The "Super" Power of Problem Solving | Ferdinand Huber | Skillshare

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The "Super" Power of Problem Solving

teacher avatar Ferdinand Huber

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

8 Lessons (1h 6m)
    • 1. Intro

    • 2. Overview of Problem Solving Methods

    • 3. A3 Problem Solving Part 1

    • 4. A3 Problem Solving Part 2

    • 5. A3 Problem Solving Part 3

    • 6. A3 Problem Solving Part 4

    • 7. The Candle Problem

    • 8. Assignment and Closing

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About This Class

How can Problem Solving be fun? How to create the drive and joy for Problem Solving?

Problem Solving is one of the most important skills in today’s world. Get the power, the superpower, of problem solving.

In this course you will learn what is necessary to become a problem solver and to motivate people around you to become problem solvers too.

  • Overview of main Problem Solving Methods in the Industry
  • Detailed explanation of the 8 Steps of an A3 Problem Solving Method
  • Mindset for problem solving
  • How to motivate your team on solving complex problems

With examples, simulations and fun stories, this course is for everyone who want to discover the skill and joy of problem solving.

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1. Intro: It's a beautiful day. Sun is shining, birds are flying in singing. Everyone is happy. And you are heading to work. And you arrive at your desk and find a pile of problems, all that's tagged papers. And if that's not enough, your boss comes to you and hand you over this one. So these problems for me, He says to you, and you take a look at it and take a look at your desk. All this trouble, all these problems. And you just feel happy and powerful and energized. And you know why? Because you know how to solve problems. You know how to take them and not make them disappear for one hour or two until next week, you make them disappear forever. And you know another thing, by solving the problems, you are developing yourself. You're learning something and doing something meaningful. And there is something which almost forgot. And it's many times for cotton, it's that every problem has something in it which is really motivating and you know what it is. It's the joy of achievement. This joy of achievement can have so high motivating power and so hide bounding power between each college, between friends, between people. So you can build this trust. And that's how problem-solving can be really fun. Well, this course is not only talking, talking, talking, but it's exercise. So I will do some exercise here. You do some exercise there. And we tried to figure out, what is it about problem solving that we can learn and we can understand better? I hope you'll join me here on this course. And then let's dive into the first lesson. 2. Overview of Problem Solving Methods: But what is this? That a lot of stuff here. A3, PDCA Six Sigma continues CIP, Kai Xin De Mike. What should I do with this? If I, if I make a course for a three, it will take me one week to understand this one AD and one more week. Pca Six Sigma, I'll take two weeks only for one belt and add the two weeks more, Ghana another belt. And then may be able to do something with this one. D Mike Kaizen. So I'm looking here at weeks and weeks and weeks of training. And how can I find myself through all of this journal? Don't get confused with this. Don't get worried because this one, you don't need to know it. If you know it. Perfect. Step-by-step. If you don't know it, there's something about problem-solving with all of them has common. And the main thing here, maybe you already know it, you already see it. You already saw is this guy here. Pdca. So there's a basic idea of every problem solving. We start with this one and that's plan, do, check, act. It's called the Deming we'll Demi wheel was created by the Mr. damning as he has enum Edward Deming, as the name suggests. And he was studying what kind of approach to we should have for this, for the problem-solving. And he created this four steps, which is the first step, you plan. What do we want to do? How do we want to do Y? What will be the steps to implement it, et cetera, et cetera. So you make a very detailed plan. You do something implemented, tried out, make it work, or maybe it will not work. Then you check what happens. Doesn't one really that what you expected or was it not? And afterwards you plan, do check, act, you act opponent, you, maybe you create a new standard and expand the solution which you created to another areas or you really implemented as a fixed solution and do plant. And if it didn't work, really odd, you find out, even though you did this step here, you start over again with the BCA. That's why this one is shown many times as a circle. And you do the p, d, c, a easy, right? Well, there are many people who started to argue a little bit. There's really a threefold step towards a problem-solving. So you do bleed the plan, do check. And let's be honest. I have been many years consultant. And who of us people on earth really do the plan, do check, act in this exactly sequence. Usually do a plan. You try out a little bit, then you didn't work out, you go back due to something, you go back to the plan and that your, your, your, your experiment. And then maybe you go and check a little bit about if this plant has been working, could be working out, then you do a little bit more. And it's going from there to here, from there to here phenome. Because human beings are messy, human things are chaotic. They are not able to work like a machine from the plan, do check, act. They are jumping from here to there from God knows where. And we jump to conclusions, we jump to