    • 15. Measuring Power and Voltage in AC

      2:49
    • 16. Summary - AC and DC

      5:00
    • 17. (Join the) Resistance

      1:01
    • 18. What is Resistance ?

      3:59
    • 19. Resistors

      6:36
    • 20. Color Codes

      1:42
    • 21. Variable Resistors

      1:36
    • 22. Circuit Simulation - Fixed and Variable Resistors

      6:17
    • 23. Circuit Simulation - Measuring Current and Voltage

      6:17
    • 24. Summary - Resistance

      3:29
    • 25. Capacitance - Storing electrical energy for a while….

      0:43
    • 26. What is Capacitance ?

      0:47
    • 27. Capacitors

      1:19
    • 28. Charge and Discharge

      5:25
    • 29. RC - Time Constant

      3:55
    • 30. Types of Capacitors

      6:26
    • 31. Application

      9:36
    • 32. Circuit Simulation - Store and Release Energy with Capacitors

      4:45
    • 33. Summary - Capacitance

      3:55
    • 34. Inductance - Let the force be with you

      0:53
    • 35. Electromagnetism - almost like magic...

      3:40
    • 36. Steady Current and Coiled Wire

      4:19
    • 37. Time Varying Current

      1:58
    • 38. Self Inductance

      5:27
    • 39. Inductance and Inductors

      1:45
    • 40. RL - Time Constant

      2:55
    • 41. Mutual Inductance

      4:57
    • 42. Transformer

      1:02
    • 43. AC Generator and Electric Motor

      2:57
    • 44. Circuit Simulation - Self-Inductance with Inductors

      5:27
    • 45. Summary - Inductance

      5:48
    • 46. Semi-Conductors - What’s the big deal

      0:24
    • 47. What is Semi-Conductor ?

      4:03
    • 48. Diode

      2:26
    • 49. Transistor

      8:20
    • 50. Circuit Simulation - Transistor as Digital Switch

      5:41
    • 51. Circuit Simulation - Transistor as Digital Logic

      2:59
    • 52. Circuit Simulation - Transistor as Current Amplifier

      2:32
    • 53. Summary - Semi-Conductor

      4:51
    • 54. Basic Laws of Electric Circuits - It is NOT a rocket science…

      1:10
    • 55. Circuit Topology

      3:59
    • 56. R,L,C in Series and Parallel

      5:07
    • 57. Ohm’s Law - V, I, R

      4:38
    • 58. Kirchhoff’s Laws - Junction (KCL)

      3:25
    • 59. Kirchhoff’s Laws - Closed Loop (KVL)

      4:10
    • 60. Summary - Basic Laws of Electric Circuits

      5:14
    • 61. Course Summary

      6:06
    • 62. What Next...

      1:42
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About This Class

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Electricity is all around us, it is some hidden energy force driving many applications we all use in our daily life. The theory behind electricity is based on some amazing phenomenon in nature and some several materials properties that were discovered by great scientists. Electronics is a theory developed around the useful applications of electricity.  So the first thing that we can say about electricity is that it is a really interesting subject!

Today, electronic is becoming much more friendly hobby for many people worldwide that would like to easily combine hardware and software and do things by themselves, the prices of electric components are dropping, easy to use development platforms were created (e.g. Arduino) and it is very easy  to collaborate and learn the subject in a few mouse clicks.

The Internet of Things is also an emerging driving force for innovators looking to build things using electronics and harness the power horse of the web technologies to create new products, services or just cool projects!

This course is a starting point, to learn the basic building blocks of electronics with step by step education program, easy to follow chapters, simple circuits’ demonstrations, quizzes to evaluate your understanding and review the key things to remember using a mind mapping template.

Join me with one of the biggest Makers Movement!

