The Simplest Guide to Project Management and PMI-PMP® Certification Exam | Aslam Khan | Skillshare

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The Simplest Guide to Project Management and PMI-PMP® Certification Exam

teacher avatar Aslam Khan, MS, PMP

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

81 Lessons (3h 5m)
    • 1. Course Introduction

      3:41
    • 2. 6 Pathways of Project Management

      3:03
    • 3. How this course is structured - simplified framework

      0:37
    • 4. How this course is structured - systems thinking

      1:19
    • 5. How this course is structured The pyramid project example

      3:10
    • 6. PM Framework- What is a project

      2:14
    • 7. PM Framework -What is project management

      0:56
    • 8. PM Framework -matrix environment

      3:55
    • 9. PM Framework - EEF and OPA

      1:19
    • 10. PM Framework -Process Groups

      2:30
    • 11. Integration management

      2:10
    • 12. Stakeholder management

      1:24
    • 13. Scope management

      0:26
    • 14. Schedule Management

      0:34
    • 15. Cost, HR, Quality, Risk Management

      1:54
    • 16. Communication and Procurement Management

      1:18
    • 17. Knowledge areas and process groups

      1:24
    • 18. Develop Project Charter

      4:59
    • 19. Creating the Project Charter Template

      5:56
    • 20. Project Timeline of documents - project charter

      0:15
    • 21. Identify Stakeholders

      3:43
    • 22. Creating the Stakeholder Register template

      3:35
    • 23. Project Timeline of documents - stakeholder register

      0:21
    • 24. WHAT is the Project Scope

      4:03
    • 25. Collect Requirements

      1:41
    • 26. Define Scope

      1:19
    • 27. Create Work Breakdown Structure

      3:24
    • 28. Scope Baseline

      5:45
    • 29. Project Timeline of documents- scope baseline

      0:26
    • 30. Microsoft Project Introduction

      1:30
    • 31. Microsoft Project User Interface Explained

      2:25
    • 32. Microsoft Project Entering Scope Items

      6:02
    • 33. Define Activities

      3:49
    • 34. Sequence Activities

      2:17
    • 35. Estimate Activity Durations

      1:38
    • 36. Develop Schedule

      1:07
    • 37. Critical Path Method

      2:52
    • 38. Crashing and Fast Tracking

      3:00
    • 39. Project Timeline of documents - schedule

      0:35
    • 40. Microsoft Project Entering Activities and Durations

      2:59
    • 41. Microsoft Project Sequencing Activities and Creating Gantt Chart

      7:07
    • 42. SectioMicrosoft Project The Project Schedule

      5:38
    • 43. Estimate Costs

      2:59
    • 44. Determine Budget

      1:01
    • 45. Project Timeline of documents -budget

      0:10
    • 46. Estimate Activity Resources

      2:05
    • 47. Project Timeline of documents -resources

      0:13
    • 48. Plan Quality

      3:37
    • 49. Project Timeline of documents -quality metrics

      0:12
    • 50. Intro to Risks

      2:58
    • 51. Identify Risks

      1:52
    • 52. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

      4:19
    • 53. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis

      1:00
    • 54. Plan Risk Responses

      1:30
    • 55. Project Timeline of documents - risk register

      0:21
    • 56. Plan Communications

      1:47
    • 57. Project Timeline of documents - comm plan

      0:12
    • 58. Plan Procurements

      1:35
    • 59. Project Timeline of documents - procurement

      0:15
    • 60. HOW are things done on the project

      5:46
    • 61. Develop PMP

      1:12
    • 62. Creating Individual Mgmt Plans

      4:04
    • 63. Project Timeline of documents -individual management plans

      0:15
    • 64. Project Timeline of documents - PMP

      0:11
    • 65. Direct and Manage Project Work

      3:34
    • 66. Project Timeline of documents - deliverables and work info

      0:34
    • 67. Monitor and Control Project Work

      1:55
    • 68. Project Timeline of documents - change requests

      0:21
    • 69. Project Knowledge

      1:43
    • 70. Project Timeline of documents -lessons learned register

      0:16
    • 71. Perform Change Control intro and process

      3:46
    • 72. Perform Change Control -Change steps

      4:32
    • 73. Project Timeline of documents - approved change requests

      0:15
    • 74. Control Cost

      5:06
    • 75. Planned Value

      2:02
    • 76. Earned Value

      1:38
    • 77. Schedule Performance Index and Schedule Variance

      1:42
    • 78. Actual Cost, Cost Performance Index and Variance

      2:32
    • 79. Budget Forecasting

      5:30
    • 80. Close project or phase

      3:23
    • 81. Project Timeline of documents - close

      0:30
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About This Class

 

  • Learn Project Management in the most effective and easy to remember way, through visually seeing every concept and understanding from pictures

  • Broken down to the 6 visual pathways of how we see things that are intuitive and easy to understand

  • Lectures do not use tedious bullet-points to read through

  • Probably the most simplified course on Project Management out there

  • This course is for those who wish to get introduced to Project Management

  • Get introduced to the Project Management framework, processes and knowledge areas, and see how they interact with each other

  • Delivered in a highly visual style, you will experience a unique and immersive method of the lectures

  • Taught in a way that is easy to understand and to get it instantly without intimidating jargon, or long instructor monologues

  • Ready to use project document templates that you can download and use on your projects right away (Eg. Project Charter, Project Plan, Risk Register etc) - more templates are going to be added in upcoming weeks

  • Bonus lectures on Microsoft Project as a tool to Project Management

Topics covered in the course aligned to PMBOK Terminology:

  1. Project Management Framework - What is Project Management, Project, Matrix Environment, Organizational Process Assets, Enterprise Environmental Factors, Project/ Triple Constraints (iron triangle), Process Groups

  2. Integration Management -  Develop Project Charter, Develop Project Management Plan, Direct & Manage Project Work, Manage Project Knowledge, Monitor & Control Project Work, Perform Integrated Change Control, Close Project or Phase

  3. Stakeholder Management - Identify Stakeholders

  4. Scope Management - Collect Requirements, Define Scope, Create WBS

  5. Schedule Management - Define Activities, Sequence Activities, Estimate Activity Durations, Develop Schedule

  6. Cost Management - Estimate Costs, Determine Budget, Control Costs (earned value management and budget forecasting)

  7. Resource Management - Estimate Activity Resources

  8. Quality Management - Plan Quality

  9. Risk Management - Identify Risks, Perform Qualitative  and Quantitative Risk Analysis, Plan Risk Responses

  10. Communications Management - Plan Communications

  11. Procurement Management - Plan Procurements, and much more...

Recommended Books:

1. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide)–Sixth Edition

2. The PMP Exam: How to Pass on Your First Try, Sixth Edition

3. All-in-One PMP Exam Prep Kit: Based on 6th Ed. PMBOK Guide (Test Prep)

Visit www.made2sticklearning.com for the same course offered as instructor-led format

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Aslam Khan

MS, PMP

Teacher

Hi there,

My name is Aslam Khan, and I love simplifying anything that appears to be a complex topic. I do this by using pictures (and lots of them!); pictures that are simple and illustrative to visualize the topic being explained.