solutions and we, sometimes we even got the right solutions straight ahead without big of an analysis, without big oven plan. So the PDCA is an idea. It keep in your mind, which is a circle number ending. Once it didn't work, you start over again with the plan, do, check, act. It's an can be almost say it's a philosophy. Well, this is the thing which underlies all problem solving methods. And we have two things which is in manufacturing industries very common to be used is the a3 and the AD. And many times the automotive industry they use. This is called eight disciplines, which is a very methodic approach based on eight steps or eight disciplines which need to be fulfilled in order for you to solve your problem. And you have the A3, which I will go more in detail. This is the one we will be focusing in our problem-solving training. And you have the Six Sigma, which is based on, a little bit on now far more detailed analysis for something you cannot understand by only looking at it. You gather data, you make the data, speak to you. You may, you may data analyses. And based on these analyses, you get some conclusions and know which direction to go. Six sigma takes a lot of money and a lot of time to make this. I'm greenbelt, Green Belt in this one. And I think it's enough. So many guys out there with black belts in Six Sigma. We doesn't do so many projects over the year. And I think the idea that concepts about the Six Sigma is good because it can take one melted one-to-one idea from here, from the air and apply it in your daily work. And you don't necessarily need to do always a Six Sigma project. So it's a lot of learning inside here. But effective Six Sigma projects. People who do this frequently in the manufacturing industry. For example, there. It's more common in people who have the black belt of don't do so many projects. This is what we see and it's quite expensive. Then we have some general idea. This demand here is also related to the Six Sigma. It's also kind of a wheel which goes in circle here. Which is is the design measure, analyze, implement and check. So it's the six sigma DMAIC wheel. I hope I said just now. And you have two ideas also, which is for continuous improvement as a continuous improvement process, which in many manufacturing industries, companies you can see we have this and you have the Kaizen, which also comes from the Toyota production system, which means changing for the better for you make Kaizen events. You have a Kaizen philosophy, Kaizen ideas. Based on this. You have this thing. This is all really relevant for the problem-solving. But let's narrow little bit the focus here. Let's check out this guy here. Let me tell you a short story about the A3 and how it can be best used. It's a story about sensing. And his student. He had to student. And one day he went to the student and said, okay, you both go out there in the factory and check what has to be done. And everyone of you please come back at the end of the day and tell me what you found. Is there something we can improve, something we can do better? I want to hear from you. So the two guys, they went there, no experience, but they came from university, from high school, from wherever. And at the end of the day they came together and a sensei, some, let me check. So there was one student came back with 15 ideas of what could be done in the manufacturing. Facility. Improvement idea one, improvement idea to improvement idea three, problem one, problem two. So 15. The second one came only with two ideas of what could have been done. So my question to you, what it is sensitive to. Many would say they talked to the guy warned you have to idea, go back out there and get more ideas. So this is not enough for us. But you know what the sensei did. He sent a guy with 15 ideas back to the shop floor because explained to him, if you telling me, I need you to 15 things in my factory to make it better, to improve it. It's because you still didn't understood very well the process. You need to see what is really important. I can only do one thing at a time. So what is the next thing which I should do to improve? I don't have the resource, the manpower, the time to do all 15 things. What does it? So please go back to the factory and tell me what is the one thing that I need to do where I should focus my energy. And that's the idea of this problem-solving and this way of thinking. Focus and then set a target and go towards these targets. 3. A3 Problem Solving Part 1: A tree is following. You have an 83 sheet of paper which is two times the size of this one. Doesn't have form. I don't have any triggers or infinite. And the idea when it was originated is anyone who wants to solve the problem in the Factory. This is also originate from Japan. They got a blank sheet of paper on the desk. And a problem. Well, we have a method to solve problems, but how can I know the methods here? In many of the western companies? We have a beautiful A3 form, which is already all divided. Beautiful step one, step two, step three, step four, step 5678. And everyone has little bit of a space like this heme A3, we see them. But you know what? Light is not that simple. You have this kind of formula, but in fact, you can throw it right into the trash because your problems don't look like this. Problems are messy. There might be a number one which is really big, or maybe a number five occupies a lot of space. And maybe the number two zone in small one. So how can you know for each problem how to arrange this kind of formula? That's by the clever japanese, awesome, probably from Toyota. Said, well, let's make a blank sheet of paper. We have a method, but how it looks like is up to everyone who needs to solve the problems. And that's where this comes from, the A3 problem-solving. It's