Transcripts

1. Course Introduction: electricity is all around us. It is some heat and energy force driving many application we all use in our daily life. Wherever we go touch user play, we will find Elektronik circuit because they are embedded everywhere. The theory behind electron ICS is based on some amazing principle in nature that were discovered by great scientists along our history. There are great reason today why to start learning electron ICS, and I think the main one is that it is really interesting and useful subject. Electron ICS is becoming much more friendly or before people that would like to do things by themselves. And, believe it or not, it is not a rocket science. In addition, the Internet Off things technology wave will open new options for innovator that can smartly combine electron, ICS and Web technologies. In other case, maybe you have some idea in our mind that required simple electronic circuit. Or maybe we just need a refresh for things we learned a long time ago. What are we going to live? We will start with comprehensive definition off. What is current voltage and power in the linkage between them? What's different between D. C and a C as power source. OAS signal in circuit. Then we cover in details. The building blocks off most basic electronic circuit that are based on some cool principle in physics. The last section will be dedicated to understand and use the tree most commonly used lows in a tronics toe analyze circuit. We are going to do that with the solid framework, a little bit physics and a very basic Matt. With the step by step short learning cycle. We will use software tools to help you gain understanding without spending time and money on hardware stuff. Who should join us? This course is a great introduction for beginners. Electricity and electron ICS. Do it yourself makers Al Do we know Developer looking for more solid background, Internet Off things. Intra preneurs student looking for a quick refresher or people looking for ways to expand their horizons into new domains? My name is Dan Gabrielli, walking in the software industry with a stone linkage to the business side. I have a comprehensive knowledge in electron ICS networking, ICT infrastructure that a Basin Web technology like every journey, we need to start with something. So let's start with theory behind electron ICS 2. Software Setup: I'm going to use several tools doing this course to present electronic circuit and document some off the key things to remember Preacher section. All of them are optional. Still, I strongly recommend to in style and start using them, starting with the ex mine that I think is one of the most useful mind mapping software of the mind mapping software are usedto a lot to develop new ideas. Summarize complex subject. Organize our thinking a course in creating relationship between concept and much more. I personally use it a lot. You can download the free desktop application from the Web. It just said cheeks mind type The link that I provided. I will summarize each section using the X Mind tools, and you can also download my files directly from the relevant chapter and open that using X might next Software tool is called out of disk circuit. This is a very nice circuit simulator based on a Web service, so we don't need to install anything with a great drug and rope user interface. I'm going to use it to present ticket. It is very easy to use, so I strongly recommend that you will start playing with it, just opening an account and start to use it. It the last after would like to recommend is called Free Ting. This is a nice open source software at the main use cases toe documents circuit and that we create in a very professional looking diagram. It is a more optional suggestion. A for advance a student. 3. Current, Voltage and Power - Starting with the basics !: We all use electricity all day long with endless types off device. Some of them are connected to our home power, and many of them are actually running on all kind off batteries like your smartphone and so on. Electron ICS is the study of device and complaint that controlled the flow off electricity . Somehow we can build device that control, detect, measure power on and off counts, toe and transmit data, for example. But in order to do all of those nice things first, need to know what is electricity and how exactly it's float. We will start our journey with free fundamental properties in electrical. Terry, what is current? What is voltage and what is power? 4. Atoms and Electric Charge (OMG?!): Okay, So what is electricity? We can't really see current electricity flowing inside. Some device we are using right now. Still, did you ever wonder how it is actually doing some work? Let's try toe. Answer those important basic question while looking on some basic concept in physics, starting with atoms. Oh, my God. Doing high school. Or even before that, we learned that any substance around us is actually made up off un believable tiny element that are called atoms. It can be one single type off atoms, and then we have what is called a pew matter, or even few types off different atoms that are the building block off some material. Another way to define it is that atoms are the smallest part, or a off matter that can be divided anymore without changing it to something else. For example, if you try to cut a single atom off gold, a material in health, the result will not be gold anymore. Instead, we will have a collection off the basic particles that I make up atoms, and they're actually tree types off such particles called neutrons, protons and electrons. The neutrons and protons in each atoms are tied clumped together in the middle of the atoms and electrons are actually spins around endlessly in the outside. Off the atoms structure Dimitri Mendeleev, published in 18 69. The first widely recognized today, is the periodic table, and they is that chemical element or a substance off a pure matter, consisting off only one single type off atoms. Every chemical element is composed, often atom with a particular atomic structure and that define it. For instance, the element off oxygen is composed only with oxygen atoms. Now, if we look on the table provided by Dimitri, we will see that element are ranked by the atomic number. The atomic number indicates the number off Putin in each atom, and that's very important. So each chemical element as a unique atomic number representing the number off Proton's inside A that atoms. Now atoms usually have the same number off electrons and protons. So if you will look inside an atom off gold, for example, we will see 79 protons that are orbited by 79 electrons. Now, why is that important for were discussion about electrical card, two off the tree particles that make up atoms, protons and electrons have a very interesting A. Popular teas called electric charge charge can be one of the two polarities. Negative or positive, electron has a negative polarity, while Putin has a positive polarity. Electric charges one off the basic force off nature when positive and negative child our truck to each other. And that's why electrons are bound by electromagnetic wave in tow. Orbital around the atomic structure Ofunato, which are at the end, is the building. Block off any material around us, if you will think about it. This is what holding internally any atom in the universe around us. Because of the simple fact that the number of protons is equal to the number off, electrons now toe the interesting concept off electrical charge. Electrons are moving between atoms all the time because an atom can actually pick up an extra one electron. All lose one extra, a stable atom as equal number of protons and electrons. If an atom is the same number off, Putin and electron, the positive charge off the protons balance out the negative charge, often electrons and the atom itself has no overhaul charge. Now, when an atom gains or loses an electron it become a charge atom? A. When an atom as a net positive charge, it goes looking for an electron toe. Restore it, balance state or charge in the same concept. If an atom somehow pickups an extra electron, the Artem as a net negative charge. And when this has happened, the atom goes looking for ways to get rid off the extra electron toe. Once again restore a balance state. Now some atom let electron to flow more easily. A. To lose, an electron will pick up a new electron. This is called conductors like copper, metal, silver and aluminium on the other. And some atom don't let electrons to flow so easily. This is called insulator like plastic, rubber and so on. 5. Electric Current: electric current the natural attraction off negative to positive charge, coz atoms that are showed an electron Toby attracted toe atoms that are looking for electron, and when they find each other, something almost magic happened. The atom with the extra Alec phone is very nice and give one electron toe the atom that is missing it. One, meaning the charge represented by the electron moves from one atom to another. Usually this movement off electron is completely random. One electron may jump left one, and while another can jump right, one goes up. One goes down into one. Now this random movement is not an electric current yet Onley when the electrons start to move in in an organized way, in the same direction we get electric. Current is a flow off electric charge Kate, by the free like phone as they jumped between atoms. Moving at the speed of flight is like a slow motion animation, but something has to force the electrons to move in one direction, and we speak about it later. Now how do we know or measure the strength off an electric current? At the most basic level, current is the total charge that passed through some course sectional area per unit time like flowing in some while I am old if you're we analog that toe where water this is like looking inside the water by that is the water's flowing in some right, and I win current. We use a unit that is called ampere to express the flow it off electric charge, and the short symbol is just a. In addition, electric current as a direction it like water flowing in specific direction. Conventional current flow is in the direction off. Positive charge movement, meaning from positive to negative, even if that's not really true is electron are negative, so they actually moved from negative to positive. But these not important as long as we use common way toe analyze circuit now because I'm pale is a very large unit. A current is also expressing my crumple and you can see the symbol, 1,000,000 pair and killam pill. If you're looking for a larger amount off current, let's take some example. The lead that we see all around us is using around 20 million compare to operate a home lighting using a 0.1 um, pill. Your laptop is using around 2 to 4. Compare depend off course of the laptop. Your car starter using around 1 60 I'm Bill to operate the cow when you starting the engine . Now, the last very important thing to know about current is that the pet on which electricity flows is called circuit once flow has been established in in some circuit electric kind can travel endlessly if the circuit remain what is called closed look closed Loop is simply and the meaning that electricity required a complete pet toe continue sleep flow, meaning they'll to contact point for the car window to enter and exit. They're trying to move around all the time. Now you know why birds can safely rest on some high voltage power line. It is because the two legs are sitting on the same while they're not closing loop with the otherwise and that that we see 6. Voltage: we saw that when Alec drones are moving in one direction, it is Gold electric card. But the question what actually moved them in one direction? For that, we're going to the second important unit in electricity called voltage in physics, willing that there is no free energy. Something is to put, walk or spend energy toe help those eloquent to move toe, get electrical current to flow from one point to another. A voltage must exist between the two points voltage place the costs and electrical company gives raise toe what is called electro motive Force E M F that is responsible for giving all free electrons a constant push. Now we can say that electricity is actually created when a voltage pulls an electric current through circuit. Okay, so we understand that readout. Voltage. There can be no current flow if kind can be compared. Toa a flow off the water three pipe, Then voltage can be compared to a water pump. A that rate pressure constant pressure on the water. It is the water pump that caused the water to flow in the pipe. Now, looking on the picture below point A and point B can be connected or not connected. So there is a potential to close the loop and ran Colin between them. This is why voltage is also referred. Is voltage potential voltage Create the potential for current to flow? Say is we saw in current we need to measure somehow the strength off a voltage. So the unit that is being used as much is that where it's called Vote or we showed the letter V in many electrical equation Voltage power sources usually represented by the letter e a meaning electro motive force. Now V is more general tail as it present Also component that consumed voltage not a creating voltage What is called voltage dope Because some passive components that will later in this course in this simple circuit you could see on the left side some power source with the letter e O. V and two component that I call device a device big. And there is some voltage doorbell, each one off them. One is V A and the other one is re be. We can, if physically, measure voltage using a device it is called afford metal device that can measure the voltage between two points any points in the circuit now the same divisive looking. The measure current in a little bit in a different way and also existence. We'll see that later. But the take to remember is that voltage has polarity, meaning there is a positive and also negative site so you could see plus five world or minus 24 so or any other value. The last thing to know about voltage is that there are two types off voltage source. One of one of the discord. Isi Heck, kind with constant voltage. What you see, the bag directly a line and the other type of voter chose is called a C alternating current , meaning the current and voltage a reverse itself constantly like it's seen elsewhere. We will talk more deeply about it later. 7. Power: electric circuit becomes useful on Lee when the energy pushed by voltage power source and Kate by electric current is converted into some other form of energy such as heat, a light sound, a radio wave, mechanical movement and so on. However, some device we need very small amount off energy to operate, and some of them will require high amount of energy to perform useful war. So the 10 piece of the puzzle in our case is called power. Helping to calculate how much energy is needed or being used by the circuit or by specific component electric power is the rate off which electric energy transferred by an electric circuit converted into some other form off energy. All kind off images could be heat sound ready wave some mechanical movement light, etcetera if we use our water and pipe analogy than power is compared to the amount of pressure being created by the water pump. A simple example. If the secret convert Colin T to heat a like a water heater and then power is the amount of energy transformed into hit per second now the unit of power is called VAT Oh, in short, W an additional commonly used power unit or prefix of Mileva T. Of course. What in kilovolt? Now I would like to distinguish between two type of component related to power load in power source. The 1st 1 called Load a passive component. It's called that way mainly because it is the type of component in the secret that actually consume electric power by converting it toe. Other form off energy such as mechanical a walk, heat light it that rise we mention the second type off component is called power source, and in this case, it push oh, add energy to the sick it by converting some other type of energy to electric potential voltage. A such device, also called active component basic power calculation, is useful in many case. For example, electric component have maximum power rating, so we need to assure power will not cross a certain level at the time. The power source will get empty toe, be able to provide the right power supply. I am using the right size off wires or component and more. Now, how do we calculate power? Thanks to James Joel, this is quite easy. The relation between current and voltage toe power was discovered by him. It so using what is known as jars low or power low a power equal voltage times, Colin. So to be able to calculate the power consumption on some component, we just need to know the voltage drop. This is the A minus VB and the current flowing across that specific component calculating power. For example, Suppose we have some component, like small engine connected to a 20 world power supply. So we have 20 volt voltage dope on that engine toe calculate. And also we have a 100 million people flowing through that engine to calculate the power being consumed by the engine will use the simple power low. So we have vehicle to 20 volt. I equal to a 0.1 AM pale. Please note that used the equation correctly. We must make sure that we measure power, voltage and current using their standard unit meaning but vault and bumper. So in our case, I translated a the 100 million pale to a 0.1 pill. Very simple, and we get the result. The engine consume too, but in later stage will also lend to calculate power in a C R Senate current. The next important thing I would like to mention about power is that power is the rate off consuming energy now. Usually component are consuming power over the time frame, like using our water heater that consume, like 3000 VAT for one hour or maybe two hours. So consuming off electric energy is measured in additional unit called VAT per hour. You may be familiar with the term kill over that as unit of power, a killer that is 1000 VAT, for example. Our electric bill includes the number off kill off. But how will we used for specific month? This is the total a amount off energy we consumed. And there's always we are surprised when we actually need to pay the bill. On the other hand, we have component like batteries that supply energy, and they have limited energy capacity. How do we measure such limited capacity? We can see that batteries are usually categorised by the voltage. In this example. This is a car battery with a 12 DC voltage, but they're also categorized by the UMP hours A H. So this is a 78 h Energy Capacity and AMP. Hour is the unit off energy capacity? Um, our means amps, times our meaning. You can divide the umps and you will get hours or divide the hours and you get bumps. So it is not amps and is not, um, spell our for example, this car battery supplied 12 world D C in 70 ump hours. Let's say you ever device that is running on current equal to 10 AMP. If we connected to this specific battery, how long that energy capacity we last? So this is a very easy calculation. 70 h dividing 10 a. And you get seven hour. 8. Summary - Current, Voltage, Power: Let's quickly summarize the main thing that we learned in this section, and this is a temple that you can also download under hit the hay so stop and the first topic is current. So we saw that every material is at the end of the collection off small atoms. If we'll open some atoms and we'll zoom inside will see three main particles protons, neutrons and electrons. Now protons and electrons has a special characteristic that is good electric charge. Putin's have positive charge, and electrons have a negative charge. And this is what, holding every atoms Indian because they are a truck to a child each other. Now, electrons that are spinning around the atoms can jump between albums, meaning atoms can pick up and next relic tone or to lose an election. And actually, if you look inside the material, we see that the electron a jumping around in a Rando many all the time now random movement off electron is still not current. So to get the current flow we need, the electron will start to move in organized way in some direction, meaning a flow off electric charge carried by free licked on that are jumping form in autumn to another Otto. The unit that that we're measuring current is called compel, and the short simple is A. And we need to remember that conventional current flow is the direction off. Positive charge, meaning movement off positive to negative current can only flow if we have what is called closed loop, meaning electricity require a complete pet toe continuously flow endlessly. And the last thing to remember is that we need to force the electron to move in one direction somehow. And this is leading to the next Coke, a concept that is called voltage in Simple World Voltage is electro motive force. It's what is motivating or pushing the electron to move in some direction. It's being done by a different in charge between two A places we need to remember the concept of voltage potential because if we connect a voltage power source toe, a circuit current can flow or will not flow based on the fact if the circuit is closed, if the component is connected or not connected, we measure the strength of revolted. Using a unit that is called vault voltage has polarity positive and negative, and there are two main power source for voltage. They see direct talent in a C alternating current. So the last topic in this section is power. Now we saw that power helping us to understand how much energy is being used. Over time, the unit is called VAT, and we have actually to type a off component. All circuits can called load or power source. The meaning offload is that it's consume electric energy from the circuit. Those devices, called passive component on the other side power source pushing energy into the circuit in this device are called active company. Now how we calculate the power over some component Very simple. Using the jobs Low power is equal to voltage multiply by current power consumption. Power is consumed off the time and it's measured using a unit called but ours. And we saw that our electric bill, for example, is the amount off kill over that I hours that we consume over a month. And the last topic is energy capacity because some powers was limited like a battery, and we're using a simple a sample hours unit it to measure that. For example, this is a 70 ample I was car battery 9. AC/DC - Two best friends ?: the C N A. C well, the so that electrical current can travel is a direct current they see and an alternative. Call it a C. Both types off current. Our movement off elect owns at the end, and both can produce power. However, there very difference from each other. Most basic electron ICS that are being used by electron ICS help ease, and I ot makers whatever powered by direct calling. However, in some cases, alternating current is also irrelevant. As our home power source is based on a C. I think it's very putting to understand both of them. 10. Direct Current (DC): Let's start with D. C. They act current. Their car and D. C is a current that travel in one direction only. It is unique directional. The current flows from the negative terminal off the power source through the circuit toe the positive terminal. This He also has constant polarity, meaning that it doesn't change from positive to negative or vice versa. It remains it as either one or another. This will become important