Pictures help to encapsulate a seemingly humdrum and hard to remember concept by tapping into the visual areas of your brain. The more neural hooks you can build by evoking the senses, the easier it will be for you to recall the concepts and what it means. This is my whole basis of teaching this way that is to not only make my courses unique, but more importantly to engage and captivate my students into the topic under discussion.

We are visual creatures because most of our brain is wired for visual sensory processing. The quickest way to... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Course Introduction: take a brief moment to look at the following three pictures and ask yourself if you have difficulty answering the simple questions that follow. This is a picture of a park off a city on a beautiful spring morning. Do you see the people, animals and various other objects in this picture, especially the buildings on the horizon? Do you also notice that building in the middle under construction? Here's the same park with a few changes? Do you see the difference between the two pictures and also did you notice the building under construction has progressed a bit more than in the earlier picture. Lastly, take a look at this picture of the same park. Several more things have changed now. Did you notice something dramatic has happened here? Did you see something literally standing out on the city line? Skyscraper is now fully built in this picture and more importantly, did you witness the passage of time as you were seeing the three pictures going from spring to the winter season to summarize what is going on here? Let's put all that we saw in six simple slice occupy. Each slice corresponds to an actual visual and cognitive pathway in your brain as it tries to comprehend the information just received in the form of these pictures in the pie corresponding to the WHO and the what you saw. There were various people in the park. There were those animals and various other objects, including the buildings on the horizon in the vent portion of the spine. You saw the passage of time from spring to summer to winter seasons, and you were able to make out the sequence of events in terms off what came first and what came next with a little thought. You could also easily find out how many people, animals or objects were relatively present in the pictures, and all those sequence of events might have happened at someplace which is shown here in the very portion of the pie. You already know buildings are constructed one floor at a time, no matter how short or tall they are. This is shown in the how portion of the fight. And lastly, bigger question as to why this quite scraper is being built in the middle of a busy city has to do with some kind of reasoning behind the whole effort. It could be to meet the increased demand for additional office space in the city, or simply to replace an older structure giving way to a newer and a mortar building. These are the six visual pathways off how we see things, and what you just witnessed earlier is radios down to these six simple slices off a pie that our brains are hardwired to see and understand instantly. And here's the best part. Project management at its core, is juggling through these six pieces off how we see and comprehend things around us and being able to coordinate and balance the various forces that alter the course of these six aspects off project management. If you were able to easily follow through the six visual pathways shown here and are comfortable juggling around with the various moving pieces of the same time and simultaneously keep your balance, then you are ready for project management. You see most of the courses take you through numerous concepts of project management in a dizzying way through the 40 plus processes. There are interlinked with each other in this course by visualizing the entire field of project management through the six simple visual pathways off how we see things. We can understand project management in an effective and intuitively. That is why I urge you to join this course now to find out how simple and fun is it to learn project management. 2. 6 Pathways of Project Management: we can now look at project management through the same six visual pathways that our brains are so good at. So here are the six slices of a pie to which we will try to understand project management. Every project is owned and managed by people, some of them important and some not so important. These people who have a vested interest in the project are called stakeholders. Then there is actual product or service that is going to be dealt word as a result of the project. These two constitute the who and the What of the project? The next component in project management is the dimension of time. As you will find out shortly. Projects are born at some point in time and die when they run a rough time. And it is here in this one portion of the pie that we will talk about the schedule of the product. All the map that you will need on the project will be done in this area that we will call the how much are the how many pathway are project management? It is here that you will quantitatively did to mine the number of people you will need to perform the work, how much money will need and to what extent off quality do you want a product to deliver upon and lastly, how much risk you and your team are ready to take, or even a wide during the course of the project, all projects happen at some place and in some company or organization. The people who work on the project belong to these organizations and work in some form of reporting structures that are part of the organizations. It is here that you will find out those hierarchical arrangements which will be useful for you to know. Barely you reach out to along these special lines that exist within these organisations. Most often projects have to utilize contractors and outsourced agencies either for services or procuring components off the product. It is here that you will find out where do we reach out to to get the work done faster and cheaper when you put together all the previous aspects of the project, meaning the who and the what then how much for the how many and where you can now start to imagine the how portion of the project actually coming together This is where you will find out how the project is supposed to be done, and you will deter mined, inappropriate methodology, model or framework, which shows you exactly how you will perform the work on the project. This maybe through the classical waterfall model or through the nimble, agile model. And lastly, the larger question is toe wire be doing This project is answered in the UAE portion of despite it is here we ask, what is the company trying to get out of this project in the first place? The business rationale to initiate the project And if it's really worth the effort to do this project, and these are the six visual pathways off how we will see project management for the remainder of this course, and as you see here, these are very much aligned to the way we actually see things in the real world. 3. How this course is structured - simplified framework: Let's not quickly talk about how this course is gonna be structured. The backbone of this course is the idea that we can see project management in the same way as we see the real world that is, through the six visual pathways which were so comfortable whip. Therefore, this course attempts to map the major concepts of project management through the six simple visual pathways. To make this course true to its title, that is the simplest guide to project management. We will use the six slices of the pie to guide through the numerous topics of project management through this simply fight framework. 4. How this course is structured - systems thinking: We will also use another visual technique to make things simpler for us. To understand the various processes involved in project management, we will use the concepts off systems, thinking to visualize all the inputs and outputs feeding into the various processes of project management. It is a simple idea that source of inputs are fed into a process here represented by a bathtub mayor. Those inputs are regurgitated and mixed together by using various tools and techniques to eventually produce at the other end of the flow, some form of outputs or deliverables. Think of this as opening a tap of water to flow into the battle and in the bathtub is where all the project work happens. And as you see here, you the PM will be the primary person facilitating this entire process. Now, using the various tools and techniques, you turn the inputs into something off value as outputs. These airports are your interim product honorables like project plans, product schedules, budgets and, more importantly, the actual part of itself. As you can see here, this is a simplified representation off the systems thinking concept that is borrowed from the system's theory simply fight and modified for our purposes. 