an blank sheet of paper A3 where all the process of solving a problem is registered. And there's eight steps Omid, but if one step is more detailed than the other, etcetera, this is all depending on the kind of problem you have. So let's take a look at the first first step in the A3 problem-solving is here anyone, anyone? Anyone. Yeah, right. The starting situation. So stark situation means from where we begin, where where do we start? What is it? What happened? What is related to to the problem? So I take a look at my A3 check here. I know, okay, this is the situation. Machine broke down and we don't know what how to fix it. Or starting situation was emergency call which was not diagnosed or I don't know, whatever happened in your factory, in your environment, in your organization. You can post it here. Simple. Words and then straight with a point. And the second one. Now we can go a little bit deeper, is who knows that? Right? Problem description. And here, now we're describing problems. So what happens, what didn't happen? Why this is important? Because this one, this little guy here is around 50% of your solution. So you see how it works and see how we need to go through all this process and all the eight steps. Yeah, but here maybe only on that first step and then the second step of eight-step of problem-solving Clavey here, you already got the solution because here you describing the problem and you get it all. And as we are humans, probably when you're doing your a three, you are also not following one by one. You are jumping from here to there. That's checked this, let's shake this humble about that and reply to me and send email and send and call me who else. So you have this method, but life is messy. However, problems description, spend lot of time there. Lets make a small simulation about missing. There will be happened something here, and you should be able to describe exactly what happens here as it happens. And then i will make your question and you can do the problem solving based on what you have seen. So I have nothing here and my hand, nothing on my sleep. I haven't put it hide stuff like this. And I positioned the problem, the problem or coin on my arm here. And what will happen is, as I rub this coin here, I will make it go into my arm. So it will go into my bloodstream and then completely disappear. Okay. And you will be able to see how this will have if we take a very close look. And then it goes just in my arm like this. So I think I need to practice a little bit more because sometimes it doesn't look, doesn't work. So I ask you not to turn back the camera, the video because then maybe you will see the trick that if you paid attention, you will see that the coin has completely vanished from everywhere. So there is nothing here, my sleeve, nothing here, nothing there. So what happened in this kind of situation? So something happened, something you don't know how it has been done. Maybe there is a machine broke down. Maybe there is some material was missing or some product has been damaged, whatever. But you don't know exactly what happened. And your task as a problem-solving is first, describe the problem. So you describe the starting situation which you found when you about the problem, which is the main idea, the main, main topics about the problem which we are going to discredit describe, and then you describe what just happened. Let's do this now. 4. A3 Problem Solving Part 2: How would you do this problem description? If someone asks you, so, many guys go about this problem description as follows, they just take this one here and say, oh, prom description, we had a coin. It was their i2, good. Robert against my arm. And suddenly it disappeared. Maybe it happened one or two times, it didn't work and suddenly it was disappeared. Isn't we don't know where it is. So this is in many cases of problem, it's the problem description is you find out. But there's some critical things missing in this kind of problem description. Or you just say, OK, doesn't this happen? And then it is it that, that's the result which came out. But there is called something called five W two h. This is something you can use to describe the problem really as zeros. And the five W two h means when it happened. Where did it happen? What did happen was moon. And why. And the other is the how and how many. So all they did algorithm and how many times it happened. So this, you can use this kind of question technique to get to the bottom of it. But the main thing you need to remember when you're making this kind of question is, okay, let's get back. So I take another point and we try again. So how was I position when this problem happen? So you need to understand each simply. So did I take the coin, was that on the table when I just started with a trick? So don't jump back. You reply it. I take it with a right-hand or did I took it with a left hand? What did I do before even touching it? Denied to like this or like this. Ok. Let's assume I took it in my hand. So it was either the right or the left. Let's see if I add on the right hand. Did I use my left hand and position my elbows on the table? Yes or no. And did I Robert here? So now you can already know. Okay. Probably it was not this. You must remember that I took this m and Robert on this arm. So I position on this displays. Is there anything Which happened on this moment in time. Did you see the coins still when I was holding before rubbing it on my arm? Yes or no. So how did I position to that position the coin here that are positioned at here can maybe have been fold inside here. Was I in anytime close to my sleeve to you think there is a pocket or or maybe I put my arm on top. So how was the position? So I can tell you, position was like this. Now, once I rubbed it, did