to know, as we learn more about electron ICS, as long connection can lead to non walking circuit or wars toe damage, the component being used in the circuit itself. Just looking on a simple DC wave form, we can see that the voltage and current do not change the value by time. They are a constant value flowing in the continues steady state direction. In other words, this he maintained the same value for all times and the constant uni directional. This is power. This is supply, never changed or become negative unless it's connection are physically reversed. As you probably know, D C power is not used for the transmission off energy form large power plants into our home . It is usually used when the stands are small now this is very common method toe operate, low power digital circuit in device like our cellular phone, home computer, Children, toys in flesh, light remote Carl control, you name it. Actually, most digital electronics is based on transmitting only to value zero and one using direct current, the zero digit can be presented by zero voltage and one digit can be presented, for example, like using five voltage or any other value as long as it is possible to distinguish between them. 11. Alternate Current (AC): now to the second type of current that we're using all day long in our or face and homes almost everywhere we go still, we need D C for almost all our electronic device. So why A C is so widely being used? Let's right toe. Answer that important question and get more basic understanding. What exactly is alternating current? A. C is a type off power source that cause current and voltage toe politically change direction, resulting what is called alternating current inane ese circuit. Not only does the current change direction all the time, the voltage also keep reversing. Along the time I agree, it is sound a little bit strange, but in a see the current flows in poor direction, forward and backward all the time. The election don't move stately forward. Instead, they just keep changing direction. And now such constant variation is all is gold way from what we see in the Green Line. Now, how many times in second, the current and voltage change direction for positive toe negative vice versa. For that, we have a simple Parmenter that is called frequency Frequency is used in many fields to specify a great off repeated divert or similar cycle that repeat again and again and per unit of time. A unit, of course, is second, like the weight off our human heart or the rate off that light that goes on enough to make things simple. Frequency is the number off cycle per second. The short symbol is F, and the new unit is heads named after any hurts who first it proved the existing off electromagnetic wave. So for the sake of the example, 100 heads is equal to 100 cycle pale one single second. That's that's all very simple now, going back to alternating current. The weight off, which alternating current reverse direction, is also expressed using frequency inhales. Standard Household current in us, for example, is 60 hits, meaning voltage and current change polarity 60 times for one single second. This is why your house lighting is flickering all the time, going on and off 60 times per second. And usually we can't see that sometimes when there is some power problem, some power issue the frequencies going slow will for a short period of time, and then we can see the light flickering. Now, frequency is not just useful a sea power supply that are using low for for consider. It is also used to express frequency off digital component walking in very I greats like our computer CPU. So we're using prefix toe express large a frequency. For example, kiddo, heads make a heads in gigahertz. 12. The War of Currents: alternating current is using nearly all world power distribution system today for the simple reason that a C current is much more efficient when it is transmitted through while over long distance. All electric current lose power when they are flow for long distance. But a C circuit lose much less power if we compare Ito this a circuit. In addition, a C is easier. Toe transmit had high for touch a cause greater distance toe neighborhood substation What we can see in the blue Lines transformer are used in such substation toe. Lawyer. The voltage A for level appropriate for household. The usage What we see in the green line. Maybe you saw such transformer near bios read connected toe the transmission lines we see everywhere few world about history. We saw that alternating current is the worldwide standard for power distribution. However, that wasn't always the case. It actually called the war off current. When back in the days will a Chris City was first being a put to elect toe practical usage around 18 80 the heck current was in practical usage to distribute electricity, the kind Thomas said this on the great inventor actually pushed the use off D. C. And opened the first public, this utility company. On the other side, several people like George Washington and Nikola Tesla, pushed the I D off using a C instead of D. C. For many good reasons. And the war off Colin started around the world. Remember, it was the early days off electricity. Eventually, as you understand by now a C wounded important battle for several good reasons. Now, how do we generate a C is electrical power source. We are going to cover the most magical phenomena in later stage, but if you would take a cool inside magnetic field, it can be used to create alternating current. That's the basic way, and L's in. A sea generator is walking. The purpose off the generator is to convert toe dating motion, such as a being powered by water floor steam into electricity because the electrons flow first in one direction and eventually flipped to the other direction. The generator produce and other anything Karen, that is, go up and down all the time. It that's look like Sina's wave in Matt. It is also possible to control the A C frequency by changing the rotating motion off the altar NATO. We saw that the steady DC produce a constant voltage between two points. On the other side, a C voltage constantly vilifies a moon pick positively charged voltage toe voltage and the pig negatively charged, voted It does this in a regular pattern, and the vying voltage can be described by classifying it in tow, a way for and the most common way from this scene. 13. AC Wave-forms: a C wave form is defined his wave that realizing both magnitude and direction with respect to time. Now, if you remember some basic Met that seen us, we've is actually a very nice mathematical way to present such wave. Sina's wave are one of the most important type of a seaway phone will see that a lot, and I used a lot of time inland electrical engineering, now their main tree properties off a C. Where from, And we can see that the way from start at zero, looking on the red line increased O positive maximum and then decreased to zero back again . Changing polarity. Tonegative increase to negative maximum and then return back to 01 complete variation between the same point off way phone is referred to as a cycle, and we know that the number off cycle per second is expressed by frequency. The last one is related to face in electron ICS. Face is the relationship between to wave, and he's a little bit a little bit more complicated subject, So let's keep it a high level impossible. In that specific case, we have two way form that are off the same frequency and voltage, but they don't overlap like we see in the picture. So they have a phase shift. In addition, that also additional type of facing a way form like square wave and more. 14. AC Socket - Hot, Neutral, and Ground: a few words about standard A C electric, a power supply, and that is so common using our home, the frequency relies bill country. The most common is 50 and 60 hertz in additional to type main type of a C wild connection to Wiles and three wiles. Three wires has line natural and girl. Now the Kahlo's off such why I can be different in each country, so you need to see the cooler standard in your location. But the purpose off each line is constant, and let's try to understand that. So I'm looking on some a a sea outlet power connection so the 1st 1 is lying. It also called hoat life. That's the life while caring Carlin and Voltage remember in a See the polarity is always changing, so it is not just positive or negative, like we have in D. C. The next, while is natural natural. Provide the return packed for the current provided by the line, while this natural while is connected to hit a ground. If you remember that current is flowing when there is a voltage potential between two point , so in a sea current charges flowing formed the A line or oh, what while through the circuit into the ground as a ground is defined, Toby at zero potential relative Douala things This make the health a convenient and useful potential on which to reference other signals. The last one is ground it only available when we used three wire connection like the natural wire. The ground while is also connected to the head ground. Ah, well, however, the natural and grand while they are being used toe different purpose. We saw that the natural while is part off the life circuit along the line, while on the other side, the ground while is connected toe any metal parts in the appliance or device we're using. A, such as our Michael waver over. This is a safety feature, meaning in case the hoat or natural while somehow come in contact with the metal parts off the place. This is called short circuit, so in that case connected the metal parts toe help ground, eliminate the shock hazard in the event of short circuit and should operate a sound fuse or circuit breaker toe. Isolate a faulty appliance from the power supply. Now to wild connection without ground is designed or used for appliance that don't require grounding. Most non grounded the clients. Are thou double isolated? Which means that there are two layers off isolation between any live wires in any metal parts within inside their clients on the other side. Three wires. It is used for appliance that require the ground connection for safety. Most appliance that uses metal HS is required a separate a ground connection. Now, last thing I would like to stay that I strongly recommend not to use play fixed. A just measure a sea power source if you're not really qualified to do so, is this is can be very dangerous. 15. Measuring Power and Voltage in AC: in alternate current. The current and voltage are a function of time, meaning in its second, the current and voltage are different. Using some math, we can calculate what will be the ever voltage in specific time, like 80 equal to two second. However, for our practical usage, it is not so useful. So for that we use some average. A simple schema, that is gold LMS. Other message stand forward means square. Maybe you heard about it with the relation it to understand the power off speaker, for example So to give more walkable voltage off a C flow, we will use the concept off. Alamos Voltage, also known as effective voltage Alum, is value are the D C equivalent value that provide the same power to the load. That's the meaning off Adam is voltage. There are actually two e waste. We can measure voltage in a C circuit. The 1st 1 is called peak Voltage. Is the measurement off the largest voltage present between zero and the highest point off the A C A circuit. The 2nd 1 is big toe pick voltage. The different between the highest and the lowest pick off the a C voltage and in most a c voltage depict toe big voltages like double the peak voltage and the last one that we just discussed is the most useful elements. Voltage the average voltage off the circuit elements. Voltage is the most common way toe. Specify the voltage A nay, See if the a C voltage follow a true seen this wave. The album is voltage is equal to 0.707 times the peak voltage and also the same way you are going to calculate colored very simple. Now, what about calculating the power? Because off the usefulness in carrying out the power calculation using resume RMS listed voltage for power outlet. What we see on the wall, for example, in in us is the 1 20 vault in Europe is a 230 volt are almost always quoted in other miss value and not in peak value. Now, still, being able to convert from one type to another is important, especially when we're dealing with component that we need to know the maximum voltage and the current a writing. So to calculate an average power within a C, we just use I A Lamaze environments. You can see very simple calculation 16. Summary - AC and DC: Let's analyze what we learned so far about D. C. An 80 power source and we'll start with the simple one. This is direct current, so they checked current. As the name implies, it's a unit Directional, constant flow off electric current polarity is important. One side is negative. The other side is positive. If you look on a simple, this is where from we will see on at the time dimension constant line for voltage in a constant line it for college now. Usually it's being used when the distance are very small. So this is why it's so commonly used in digital electronics to represent zero and one value moving to the second type of power source. Alternate current. So in a sea current and voltage perfectly change direction. Port from positive to negative, from negative to positive in tow on many times per second. So we measured in a palomino that is called frequency frequencies, the number off cycle per second. The symbol is F, and the units is hills, and, for example, 100 health is 100 cycles per second. Our electric outlet is 50 hertz, or 60 hertz based on the the country were living now because a C voltage or current constantly change. We can describe that using a seamless way from and in a seamless way from the three main part mater's like amplitude the frequency as we saw and face. Because some signal can have some phase shift between them, the next important thing would recover about A C is a C electric power, mainly because that there was in the past some debate. Which method is better to deliver power over the long distance. So at the end, A C was the chosen method to deliver and Toby the standard for power distribution system. And the main reason is that when you're using a C, you can deliver power a for long distance while losing a much less energy. If you compare that to the sea and how exactly you can generate a C using a C generator and the metal is rotating, a coil is inside a magnetic field, something that is very, very useful, and we'll cover that in much more details. Under the inductive. It's a section now zooming into the A C outlet that we have in our home. We can connect to type off appliance toe while in three wiles, one while is called line. This is the life while caring current. It's also known as phase or hoat. While the next one is natural, we remember form the voltage section that we need voltage potential eso current will flow, so not royal while is connected to the head ground in our building. And this is provide some voltage potential difference between the line into the ground using the natural while. And that's the way that current can flow a keep flowing formed in line, toe the natural as long as the circuit is closed. Now, in addition, in some appliance you will see also ground while so this is also connected to the ground but is being used for different function. It's a protective mechanism. So in case you have some exposed metal parts in some appliance in, there is a possibility that the line or the natural why will touch the exposed metal parts . So in that case, the ground will protect against such a fellow how exactly we measure voltage in a C because the voltage is changing all the time. So there are three options. We can look on the peak voltage, the maximum voltage. Or maybe the pick toe peak voltage from the two sides. But the most common ways to use Alum is voltage. This is the would mean square. It's called also effective value of the A C voltage. Now, the way to calculate a alum is voltage from the VIP pick. This is the too simple a formula and for calculating power in a see, what we're doing is it's called a average power and we're using the I alarmists and the arms. 17. (Join the) Resistance: we saw that current flowing in an electric circuit is based on voltage, pushing it forward using the sea or a sea power source. But we didn't yet discussed what will be the relation between them. For example, how much voltage is required to push a to upper as a current well, there is another important perimeter toe complete the puzzle that is, gold resistance. Resistance is a popular deal for material, So for almost every type of component being used in circuit, there is some internal resistance. In addition, we will learn about most basic component in electron ICS that is called Resistol, being used almost everywhere to limit current flow, set operations, signal level and more. 18. What is Resistance ?: resistance. So in electricity, the resistance measure the difficulty toe pass an electric current through a material. Now the resistance is measured in a specific unit that is called arms, named after the German physics George Simon. On the symbol form is the Greek letter Omega. We saw that some material have low resistance, meaning the current can flow much more easily, like copper that is used for a while. And on the other side we have some A material it with I resistance, like the rubber that is also used for a while just for the shell pot toe. Keep the current inside while the while is touching. Other material now resistant is usually a constant value for most component, based on a certain range off a parameter like voltage temperature and into one. What's the problem here? Why we see a file while connecting something toe a battery. Here we see a small size a aluminum paper that you could take four men from the Gulf being used as a while to connect the two sides off a battery. Don't try that at home. Now. The existence off that paper, while is very low, so high amount off current is flowing in that simple circuit, the while we get more and more put until to the point that it may be burn. This is called resistive heating, So another important element related toe resistance is resistive. Heating. Electrical energy is required to push current through at the existence off some material, like pushing current in some while the way that process electrical energy is converted to hit. If we go down into the autumn level, as we saw before, when an electron is bump is jumping to a new album, it a transfer its own kinetic energies that is transcended toe a temperature energy. Now, such eating is sometimes good, sometimes bad. For example, if you would like to heat up the water or cook something or for 18 some space that that's good. But on the other side are some side effect off temperature ways, like in our CPU. The temperature is going up, and we to keep that in some certain special level. Now, to avoid problems associated with heat production, it is important to use component that elated toe handle at least two or three or more times the maximum power that expected to hinder if I'm looking on this simple a ALOF dump every component there is a maximum power rating. What you see on the left side on there are on the right side. We can calculate it. What will be the expected power going into that component? So we need to calculate expected power and choose a component that the maximum power eating will be the twice off that expected power. Very easy to cooperate. No additional method off reducing resistive eating is you ting heat sink What you can see on top off some CPU device A nice layout off component using regulation help cooling water cooling in tow. 19. Resistors: We saw that internal resistance existing all kind of component as a side effect. And the best example is, of course, using a wire that is going getting hoat as Colin is passing through it because off the internal resistance. But there is a component that is used on purpose to reduce and control current flow that is called with very big surprise resistance. Now some component in a circuit can be really damaged if the current flow is too high, so it makes sense to limit always strict the amount off off electricity flow in a circuit using resistance. Resist. Those are one of the most common component will find in electric circuit, mainly because they are really, really useful. The main function are to limit current flow in, said voltage level within a circuit, a simple fixed Resistol. As to terminal, it is a passive component that consume energy resistance. Value is measured off course enorme as resistance and in electric calculation. The letter all represent Resistol component on the dagger, now resistor available in many different value form one home upto many millions off him. The symbol using schematic drawing for Sisto can be like zigzag a pipeline or tangible book . We have two main types off Resistol. It fixed meaning cost on value and viable meaning. You can adjust somehow the value off that Resistol. Now, what about the power consumption off some Resistol? We saw that electric power is measured in vote. So to calculate how much power a specific Resistol in our circuit consume, we just need to apply the simple jowl. Oh, calculate how much current is flowing into that Resistol. What is the voltage Drop on that Resistol. And you can calculate P. That's the power. All existence maximum Allow allowable a power relating that must not be exceeded. Okay, for example, a resistant that support to but cannot cross that value. So we need to select the exist of that Has a power waiting at leastwise the maximum value anticipated as we saw before. In addition to another permit off. Resist. Oh, of course, the value And there is some coehlo code being used to indicate the value or the rating often a tronic a competent and will say that resistol are specified in manufacturer over a very large range of value. Starting for micro home upto mega home unit, usually well, you will see in practical usage Resistol in arm and kill OEM value. Now how we know the value of Resistol by looking on that there is some color code being used to indicate such value. If we look carefully on exist, so we will see a little bands or stripped with different Kahlo only that can be used as the color code toe. Verify the resistance value in arm in tolerance. Oh, accuracy, usually what? We'll see a group of three Ben's on one side, as we see right now in the picture. The Tree Kahlo, followed by some small gap and then a single band at the end of the resistance Now to calculate the Resistol value, were using some simple method. The first band is the first digit second ban is the second digit and third band indicates how many zero to put after the 1st 2 digit. Now the single band at the end indicates the accuracy of the Resistol value. Now, another way to find the value of resistance is just toe measure that you think using some tools like a multi mato. The following table can be used to translate the Kahlo toe value. For example, on the resistor, the first band is green. If we go to the tables off, the value will be five. Second band is a blue, so the second digit will be six. Ted a bend is yellow, so we have 40 after the two digit getting to the nut to the total number or 560 k or now the last bend is gold indicates the accuracy, and then again we go to the table. It's the meaning is a plus minus +58% off accuracy. Very simple metal we saw until now is simple fixed size Resistol. But in many circuit application, different type off resistor is then it a meaning that the existent value is viable and can be adjusted. Eso For that, we can use what is called valuable Resistol. Now the first type of viable existence is called Ariel Start that has Tau terminal like the fixed Resistol, and we can see the symbol off such a adjustable Resistol looking on the picture on the right side. We can see that while moving the contact point over the while going from left to right, we can decrease or increase the wire length between the terminal A Terminal B make it there longer. Longer wire means more resistance and shorter while meaningless. The system, the second well known type off valuable, exist er is called potential matter. This is a tree terminal exist A with sliding or rotating contact. On the right side, we can see X schematic, schematic symbol and some growing below how it really work. Now there are many application using such adjustable. Is this so, for example, adjusting like sound, a volume in analog signal adjusting the light Deamer or maybe a positioning sensor and much more? 20. Color Codes: If we look carefully on irresistible, we will see a little bands or stripped with different Kahlo only that can be used as the color code toe. Verify the resistance value in arm in tolerance. Oh, accuracy, usually what? We'll see a group of three Ben's on one side, as we see right now in the picture The Tree Kahlo, followed by some small gap and then a single band at the end of the Resistol. Now, to calculate the Resistol value, we are using some simple method. The first band is the first digit. Second Brain is the second digit and third band indicates how many zero to put after the 1st 2 digit. Now the single band at the end indicates the accuracy of the Resistol value. Now, another way to find the value of resistor is just to measure that using using some tools like a multi matter, the following table can be used to translate the Kahlo toe value. For example, on the resistor, the first band is green. If we go to the tables off, the value will be five. Second band is a blue, so the second digit will be six. Ted, a band is yellow. So we have 40 after the two digit getting to the nut to the total number or 560 k or now the last bend is gold indicates the accuracy, and then again we go to the table. It's the meaning is a plus minus +58% off accuracy, very simple metal. 