5. How this course is structured The pyramid project example: to understand the various concepts of project management. Thoroughly and clearly, we will use a fictitious example from ancient history. This is only to simplify the lectures so that we don't need to spend time on explaining the nuances and the details of the project. While discussing the this example, you will have to transport yourself back to ancient Egypt and put yourself in the shoes off a project manager who has been in tasked with building a structure that we call the pyramids as much our cake and somewhat ridiculous this example may seen. It will help us to quickly apply the concepts of project management introduced here without going into the details off the project or getting distracted by the nuances. So let's quickly go through the six slices of the pie to update ah, high level summary of the project. The first question we asked on this project as a project manager is why are we doing this project? And the answer to that question is shown here in the UAE portion of the pie, which is to build a royal tomb for the disease pharaoh so that his soul can ascend to the heavens in his afterlife. There may be other radiations, so why the pyramids were built in the first place? For the purpose off this course, let's stick to this simple explanation. Then comes the question. Who are the most important people? Was stakeholders on this project? Well, the whole project is dedicated to one and only one person who is the most important stakeholder, the pharaoh, since it is for him that the structure is being built and it is his remains. Well, obviously, once he has checked out who will remain in the structure that is going to be built, the other stakeholders on this project could be the ministers in the kingdom, various priests, astrologers and other people of importance who made wise you the project manager, on the expectations of the federal. Then there is actual product that is being built here, which is the pyramid. It is the royal tome in the shape of a pyramid and containing a chamber within it for the pharaoh or his mummified remains to be preserved in it forever. Next comes the schedule of the project shown here in in the vent portion of the pie. Since this structure, it's before the federals remains to be preserved. It is important that that the structure is built before the pharaoh has passed away, and that means it is important that the project be day word quickly and swiftly using the least amount of time possible. Let's say the project schedule is at the most from one year to a maximum of two years in the how much and how many. You will have to find out how many people you will need to get this mammoth job done in terms off the number off laborers, stone cutters, transporters and other people who will be involved in the construction of the pyramids. You also need to know how much of Egyptian money you need to not only pay the workers, but also for the stones that maybe coming from another place as you already know, this is all happening in ancient Egypt on the banks of the River Nile, and this is shown in the very portion of the pie. And like any of the structure, the pyramids were also put in place one stone at a time, and this is shown in the how portion of the point 6. PM Framework- What is a project: from this lecture on, you're now about to begin learning the various concepts of project management. There is one word you will hear over and over again in this course, and that is the word project. So let's first start by understanding what is a project. The project is any work that lasts only temporarily, meaning it has a specific start when the work begins and it defined end when all the work is set to be completed. More importantly, projects create a unique product service or a result that did not exist before the commencement of the project. Lastly, projects are coordinated set of activities done with some goal in mind and with a defined plan to follow as an example. Construction of this building is a project since it started at some point in time when there was no structure and ended when the building was fully constructed. Another example. Offer project is building a website from scratch by creating all its content and putting it on the Web pages and finally posting it onto the Internet. These activities are considered as part of the project, but the subsequent maintenance and support off that website a considerate operations sometimes what is a project can be well understood by knowing what is not the project activities that are continuously ongoing without a defined start and an end, and those which create the same result again and again or not, products. These are called operations. As you see here, card manufacturing is not a project, since there is no specific start and define end to this process, and the same car model gets manufactured continuously, like a 1,000,000 other models before it. Note that the work done to create a unique car design from the inception of the idea to the drawing board and finally putting it into production is considered a project. But the next steps off, actually manufacturing it on an assembly line are considered operations. Sometimes projects can end prematurely even before the final product or service is Delaware . And this may happen. You do many reasons, like the lack of budget to keep the project going, or the loss of support from a key stakeholder 7. PM Framework -What is project management: we defined projects, a set of coordinated activities, but how do we know how to coordinate those activities? It is this feel of project management that guides us how to apply the knowledge, skills, tools and techniques on two projects so that the resulting activities are coordinated and structured and follow a well defined methodology. Without project management, you would not know where to start, how to approach the work and the important steps to be taken during the course of the project. Project management is efficiently juggling through many activities at the same time and simultaneously maintaining your balance and composure. A project manager is that individual who can skilfully and effectively coordinate the set of activities through the application of project management methodologies and principles. By taking this course, you're well on your way to learning those skills and techniques needed to become a better project manager 8. PM Framework -matrix environment: in the rear portion we saw there in the organization for all the people who will be involved in the project. Every organization is uniquely structure in terms of reporting hierarchies there, sometimes permanent in nature. On the other hand, projects as we saw our temporary in nature. Hence, as a PM, it is important to understand very in the organization is your project being executed and what kind of organisation structure you will be operating in. Although there are mainly three kinds of organisation structures, there are many shades of them that you may be actually be working in. And as a project manager, you may find yourself walking a tightrope between these organizations. Structures function organizations are set up to give authority to the functional managers and leased to the project managers. These organizations structures are centered on specialties and group of function. Example. HR finance, marketing or information technology, etcetera. Decisions on projects are to be cleared and approved by the function managers because in here the functional managers owned the budgets and resource is completely working as a project manager. In here mostly means assisting the function managers to getting their work done. The project managers may be doing administrative tasks in addition to managing products. As you see here, function organizations are siloed and you do the compartmentalize nature. It is difficult to communicate through. These lines there are enforced by the organisation hierarchies in a functional set up. You see that there are heads of these departments who are the functional managers, and under them are resource is who they completely own. On the other side are projectiles organizations that give much authority to the project managers. Their focus is on the projects themselves and to deliver with speed on projects. Forster loyalty on two projects and not to the function managers in here. The project managers control all decisions related to resource is budgets, schedule quality, etcetera, teams that are in critic ties. Organizations are organized around projects and the teams move from one project to another . When the projects are done. As you see here, the project managers tightly controlled the resource is under them and hence have the capability to deliver on projects with speed and efficiency. In between these types of organizations, there exists water Carla's matrix structures. This means the project managers share authority with the functional managers to a level that benefits to both sides. In here, project managers run people management decisions by the functional managers and the functional managers run project related decisions by the project managers. These kind of set ups are called balanced Matrix Environments. And as you see here, although the project manager sits in a silo department under certain functional manager in this case under the HR, he or she still has communication lines across the organization through various departments . Unfortunately, you will almost never find a perfectly balanced matrix environment. There are two other shades that you need to be aware off when the balance of power shifts towards the functional organization, then becomes a week matrix environment as shown here. And when it ships towards a project Times environment, then you are in a strong matrix environment, as shown here in a week. Matrix project managers have somewhat already over resources, but they're not fully in charge of resources, and they may be allowed to make some project related decisions in a strong matrix. Though the project manager has a lot of control over resources and largely makes most decisions on the projects 9. PM Framework - EEF and OPA: there are some peripheral topics in project management. You have to be aware off before we discuss certain topics. In this course, When you work on projects, you will realize that not everything is under your control. There are many factors you can't control and are exerted from outside the project that may or may not have influence over the outcome of the project. Nevertheless, it is important to realize their existence and include them as influencing inputs too many processes that you will see soon. These factors are called the enterprise Environmental Factors and some examples of these are government regulations that dictate how a specific industry has to operate the market. Conditions that will put constraints around the schedule or how much can be spent on the project and sometimes political climates also dictate how projects are done. On the other hand, there many assets that may pre exist. These air called the organizational process assets or opiates, organization process assets