it on the first try go into my arm. Yes or no. How many times did I lose the coin? It make it disappear or KML disappear on the onetime. But how many times did I rub it on the one time or two times, a three times. So if you remember well, on the first time I was explaining and you hear the sound because it felt on the ground. So you know. When did it happen that the coin disappeared? It was not on the first time. So once the coin was on the table, did I pick it up with my right hand or didn't pick it up with my left hand or right hand? Left hand. You've got an idea. So if you really kind of can simulate this, if it is possible to simulate it, I would strongly suggest and any problem. Whenever we do the problem description simulated, try it out, see what happens. Talked to the guys who have been there. And that's the main idea of it. So problems are only solved at the gemba, at the site where the things happened. And there you can see. So if you get this point, you will find out the, once the coin was on table, I used my right hand to pick it up. And what did I do? I didn't rub it on my arm and I cannot wrap with this hand. So I pass it from one end to the other hand. Okay. So, and then I got into the position again to form an army and I wrote it again. Right. And then if you remember, well, if you can be simulated, it didn't happen the second time, but I didn't pick it up here and started rubbing again. If you remember well, and took this end, picked it up and pass them. Again. This m. Now the question is, why on earth would anyone who is in this position, I want to take this coin and Robodog the hand on the arm. Use this hand to pick it from here, pass it to this, and put it here again. And Robert, wouldn't it be much easier to just take the coin and Robert again, like this. Why I didn't do that one. Why? On our trial I took the coin, has two, this r, And then. Did you write this again? So many of you might have already solved the problem or know what's going on here. And there we go exactly on this kind of problem description, which is really getting close to understand it. Why did I take this with this hand and not with that hand? When did I took this coin and pass from one end to the other? When did I put it here? How many times did I played this before? It didn't. It has disappeared. And who was there when it happened that it disappeared. So many of these co-dominant times disappeared and all these questions help us to understand the situation. Now there is 11 critical things about when you do this problem description is here. And this is called this one. Node is this. It's an eye. It's an eye. And that means see for yourself, if you starting n kind of problem-solving. And the guy, you write you an email and say, oh, we have this problem, ok, and you call him and right back. Okay, what happens? How is maybe you are able to solve the problem even in this way. But I can guarantee you. I guarantee you if you go there and see the problem from a self at the side, at the place where something have, look at the IT system, look at the machine, look in the factory, Look at the customer, and look at the physical product. And then you start understanding status, start to describe the problem. Is so much richer, so much more intense of information. That's why there is a very basic rule for anyone who wants to make problem-solving this, use this A3. A3 is not done on PowerPoint, is not done on Excel. It is done at the site. So now then number three, we say we want a target scintillation. So what does our target of? Our target is to find out what happened with the coin in this case. But it could be something else. Now, I strongly suggest you, whenever you have a target is not, we have a problem. It happened. And now target is that this problem doesn't happen. So you need to have something, numbers. Numbers are great. So if you have some target where you can see we want and then go from a situation where we are here, step-by-step, go to a situation where we are there. And if you can translate this as the numbers and put it here over time horizon, then it's the perfect thing to do. 5. A3 Problem Solving Part 3: Now described starting situation, what happens in general information. Then? We described our problem in detail happened where, when, how was there, et cetera. And we have also a target situation. So what do we expect should be the outcome of our problem solving? What is our solution situation? Now we go into the form step number four. Who knows what it is? Right? It is finding the root cause. So here. So this finding the root cause or root cause analysis is the step. Now you need to come up with some hypothesis. What could have happened? Where are the possible situations which if or which elements could be a real source of this problems. And for this one, one thing is very useful as Ishikawa. So if it is the fish bone diagram, right? So many of them, you say the five EMS as the Ishikawa, the elements which can result some even have a six and even a seven ems. So and the five elements which could be leading to your missing coin. What are the possible causes? So let's brainstorm. Nothing is impossible, everything can be possible. Nothing should be discarded at this point. And this is the main point also about this problem-solving is that you don't take off too many of the ideas of the beginning. Because any idea which is written here might not be completely responsible for the cause. But some elements of them could of course contribute to your solution. So say here we have M, M, M, M, M, M, which would be men. So the employee did something wrong or the guy was there any did a mistake. So he messed up spin guy basically he messed up was his responsibility. You should know better, but he did a mistake, he caused the problem. This