21. Variable Resistors: we saw until now a simple, fixed size Resistol, but in many circuit application, different type off resistor is then it a meaning that the existent value is viable and can be adjusted. Eso. For that, we can use what is called valuable Resistol. Now the first type of viable existence is called Ariel Start that has tau terminal like the fixed Resistol, and we can see the symbol off such a adjustable Resistol looking on the picture on the right side. We can see that while moving the contact point over the while going from left to right, we can decrease or increase the wire length between the terminal. A Terminal B. Make it there longer. Longer wire means more resistance and shorter while mean less. The system, the second well known type of valuable, exist er is called potential matter. This is a tree terminal exist A with sliding or rotating contact. On the right side, we can see X schematic, schematic symbol and some growing below How it really work. Now there are many application using such adjustable. Is this so, for example, adjusting like sound, a volume in analog signal adjusting the light Deamer or maybe a positioning sensor and much more 22. Circuit Simulation - Fixed and Variable Resistors: Okay, so the next sick it I would like to show you he's how to measure a vault in, um, per in a circuit in a simple circuit. So that's their love You. I mean, this is like a real indication how the component look and feel, but easily See the connection between the component. It's better goto this chromatic view. Now, looking on the schematic view, you can see some power source that the battery connected toe Resistol and some AM lead okay . And below there is some multi militar that connected in serious back to the battery. So when we are measuring current, we need to put the mult emitter in serious to the a place where we want to measure cult on the other. And when we would like to measure voltage, we're putting multi metal in a voltage mode parallel to the point we would like to measure . So I'm measuring right now directly on the powers us. So I would I'm expecting to get the value of the power source on the other end. I'm expecting to get the value off the current that is flowing through at the multi mental over real. Now let's go back to our circuit looking on the love you, I added another aim type of component. What you can see right now. It's some boat these bodies called bread board, and it's used for prototype. And this is a ball that you can buy off course in the store, and it's being used a lot A to prototype and connected circuit without soldering the component. A few words about the bread Bob, before I'm jumping into the actual cigarette, I would like to show you. So the bread boat has all kind of special properties. Make it a very useful for prototype, and the 1st 1 is that every column over here is connected, meaning this complete column is connected at the back off the bread boat. Okay, so every company that you will connect over real will be connected. Now. The same goes to the low above, so all their over here is connected and the same goes toe this row, and it's a symmetric or so to the other side, and we will see why it's so useful. Let's fall over the second that I dedicated So on the rights side, I have some power. So in nine volt battery, and I have negative side and positive side and the negative I connected to this role and the positive I connected to the second. You can see also plus and minus sign on the bread board itself to make it more easy to distinguish between the line. Now the meaning is that all this role represent the negative connection. So I'm connecting a that to my multi metal and another one to the positive side, and it just that multi meter is a voltage to measure voltage now going into the circuit itself. Now I can see from that point I'm connected to the positive side of the battery because all this always connected. I'm connecting to that point. And remember, all this column is connected. So meaning this point is connected toe the resist all I'm going into the other side of the resist. Oh, as I said, it's connected toe this line, then going to the lead, going into the other side of the lead and then going into that wires connected over here into my multi mater that is a measuring current in serious and back to the negative side. So that's the whole circuit and wind now the last day. But I would like T. C. Of course is to run that circuit. I will press on start simulation and I will get the result. So the first thing that I'm looking right now is that I'm measuring a power source and that's the battery. So all powers also not a 100% accurate. So this represents some en variation off the value some, but I'm almost almost nine volt. I'm measuring that in parallel to the power source. Now I have some. It's small circuit. With them is Sisto and some lead that I get. I get a light because the current is passing a true that led. And of course, it's connected to the negative stateside in serious with my multi mento. And that's the reason I can see the value of the current that is flowing in the circuit. And this is a 10 Milly number. Another nice thing that you can do is to adjust the value of the component while the sick it is running, so I can press, for example, on the Resistol and it just the value off the resistance. So let's make it larger for example, 2000 a arms, and you see that I have a drop on the current flow and the lead is also less brighter if I will take it even more toe five. So I can see almost like there is no light on the lead because they exist, always ending more resistance and prevented form a more current to flow in the circuit. 23. Circuit Simulation - Measuring Current and Voltage: Okay, so the next sick it I would like to show you he's how to measure a vault in, um, per in a circuit in a simple circuit. So that's their love You. I mean, this is like a real indication how the component look and feel, but easily See the connection between the component. It's better goto this chromatic view. Now, looking on the schematic view, you can see some power source that the battery connected toe Resistol and some AM lead okay . And below there is some multi militar that connected in serious back to the battery. So when we are measuring current, we need to put the mult emitter in serious to the a place where we want to measure cult on the other. And when we would like to measure voltage, we're putting multi metal in a voltage mode parallel to the point we would like to measure . So I'm measuring right now directly on the powers us. So I would I'm expecting to get the value of the power source on the other end. I'm expecting to get the value off the current that is flowing through at the multi mental over real. Now let's go back to our circuit looking on the love you, I added another aim type of component. What you can see right now. It's some boat these bodies called bread board, and it's used for prototype. And this is a ball that you can buy off course in the store, and it's being used a lot A to prototype and connected circuit without soldering the component. A few words about the bread Bob, before I'm jumping into the actual cigarette, I would like to show you. So the bread boat has all kind of special properties. Make it a very useful for prototype, and the 1st 1 is that every column over here is connected, meaning this complete column is connected at the back off the bread boat. Okay, so every company that you will connect over real will be connected. Now. The same goes to the low above, so all their over here is connected and the same goes toe this row, and it's a symmetric or so to the other side, and we will see why it's so useful. Let's fall over the second that I dedicated So on the rights side, I have some power. So in nine volt battery, and I have negative side and positive side and the negative I connected to this role and the positive I connected to the second. You can see also plus and minus sign on the bread board itself to make it more easy to distinguish between the line. Now the meaning is that all this role represent the negative connection. So I'm connecting a that to my multi metal and another one to the positive side, and it just that multi meter is a voltage to measure voltage now going into the circuit itself. Now I can see from that point I'm connected to the positive side of the battery because all this always connected. I'm connecting to that point. And remember, all this column is connected. So meaning this point is connected toe the resist all I'm going into the other side of the resist. Oh, as I said, it's connected toe this line, then going to the lead, going into the other side of the lead and then going into that wires connected over here into my multi mater that is a measuring current in serious and back to the negative side. So that's the whole circuit and wind now the last day. But I would like T. C. Of course is to run that circuit. I will press on start simulation and I will get the result. So the first thing that I'm looking right now is that I'm measuring a power source and that's the battery. So all powers also not a 100% accurate. So this represents some en variation off the value some, but I'm almost almost nine volt. I'm measuring that in parallel to the power source. Now I have some. It's small circuit. With them is Sisto and some lead that I get. I get a light because the current is passing a true that led. And of course, it's connected to the negative stateside in serious with my multi mento. And that's the reason I can see the value of the current that is flowing in the circuit. And this is a 10 Milly number. Another nice thing that you can do is to adjust the value of the component while the sick it is running, so I can press, for example, on the Resistol and it just the value off the resistance. So let's make it larger for example, 2000 a arms, and you see that I have a drop on the current flow and the lead is also less brighter if I will take it even more toe five. So I can see almost like there is no light on the lead because they exist, always ending more resistance and prevented form a more current to flow in the circuit. 24. Summary - Resistance: Let's quickly summarize what we learned so far in this section. I just want to remind you that you can download this template from the vessel, stop resistance. So in unlock circa, they'll remain component. I'll see resist o capacity. And in doctors in this section we covered the 1st 1 Resistol with the properties that is called resistance, and that's a property off the material. It's measured difficulty toe pass, an electric current in some material, and we measure that using a unit that is called arms. An important side effect off resistance is resistive heating. Now we remember that current is a flow off elect ones when they are jumping between atoms and in that situation, kinetic energy is transferred in tow thermal energy and the material will get more heat. Now, for every component there is a maximum power rating, so it will not will not damage a the component because of resistive heating. Now there is some simple off time that the maximum power waiting in the component that will would like to use will be a tely east that twice off the expected power that we're going to deliver in the circuit. The most famous component that is being used all the time is Resistol. It's a passive tau terminal electric component. That's the fixed Sisto, and the main function is to limit current flow and set voltage level within a circuit very , very useful in almost all circuit, we will usually see that representatives and our inside the circuit. Now there is a way to measure a power on the Resistol and remember that the power is measured using. But And the way to calculate that is that the power off Resistol component is just the current flowing in that component and multiply by the voltage drop on that component Now. We didn't get yet how to calculate the voltage job, and the current on a resistor will get into that in later section. In addition, Resistol has some basic Parliament Er's. The 1st 1 is the value of the existence, and we learned that there is some cooler cause that is being used to calculate the value of the Resistol. In addition, there is some pollinating for which is just off the maximum power that the resistant can handle without being damaged because of the problem off resistive heating. The last thing we learned about Resistol that they're also viable Resistol meaning exist so that we can change the value by doing something. The simple one is called Real Start. This is a two terminal DeSisto at the 2nd 1 that is more commonly used, called Putin's Hume. Enter. That's a three terminal Resistol with some sliding, overstating contact, and that we can change and adjust the resistant off that component. 25. Capacitance - Storing electrical energy for a while….: we saw that a different type of power source are being used to drive energy into a circuit and transfer electrical energy toe, other type off energy being used on all kind of component that consume energy. And we only covered until now the Resistol that runs were such electric energy into it. Now, what about using a component that can store such electrical energy somehow with the specific storage capacity? So in this section will learn about capacity that are used to store electrical energy for a while, as it seems that this possibility is very useful in many circuit application. 26. What is Capacitance ?: capacitance is the ability off a material or competent to store an electric energy. Now, ofcourse, the material with a large capacitance hold move, electrical charge given voltage and then and then a material week low Capacitance. Now disability is particularly important for understanding the operation off the well known capacity component that is one off the tree fundamental electrical component. The unit off measuring the capacity A off a capacity Oh is called Farrah, with short symbol F named after the English physics Mikel for a day. 27. Capacitors: capacity is basically a passive component, with two metal conductive plates that are connected to to wire leads that they are connected the circuit in the end, and the two plates are isolated from each other by a material in the middle layer that is called a the electric. Now the men usage off capacity is, of course, to store electric energy in electric field. That's the schematic symbol of capacity. We will see more type off capacity, a simple later now. In addition, capacity can be what is called polarized or non polarized, where the polarized version must be connected in the circuit so that the positive connection off the capacity is connected to the positive side off the circuit. Okay, on the other end, non polarized capacitor can be connected in a circuit in any direction. Doesn't matter which way around it. It's connected. So it's important when we're using a polarized capacity. So we need to make sure that the positive side off the capacity always connected the positive side off the circuit. 28. Charge and Discharge: we saw that the that capacity token store energy. But the question is how, exactly? That's such capacity. Restoring energy? How do we charge or discharge a capacitor? What is the relation between capacity, energy and the maximum storage energy and the voltage that apply on a composite? Oh, so this chapter is a little bit more complicated. But stay with me because I always say it's not a rocket science. Let's look on this simple circuit. We have voltage source on the left side V zero. We have a switch and is this toe in the capacity? If we will close the switch, then we have a closed loop with a vaulted source so kind will start to flow in the circuit . Now which component controlled the amount off carried that it for it is flowing in. The circuit is off course, our good friend Resistol. But what is going on inside the capacity in that period? Let's zoom inside. We learned that electric kind is the flow off electric charge in some direction. Now, when a current flows into a capacitor, the charge gets stuck on the capacity. Oh, plates. What you CQ plus in Q miners because they can't get, plus the isolating the electric lair in the middle. Now, such a stationary charge on the two plates create an electric field in simple words. When charge represented by the later que enter into one terminal off a capacity, an equal amount of charge lived the other side. And so the total charge inside the capacitor is are actually zero, but capacity oh, do store electric energy. The energy will be stored in electric field. Now, such a relationship between charge capacitance and voltage can be modelled by using this simple equation. See, is the capacity maximum capacity in far meaning? A constant value V is the voltage that we apply on the capacitor and Q will be the energy amount that will be stored in the capacity meaning more voltage. More energy will be stalled. But I would like to tell you some sick it about a capacity because we have a Resistol in a well circuit that control the amount of current. It will take some time until the capacity off will each energy toe the maximum capacity. This is where the capacitance off a capacity comes into play, which tell us the maximum amount of charge, the capacitor can actually stop meaning. If we will wait enough time, the capacitor will be charged toe the Marxism capacity. And in that point of time, the current flows will stop in the voltage potential. V. C will be the value as vi ous the power source visual, but just the opposite direction. Let's think about it for a second. We have a capacity that is charged with energy with the voltage potential off VC. So let's take this capacity outside for a second. So now we can, on a look in that capacity toe a temporary energy storage like a simple battery. Now such capacity can release energy back to the circuit, meaning discharging. So if we take the charge capacity Oh, and that we just charge with the our circuit, put it back to a different circuit with the Resistol that now we controlled the discharge rate off old time, not the charging time. And while some loads like a simple ed is consuming the energy, so now the capacity always acting like a power source. Still, the amount off energy in the capacity it's so small that in that case the lead will briefly illuminate on and off. My next question is what will be the time for charging in discharge now, knowing that time is very important. Parmenter, while choosing a capacitor and resistor in some circuit application. Now the answer for that question is called Elsie at the time constant. 