are and organizations, internal policies, procedures, guidelines, templates, systems and best practices that the organization may already have and we have been collected from the past experiences. These will also become important inputs to many of the processes you will see soon 10. PM Framework -Process Groups: the component of time is the most unmissable element on a project from the point when the product starts to the point in time when it ends, a lot of work goes on during the project. It's important to realize that not the same kind of work is done at all times to make sense of what kind of work the entire project duration is divided up into. Five main process groups under these groups are numerous individual process that define the activities that will be done on a project based on the face. It is in the fine main process. Groups are initiating planning, executing, monitoring and controlling and closing notice. The ending off each process group is i n g in the active sense. The Initiating Process Group is the first phase of the project where you put together all that is needed to start the project. Sometimes it is here that the project manager is assigned on a project and it is here that the project is officially recognized after all, the necessary approvals are in place and obtained from the people who are in authority. At the end of this process Group, the project manager is capable off formally kicking off the project. The planning phase is when you as a PM does most of the work in planning for what is to come next on the project. By the end of this face, you will have the project management plans ready that will become the guiding documents and the road map for the rest of the project. The executing phase is when the real project work happens. It is here that the project teams work to build a final product or service. This process group consists our processes to complete the work defined in the project management plans to satisfy the project specifications and requirements this in walls, coordinating with people and resources, managing the expectations, integrating and performing activities needed to deliver the outputs. Even when the project work is progressing forward nicely. And according to the plans, the project manager must perform certain tasks off monitoring and controlling. It is here that the project manager is required to track, review and orchestrate the progress of the project, identify areas of changes to the plans and encouraged to a primitive actions are also initiated here and finally, in the closing phase, all concluding activities are done that closes all the project management processes and any contractual obligations 11. Integration management: all of project management can be broken down into 10 separate knowledge areas and by mapping them onto the six visual pathways, it gives us a great understanding into how these areas can building to our intuitive understanding off the real world. The first knowledge area that we will discuss is the integration management area, this maps to the white and how portion off the visual pathways. Because in here is very ask the larger question as to why should we be doing the project? What is the business case to initiate the project and what do we ultimately aim to achieve from the delivery of the project? This also includes how we will be doing the individual steps of the project using the various methodologies and techniques we will discuss. In this course, integration management is to pull together the various pieces of the project into a cohesive whole. And it is here that we think off all the highly will work that needs to be done on the project. It means asking the question, Why do we initiate the project? How do we plan for the various elements of the project, including all the work that will be done during the course of the project and also being cognizant off the various changes that may be introduced during the project. It is in this area. We will understand how to be balanced. All the various Prosise there are necessary to pull together the entire project effort into a coordinated set of activities that move towards delivering the defined goals of the project. This area in walls, identifying all the important people who own a stake in the project who are impacted by its outcome or may have something to lose or gain from the outcome of the product yourself. This area defines the work off the project by combining, unifying and integrating all the various processes they're necessary to get over under project courts. This area also takes into account to satisfactorily meet the requirements of the customer and the stakeholders by managing the expectations through appropriate tools and techniques . 12. Stakeholder management: the next knowledge areas we will discuss are these stakeholder management and the Scope Management which rightly said in the WHO in the war portion off the six pathways in project management, it's stakeholder. Management is an important step in identifying the people, groups or teams that could impact or be impacted by the project itself and who have an important stake in the outcome of the product. This management area focus on continuously maintaining the communication lines between the stakeholders by understanding their needs and expectations, addressing any concerns they may have and managing any conflict that may arise among the stakeholders themselves. This may mean periodically resolving the conflicts and fostering appropriate interest in the project decisions and activities. An important indicator off the stakeholder management output is the stakeholder satisfaction that should be constantly managed by the project manager. Every project will have stakeholders who are impacted by or can impact the project in a positive or negative way. Although there are some stakeholders who have limited ability to influence the project, there may be others who have significant influence on its outcome. Hence, it is the duty of the project manager to properly align and manage their expectations towards leading the project to a success 13. Scope management: the scope. Management is the process of defining what work is required as part of the project and then making sure that all the work and only that work gets done. The Scope Management Knowledge Area is concerned with defining all the work that needs to be done to successfully produce the project objectives. It is here that the definition off what is and what is not part of the project is deter mined. 14. Schedule Management: the Time Management Knowledge Area is concerned with estimating the duration off the various activities during the project when they're scheduled and in what sequence. This knowledge area deals with completing the project in a timely manner because unrealistic probably schedules are the fault of the project manager. Time management is an important aspect off project management because it concerns with keeping the project activities on track and monitoring closely. Those activities against the project plan to ensure that the product is completed on time. 15. Cost, HR, Quality, Risk Management: The next area is a quantitative area where we will find out how much or the how many off certain things on the project are contributing towards that. The 1st 1 we will see is the Cost Management Knowledge Area, which deals with estimating the cost of resources and establishing budgets that are an important component in deter mining of a project continues or is stopped. The Resource Management knowledge area involves all aspects of people management. This includes mentoring, coaching and training, the various people who work on the project and not excluding the conflicts that may arise between them. Hence, conflict resolution is also an important component in the resource management knowledge area. This area also includes ensuring that that the teams are fully motivated to perform their job on the project and conducting necessary performance appraisals. This is to ensure that the human resources assigned to the project are used in the most effective way possible. The quality management on its area ensures that the project meets the requirements there was undertaken to produce it focused on the part of quality as well as the quality off. The project management process sees itself used during the project these air then compared to the quality standards set out in the planning process to ensure that the customers will receive the product service or result that they signed up for. The Risk management knowledge area is concerned with identifying and planning for potential risks or uncertain events that might happen during the project and by evaluating the probability of impact off each of those unforeseen events. These processes are also used to identify the positive consequences of risks and exploiting them to improve better project outcomes or improving the efficiencies on the project. 