is a man-made problem. So second factor can be of soda machine. Yeah, so the guy didn't do anything wrong. Machine broke down and we have the mass we have. But then machine, we can also say it's from the system, IT system or, or some physical structure which is in place, which shouldn't have been, have worked upon. It didn't work out, so it caused our problem in. So now another classification, we have man machine material. So the Mandy, their job really well. The machine performed perfectly, but unfortunately the material was wrong and cause the problem. So this can be another factor, man machine materials, then. Metal. The guy just followed the right method, but the method was wrong. So we need to update our metal because metal is not able to cope with the situation and it results in whatever problem happened there. Yeah. And then we have here I like to recall it environment. But the environment is called the millieu so that you find a word in English. But it's just environment, okay. Whatever it was, too hot, too humid, too dark to light to bright. So nothing rolling the method material machine was good but well, suddenly came the rain, every single draggable got wet and we have the mass, we have some kind of environment. And here in some cases we have also the management. Or in some cases we have also here doesn't move measurement. But from my point of view, my personal point of view for the manor measurement system went wrong. Or here maybe the management system on how we structure our organization is a failure. But on my personal point of view, I think stick with the five. And you got it all covered. If you say measurement, it could also be the machine measurement which happened. You can also say it's a method on how we measure could have failed or people would perform the measurement could fill. So you can also suited here inside from the management the same way if you have a management system failure, you can say OK or metal on how we manage or how we are organized is also not the right way. Or maybe the manager. If it's a personal problem which they make a mistake on how they organized organization. You can also say it's a man. So for me, I put it here into brackets. Because for me I think keep it simple. Five elements which can classify the region of your problems. And now our task here is to write down here what could have been happened here, in this case, here on the machine, what exactly could have happened on this machine so that it leads to this problem we are facing what could happen in the material. So that led to this problem in our very simple example of the coins so high think how could it be? So I don't think the environment. Can so much in France as it was lived or something. So I will not write something there. I think from the Man, this could be that he has something which is not even on the procedure on, on our standard, but he did some things so that the coin vanished from the method on how this is performed, could be something. And on the machine we don't have much machine here from the material, maybe there's something special on that coin. You cannot analyze it a little bit of trick inside. And could also be something. Now the point where you get to this possible reasons here of what could have happened is another very important step now, which is you choose one or two or three of them and say this is our potential root cause. And let's take a look, closer them. And then you take, for instance, this one here on the method. And you starting to dig deeper level. Yes. And this you do phi as king five times y 0. So the I placed it the coin on my arm. Why did I place it on my arm? Yes. So I could Robert why did I Robert yet make this movement you yeah. Because I want to make it into my my arm. It's a kind of Parliament magic trick. And so I Robert so that I can let it go and it can be inside DRY. We are wanting to let it go. So to make this kind of magic trick. So this is also a little bit of an exercise we can do to understand better and better and better go deeper and deeper in one very specific characteristics of your cause and effect diagram here. And the danger of this one is here. You can go many ways. So it is a y as QY, you get here. No, that's not what this work is. You could also then no period could land up here. So how to directors This is experienced and and yeah, it's your own way on how to do it. What do you think is the correct answer, the correct path you want to take this depends, you can take for the whole thing of this here is for you to get an understanding. I am VM, you say, well, I think I will stop here. This thing, what is written here is what I'm going to fix. Nfl fixed this one, I eliminate this one. Then I break down this chain and this one will not happen. And in result, this problem will not occur. This event by the problem. Another cue, the beauty about the A3 and upon any problem-solving skill is that in fact, you cannot do so much wrong. Because if you have this PDCA idea, which is a really closed circle, whenever you get a root cause, which we think might be the root cause death still the stamps of confirming it. So it's not so bad idea if this, you do here, you are convinced about solving this with this measure, is this action. Then it doesn't work out. So let's try it again. This is the idea. 6. A3 Problem Solving Part 4: Okay, let's see. Now we found the root cause in our route calls. It would be, it's a little bit difficult to make the actions afterwards or the to-dos, but our root cause would be okay, I have a point here. I use this hand, place it to the other that give it over. But in fact, instead of giving it from this end to this end like this, I'm just pretending to give it over this, right? And I keep it in this hand here. And when I have it in the