29. RC - Time Constant: Resistol. Unlike a pass, it'll acting like simple linear device, meaning a voltage and current Alenia toe the resistance to the resistant resistant so we can easily calculate the voltage dope and the current on some existing. Don't worry, we will learn how to do it in later stage. But capacity so a little more complex toe easily mathematically be analysed in a circuit as they are not acting as linear component. When we connect the power source with the resistant to a capacity or something strange, a little bit strange start to happen. The capacity will start to collect energy into its body, meaning charging. However, when the capacitor is charging it, create an opposite power source that go against the actual original powers off the V zero. So the current is going down all the time, while the capacity always keep being charged in decreasing rate, meaning the current and voltage our function off time. Okay. And there is a period off transition while the capacity is being charged or discharge. This is following what is called exponential partner. Okay, don't worry. We're not going a to start doing some complex Matt. But if you remember some basic man, this is a nonlinear behavior. Is the current in the circuit is changing all the time Now, In that case, how can we know when the capacitor will reach a certain percentage off the maximum capacity ? Well, the good news. There is an easy way to handle that without using complex Matt just simple basic algebra, the time taking for the capacity toe charge or discharge to within a certain percentage off its maximum supply value is being known as the time Constant Tau in second component in Second. So the time in second that will take to charge or discharge is calculated by using the time constant. And we can see that this tie constantly just equal toe Elsie, where we know the value of the resistor and the values of the capacity. Theoretically, the charging off, just challenging process never really finish. OK, it is an exponential partner. It's not linear, but eventually the charging current or discharging current drop toe a very small value. This is why we can use something more practical for our simple calculation using alusi so such a time constant I'll see a off a circuit is the time in second that required to charge the capacitor to 63.2% off the supply for voltage. Now, after two times constant meaning how equal toe see the capacity charge for a total energy off 86% after five time constant, a capacitor is considered to be fully charged, having reached almost 100% off the source voltage. So using the time constant, we can easily calculate in second what will be the charging off this challenging time. It is very various for 30. Types of Capacitors: they're also to fake a pass. It'll types out there each with self and feature and capability, which make it better for some application than others. Practical capacity all available also in many different forms. The type of fainter, not the electric, the structure off the plates and the device packaging all strongly affect the properties off a capacitor and its application. Now let's see. How can we easily understand the type of capacity that a commonly used in circuit in high lever, we can divide capacity to tree main group fixed a polarized in viable what you see on the left side symbol that will see them in diagram fixed capacitor, meaning it's a fixed capacity. We cannot change it. It's This is the properties of the capacity that we chose. Polarized capacitor is a capacity that we need to make sure that one end is connected to the to the miners, and the other one is to the plus and viable capacity. Oh a that meaning that we have some adjustable dreamer, that we can adjust the capacitance off that capacity Now. Each capacity should have some name like a C one C two, etcetera in the value related to that. So the violence will indicate the capacitance off the capacity in far the capacitance off a capacity. So tell us how much charge it can stop a more capacitance, many more capacity to thought charge. We saw that they stand at unit off capacity, and it's called a fod, which is used with the world F capacity, A specified and manufacturer, of course, on a very large range of value. In addition, the capacitance off a majority of capacity used in electronic circuit are usually several order off magnitude smaller than one father. So one fud is actually a lot of capacitance even won a mill. IFAD is pretty big capacitor. Usually we will see capacity related it much moral value, like PICO and micro forward. Okay, we have some capacity component in our hands. How can we tell the properties off such component? So let's quickly review the main important parliament. The 1st 1 is nominal capacitance. That's the value off the capacity capacitance. It is not uncommon for capacitor Toby, actually, the largest company that you've seen a circuit, but they can also be Avery Small. More capacitance typically require a larger capacity size. The next one is walking voltage. Each capacity is rated for a maximum voltage that can be dropped. A corset exceeding the maximum voltage will usually result in destroying the composite. All I'm sure that you encounter some situation off, destroying by mistake. Some electronic device and the smell usually is some exploded capacity or in the circuit. So we need to make sure we're not exceeding the walking voltage in our circuit. Tolerance capacity also can be made with an exact, accurate, precise capacitance. The extent which the actual capacitance off a capacity is allowed to variety form in the nominal value. That's the tolerance off that component now. Usually they'll hollowed bend on a letter that is used to indicate the actual tolerance walking, temperature, elected component, all manufactured walking, specific range of temperature. For example, most capacity well between a minus 30 degree to 125 degree Celsius, and the last one is polarized. Polarized. A capacitor voltage connected to the capacity or terminal must have the correct polarity. Now, looking on this, a capacitor that we see in the picture, we can say it is 68 a micro Farhod. The maximum working voltage is for 400 volt and the short terminal is the negative side. Now, for additional parameter, we need to open the component that a ship the most commonly used in produced composite oh, is the ceramic composite. Oh, the name comes from the material which the internal the electric is being made. Ceramic composite oh are usually small both physically and the capacitance that they can hold. The small size can be limited and they're usually also not expensive. A component aluminium electrolytic capacitor, the most popular off the electrolytic family usually looks like a little 18 cans. I'm sure that you saw that in some a circuit with both leads extending from the bottom. Now such capacity can hold more capacitance in tow, a relatively small volume. This that is why they are so common it. If we need a capacitor in the range off the one microphone toe, one millet fraud will find it in such electrolytic form. In addition, they're especially good for high voltage application because off the relatively hi maximum voltage rating. One thing we need to remember is that electrolytic capacitor are usually polarized. They have positive side and a negative side, so we need to make sure how we connect them in our circuit 31. Application: we saw that the main function off a capacity Tory's to store and release energy. But what are the main common application? A four capacitor in real a circuit? The truth is that capacity are so useful, but we'll probably find them in almost any electrical circuit. They're used for blocking dis economy and smoothing out voltage, creating time, adjusting frequency and more. Let's see some of the common application that they're used. We know that capacity token store energy so one off its main application will be supplying it that energy to a circuit just like a battery. The problem is that capacity tohave a much lower energy density than batteries. They just can't pack much. Energy is a is an equally STAIs chemical battery that we're using by bay today. But the upside of capacity is that they usually have much longer lives than battery, which make them better choice in some circuit. They are also capable off delivering energy much faster than M battery, which make them good for vacation, which need a short but high best off power. So in our simple example, we have a common a, a flesh that may use a capacity that was charged by a battery, so switching between high to left in this simple A circuit will release the energy and from the capacity oh almost immediately into the camera flesh. Most Elektronik component of the circuit are using D. C. The act current The powers was to operate, and in that case, the voltage level being supplied should be fixed in constant as much as possible. Now kind on the other than is changing according Toa changing empower demands coming from the circuit. A load Looking on the simple diagram. We have a Syria Kato load connected to some D C power source and now the load is changing in the consumption from a 20 million pairs to 50 million people, for example. Now the power supply must be ableto accommodate. A such variation in current with a little change as much as possible in the power supply voltage. So if I'm supplying 20 volt, I should keep supplying 24 to the circuit and load. It's so the operation off the off the circuit will not be disturbed. Somehow, however, the power supply usually cannot respond toe the change a fast enough. So as a result, the voltage at the device change for a belief paired before the power supply response and accommodate for the new college in such transit event. The reception all time lug before the voltage a respond to the new current demand. Living. This is where the decoupling capacitor comes in. The the couple incapacity walks is the device. Local energy storage is like a backup, the capacity or is placed between the power line and the ground A connected to the circuit that the current is Toby provided. Don't get me wrong. The capacity cannot provide the sea constant DC power because it stores only a small amount off energy. But this energy can respond very quickly to changing Colin demons. This is why this capacity, also called bypass capacity so they can temporarily act. Is the power source bypassing the power supply? So, looking on this diagram and the qualities, for example, 20 million the circuit, the load is seeing a constant DC power source. Let's say this is like 24 now, in some point of time, the circuit change that demand toe 50 million people. Now the D C power source cannot accommodate such new demands in a very small time. So in that case, the capacity O. C one and C two will help and drop some energy into the circuit until the power source will reach more stabilized a time. This is happening in a microsecond, Millicent. It is a very short time in tow. The couple ingo bypass capacity. There is additional application for that use. Case now is already discussed in Elektronik, most off the circuit. Our digital in nature, using direct current and valuation in such voltage can cause problems in the operation off a circuit now in practical circuit. The voltage fluctuation is usually caused by some unwanted alternate current, a signal that may right off the over there. I wanted the direct callin signal that cause noise. Therefore, a bypass capacity can be used to filter out the A. C o no is presented it all kind of frequency. We can see that the decoupling capacitor connected between the power source and the ground . It is not uncommon to use two or more different value, even a different type of capacitor, to bypass the power supply because some capacity value will better handle filtering out certain frequency off noise than others. I'll see filter, oh resistant capacity circuit. What is called Elsie is an electric circuit composed off resistors and capacitors. Composite oh, driven by some voltage or current source. Now Elsie circuit can be used to filter a signal by blocking a certain frequency and bypassing others. The two most common, a RC filter for high pass, what is called high pass filter and low pass filter. Now it's working because capacity will have a unique response to signal off the line frequency they can block out low frequency. Or this is signal component while allowing higher frequency to bypass. A writethru filtering signal can be useful in also sort of signal processing application, like what we used a by day for value receiver make use a capacity, among other component, to tune out on desire frequency. The last application I would like to present is Rectifier and Rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current A C, which perfectly a reverse direction all the time to direct car and D C, which flows in only one direction. This process is known as rectification now because off the nature off, alternate Colin, this is look like seen this wave, this process off rectification produced a dizzy current, almost dizzy current that is uni directional okay, but consists off pulls off current. Now many application off that are using the identification, such as power supply for all kind off a equipment required a steady, constant desiccant in such application. The output off the directive file should be smooth by Elektronik. Filter. Usually a combination off exist on capacity to produce este the current. Now that's simple. By adding a parallel capacitor and resistant toe toe rectify that we see on the left side without zooming toe. The whole component that we see right now director fight single will be looks more like steady DC kind is. What we see is the red line. Now this is walking because the capacity always try to resist is changing voltage. The filter capacity will charge up is directed file a rectified voltage increase all the time. When the voltage coming into the capacity will start toe declaim, the capacitor will access its toll energy releasing into the circuit, meaning supplying energy to the load. Now it's important to say that the capacity should not fully discharge before the input signal style to increase again. You're charging the capacity. What we see on the right side is a a sample off power source and you could see the all kind off capacity big One that are being used in such a circuit. 32. Circuit Simulation - Store and Release Energy with Capacitors: I'm looking right now on a little bit more complicated Second ed and we saw until now. So there's a silk Ato present. How can you store and release energy using capacity or something that is being used a lot in many circuit for many application? The first thing that will do toe better understand the circuit is going into the schematic view. So this is a more easy way to understand the circuit, how the circuit is being built. And so what I have done here, that is that we have actually to seek it that are separated somehow using that switch and let's see how it's being done. So the first s one can be switched from a that location to the other location below, and in that case, we have a battery connected directly to a capacity. All okay, we are closing the loop and also some a multi mater that is measuring the voltage because that capacity So in a situation that the S one is connected to that point, the battery will charge a the capacity. Now, as soon as we switch from that location to the location A above what we see right now, then the capacity so will start to release the energy being stored inside a true A that lead. And through the Resistol, the system is being used to control the weight off, discharging the capacity. So essentially, we have a charging circuit in this charging circuit and we can control which one will be relevant using our switch. Let's go back to the nice lab view. Okay? Now I can see that in a more visual way. And so we remember we have a multi matter measuring the voltage because the capacitor so and I have some switch over there that helped me to switch between a tow circuit. One off them is charging and the other one is discharging. And we discharge a the capacity using lead and some Resistol. Now we can start simulation, and what I can see right now is that almost instantly the capacitor is getting nine volt. Okay, that's the value off the power source. Let me stop and start it against. We can see if I awful press. Start it almost instantly that the capacitor is being charged toe the maximum value nine volt because it's connected in parallel to the power source and as soon as I switched to the other side. And let's do that. What we will see is the lead with the bright light that is going down all the time and the amount off energy in the capacity. Oh, if that is going, that is also going down because the capacitor is being the energy is being consumed by the lead in the resist off. So let's do that. Okay, you can see the light off. The letter is going down and the value across that capacities this is discharging and we can control the rate off the discharge. Okay, let's stop that for a second by adjusting the Resistol. So if I will put much larger resist Oh, okay. Five cave Resistol and run under it again and do a discharge will see that the rate is much slower. Well, maybe we need a bigger one. Let's put some 20 k Hey, is this stone started again? Okay, you can see that is much slower rate that the capacity is being a discharge because I can control that using the resistor If you remember, we learn about the are sick time constant. So the time Constand is completely depends off the value of the capacitor and the value of the resistance 33. Summary - Capacitance: Let's quickly summarize what we learned so far in this section about the capacity does and capacitance. So we are in the I'll see component, and now we're zooming on capacity. So now capacitance is the ability off a body to store an electrical charge. Okay, we stole that using electrical field, the unit of capacity. So it's called Farhod. But because one forward is so big in real life, will see other prefix like PICO Forgot Nano Farhod, Micro for God and Millie Ferrara capacity actually passive to terminal component with two connector with some the electric material in the middle. And it's used to store electrical energy and temporal rain in electric field. Now a capacity can be polarized or non polo, right? So we need to be careful when we're connecting a capacitor Otis to see if it's connected to the right side. Now capacitor has limited energy capacity. Aziz, we saw this is using a flood. A. Now there is a process off charging and discharging a device like a capacitor. If we look on a on a charge circuit, this is a simple child's circuit that we have a power source connected toe Resistol and some capacity. Oh, this is called policy circuit, and the charging is not linear. And as soon as we turn on the switch, the capacitor will start to charge. And such processes, not linear. It's more looking like exponential graph. This is for charge, and this is in for discharge. So how can we know the time off for charging on this chart off a certain percentage off the maximum energy capacity? For that, we're using the simple Elsie Time constant a calculation. They're all kind off types, off capacity. Most of them are fixed size, and some of them are viable size. A capacity can be polarized on non polarized when it's polarized. We need to be careful where we connect the plus, and where is the negative connection? I am some very common capacity. Oh is called Ceramica Pass. It'll usually very small size and used for high frequency application, the 2nd 1 that is also well known aluminum electrolytic capacitor. And they are well suited for high voltage application with relatively high maximum voltage rating. And they're usually poor, right? Some of the main problem it related to capacity is first, the nominal capacitance. What is the size off that capacity. For example, this is 68 micro for odd. What is the working footage in this is example of 400 volt? What is the tolerance? What is the walking temperature? Is it polarised or non polarized? The last thing I would like to say about capacity oh, is that they are very commonly used in circuit, so there are many application we discussed on some of the application. Like decoupling capacitor. Elsie Phil, tell high energy storage and supply. First, apply rectifier output, smoothing and more. Most probably will seek a positive in almost every circuit application. 34. Inductance - Let the force be with you: in the following section. We are going to learn about the last basic building blocks off on a log, a circuit beside capacitor and resistor. I think it is going to be very interesting. However, it is covering a little more advanced topic. It's so don't be scared if you don't understand some off the thing 100%. That's okay. I'm more aiming in this section. That student, we'll understand the high level concept now we l A. D. So how a capacity to store electrical energy in the form off electric filled It seems that there is another way to store electrical energy in the form off magnetic field. This concept is a little more tricky, so let's understand that in little steps. 35. Electromagnetism - almost like magic...: I don't know about you, but even as a kid, I was amazed for magnet as this is like magical, invisible force, pushing and pulling things that we can actually play with our hands. They are permanent magnets and by mistake we can think it is look like they're holding some unlimited energy inside. Now moving from simple magnet to some of the most amazing force in nature that is called electromagnetism. To understand inducting, since we need faith, some basic understanding off electromagnetic properties, almost everyone are familiar with magnetism, a magnetism material of one object that produced a magnetic field. Now this magnetic field is invisible, but is responsible for one of the most interesting properties off a magnet, a force that pull or push other fail magnetic material such as I want now. Most people, however, don't realize that magnetism is fundamentally related. Toe electricity. We can create magnet field using electricity. The magnetic field created by sending current through a conductor like a while is similar in nature to the magnetic field off a permanent magnet. What we see on the left side. Now this phenomenon is called electromagnetism, with the combination off words off Elector and magnetism. Let try to zoom in tow electromagnetism for short while If you remember, we let the so electromagnetism down toe the atom level in each atom. There is a similar amount off electrons and protons that have opposite electric charge. So they attract it to each other because off the electromagnetic force. Now this electromagnetic forces one off the four fundamental interaction in nature like a gravitation, for example. And if we think about it, this is what holding internally any atom in the universe. But this is down to the ultimate level. What is the connection and all the linkage between magnetic fields toe electricity flowing in some while in the past electricity and magnetism. Well thought is to separated forces, meaning we have in one side magnetic fields and on the other side, Also, electric feels well, wrong. This view completely change with help off James Clark Maxwell and Albert Aniston. Electric and magnetic fields are part of the same phenomenon. And this is why it's called today. Electromagnetism. In simple world, we can create magnetic fields using electricity, and also they are the way around. We can create electricity using magnetic fields. Interesting. Isn't that you will not believe how much this be here. Very so useful in almost any electronic device A we use today. There are several relationship between electricity and magnetism, so we will explode them one by one. 36. Steady Current and Coiled Wire: Let's look on the first principle regarding electromagnetism. It seems that the simplest way to generate a steady magnetic field is toe passed a constant or steady current through a conductor like a while. As I said, the magnetic field created by doing that will be similar to the magnetic field off a permanent magnet that we get in nature. An electric current inside a wild create a circular magnetic field outside the wire is what you see. The red circle around the wire, the green. While now it's direction. Many clockwise or counterclockwise depends on the direction of the current. In the while off course, there is sound proportional connection between the amount off current and the strength off the magnetic field that we get around the while. Still, the magnetic fields produced by current in a straight while is not strong enough for the life application. But the good news is that we can do something very simple to make it much a most stronger and concentrated. Just take a straight while and make a loop like a circle in the new form off off a loop. The magnetic fields is really concentrated right in the middle. Now it is better than the straight line, but still, it's not strong enough. So what we can do next? If one loop is not enough, why not using many loops using the same while? Then we can get what is gold coiled while. If we connect powers off to such a cold wire, the current flow will produce concentrated magnetic field in the middle off the coiled. While that is based on the number off loops, we use every loop inside the wire. Contribute to make a dent a er field a strong in the same direction so we can control the magnetic field not just by applying specific amount of current, but also by choosing the number off loops. Now, please note that the magnetic field is produced and concentrated over the air in the middle , often empty cord. While so the last sick it, I would like to tell you is that we can even more increase the strength off the magnetic field by placing inside the cold while a some film magnetic material material that is not initially magnetized. Like I own, for example, believe it or not, but we just created a simple, well known application an electronic that is called electro magnet. Electromagnet is based on the simple principle that steady car and create steady magnetic field. We can create an electromagnetic device by simply walking many tens of while