16. Communication and Procurement Management: in the very portion we will discuss the communications management and the procurement management knowledge areas. The process is in the project Communications management area are related to the general communication that takes place between the various stakeholders, the project team members and other parties involved on the project. The communication skills of the project manager are considered to be the most important asset in managing a project, Since these are the skills that the project manager utilizes on a daily basis, that leads to a better outcome in terms of the coordination and the overall delivery of the project. The process is in this knowledge area seek to ensure that all project information that includes the project plans the assessments, the meetings and much more are collected, documented and archived properly. The procurement knowledge area includes those processes that involved with the purchasing of goods or services from vendors, contractors or suppliers that are usually outside the company. When discussing the pro human management Prosise, it is assumed that the discussion is taking place from your perspective as a buyer, while sellers are the external vendors and contractors to the product team 17. Knowledge areas and process groups: we saw earlier that there are five process groups along the life cycle of the project as shown here on the top. We also saw the 10 knowledge areas that cover the various aspects off project management. What we will now see is how various prostheses under each of these process groups link to a corresponding knowledge area and that is shown here through a tabular representation. The darks you see here are processes or groups of processes that were taken input from somewhere else and generate an output to be used in other process down the line. It is worth noting that not all knowledge areas have a process under them, and as you can see here, in the initiating phase of the project, you only have to worry about integration and the stakeholder management knowledge areas. On the other hand, the planning and the monitoring and controlling faces have Prosise in every knowledge area . For reasons you will find out soon when we discuss the individual areas as we go along. In this course, we will be refering to this structure regularly in the lectures that follow to see project management to a bird's eye view, we will also see how each of these processes map to the six visual pathways we introduced earlier in this course, so that we get an intuitive understanding into what the process is intended for and how do we understand his purpose effectively? 18. Develop Project Charter: Now that you have seen overview off how the process groups and the knowledge areas for structure, we will not get into the meat of the discussion around under each of the darts shown here each dot here corresponds to a process or a group of Prosise that belonged to that specific knowledge area on the left and the process groups on the top. So here we are at the beginning, off the first of the five phases off Project Life Cycle. We're going to learn to take one of the first steps in initiating the project. As you learned in the initiating Process group. In this face, there are only two aspects of the project that you need to think about for now. First the white of the project and the second the who of the project, the why meaning? Why do we need to do this project in the first place? The reasons to start it and the business need etcetera. The who of the project is to deter mine all the important people you'll be working with, and you ought to be doing right in the beginning of the project and with whom you will need to communicate upfront. As you can see here, the two processes in the initiating step belonged to the integration management and the stakeholder management. And by the time you're finished initiating the project, you will have equipped yourself with a formal approval document from the executives who owned the project and also will be armed with an official authority with you as the PM for the project. The answer to the question. Why do we need to do this? Project is answered through the first process that lies in the integration management area and the place to look for as to why the company is interested in doing this project is within the business case document. It is this document that you as a PM may not be in wall in its preparation but may be handed down to you from the executives or the senior management. In some mature organizations, there are structured approach is taken in the preparation of this document, and a lot of analysis and effort may have already been put into its review. And drafting the business case is a document that makes a strong case. Why should the company do the project? What benefits does the project bring when it is completed and the overall rational to initiate the project. In addition to describing the financial aspect like increasing the company revenue or decreasing the operating expenses through the implementation of the product or the service , the business case do the minds through some kind of cost benefit analysis that is it really worth the effort in doing the project? The process that takes this business case and converts it into one of the most important documents on the project is through the develop product charter process. This is found in the Integration Management Knowledge Area and lies in the initiating phase of the project as can be seen here. The only output from this process is the project charter. On pretty much all projects, you need a formal document to show the people you are the project manager assigned onto it . Since most PM's work in a matrix environment where the resource is on the project will not report to the project manager, you need some form of authorization that proves that you are in charge of the project. Without this, it is only a wearable commitment from the senior executives. Therefore, the project charter is official written acknowledgement and recognition that a project exists and it gives you the project manager. The authority to assign organizational resource is to the project. The charter documents the business need as described in the business case, and it includes a description of the product service or a result of the project. It is usually the first document on the project. Once acceptance off the project has been granted. The way a project charter is created and comes into existence is through a technique that is listed under this process, and it is through expert judgment. In fact, it is the only tool and technique. Under this process, the expert judgment means to rely on individuals or a group of people who have specialized knowledge, training and skills in the area of the project. And these may be experts or consultants from outside the company. It is through meetings with these people that various sections in the project, charter or review together agreed and signed off as a formal authorization to start the project. The project charter is usually signed by a senior executive who may own the project or has an important stake in it, with a sign off for the project chartering place. The project manager now has full authority to kick off the project, opting commitments from the functional managers for resource is and has access to the project funds. At this point, the project manager can kick off the project by publishing the product charter and communicating to all project stakeholders. 19. Creating the Project Charter Template: a typical project. Shorter looks like this containing the sections that are filled in using the inputs from the stakeholders. The most important sections here are the executive summary, which defines the height of a reason why the project is being undertaken. This is from the standpoint off how the customer or the sponsor views the project to be. This refers to text from the business case or the organization's strategic plan that the sponsor wishes to implement by the execution of this project. Then is a brief project description of what are the high level aims and objectives of the project from your standpoint as a project manager and how the end may look like once the project is complete, this is a place where you do not fully list out the entire scope of the project, but just a high level end product or the service that you intend to Delaware. Next is the business problem or the pain points. We list the key business problems that the project aims to solve. It is a good idea to include the high level risks on the project as well that the project sponsors or the stakeholders think will impact the outcome of the project. These air the high level threats to the project that have a potential to derail the goals of the project. You can also list certain assumptions that are taken for granted and could be listed here. These could be thinks, like every liberty off certain resources that you seem to be going to be available for you to use on the project certain environmental factors and other assumptions that are important to list. In the next section. You list the key milestones, which are the significant events in the project that everyone looks up to and expect to be completed on a timely basis. These can include the completion off. Major deliverables are an important phase of the project. Lastly, the approval section is for obtaining the necessary signatures from the project manager and the sponsor all the customer. What we will now do is use the example off the pyramids project and start filling in this project charter template to make you feel comfortable with the thought process in how these documents are filled out for the pyramids project. Let's say the project name is simply the pyramid project. The Project sponsor, as you know is the pharaoh whose name we know from history to be. Kofu. Let's say the date prepared. It's somewhere on a specific day in the year 25 60 BC. I leave it to you to fill in the precise month in the date the project manager is you, and in the executive summary is where you defined high level reasoning why the project was being undertaken. Let's hear now provide the reasoning why this product needs to be done. Know that this is from the standpoint off the project sponsor in how he thinks why this project has to be done. Let's just say this is because ancient Egyptian culture believes the soul of a person essence to the heavens in the after life. Which is why the pharaoh wishes to construct pyramid well before he checks out. Hence, he wants a tomb where his late arrest from May his soul be lessened in the project description is very well describe what you wish to accomplish as the final product. This is where you mention in the project description. You wish to construct a tone for the pharaoh that is in the shape of prepare mint and within which contains arresting chamber. As you see here, all of the details about the pyramid are left out from this project description. It is up to you to what extent you wish to elaborate or keep it concise. Let's say in the business problem, we need a structure that is always aligned to the star constellations that currently does not exist in any structure that the Egyptians