center, I just place it here on my neck. Right. And then I start rubbing it again. And then of course it's gun because it's here on my, on my neck. So this is the trick. It's quite deceptive trig. And since we aren't online here, it's not possible for you to have to joy, to show me that you have found the right solution or the way how this trick is done. But in reality, once you have this interaction is talking, you can read it direct and find this solution by really going deeper and deeper. Where could it be? Is it here on the metal, there is density on the coin or is there something on the surface here? Or some person, other person helped me. So there's a lot of discussion you can have. So you get this result, which is this calls. So let's say we found it, okay, it's in there or something broke down or is really that part which messed up our machines could not produce any more. Next step would be the answer, right? Defining the actions to do list. So what do we need to do in order to fix this? We found the root cause. What do we need to replace some barred more often, change something in our procedures thing, change something known structure and do some replacement of the material that we need. Fundamental supplier that when I don't know whatever it is, It's due, re-engineer the whole component, or change our marketing strategy in certain aspects or whatever. So we'll do this again. Yes. Who is responsible? And when should it be done? What should be done? So this is the minimum of three steps which you should have and also control the execution. So, but it is straightforward to have a task in it. Find out what do we need to do in order to fix this causes which we just found on six. What is that? Right? We have a to-do list now need to do it. So basically these two are a little bit together. If you have to do list which already you can track and by when it should be ready and can also control the execution of all the tasks that perfect. So it's Olympic combined at the step number six. But this is really implemented defining the countermeasures and implementing the countermeasures. Now countermeasures here on the to-do list is also very different if you have a preventive or reactive. So is there something which you can do which would not allow this problem of happening anymore? Or is there something which you can do only you can do, which makes you able to detect once this problem happens, so you can avoid it in advance. So one is a little bit of poker loci, ideas through it's even impossible. Problems leopard anymore, which is the best solution, not dependent on people, not depending on anything else. But it's from the system, from the construct. So it's not able to happen the second time. And the other thing is OK, it can happen, but we make sure that doesn't happen by installing a sensor or controlling something, making inspection or whatever. So this is the two things, preventive, Of course, it's better if you, if you are able to do it. Then we are almost rising to the end here. This is the number eight to seven would be right. We control the effectiveness. So you did something and here you track it. And this links again to your targets. So you did something modified, something that is really helping you to solve the problem. Is it really disappearing? So keep track over a period of time. So in many companies they choose to do the following. The say, we did all implemented all the measures and now we wait six months or even one year to close this problem-solving process because we wouldn't want to make sure that this number, which you define the target has been reached. This problem has never appeared again. And our KPIs, whatever this we defined, has stabilized on a new level, which is according to all targets you are game. And the number eight rhyme lessons learned. So here you create a standard, make it really become part of what you are. Maybe here you already created those new standards, but here we will check it may use spread into other areas in the organization. What avenue and learned how Finished your standards. And here's something which is registered here. And the A3 formulary hugely Do It is what did you learn? What is it? Also relate to other areas which you want to take with you? And this is something very difficult to do because it's something about the knowledge. And if you register the knowledge here, how we make sure it's spread across the organization. Difficult, dividend and find your way there. But with this lessons learned them aid. You finished the A3 problem-solving process. And let's move on. Now that you hear a lot about A3 and how to fill it out, you must be thinking and is really boring, isn't it? I, I think this is not really something I would like to do the whole time. Filling out, putting all the things into into their where's the fun of it? You're right. But you know what? This A3 should not be done only by writing down the formulary or an Powerpoint and making reports. This A3 is a living document. It's something you make it with a piece, with a pen and a piece of paper. Write everything there. And you can discuss, talk about and to your problem-solving on this manner. Of course, if it is an axial tables and data analysis, et cetera, et cetera, you can use computer as much as you want. But the final report, the final documentation, is something which is really done on the talking at the game in a place where things are happening. And this is usually done better when you register what you talk directly at the site where this problem happen. And that's the whole beauty of it. Because it is a three is not a reporting and management reporting tool. It three is a people developing too. So a manager can use the three to develop the problem-solving skill of his employee. And by coaching and