on the core, and then we can connect it to some power source that will generate some electricity inside . In addition, we can add also, some switch to control when the car understand on and off. Now, electromagnet values full way to translate an electric current to some simple mechanical movement, like opening a door. If someone press switch now, the magnetic field littered. We cannot see in our eyes careful around for one end off the coil to the other. Now the field is the strongest at the end of the cold and get weaker, so we get a fair away. We call the two ends of the call the pores. A one side is called note, and the other side is called south, just like any other magnet 37. Time Varying Current: Now we're getting to the second principle related toe electromagnetism. We saw that constant a or steady current will create steady magnetic field. But what will happen to the magnetic field if the current will not be constant anymore, meaning it will change over time? It will be time visa variety current like, for example, in alternate current well, things are going to get a little bit more complicated now would like to understand what is inducted its inducted. Its is the property off an electrical conductor by which a change in current flowing through that conductor induces an electro motive force. Sound complicated? So let's try to break it. We already so that circular dating magnetic field can be generated around a while and when a constant current passes through it, change in current inside a conductor. Wilco's also change in magnetic field strange around the same conductor like a straight while or more practical in cold. While component with high inducted since will resist such a change in a magnetic field by inducing electro motive force, many creating like virtual voltage on the component, that's the meaning off in in doctors. Now there are two types off inducting its self in doctors and mutual induct ance. Let's start with with the 1st 1 self inductions 38. Self Inductance: inductions. Okay, induct Ince's divided toe self ing Dunkin's and mutual induct ins in this circuit. I'm going to present the concept off self in doctors. That's a little bit tricky concept to present. So let's understand the circuit. Using this schematic view, let's see what we have in this circuit. So on the left side we have a battery connected to a cold. While this is our thing, doctors connected to a Resistol each component. If I would press on that, I can see the value. So this is a nine volt battery, and this is an inductive with Wendy and him heavily and resist a with 20 arms. Now, what will happen when I will switch on a DC power supply in that circuit Now, current will try to flow in that circuit and, as you remember in doctors, has a self induct inspo abilities that meaning that it will resist the current flow by creating magnetic field around it and inducing electro motive force meaning like voltage across that in doctors. Now, if I will put some other device connected in parallel okay to that in doctors, those device would see electro motive force voltage power source a being presented by this in doctors. And of course, if I will connect element like Lead and Resistol, then some current will flow over here because there is, like, a power source being presented by a the self inducted its the electro Motive force being credit over there. Now, this will happen in a very short time because at the end, the current will get into a steady state. Okay? And in that point of time, it there will be no change in the morning in the current flow. So there will be no more electro motive force, because if this is all, it only happened If the current is changing and in that situation there will be zero voltage a rope on that in doctors, meaning it will be act as a just a wildlife. Let's see the ticket in action. So I will go back to the love you over here, so I ever power source connected. You see, this is a minus, a connection to resistor, and this is connected with the in doctors over there connected to the other side. And this is connected toe this wire and I'm closing a loop. OK? Because that's the a positive connection back to the battery. In addition, I have a multi mental that is measuring a involved the voltage drop on that in doctors. What I would like to add also is another A multi matter. And let's do that right now that is going to be used to measure the talent. Okay, so I will disconnected and put it in that connection over real and back to that to close the look one day. Last thing that we need to do is to change that multi matter, to measure on pair of talent. Okay, so it will be measuring what we need. Now let's run it. So as soon as being run. So on the left side, I can see the value a voltage drop on that inducting. It's something that is going down all the time. On the other side, on the same circuit. I can see the value off the Carling that is going up until it's get a steady state off the maximum value in 1,000,000 pill. Let's stop and start the circuit against. I'm going to stop that now, zooming on the left side over here. What we see is that I ever resist or connected to with led directly to the in doctors. So because off the self inducting its properties and the doctors great electro motive force that is going down all the time and off course, I'm expecting that to say that over the lead so that the brightness off the lead will go down all the time. So I'm starting this circuit and you can see that the brightness is going down, and that's a very simple example off a self in doctors. 39. Inductance and Inductors: and electronic component that is intended toe ed inducting its toe a silk, it is called any doctor in. Doctors are typically manufacture from coil while now a long wheat capacity. And Resistol in doctors are one off the tree passive linear circuit element that make up electrical circuit in DR are used mainly to induce specific amount off. Inducted into a circuit, they're taking advantage off the important properties off coils called What We Saw Celfin Doctrines in Doctors are simple device consisting off nothing more than a call off. While I am usually roped around some I own call now, it seems a disability off self inducted its and tow oppose change in current is quite useful in many electronic circuit. So the ability off in doctors to with this change in current is called induct ance. In sick it, they're gone. The simple for in doctors is l like we have all for Resistol and see for capacity, and the unit for in doctors is Henry, named after Joseph Henry. El is usually a constant value based on the physical properties off often in DR, such as the cold shape number, off loops or tense, and then the tail that we're using in the core now, theoretically, any device that is capable of generating a magnetic field as inducting its so it's convey also some side effect off other component. 40. RL - Time Constant: it is possible to control the rate off which energy is pumped into a magnetic field. Off inning doctors Now in the present this section we already learned how to calculate what is called the fallacy time constant for resistor and capacitor circuit. A similar calculation can be done foreign doctors, except that instead of calling it a RC time constant, we call it our jail time constant. But the idea is almost the same. On the left side, we can see simple circuit with a vaulted source and Resistol below is the result off the kind that will say meaning constant value almost from the moment we turn on the power source, let's say for some reason we would like to control the time it takes the kind in this circuit toe which out the maximum steady value. Let's say that this steady value is five. Thumper it For that we will. We are adding an in doctors toe the circuit, So now the current it will be delayed on delete reach maximum value. How can we calculate such such a time? Well, using the R. L time constant the same as we saw in other see time constant in capacity. Now, after one hour L seconds, the current will get up to 63%. Let's see that in a table. So an aisle serious circuit meaning consisting basically often in DR Off a off inducting its L connected in serious with a resist off resistance are enough for And of course, some power source. When a resistol is placed in a serious with with in in dr the Existent Off that resist or controlled the rate off which energy is pumped into the magnetic field off the in doctors ao pumped back into the circuit when the field collapse. Now, looking on the second a gun when we switch on the voltage power source kind will start to flow in the circuit. The in dr will resist that change in current. That was initially zero, slowing down the growth rate off the current by creating magnetic field. The adult time constant can help us to easily calculate how much time we pass until the current will reach a specific percentage. So after one as well, it will be 63% off the maximum steady current after five time constant current will reach almost 100% off the months in value. In this point of time, the doctors exacting like a wild toe, the silicate okay. Meaning is like It's not they'll, but remember, it's still a little producing magnetic field and acting like electro magnet. 41. Mutual Inductance: we live that there are two types off inducted, its self inducted, its in mutual induct ins. We covered so far self in doctors, and we saw the popular tees off inductive since in general and in doctors. So let's move to mutual induct its that is, extremely useful application in electron ICS. By decreasing or increasing the car and the magnetic field will decrease or increase, but doing that process it will release or store energy back to the circuit. But what will happen if we take another circuit with a coil, put it next to our original circuit and measure the current on it? That's the first step to mutual inducting its meaning induct, ance or nearby conductors. So let's see that in a simple graphic form on the left side is the original circuit. I just a flip it in 90 degree, and on the right side, I'm adding another separated circuit. We take a secondary called but without a power source and place it very need toe the coid while toe the Primerica worldwide. Now I have some question. Let's say that we have stayed the current in the circuit on the left side. The current of course, creates. Stayed the magnetic field. What do you think will happen in the sick? It on the right side, we have some unpermitted connected toe measure. The kind I mean, are we going to see something? Please think about it for a second. Well, the answer is very simple. Nothing steady current on the left side creates that the magnetic fate. Now such magnetic field will spread around reaching off course. The other, called other secondary called in the second ticket. But nothing will happen because the simple fact that this that steady magnetic field does not create or induced voltage so it does not create current. The only useful thing we can get from the circuit on the left side is just simple electro magnet that well, it is so before. But what if we can Kate time vilifying magnetic field? That's a different story. Time variety, magnetic field. What is called flax induce an electro motive force in nearby conductors like the primary coil that we just see a induce a electro motive force in another secondary a quite just nearby. Now the magnetic field flax can force electron within a conductor to move in a certain direction. That's the way into its induced Colin flow. Now they're off course in those forces called Electro Motive Force. We saw that in the self in doctors, and also it's being used for mutual inductions. But it's the same concept now for mutual in doctors. They're all kind off important application will see shortly, some off them a C generator and transformer. Now let's take the two circuit off my mericle and secondly, call and the left side. Just replace the D C power source within a sea power source, meaning an alternate current now in a sea power source. It will create up and down current flow. In that situation, the magnetic field will keep changing all the time, so the coil on the right side will see magnetic flux coming from the left side. And when this magnetic field is changing, the side effect is that it will induce or create, like virtual voltage chose and current on the second day record, and then we can put some a load, something that will consume such current. This is called Mutual Inducted its and the best way to catch such time. Varying magnetic field is toe place off course. Second, they recalled next to the first court. Now it saves the disaffected so useful that is used every well now, devices specifically designed to use that effect off neutral Ogden Induct Insp. Between two or more cold is called a transformer. All I will a C to D C convert toe are walking based on that principle. 42. Transformer: transformer is a common application of what we just saw. A mutual induct its on the left side. One coId, while is the primary voltage source. The input it would like to transform on the right side one called Wire that the red while in the red Coehlo is the secondary voltage output. Both of them are placed on the same call material. When a voltage and current on learning in the input off the first primary called it will be translated into magnetic flux that will run inside the cool and transform that energy to the other side, meaning the output using the second a record by choosing the right amount off wild loops in each call, we can get a specific voltage and current in the output. That's the idea of fusing transformer. 43. AC Generator and Electric Motor: now, mutual induct ins is not the only way to create current on some external a coil. Another way to great kind is used. Using magnetic field is to just move magnet around cold. Okay, in some direction, or to move a coil around a magnet doesn't matter. In both option, we can create time varying magnetic field and produce current. Now this effect is the basic building block in a pre city. These how a power factories create current that transform into our home using a C generate . Oh, and this is how. Also, electric engines are walking conflicting electric current in tow into mechanical rotating movement. For example, a C generator that is called Alter NATO walks by rotating motion to spin a magnet that is placed within a coin off while or maybe the other way around, meaning a coil or what we see in the picture. A loop loop off while a place within a magnet as the score rotate its magnetic field moves , which induce an alternating current in the cold. While that's the way to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy using electric generator now, in this simple example, loop off while he's spinning within a magnetic field because it's always moving through the magnetic fields, a current it sustain all the time. But because the loop is spinning, it's moving across the field first in one direction and then in the other. Which means that the flow off electron keep changing all the time. And this is why we get a sea power is out, meaning the current is going up and down all the time. If we take it the other way around, meaning running a current inside the loop off while that is placed in style inside to magnet. Then we get the principal off electric electric motor. In this situation, an electric motto is an electric machine that convert electric energy into mechanical energy by producing linear or spinning air force. We can also build ourselves some small electric motor using a battery magnet and a long coiled while. But we see on the right side. Now this is what we will see inside if we will open some real electric moto, bigger coiled wiles that are usedto pass greater amount of current. But the principle is the same 44. Circuit Simulation - Self-Inductance with Inductors: inductions. Okay, induct Ince's divided toe self ing Dunkin's and mutual induct ins in this circuit. I'm going to present the concept off self in doctors. That's a little bit tricky concept to present. So let's understand the circuit. Using this schematic view, let's see what we have in this circuit. So on the left side we have a battery connected to a cold. While this is our thing, doctors connected to a Resistol each component. If I would press on that, I can see the value. So this is a nine volt battery, and this is an inductive with Wendy and him heavily and resist a with 20 arms. Now, what will happen when I will switch on a DC power supply in that circuit Now, current will try to flow in that circuit and, as you remember in doctors, has a self induct inspo abilities that meaning that it will resist the current flow by creating magnetic field around it and inducing electro motive force meaning like voltage across that in doctors. Now, if I will put some other device connected in parallel okay to that in doctors, those device would see electro motive force voltage power source a being presented by this in doctors. And of course, if I will connect element like Lead and Resistol, then some current will flow over here because there is, like, a power source being presented by a the self inducted its the electro Motive force being credit over there. Now, this will happen in a very short time because at the end, the current will get into a steady state. Okay? And in that point of time, it there will be no change in the morning in the current flow. So there will be no more electro motive force, because if this is all, it only happened If the current is changing and in that situation there will be zero voltage a rope on that in doctors, meaning it will be act as a just a wildlife. Let's see the ticket in action. So I will go back to the love you over here, so I ever power source connected. You see, this is a minus, a connection to resistor, and this is connected with the in doctors over there connected to the other side. And this is connected toe this wire and I'm closing a loop. OK? Because that's the a positive connection back to the battery. In addition, I have a multi mental that is measuring a involved the voltage drop on that in doctors. What I would like to add also is another A multi matter. And let's do that right now that is going to be used to measure the talent. Okay, so I will disconnected and put it in that connection over real and back to that to close the look one day. Last thing that we need to do is to change that multi matter, to measure on pair of talent. Okay, so it will be measuring what we need. Now let's run it. So as soon as being run. So on the left side, I can see the value a voltage drop on that inducting. It's something that is going down all the time. On the other side, on the same circuit. I can see the value off the Carling that is going up until it's get a steady state off the maximum value in 1,000,000 pill. Let's stop and start the circuit against. I'm going to stop that now, zooming on the left side over here. What we see is that I ever resist or connected to with led directly to the in doctors. So because off the self inducting its properties and the doctors great electro motive force that is going down all the time and off course, I'm expecting that to say that over the lead so that the brightness off the lead will go down all the time. So I'm starting this circuit and you can see that the brightness is going down, and that's a very simple example off a self in doctors. 45. Summary - Inductance: Okay, let's summarize the section about induct ins. So, as you remember, we're focusing in three main component I'll see. And in this section we are covering in doctors, and the first thing that we learned is about electromagnetism. What we saw is that the magnetic field can be created using magnetic material like magnet. And in addition, we can create magnetic field using electric current. And that's the stone connection between electricity and magnetism. We can create magnetic field using electricity, and we great create electricity using magnetic field. Let's start from the simple scenario when we pass steady current meaning constant Colin inside a while. So we saw that the effect off doing that is that the current flowing in that straight while will create a magnetic field around it. Now for application. It's not so useful. So what? What we're doing is taking the while and making many loops and creating a COID while and in such situation we can focus the magnetic field right in the middle when we are passing a current through that structure. Actually, they in doctors and that we are going to say a well known application for the Chinese. Of course, they electromagnet when we could connect some powers of D C power source to such called wire and putting some coma tail in the media. And in that case, well, we're getting the electro magnet. The more complicated scenario when we are using some time the drying current meaning current that is going up and down all the time. And of course, for that we can use alternating current A C powers us. And in that case, we get the effect off induct its so inductive is a popular T often electric conductors by which a change in kind like going up in Donald. The time flowing into that a competent will induce an electro motive force. Okay, and the ability often in doctor to resist change in current is called inductive. It's the symbol is L, and the unit is Emory, and there are two main types off induct, its self induct ins and mutual induct ins. Self inducted. Its is when am in Dr Store energy in magnetic field inside and can list that a back to the circuit. So in that case, using the self induct its property we can use in doctors. As for storing energy like we saw in capacity. Now let's zoom on the component that that I called in doctors. So this is an example for such a component with the shape off a coil off a while. And usually there is some a tail comb, a tale in the middle. Now this is a passive to terminal electrical component. How can we create different type off in doctors? So this is a popular tees off the number off loops, the size off each loop at the type off, co material in the middle and so on. And based on that, we care can create an in doctor with a specific unit off Henry. The next interesting thing about in doctors that is that as we saw in a capacity. So there is time constant for charging and discharging in doctors as we saw incapacitated. It's called on Sea and in in Dr It's called Hell, but the idea is almost the same. In addition, we saw the interesting properties off mutual induct ins when we take some cold while connected to a power source, a sea power source, time relying power source and current flowing in such sick, it will be translated into times. Relying magnetic field in such magnetic field will induce a current in the other second, and that's a way to transfer the energy. And the well known application for that is Goldman's formal. And we use that daily. Actually, every A C to D C convert toe is based on that effect and the last two interesting application related to induct Ince's A C generator, an electric moto. We saw that we can generate a sea power source by moving some a wiles inside the magnetic field, and then we'll get an A c voltage. This is the principle that a power factory are creating a see that we are getting into our own at the end, and the last application is electric motor. Okay? And it's using the same principle, running a talent inside a loop off while that is placed inside two or more magnet, and we will get the principal off electric Moto 46. Semi-Conductors - What’s the big deal : semiconductors are probably the most important step in moving to digital electronics is they are the building blocks for other, more complicated component. We will find them in almost any electric device or component around us. But what is this semiconductor and most important, why they're so useful? Let's right to answer those questions. 