have. Hence, with the construction of the pyramids, this pain point is intended to be resolved in the risks and assumptions. Let's start listing out the high level risks that we all think will impact the outcome of this project. Since the perimeter structure is going to be built for the first time in history. And on this magnitude, no one knows if it is going to be structurally strong enough to bear the immense amount of great. Hence, the top. Most risk is if the pyramid structure is gonna crash under its own weight. Let's see, the second risk is the raw materials that are needed to build the pyramids like the stone and the mortar are found in far away places. Transporting it from those far away places may not be that easy for various reasons, like the places from where they're brought in may not be friendly to the current kingdom. The third risk, we can take office somewhat there is not in control of anybody but still. Nevertheless, a risk is that the Pharaoh himself, passing away before the pyramid, is ready for his remains to be enshrined in the exemptions. Let's say that we have enough labor force to construct impairments. Let's say the labour needed is 20,000 workers. It's available, and we assume that they will simply start working on this on the orders. Off the feral in the key milestones, let's say the significant events on the project will be those dates where certain portions of the pyramid are completed. Let's say the key milestones are when the external structure of the pyramid is fully ready and, let's say the stakes two years to build hands. The due date expected is 25 58 BC The next biggest milestone is the internal passageways, and the King's chamber is ready. This, lets say, takes another one year to build and let's say the last mile stoners the full permit with the internal external and the surroundings fully built. This, let's say, is expected to be delivered in 25 56 BC a full four years from the signing off This part of charter the last is to obtain signatures from the sponsor or the customer and us a project manager putting the final signature on this. 20. Project Timeline of documents - project charter: At this point, we have the project Charter ready in the initiating face. As our first document. That is prepared from the business case. With the project shorter now approved, we now know why are we doing this project? And what are the high level objectives? 21. Identify Stakeholders: Now that the project manager has the authority on the project, it is really important to identify who are all the important people on the product. Those people or groups of people who have a vested interest in the project are called stakeholders, and it is through the next process during the initiating phase that we will identify those people through a process called identified. Stakeholders note that this process is not the one to identify in assigned project team members or resource is who will perform the project work on a day to day basis. This process, rather, is to identify those people who have influence on the project, either positively or negatively, based on their priorities and interests. Identifying these people may seem to be easy, but knowing their motivations, interests and personal inclinations in the context of the project outcomes may be tricky, to say the least. Some key stakeholders are called project sponsors and some are customers. A sponsor is an executive in the organization with the authority to assign resources and enforce decisions regarding the project in the event of a conflict or a stalemate in the project related to some kind of decision making it is this person who makes the final call . The customer is usually the person who intends to use the deliverables product or service from the project, and usually they're the same as the sponsors of the project. Functional managers may be important stakeholders on the project to and in um Itics environment there. The one who owned the resource is the project manager. Maybe constantly negotiating for resource is with these function managers, and hence it is important to identify them up front. It is important to know Dad, the functional managers may not have a direct interest in the outcome off the project, and hence may not be that much interested in it. The project manager is a person who assumes total responsibility on the project. Either is successful daily word or not, the Project Charter identifies and authorizes the project manager as a key stakeholder. It is the responsibility of the project manager to take up upon himself or herself to lay the ground rules for the team, any standards or methodologies that will be followed and all the necessary policies that will go on the project. It is a project manager who establishes for communication channels with various stakeholders identified for the benefit of the project and with one key goal in mind that is, to successfully delivered the project in its defined performance parameters. And with so many stakeholders on the project and each having their own influence and impact , it is important to have a registered to keep track off people and the changing priorities. This process off identifying stakeholders takes you through the process of creating a stakeholder register, using the imports we so far have on the project. That is the business case and the project charter. This process is found in a stakeholder management knowledge area. The tools and techniques used here are three in number, expert judgment through meetings are used to identify people. Stakeholder analysis is used to understand their specific needs and expectations. It's also important to know why certain stakeholders have certain expectations and what will it take to satisfy them through the means of the project? As a project manager, you will also have to probe into these people to know what takes them to keep them motivated on the project and what are they threshold beyond which you will lose their support on the project the stakeholder register should be your guiding document that may need to be constantly updated to keep track of changing priorities off people. 22. Creating the Stakeholder Register template: This is how a typical stakeholder researcher looks like. And it is usually especially document when you fill in details about the various stakeholders, their position and role in the organization and, more importantly, their expectations in terms off. Or did they envision getting out of this project for which there either an important sponsor or an important supporter off the project itself? You will also capture their influence on the project in terms off, How much can they steal the project towers, a successful completion or a complete failure with the lost off their support? You also probe on their interests on the project and how does it affect their bottom line and their impact on the project as well? Lastly, you also capture their overall importance based on the previous fields collected. Let's fill in the Stakeholder Rester for our example project for the pediments. The project name is obviously the pyramid project. Their date, which is some day in 2060 BC. In here we will start listing all the important stakeholders, starting with the most important stake order. Who is Kofu, the pharaoh. Since the rule off, the pharaoh is the primary sponsor on the project. who is the person who controls the budgetary aspects of the project in the expectations we mentioned. What are the primary expectations off this stakeholder, which in this case is the pharaoh, is absolutely not interested in any form of delays, since it has to do with the uncertainty as to how long he's going to live. And for that reason, he doesn't care much about how much money is going to be spent in building the pyramids, even if it takes a fortune to build it in. The influence is obviously very high influence and since he's very much interested in the outcome of this project, his interest was gonna be very high. The impact on the project outcome are also very high and his overall importance to the project very high. Let's say the next important stakeholder is the head priest who is responsible for the overall architecture of the pyramids in terms off it, meeting the religious or astrological beliefs. His role on the project could be in the capacity off a design lead, and his expectations are that the pyramids should meet all the necessary astrological requirements that will ensure that the remains of the Pharaoh will ascend to heaven according to their beliefs. The influence of this person is again very high. His interests could be something like high impact on the project could be very high and is over in importance. Could be very high as well as you see here. We're completely making up stuff to fill this stakeholder racer. Let's see. The next stakeholder is by the name Maek, who is a commander in the Army, and he's responsible for managing all the workers and labourers who will be working hard on the pyramid. This guy will be responsible for the 20,000 plus workers who will be working under his command and hence his main concern is if they will be fully utilized on the project, his influence could be something like high interests are high in the end, back could be high and the importance also good behind this, as you see, could be extended to cover all the other important stakeholders on the project with their appropriate expectations, influences, interests, impact and importance. On the project captured in this one document 23. Project Timeline of documents - stakeholder register: Now we have the project Stakeholder register as well. Ready in the initiating face with the stakeholders rates. Already you now know who are all the important people who will shape various decisions on the project with the do project documents ready, We're now concluding with the initiating face and moving into the planning face. 24. WHAT is the Project Scope: we have now completed the Initiating Process group and all the processes within it. So here we are at the beginning, off the planning face. At this point, we now know why are