talking and leading the person through the whole process of this eight steps. This employee who this person is getting so much confidence about how to do this problem-solving. That's why don't stick only with the eight steps doing one-by-one step-by-step. But you use this as a tool to develop your employees, to coach someone in the problem-solving, not only to see the result in a PowerPoint in form of a tree. That's my advice to you. 7. The Candle Problem: I have one more question for you. What is this? This is an opener that can open bottles and also can open wine, but beer or wine, very useful. So now my question to you is, how many guys in the whole world wanted to have this kind of thing? We need some compilation. How many man's Are there who drink beer? How many companies produce bottles? How many wine is consumed? How much wind is consumed around the home globe every year? Multiplied by a factor of x and get some strange number out. Here's the answer. No one. No one in the whole world wanted to buy this opener in a whole year. You know why? Because there's something else that person, person wanted. Maybe you can guess it. The person who buy this kind of opener wants to open the bottom. So they just want to open a bottle. That's what they wanted to do. Or maybe they want to open a wine or they want to celebrate something, they won't drink the wine. And this little guy here is a mean to an end. This is how you get there to your open bottle. And same way, you need to think about the A3. A3 is a mean to an end. Who wants to make an A3 and a world in the whole year? I can tell you no one wants to make a three. It's boring. It's a lot of headache. But you know why people wants that? Because it's the mean to an end. People wants to improve productivity, wants to improve quality, reduce their cost, make, make some new business, or solve some very complicated problems on a certain machine and certain processes. That's why they apply a3. So don't forget why you're doing this. And if this tool of the A3 is not really delivering what you need, if it's getting okay, make a tree omega3 only for doing it, then maybe you're using wrong your opener. Is this A320 really delivering what you're hoping for? If not, maybe it's time to adjust your tool. Maybe you should tweak a little bit. Your A3 changed a little bit here, change a little bit. Dare try other tools. Because the most important thing is the end. The tool is only a tool. But what do you want to achieve? Clarified that first. Welcome to part two, the camel problem. It was 1945 when called Ankur proposed the following experiment with his students. He took a few matches on candle and some things like for the pinhole pins. And he asked the students to fix the candle on the pin wall using this material without burning down the whole pin wall. So the students went to work. They tried out and try things the way I tried to use the pin them pinned to the wall. So but they're not really successful. Even because it will burn all their sum creatives who started melting and little bit decide of the gamble and then attach it to the pinwheel. But it was not really successful until one of the student got a great idea. Why not use the box of the pins. So we could just take two of the pins, stitch it through the box, attached the box to the pinwheels. And we have this for perfect receipt for our camels. Nor can we just need to be placed like this, for example, even straight. And I could write out lightness and it would burn without bearing down upon pinhole grade. We got the solution to the candle problem. Now, the whole thing, the catch about the candle problem is that the pins are inside this box. And this box is not perceived as being part of the material which can be used for the experiment. Once called Duncan presented the problem in this manner and became quite obviously. So you have an empty box, you have the pins, you have the candle, and you have the Mencius. Solve the problem. Straight ahead. Not long trying and experimenting. Tick the box period to the wall and put the candle inside, lighted up and it's working. So there is no much of cognitive skills you need to have in order to solve the problem once it presented like this. Now, many years later, the professor, some Glucksberg from Princeton, Princeton University, it decided to recruit the candle problem. And he also presented to his student this ONE version of the candle problem. So P2, the candle problem represented like this and told to the students. Okay, let's divide you into two groups. One group, he's told them we are only making a kind of research. We want to see how it's performing the solution. So can you solve this problem? And we will take a time, but it's only for our studies. And for the second group, he gives some incentives. He said, The first person who will solve this problem in the shortest time, we'll get a certain amount of euro or dollar. The second another certain. So who solved and fest fastest time will have some reward. Who is the lowest? We get no reward. And then this was a way of him introducing some pressure into this, this candle problem solving. Now, he did this by presenting the problem in this one, this was the problem one, end to another group, another two groups. He did the experiment again. But this time he presented the Kandal province in this 11 team, one group without any incentives, just say OK, we just want to know how will be the result. And the other team. He said, who ever is the fastest we get financial reward, which was a considerable amount at the time. And introducing in this way this kind of pressures what happened? Something very interesting. Scenes, what happens? So once this problem was presented like this, it's not a big brainer to solve this kind of problem, right? So you have