47. What is Semi-Conductor ?: we really discussed that material are classified by their ability to a pass electricity now substance that easily pass an electric current, such as I own Silver Car parents own are referred is conductors material that every difficult timeto pass an electric current such as a robber glass and so on. All called in So laters. Now there is something in between 1/3 category off material whose conductivity lies between those off contacto and isolate. Oh, the stirred category off material is referred to as semi conductor. So what is semiconductor? Most semiconductor? Our case Tal made off certain material, and the most common form is silicon. Now, the most interesting thing that we can do with semiconductor material is that electrical properties off the semiconductor material can be modified by controlled addition off a what is called impurities. This can help to reduce the existence in some location and create Semiconductor junction between different regions off the crystal. The process is called doping silicon. The I D off doping silicone is simple. We take pure its semiconductor material and remember, pure material is a material that all atoms are the same with the same number off protons and electrons and change. And in that process, we change the behavior off the silicone in specific location and turn it into a conductor. And we're doing that by a creating a place that the atoms are different. The properties off the atoms are different, meaning turn the crystal form a good isolator into what is called okay. Conductor. We do that by potentially introduced impurities in tow, extremely pure material. Now, as a result, two main types off conductors allocated in some location when we were doing that process and type and peak type. And when they're used together, they conform some new structure that is good P injunction. Now single PM Junction is simply a junction off to different type off semiconductor, one that is missing a few electrons. And those has what is good, positive charge. That's the P type semiconductor and the other with a few extra relic room. Those having and negative charge that's the end type semiconductor. Now, the important properties off the PN junction is that is what it is, walking as the one way gate for current. In other words, a PM junction allows current to flow in one direction, but not the other way around. That's the basic building blocks off almost any semiconductor electronic device semiconductor can be used to provide a large range off useful properties like viral resistance. Passing current movies ill in one direction, then the other is we just so in the P injunction, it's can be a sensitive to light ho hit now common semiconductor application component that we're using transistor, that we're going to discuss solar cells and the most important integrated circuit. 48. Diode: probably the most basic semiconductor is the dialled phone form, diffusing together off both and type and P type A. Semiconductor material dialled are basically a one way gate for current dialled. Let current to flow in only one direction in it as to terminal and and cattle as an example . They are often used to protect sensitive component from accidental reverse voltage that could damage them. And this is, for example, can happen if someone insert a battery to some device in the wrong direction. Now dialled every strip at the end and that's end is called the cattle, while the other end is called there a note. As we resisted, the bigger the dialed physically, the more power it can handle. A more complex use of dialogue is rectification off a C voltage and current. Now, in this example, the input in the left side is a sea power source, meaning the current reverse direction 50 times a second. But we have dialled in. I will diagram so it will cut every time the current reverse direction. So we'll get at the output only one side off the current. What we see on the right side because the diet is cutting a the current every time the input is dropping too negative value. That is a use case, for example, to transfer sale a C voltage. To this voltage. Another well known dialled is light. A meeting, a dialed lead. This is to lead semiconductor light source with p injunction dialed and the idea is that it's a meat light when activated, meaning current is passing inside. Now electron releasing energy in the form off food tones is why we're getting light. It's a low energy consumption and high switching rates small size. Now the application off leads is actually everywhere. 49. Transistor: you probably hear that I will. Computer CPU or memory in our mobile led device is based on millions off small transistor component. Sometimes we can see them in separate component, but more often they will be hidden within some chips. I'm integrated circuit and in that case there used in quantities off 1000 millions where they are interconnected somehow and embedded into a tiny chips. Now, Francis Toe are considered to be much more complex component, then Resistol, or capacity, so will just provide some basic break ground around it and present some application while using one Francis toe type. Invented in 1948 transistor has now become a central component in almost any electric application and device transistor are made off semiconductors material as we saw such a cyclical. Now the importance off Transitional is in its ability to control its own semiconductors. It's meaning, acting like a conductor, all as an isolator when that is needed. So transistor Edion is just a more sophisticated, viable Resistol that can transfer a signal from low resistant to high resistance transistor . Oh, I used to amplify signal or to act as a switch. We'll talk about it moving in in a minute. There are three main transistor types. The 1st 1 is called The People of Junction. Transistor a Bjt, and field effect transistor, F, E T. And most fit that. That is a type of fame, a field effect on this. So each type has different characteristic, so they used in different type of application. Now, to present the course of off a transistor, we will focus on a people are junction transistor, a transistor. A device can perform two main function that are fundamental toe the design off electronica circuit. The 1st 1 is called Amplification toe Amplify some signal and switching amplification is when we can magnify a signal A by transferring energy. A tweet from an external source, I out is the output current is being magnified by some coefficient perimeter that is called better. Switching is when a transistor is being used as a switch for controlling a large current across Tau terminal s. So we have to option on enough. There are many different kinds of transit, so, and the most basic one is called people are junction transistor. Let's see how they are made in operate. So one way to make it on. Sisto is while using a P type semiconductor placed as a middle layer between two n type semiconductor. So this type of transistor is called NPM transistor because it's as three region and type e type and and type again. The other way to make it on this story is just opposite meaning with an N type semiconductor place between two p type semiconductor. Now, naturally, this type is called P and Peter's this toe. Now for each region in the transistor, we have one line terminally touch to it so we can connect to such component. So at the end, people are transistor has tree terminal connection transistor, a device are presented in a circuit using the symbol that we see right now in a white background, each off the tree region. Off the semiconductor material in a transistor has is terminal attached to it, so let's review the terminal names and function. The 1st 1 is called collector current, flowing through the collector to the E meter, as is control by the base. Amita is when the base voltage allows current flow through the collector today meter and from the base to the media also and the last one base it attached to the middle of the semiconductor region. This is being used as a gatekeeper that control how much current is allowed to flow a through the collector emitter circuit. Now the only different between an N, P N and P N P is the direction off the arrow on the meter. The arrow on N. P N points out and on a P M. P's points in and people are. Transistor is often considered to be a current amplifier because a small current entering the base what we see on the left side. OK, we say the base connection and I be as a current, a small kind that is entering the base will typically result in a large kind A between the collector and emitter. So we get some current gain that is called better. What we say. The simple calculation on the left side. Current gain is equal toe output current divided by input current, and this is called better now. Not really aim the collector and emitter current are just a multiple off the base current using the better value, the better is usually more than 100. But that's a parliament a related to the specific transistor that we're using. Okay, so don't be scared. That's the maximum complicated man that I'm going to use in this job. Unlike Resistol, which enforced a linear relationship between voltage and current A like your reading more voltage and you're getting more calling in a linear behaviour transistor, a nonlinear device. They have three distinct mode of operation. The 1st 1 is called Saturation, meaning the transistor act like a short circuit, meaning the kind freely flow from the collector to emitter. This is like switches on the next one is gold cut off that owns this toe. Act like an open circuit. No current flow from collector to emitter. This is like switches off and the last one is gold active, and then the transistor is being used as a regulator regulating a the current. Now the current form, the collector two meter is proportional to the current flowing into the base, and this is where we're using a simple formula using the better coefficient. Now, if you was about on this top packaging the semiconductor material inside it on these stories, usually very, very small, so they are placed in a metal or plastic case while used as individually transistor. What we see on the left side now, the next most useful thing about pro Sisto is when we group them together because we can switch the tansy stone enough. And now such two states is on enough can be used to present and stole zero and one digit and perform digital logic. And that's the building blocks for digital electronics in all. Integrated a circuit, Let's see now, few circuit example using Francis toe. 50. Circuit Simulation - Transistor as Digital Switch: Okay, let's see an example of him transistor being placed inside a simple circuit. And for that I'm using the tool that is called freezing. Now, this tool can be used to a great, very nice and sick it design and that you can go on the right side. Drug and rope all kind off a component and so on. And even local that not just a schematic view also using a bread board if you would like to do that. But in my case, I would like to focus on the schematic capability off battles. It is not a placement off a analog simulator that you re used so far. Let's quickly review the component that I used in this circuit. So on the left side, I have some power source, Okay, Almost a five volt connected toe, a switch with two states. And then I have some resistol with one killer home connected to the base connection off a that transistor. This is an N b N transistor. In addition, the mater is connected to the common ground and the collector is connected to some mortal device. This emotive device, together with some AM load to limit the current flowing in that moto and an additional problem source on the right side with different How improbable. This is a nine volt battery and let's understand what exactly the purpose off that circuit in case the switches off, I mean connected toe the line above. So there is no connection between the power source to the resistor, and current is not entering current and voltage is not entering the base connection. So we learned that the NPM transistor Oh, in that case will not pass current between deck collector into the meter, meaning the Moto will not work because there is no current flowing in that circuit now, in case we will switch from this point to the point below and close that circuit. In that case, there will be some current flowing into the base can be very small, amount off current. What will happen is that the transistor will start. It will switch toe on and we start to pass current that it's flowing, form the kind into the middle and then closing this loop. So in that case, the moto will start work in the nice idea about it, that there is no relation between this side and to the other side. I mean, you can run Emoto with a very large amount of fake current without, with no relation to the circuit that is, actually turn that on and off taking the same up second application. I mean, transistor is digital's, which formed the freezing documentations off in tow. A secret simulator. Now we can see the same CK that. Well, let me explain. I'm looking right now on the love you way. I have transistor with some switch that control a transistor, a while connected into the base connection. And that Francis Toe is connected to another circuit using the moto and the resistor. And that specific powers, or so I have to powers with one is being used for am switching the transistor on and off. It's going be very low power supply and another power supply being used to feed the models . That can be very large power supply. We different kind of voltage and different kind of cut currents flow and let's run it. Okay, so let's see what we have right now so I can see the voltage is very small. 2.8 volts is what I'm supplying him the consumption off that it's simple a current that is flowing through the trans Sisto. This I B is very small in 1,000,000 pair. On the other hand, the power supply that is connected to the Moto is much. I mean, it's much larger voltage drop with larger current flow. And the next thing that I can go here, that's the switching on and off so I can just click over. I will turn that off. Okay, I'm stopping toe pass current into the base, a connection into the into that specific transistor, and it's being turned off. If I was switched that toe on, then the motor was running again. In addition, you can also play with the power supply and make that much faster. Okay? Running much faster without relation into the other power supply. Okay, this is simple example, I How can I use a transistor for switching on and off different kind off circuit 51. Circuit Simulation - Transistor as Digital Logic: now exist. Oh, are being used also to create digital am logic gate. And maybe you're familiar with end all and no gate that are the building block in all day Get electronic and the base component to create all of them is using transistor. Now let's see an example how I can create simple logic gate with the transistor and best way to start is go to this schematic view We have N p n a pansy sto and through the gay through the base connection, we have some visit Stow. It can be very large value a 10-K because we need a very small amount off current 10 that I am there. Is this the one enough? Haney, We have that switch now. Such switch can be, I mean, manual switcher that I'm presenting right now. Well, maybe some signal form another silicates some other component like a micro controller and so one. So in our simple case, this is like a manual switch, and we have a power supply connected to that. So as soon as we switch that from here to the to the linkage above, the power supply would be connected running some current into drug Francis Toe. What will happen is that kind will start to flow from here to here because there is no existence in that point and it will stop to pass current here in case this which is off, I mean not connected. So there is no current running over real so that his car there is current running over this circuit, and that's a lead that will indicate that there is kind of his flowing. So the result will be that we're getting an inventor, a not logic gate, meaning every value, digital value that that you will see here. That can be zero or one. The opposite will saying that connection 01 So if this is a zero, then this is one. If that is one that's zero, that's the meaning off, not gate. I will go back to the love you and let's just start the simulation. So right now I can see them some my power supply, provide five, or to the CIA. Kate, I have the component being used in the circuit and can see the lead. That is, that is which toe own. And that's because the switch over real is in off right now. If I will attend that toe on, then this led represented a representing the not gate result will be a off a very simple circuit that represent a not gate. 52. Circuit Simulation - Transistor as Current Amplifier: another example I would like to show you. Is transistor being used the current amplifier? Okay, so we saw until now that is this token walk is them fully saturated or is the cut off so it will be switched on and off and usually that depend of the amount of kind that is flowing in the base Now, in addition, we can use that also is an amplifier there many application Orfeo amplifying signal. So I'm just showing you a simple a scenario that I have some Francis toe and have some tree lead connection connected and everyone right now is a telling on. Of course, there is no switch on and off. Now, the purpose of that is that to show you that the base a circuit is consuming very small amount off current. Okay, Okay, because I have, like, 10-K kilo home in that a connection on the other end a m for the second that is a connected to the collector. Any Mittal? Okay, this is much smaller exist and I can say much higher amount off a bumper consumption of current consumption. So this is like Miliband isn't Michael. I'm Bill now if I will adjust the value of the resistance. Let's say from 10 kilo home to one cologne. Let's see how it's being influencing a the current in the other circuit. Okay, let's jump again. Toe 10. OK, you can say that I'm some potentially increasing the amount off current much more than the increase over real. Okay. And that's the better coefficient, pal Emitter, that this specific transistor is providing between a small change indeed, in that current flowing in that resistor into the base will result in much larger current flow in the other second. And this is a very simple example. Off amplifier, off course transistor can be also used in cascade mood, meaning I can connect at the output off one AM transistor Oto another transistor so you can create all kind off interesting topology off amplifier 53. Summary - Semi-Conductor: Let's quickly review what we learned so far about semiconductor, and the first things is the definition. What exactly is semiconductor? The first thing that we live is that material classified by the ability to conduct electricity. Some material are good. Isolate oh, with more resistance. And on the other side, some material are conductors, meaning less resistance, meaning that can be much more. Better to be used in a circuit toe pass electricity. But there is some material that sitting between the disc Old Semiconductor Now such semiconductor has high resistance but lower than typical isolate. Oh, and the most common type off such material is illegal now. The great thing that we can do is with silicon, is to alter the properties off that material by a process that is called doping. And then we can create to type of material, P type and n type. And if you will combine those be typing in type, then we can get what is called P injunction and be injunction. Are the building blocks for creating more complex, competent, some common application? Off semiconductor is dialled a lead that is the type of dialled transits toe solar cells to create energy and integrated ticket. Now let's zoom on diet and transistor, okay? Looking on diet. So that's the most basic form of semiconductor. And the idea about using dialled is to let current flowing only one direction. There is a one side is called a node and the other side called cathode. And if we put this to terminal devices will sake it. We can control the direction off the current. There are many common application for using dialled, and we saw the identification process off a C voltage. And, of course, the light immediate die out the lead that is so commonly used. Let's move to the next type Francis toe. So we learned that on this store being used for two main application toe amplify signal and to switch Elektronik signal on and off. Now they're all kind of type of transistor. Oh, and we focused on people are Junction Junction transistor and we saw two type N, p N and P MP. Now, if we zoom on only on a transistor like N p N, then we will see tree Terminal A the collector emitter in the base, and there is some relation between those terminal the base is being used toe control. The amount off gain off current flow between the collector and the meter. Each transistor has specific properties related to the game that it will provide. Current gain is just the output current divided today. Input carrot, meaning I see divided to be. And this is a constant value that is called Byetta. That's the properties of the transistor that we're using. In addition, we learned that Francis Toe has three main operation moved. The 1st 1 is called Saturation, meaning that transistor is passing the full amount off college between a, the A, C and E. The 2nd 1 is called Cut Off Switch is like switches off. Many current is not passing between icy and I e and the last one is active, meaning that this story is being used in an amplifying mode. As much we will increase, I be We will get more current flowing between ice and I. The last thing that we saw is related to the transistor packaging. So off course does this So can be like individual component. And this is what we saw doing the demonstration, the second demonstration, but on this door also used in integrated circuit. Okay, off thousands and millions off transistor being used to create the logic in each integrated circuit. 