we doing this project and who are all the important people on it? Armed with the product charter, which puts you the PM now in the driving seat and with the buying off all the important stakeholders, you can now begin the planning phase of the project and we will not take one of the first steps in planning. Planning entails walking through the project and getting it organized well before the actual work on the project begins. Project planning ensures that the goals, as stated in the product charter, can be truly achieved within the defined constraints off time and budget. This can only be achieved with the other dimension off. The project, called the scope, is clearly defined and tightly controlled all two of the project, hence the first area we need to look into at the start of the planning phase is to know exactly what is going to be done on the project, and this is deter mined in the scope management knowledge area. As you see here, the Scope Management Knowledge Area lies in the planning phase of the process groups, and within this dark represented here, there are multiple processes that we will look into shortly school. Part of project means the product service, a result that you will tell you where and secondly, all the work that you will do on the product to get to the product, service or result. No, dad, they're too portion to the scope of the project. First talks about the product or service itself, its functionalities and specifications that shape the product or service. And the second is all the work that is needed to be done to build a product. Hence, the scope of the project is broken down into the product scope. And the project School, in the example of the pyramids, project the structural specifications off the pyramid in terms off how tall or big you want the structure to be and what's doing to use and how much slope you want on the outside. Etcetera are part of the product school. As you may realize, just having the party scope is not enough to get the pyramid constructed a lot of other work also needs to be done to get the structure built, like ordering the stone blocks from someplace far off, having them cut into proper sizes and shapes that make up the pyramid and transporting all of those big blocks of stone to the site. In addition to that, all the planning and coordination that takes place to pull together all these things comes under the project scope. Determining the scope of the project is relatively easier. It is simply known by asking the question, what other things that need to be there the end of the project that meets the goals and objectives defined earlier as part of the product school and also what other things that need to be done in terms off the activities to get to that product. And these are defined under the project scope. One of the most important output from the school management knowledge area is the work breakdown structure, or WBS. In fact, it is so important that every other subsequent planning step, like scheduling and budgeting a dependent on this one output. The W. B. S is a last deliverable that comes out of this knowledge area in the planning face. But to get to that, we will have to go through three preceding processes that takes you to the WPS. The two processes that were resulting to the WBS are collect requirements, defined scope and create WBS. As you see here to get to the WBS, we will take the inputs we have so far which are the product charter and the stakeholder register. These will be fed into the three part sees that we will discuss shortly and at the end off it we will get the work breakdown structure the details off which we will discuss in the last process that creates it. 25. Collect Requirements: collect requirements is the first process in the school management knowledge area and that is what we will discuss now. As a first step, it is important to collect requirements that shape up the scope of the project. But first, let's discuss what our requirements requirements are the characteristics of individual component off the product or the service that becomes the scope of the project. They are the functionalities off those components and also the part as a whole. And these functionalities are from the perspective of the end user or customer who will ultimately be using the products on the services. It is therefore important to collect requirements according to the needs and expectations off the customers and end users. At this point, you know what the high level requirements are from the Project Charter and the business case, and you also have identified the relevant people from the stakeholder register. You used these inputs and start using the various tools and techniques to create the output , the tools and techniques that will be used here, or various workshops and interviews that you will have with various stakeholders to collect and gather the necessary requirements. And those will be documented in the requirements documentation, which is one of the output from this process. The aim here is to collect as many requirements as possible from the stakeholders to be able to satisfy their expectations and needs when the final part of service is daily work. It is also important to trace back where the individual requirements came from, which is captured in the requirements traceability matrix. 26. Define Scope: The next sub process is to create what is called the project Scope statement. This is one document that serves the purpose off, capturing exactly what is in the scope of the project. This is a project scope statement. In addition to what is in the project scope, it also contains what is not in the scope of the project. It also describes were the terms of acceptance of the final Delaware product, called the Acceptance Criteria. It also contains certain assumptions that are made on the project. As we will see the next lecture, there is a visual tool that will capture all that is in the scope statement. And that is, as you may have guessed, is the WBS or the work breakdown structure. The statement of work is sometimes closely linked to the Project scope statement serving the same purpose to do to mine exactly what is and what is not part of the scope of the project. The Project Scope statement is created using the tools and techniques, off workshops and data analysis. The purpose of the Project Scope statement is to document exactly what is going to be daily word as part of the project, nothing more and nothing less, and it serves as an agreement between the product team and the customer that stays precisely what the work on the project will produce. 27. Create Work Breakdown Structure: the product or service you're trying to build or implement is the sum off its individual components or parts. It is always easier to plan and control smaller portions off a large scope of work, and by dividing the scope into smaller chunks, the entire project becomes manageable. The technique used to the wide, large products copes into smaller portions. It's called decomposition. Decomposition is a technique to divide the project scope into manageable components of work , and the biggest benefit you get by decomposing a larger school is that it helps to accurately estimate the costs, resources and timelines for the entire project itself. The work break ground structure is defined as a deliverable oriented hierarchical decomposition off the work to be executed by the project team to accomplish all project objectives. In other words, it is the branched out version off answering the question. What all do we need to get the project done? Is the WBS that we clearly define the 100% in scope of the project and it's an extension. What is not part of the scope of the project, hence what you do not see on the WBS will not be deli word as part of this project as shown here to get a bicycle done, you need the wheels, the frame and other components. The wheels maybe further reduced to its individual components, like the to the real frame and the spokes, etcetera. This process off breaking down into smaller components is called decomposition. This becomes a primary technique in obtaining that a BBS from the inputs we have so far in this WBS for the bicycle, having an engine to power the bike is not part of the scope of the project, since it is certainly not listed in the WBS. The last level at which the decomposition stops is that the work package that are smaller, manageable pieces of work that can be accurately estimated for the duration of work and cost that we will see in the next knowledge areas. Often each WBS block of work is named with numbers and follow specific rules of numbering. This is stored in what is called the WBS Dictionary that also contains additional information about the description of work references to that work, like contractual agreements, etcetera, as you see here, using the decomposition technique for breaking down the project for Pyramid The next level that you can break down is into these three levels belonging to the work on the exterior portion of the pyramid, the work on the interior and then the surroundings to the pyramid. And those can be broken down into another level that corresponds to more manageable piece of work. And as you see here for the exterior portion, this breaks down into all the work that corresponds to putting the blocks of stone in place and the mortar that may be needed to keep the blocks together for the deer portion. This can be the work related to constructing the chamber and the passages, and the work that corresponds to the surrounding areas of the pyramid can be broken down into the effort to build the roads and the gardens around it. The last level shown here in the W. B. S or the work packages that are the smaller components of work that are more manageable and hence can be accurately estimated for their cost resources and the timelines 28. Scope Baseline: very often on projects your face with requests to add new scope or elements to the school. That means sometimes look, no big deal to add this may come from people on your team or sometimes straight from the top senior