the box, you have the pins, you have the candle, and you have the matches. So straight ahead, you know, need not much cognitive knowledge to solve this problem. And this problem one was restrain their heads with incentives, stuff guys were much faster. And the guides without incentives to guy didn't have any financial incentives, they were slower. Now interestingly, what happens when the group which had the problem presented in this manner? Here it is not quite obvious and you can use the box in the solution. And what happens here? The guys who were given incentives, they were considerably slower, more than one minute, slower than the guys without incentives. So many times we think if we put some pressure and we give them incentives, the guys in the factory or the guys from our company, they will perform better. But in this experiment it was clear that for this kind of problem which even needs rudimentary cognitive skills, if you give incentives, if you give some kind of pressure for the problem-solving, thus even worsen the result. And that happens for the simple reason that when we work under pressure, we narrow our focus and concentrate on getting the thing done. And whenever we find this kind of problem, which in this case your problem two, we need to have an open view. We need to see things from a little bit distance and analyze in a more concentrated way or counterweight to that, we are able to see the alternatives, the options we have for the solutions. And introducing pressure is in this case, very, very harmful. And that's something which science has demonstrated. Now I have a question. How to incentivize it? Someone? To do the problem-solving? Better use carrots or shall we use the stick? Well, it depends on which kind of problem you're trying to solve. Trying to solve problem number one, then carrots and sticks will work just fine. Now, I are trying to solve problem number two. I have bad news for you. Carrots and stick will not work here. But is there anything else we can do to motivate, to bring these guys to solve this kind of problems. Like you, There is even better than just one. There are three things you can do. First one, purpose. When solving a problem. You need to have a vision, an idea. Why are we doing that? What's the reason to solve this problem? Well, where do we want to go? What's our destiny? What's our big plan, our vision? Why does this even matter to take care of this problem? This is something you need to convey very clearly from the very beginning of the problem solving, because that's a big motivator. Second, for motivating for this kind of problem solving is mastery. There is an opportunity here by doing the problem-solving, by learning about the process, getting to know what kind of root cause you may have. You are learning something, you are developing your skills for developing your problem-solving skills, but also about the process, about the environment, how to work with each other, how to work with each other. Csu, you're really developing your skill as a human being and as a professional. And that's a very big motivator too. Number three, freedom. When you give the kind of problem, which is very complex problem and the solution is really not obvious. You should give a degree of freedom. So these kind of problems need to have an owner and the owner is free to choose which direction he or she wants to go. And that's the kind of freedom which can motivate you. So you are able to search, to learn, to perfect your ability, and to have the freedom to choose in which way you want to lead this problem-solving and which we come up with the solution and who knows, maybe something Splendid is awaiting for you around the corner. We don't know. This is a unknown road. It's unknown problem. And it's the unknown solution. And the freedom for the person who is doing the problem-solving will make him also grow towards this solution. This tree thing, purpose, mastery, and freedom, will be the motivators for your problem-solving generation. 8. Assignment and Closing: So there this A3 problem-solving. It steps and some tricks, hints, and advice for you when you're doing your problem solving process. So now to close it, I want to give you a small assignment. Take a blank sheet of paper, size A3 and try it out. Go to the factory, to the production, to some office place or wherever you have some problems. And try out the eight steps in this methodic way. But using it to register all your thoughts. And if it really gets out of the border, you say, OK, a3 is not enough. Attach some documents and files, but use it as a place to collect your thoughts. And when you really do this, understanding of the process and writing down this exercise already gets you so much, so many insights and so many, so much knowledge about the process that I'm sure you will get a deep understanding of the process at the site where things are happening. And it's a guarantee we'll solve your problems. And if you don't solve your problems on the first time, there's nothing you can do wrong. Didn't work out. So you repeat, try again, something else. And so you go and go step-by-step developing the solution. So that's my assignment to you. If you are able to post your A3 in our class as an attachment, I would be really happy. And if you could help by giving a thumbs up, if you like the class, I will be even more happy and I thank you very much for your support. Next classes I also coming about Toyota Carter about some leadership topics, leader standard work and other topics which we use to continuously improve and continuous develop our employees at the shop floor. So thank you for joining, and I hope to see you in the next course, next time. Until then, continue solving your problems, continue motivating because the sky's the limit.