54. Basic Laws of Electric Circuits - It is NOT a rocket science…: basic clothes off electric circuit. We learned that our basic electric component have all kind of parameters like Resistol resistance and exist or maximum power limitation. A capacity Oh, capacitance. A power so specific voltage level, etcetera. How can we issue that? I will Circuit is walking with needed relevant component. How to calculate the needed resistance in some location inside a circuit And while doing that, limit the voltage levels How to calculate the voltage drop on some component? Hey, how to combine several component from the same type In this section we will answer some of those questions is still keep in mind that I'm not aiming that you will start performing details. Circuit analysis with all kind off a complex math equation are more aiming for general understanding. But I'm not going to stop you if you would like to do it, as at the end, it is really not a rocket science, So let's start 55. Circuit Topology: we define an electric circuit as a connection off electric device or component that form one or more close Beth. And this is gold Circuit. Apology is part off any circuit apology. We will find the following basic building blocks branch note and look. In addition, Alusi component can be also connected in serious and in parallel. Let's see the basic definition. The first type is called Branch Branch. Represent a single element or device, such as voltage source. Resist O capacity going Doctors led a moto A or some cheap and more. Now can you tell how many branches we have in this simple circuit? Well, let's count them together. One, 234 and five. The next type in sick it Apologies, called node. A note is the point off connection between two or more branches. Note is usually indicated by a dot sign. Again, how many notes we have in this simple circuit, So let's come them 1st 1 is a point of connection off tree branches. Another one is a point of connection off also different tree branches, and the last one below is a point of connection off four branches. So in total, we have tree knows, and the last type of building blocks in circuit apology is a loop a loop. Is any clothes pet in a circuit Loops count, starting at the node, passing through a set off notes and retaining to the starting note without passing through any note more than ones. I will say that again. If we started any point in a circuit and that's, for example, a node process. True connected electric device back to the same point back to the note from which we started. So without crossing any node more than one time. In that case, we found a closed pet. Now again, how many clothes pet we have you one to three full. Very simple. The next type of structure we will find in Second apology is when in some component are connected in serious or in parallel. Now, cities is went toe more element, Allen say's and eventually carrying the same current. So in this example, we have three component in serious parallel is went to move element are connected to the same two nodes, and this is in the black polo and eventually have the same voltage across them. So we have here three component connected in power. In the next chapter, we will see how to handle such cases. Now, in the next chapter, we will see how to handle such cases, how to calculate the total, for example, resistance in Syria. So our existence in power 56. R,L,C in Series and Parallel: I will see in serious in Parliament. Remember that are is Resistol. L is in doctors and sees capacitance composite Oh, in Elektronik. Connecting component in sales in barley is very useful practice and will probably will see that a lot. Remember that real component are available in specific limited range. We can't find, for example, any resistor value, so one off. The reason is that we can create a new virtual component with the new perimeter while connecting things in sales in power. Let's see how to do it. For each type of component individual Resistol can be connected together in a serious connection or in parallel connection, or maybe combination of both forming a more complex resist or topology. Now such apology can be replaced by a single logical equivalent resistant. So if we have resistance in serious, then the total resistance is the sum for resistance R one plus out toe plus altri and so on . Now, on the other hand, resistor in parallel the voltage across each resistor is the same, and the current through each resist a will change in July with the resistance in each component, we have some simple equation toe calculate that total resistance. If we do it, we will see that the total resistance off a parallel combination will be lower than the lowest resistance value off all company. In this example, we have true resistance in serious. And let's say we would like to know what will be the total existence between Point A and point B so we can apply the falling formula and the result will be at the some of the truth , resist or meaning 3.3 kilo home. Now we can look on those three Resistol as black books that we don't care what is inside the books. We just need to know what kind of resistance we will get if we connect at this black books in our circuit. In this following more complicated example, we have a combination off Resistol in parallel and resist. So in serious. Now, for example, Resistol, all five in our six connected in parallel so we can calculate the total new Resistol and call it call it are 56 and when we have treeless Sistol connected in serious meaning, our for are 56 That's the new logically resist Oh, in our seven, the total newest Sisto will be 187.5 arms, much less than our five in our six. We just created a new, logical Resistol that we will probably can't buy as a separated component. Unlike Resistol, when we combine capacitor in serious in circuit, the some off the capacitance is less than the capacitance off the individual capacity. The formula used to calculate capacitance is in serious is shown on there on the left side below. When we combine capacitor in parallel, the total capacitance is the sum of the individual, a capacitance off each capacity. Again, this is a opposite behavior off resist of Impala. In this simple example, we have four capacitor with the same value off 10 micro Farhod. When we combine them together in say's, the total we see is 2.5 micro forward now, in this example, again, we have to capacity connected in parallel C one and C two, so the total capacities will be see. It will be 20 microphone for a and, well, let's call it C 21 and now if will combine it free capacity. Sit tree see 21 and C four in serious than the total capacitance will be for micro fraud. Now we can also connect in doctors in serious in parallel. And it's actually the same principle off. Connecting Resistol meaning in Dr since years is the some of the in doctors. And on the right side we have the formula for inducting in parliament, and that is the same as we are doing for Resistol. 57. Ohm’s Law - V, I, R: Will it be familiar with voltage? Current and resistance is separated electric parameters. Now it is a good time to understand the relation between them while using one off the most basic and various full a low that is called arms low. So the relationship between voltage current and resistance in the D. C circuit it was discovered by a German guy called George One. He found that in a constant temperature, the electric current I flowing through a fixed linear resistance is directly proportional to the voltage applied across it. This is weak and also inversely proportional to the resistance are meaning. When we increase the voltage and resistance is constant, we get more current. When we increase the existence, we get less current. Please remember to use the right prefix range, meaning I is the current through the component in unit off samples. V is the voltage measured across the component in your it off vaults and all is the resistance off the component in unit off arms, or malos is being used a lot in electron ICS, so it's important to understand how to use it. Based on the slow, we can construct the circuit taking into account free, valuable to consider voltage, current and resistance. Now, by knowing any to value, we can easy calculate the tell missing value and the easiest way to remember one's low is actually using a pyramid by eliminating anyone. Element form the pyramid we left with the relevant equation. For example. I'm looking on the bear Me, them. I'm blue. I'm looking for the value off our existence. So he's just voltage divide by current I. In practice, we will encounter a component that have specific current and voltage level for the operational. I'm lows to calculate the amount off resistance that must be provided between the power supply and a specific component in other world. We serve for all the resistance and let's a simple example. So in this example, we have nine volt DC power supply on the left side that provides a maximum a current let's say this is one pill and a small motile device on the right side. That true design on a 20 million current. Now what kind off resistant we need toe put in the circuit. Eso the motor will operate with the right amount of college, so using the arm laws, we know, V. We know I and we need to calculate all but the first thing that we need to do is to make sure that we're using the right prefix. So nine is okay, it's involved. It's involved. 20 million pairs should be translated toe. Um, pair. So this is translated to 0.2 and we're getting the result. 450 orme Resistance is needed now. Once we know the needed resistance in the circuit, we can use the right Resistol if we have that specific value. Or we can combine several Resistol in Syria so in parallel, to achieve the total of existence that is required in a well circuit. The last thing I would like to explain is related to power. We learned that power is expressed in vote now to the question How can we calculate a the power consumption by specific Resistol? When when we know the resistance off that Resistol. So using the power ellos, we just need to a calculate voltage multiply by current now to be able to calculate the voltage value across the Resistol and the current value across the resistor, we're using all nose and combined. Together we are able to calculate the power consumption on a specific Resistol 58. Kirchhoff’s Laws - Junction (KCL): Now we're getting to additional too important a lows in electron ICS called kick off lows, named after Gustav kickoff that are used together with arms low to find an analyse the current and voltage in simple toe very complex circuit. Now one off them is called Case Yell, and the other one is called K V L. Both are based on the principle off energy conservation in electrical circuit. So Gustav kick off the Skype to basic clothes off Elektronik that are based on the concept off conservation off energy and the first low is called K C L. Kick off current low, and it's related to the current in a junction Now the meeting off the low is that the amount off current that enters a junction is the same is the amount that exit that junction now. In that example, on the right side, we have I two plus I tree. That's the current flowing in that is equal to I won an iPhone. That's the current flowing out. Let's say we have the following circuit with the power supply to resist o capacity. Oh, and some lead on the right side and we assume the direction off currents in each branch in the circuit. Now, by using case yellow, we can easily build the too simple equation. Meaning I want is equal to I to an eye tree and I to looking on the right side is equal to I fall Plus I five. Now you can ask how can you we tell the direction off the Collins. Maybe I want is going the other way around. So I will tell you the secret. It doesn't matter. We can decided the election and just stick to it. For example, I assume that I two is going out off the node in the left side, so it must going in to the node in the right side. One more additional thing I would like to mention is that when we have a component like a pass, it'll things are getting a little bit more complex. Is when the capacity always charge it will resist the current flow. In our case, I five and of course, all other current meaning it is not a linear constant be able. So the best way to handle such a scenario is to look only on the steady state, steady state condition means that there are no current a flowing through any branch in which a charge capacitor is located. Now, when a branch contains the capacity, it is treated like a battery. Now, don't be worry if you didn't get that 100% as this is a little bit complicated. 59. Kirchhoff’s Laws - Closed Loop (KVL): the second very useful low is called K V L K High Voltage Low or the closed loop pool. The meaning off K V L is that they'll get brick some off the voltage around. Any loop off a circuit is always zero. That's the principle off energy conservation, meaning the amount off energy generated is equal to the amount off energy being used. Now, when we use that load toe, build an equation while going along the circuit loop. Every component going up on the voltage drop as you see right now in the picture should be positive. And every component going down on the voltage rope should be negative. Let's see simple example. Here we have a circuit with two power source V s, one on the left side with nine volt and on the right side ves to with tree. Vote now in additional, we have tree resist off al one equal to 100 arms out to equal toe 200 or arms and altri equal toe 200 warms. Now the question. How can we calculate the current flowing in that circuit? What will be the voltage group? Rich Resistol? That's the via one veal to envy a tree. What will be the power consumption? Pair each Resistol. Now, let's apply the cave. Yell a low. OK, so I'm going around a loop on that circuit, starting with V s one. So V s one is I'm taking That is a plus because I'm going for minus to plus it really. One is actually Resistol that consume energy. So this will be miners were one. And also my nose wheel to and plus V is too, because that's a power source and miners via tree and I finished the or silicate from its equal to zero. We just built one equation on that Sirica using the cave yellow. Let's reorganize that a little bit. So on one side we have all the voltage rope off the resistor on the other side. We have all the power source. Now we know the value of the power source. V S one envious too. So that will be 12 a vote altogether. In addition, we're adding the arm lows and translating via one toe a simple equation off a resistant multiply by the current. So that will be our one. Multiply by I plus al two movie multiply by the same I and out free multiply by the same I equal to 12th will take out I And here you have a simple calculation that we got the final current is 24 million people. The next thing I would like to do is okay. We have the car in that flowing in the circuit. Now we can apply again the arms low to calculate the voltage grope each resistor because one Now we know the current and we know the resistance pair each resistance. In addition, we can also calculate the power consumption. It resisted using the power low because we know the current and we know the voltage drop on each resistor. And now, in hearing we go, we we can calculate the current vaulted roping it Resistol and the power Pellet Resistol. 60. Summary - Basic Laws of Electric Circuits: Let's quickly summarize what we learned toe. Find this a section about basic, low off electric circuit, and the first topic was sick. It apology. And we learned that the three main a simple second apology branch know that look branch is a single electrical element or device like a Sisto capacity in dock toes. Oh, any additional component. And like mortals, lead whatever a note is a point of connection between two or more branches. And loop, as is as it sounds, is just a any closed pet in a circuit. No, there are two additional way to group A several circuit together. It can be in serious over in Parliament when we have component in serious meaning. A. They're carrying the same current when they are connected in parallel meaning. They're sharing the same voltage across all of them. So moving into the next topic and okay, we live that we can connect a component in CS or in parliament. But what is the reason for that? So the main reason is that we can create new type of logical component because not all component of developing in all kind off range and if we can build some logical component based on, well, component. That's the way to do that. And better, each type of component will get a different result while connecting that in serious or in parallel for starting when we're connecting DeSisto in serious. That will be the some off the resistance. If we're connecting existing in parallel, we need to apply this formula going into capacity. So the capacity or just the opposite off resistor, if we can. If we connect capacity oh, in serious than we are applying this formula. But if we connect capacity on parallel, that will be the some off the capacitance, and the last one is in doctors. It's actually the same is Resistol. Connect that in serious, and we are getting some connected in parallel and you need to apply that formula. The first important low that we learned is all Melo's, and that's the relationship between current voltage and resistance. Now, to be able to easily remember, arm lows were using some pyramid or triangle s so we can find each one off the element. If we have the other two, for example, I'm looking for resistance, so I need to have the voltage dope on that resistance in the current that flowing on that specific component, and that's the way to calculate that very, very useful low. Now, in addition, you we can use the power low to calculate the consumption on Resist off. It will be, of course, the calidad flowing in that that resistor in the voltage drop inside. And how can I find the Carlin and devoted rope? I will apply off course, the arms low. The next two lows are called Kill of Lows, and they divided toe Casey L Kickoff current Low and K V L kill for voltage blow. And both of them are based on the principle off energy conservation. Now, let's starting with the 1st 1 case yell so that the current low. Now I'm looking on some note in my circuit, I can see some current and flow are flowing in. Some of them are flowing out and they will be equal because mathematically, the current flowing in is equal to the current flowing out K V l keyhole voltage low. Now, in that case, we have some circuit and each loop in the sake it we can build an equation based on the voltage roper each component that were crossing around that Zika and mathematically is that in a closed loop, devoted rope will be equal to zero because to the simple fact that some component provide energy like a power supply, and there will be in a plus sign. And some of them are a consuming energy like resist over any other component, and they will be in minor son. And when we're using both, though cave E, l and K sale and arm lows, we can solve very complex circuit. 61. Course Summary: Okay, we're almost on the finish. Line it. Thanks for watching so far. I think we covered many topics on the fundamental Terry behind the analog electron ICS. Let's see now in high level the flow of topics we covered so far with a short summary pair each one and also what I would like to recommend you as the next step moving forward on the learning curve, we started our journey with the basic definition off current voltage and power Current is the organized flow off free electrons in a closed look measured in a unit called dumpers. Current can be translated toe other form off energy like heat, whole light or maybe mechanical energy making electric circuit very useful for endless application. Voltage is the potential electric multi force pushing the electrons in one direction, measured in a unit that is called world power, Is the rate off energy being consumed in specific component power is measured using but toe measure power consumption. We need toe at the time scale. So in that case, power consumption is measured using a but ours. In addition, we saw that to measure the energy capacity off some limited energy source like a battery. We used, um, pill hours the C n A C toe. Create voltage potential. We need the power source. Now. Such a power source can be based on direct, current or alternate card. That kind is the current that travel in one direction. On Lee, it is you need original with the constant polarity. This is very common mental toe operate love a power digital circuit and all kind of device , so we will find it in almost any electrical circuit. A C alternating current is a type of power source that cause current toe biologically change direction. A see today is the most common method to deliver electricity for long distance. Now the frequency of changing direction, or polarity, is measured in hertz toe easily. Handle voltage current and power in a C we use our limits would mean square values, resistance capacitance and induct its on the building blocks off. Almost any electric component device or circuit will find them everywhere. Now, with this sense is the popular tee off. A material measured in a unit called Ones Resistol Device are used to limit the current flow and to set voltage level across the circuit. Capacitance is a popular tee off a body for storing energy in electric Fifth, measured in a unit that is called Farhod capacity oh device and used to store and release electric energy. Inductive is a property often electric conductor by which a change in current flowing through it induce an electro motive force. Inductive is measured in unit that is called Henry. Now trance, formal electric motors and a C generator are based on the principle off in doctors. Semiconductors are one of the biggest development steppin Elektronik, helping toe dramatically minimize the number off component in a square area. Now semiconductor is a popular tee off some material that has less resistance than isolate oh, in more resistance than conductors. So they are used to create what is called P injunction that all the building broke. For example, toe great dialled and transistor. Dialled is the one way get component, letting current to flow in only one direction. The old kind of types of diet and transistor are usedto amplify electric power or to switch electric Elektronik signals. Arms low and kick of lows are the basic close in electric circuit, helping toe perform simple, very complex circuit analysis we fails, defined some basic second apology like branch node and look, and how to combine component in serious and in parallel arms. Low is used to simply define the relation between voltage current and resistance. Now the electric current flowing through a linear existence is directly proportional toe the voltage applied across it. Now, while knowing two parameters, we can calculate the turd, one killer of lows are divided to two. Lowe's case L and K V L K C L Also called is the junction Will saying that it any note or a junction in electric circuit? This some off current flowing into that node is equal to the sum of current flowing out off the node. K V L also called a closed loop hole, saying that the alg a brick, some off the voltage around any loop off a circuit is zero, meaning the amount off generated is equal to the amount used now using them together with all my clothes, we can analyze circuit and define the needed component parameters in our circuit 62. What Next...: I think the next interesting step following discourse is off course. Moving to dig it. Electron ICS a lemming. A water logic gate. How can we use model of Elektronik using integrated ticket microcontroller being controlled by your software? How to bridge between the physical world and the big guitar world using Senso in actuate Oh , and much more. Now, while leading digital component into circuit, we can do new amazing things with much less effort today some very cost effective development platforms like Al do we know are really making electron ICS much more easy and fun process to almost everyone. I'm elderly walking on creating this next interesting cause and I will let you know as soon as it will be ready. If you like the structure off this cause, then you will probably enjoy the next one even more. I would like a game to thank you for listening and willing to learn the interesting world off Telectronics building. This course was really challenging for me but I really enjoy the process in the final outcome and I hope that you enjoy the to I will be happy to hear if this course helped you gain some basic knowledge in electron ICS and any feedback will be more than welcome. Thanks again for watching and good luck in your next journey.