management or the sponsor off the project. To add or not to add, this kind of school that is requested during the project will be a decision to make by you as a project manager. Here's where the school baseline comes to your rescue. As soon as you obtain the documents from three process that we discussed so far, you need to perform an important step as a project manager. You see, projects are always on the move, but there are some woman's, at which point in time you have to force things too literally. Freeze and stop. This is one moment when you need to freeze upon the scope and all the activity that is going on within it and capture within the scope Baseline and probably said this in stone. The school baseline is the collective some off all the documents regard from the previous three processes in the school management knowledge area. These documents, as we saw where the requirements documentation, the requirements, traceability matrix, the project scope statement, the work breakdown structure and what is not shown here, including the WBS dictionary. All these documents constitute the score piece line. The score baseline becomes the initial agreed upon scope between all the parties in world, and it is used as a benchmark to refer back to during later phases of the project to compare to and see the variations from it. Let's now try to understand two additional concepts that are related to the scope of the project and those which are source off many problems if not managed well. Here's the initial part scope to build a bicycle as part of the project, and those requirements are collected, documented, approved and crystallized in the school based line on the left. Let's say, after some weeks into the project, well after the project work has begun, Someone important from the stakeholders wants to add a fully working, single cylinder piston engine to the bicycle to make it an injured powered bike. Now, as you know, this is a big change to the project scope coming from someone important on the project and the decision you have to make us do. You go ahead and make this big change to the entire project, which mainly to jeopardizing the timelines in the budget. Although this request may come from someone important, it has not been agreed upon and approved by other stakeholders on the project, which includes you, your team and other people. This is where this cold baseline comes to your rescue to support you to prove this request was never part of the scope. Hence your action to this request should be a big no, rejecting the request to add this new component to the bicycle. This additional requests that is not approved by the project stakeholders and that which is not documented in the school based line is called a scope creep. Notice the word unapproved here. You can only include any scope additions by going through a product change control procedure that we will discuss later in the Monitoring and Control Process group. Let's also say that someone in your team near the completion of the project say's Let's add two more rubber grips to the handlebar has shown here to the bicycle. Although this is a small and benign request which probably no one will notice. If done. The question you have is do you still included or not? As part of the project, this type of adding off new features, they did not exist before, and those they do not bring a significant improvement. The value of the final part is called Go bleeding. Hence, requests like these are also not to be encouraged and should not be included as part of the scope of the project. In our example with the pyramids, let's say the initial scope of the project was to build a single parameter structure that was agreed upon and documented in the school baseline on the left. Let's say down the line. The most important stakeholder on this project, who is the pharaoh himself, requests to add an additional structure next to the original pyramidal structure, which is the Sphinx, which is an animal like structure which is half human and half animal in appearance. Since this is a big change to the request to the original scope of the project and not approved by all the stakeholders in the project, this will be defined as a scope creep and hence should not be taken up as part of the scope of the project. Well, it's a different story. In this case. You may have no choice to build it since it is coming straight from the pharaoh and if you didn't do it, the consequences may be dire to you as a PM. Let's also see just near the completion of the pyramid structure at the end of the project , a new request off adding a few more additional trees next to the pyramid have come in. This, as you know, does not add much value to the final product and are just incremental benefits to the final part. This is clearly an attempt to go plate the scope of the project and hence should not be taken up as part of the project. Therefore, what we have done here is completed the Scope Management Knowledge Area by obtaining the most important output from it, which is the work breakdown structure that encapsulates the entire scope of the project through the visual representation, off the various components and elements that go into the work that will be done on the project 29. Project Timeline of documents- scope baseline: we now have the school baseline ready. As their first major deliverable on the project, the school baseline consists off the requirements, documentation requirements, traceability, matrix, the Project Scope statement and the WBS. But the conclusion off this step, we now know what needs to be done on the project in terms off the overall scope that the project team will work on and Delaware on the end. 30. Microsoft Project Introduction: We will now introduce Important Project Management Tool that is used to manage most off the project management activities to keep track off various activities that goes on in the project, view the product schedule in a structured format, manage various project resources and keeping track off their activities on individual tasks , managing the budget and the various expenditures on the project. It's a TRO. This lecture is not gonna be a detail deep dive into how Microsoft Project works and the various bells and whistles that come along with this software, but rather we will make it a brief direction to this software application so that it enables you do start using it quickly. And through the example that we have been using so far, which is the Pyramids example. There are many other software applications that do the same job off the Microsoft project. However, it is Emma's project that is predominantly used in most companies as the desired project management software. What will now do is will quickly take a look at various areas off famous project that we will touch upon in this lecture. Microsoft project can be downloaded online and is available in various versions and at the time, off production. Off this lecture, Microsoft Project 2016 is the latest available version for download and individual use. Some larger companies have the enterprise version off Microsoft Project, which is called Microsoft Project Silver. 31. Microsoft Project User Interface Explained: In this lecture, we will be discussing the major features off Microsoft Project and for the demonstration off this lecture, I will be using Microsoft Project version 2013. At the time of production of this video, There is the worse in 2016 also available to download from the Microsoft website. These two were Jin's are very identical in their functionalities except a few user interface updates in the latest version. So you will really not miss out on any of the capable tees off the latest version from the worship in that we will discuss now. What you will instantly see is when you log in to Microsoft Project is this huge white space that is in the form off your spreadsheet. It looks very similar. Do an Excel spreadsheet where you will enter your project data on the top. This grid is broken down into multiple columns with the labels task mood task, name duration, start, finish, etcetera. In a moment we will start entering data that corresponds to our project example and you will then understand how you would enter data for your own project. But before that, let's take a look at the other sections off this user interface on the left. What you see is the label Gant chart, which actually corresponds to the gang chart that gets created in this space here. After you have entered data into this grid gang chart is simply a visual presentation off the ways activities that goes on on a project arranged in sequential order off time and with the necessary links that indicate which activity comes first and what comes next on the top. What you also see is the timeline that gets constructed automatically as you start entering data in these fields here. The timeline is the Quintus, a Jew characteristic off any project. And as we discussed earlier, every project has a start and an end, and in the timeline is there you will know precisely when the project has started and when it will be ending indicated by the precise dates on the timeline. On the top, you see a few menu items we will only be using the task menu and the other options within it. Let's no start entering data that corresponds to the various activities and things happening on our example Project, which is a project pyramid 32. Microsoft Project Entering Scope Items: in determining what is in the scope of the project and in this court management knowledge area. In the planning phase, we've entered exercise off constructing the work breakdown structure, or WBS. You may recall that the work Britain structure is necessary to encapsulate the 100% off the scope of the project. In our example off the pyramids project. This is the work breakdown structure that we obtained earlier from the various inputs and processes that we used together to construct the work breakdown structures. As you may recall, we used the school baseline documents as primary inputs to create a WBS and through the process of decomposition, we were able to draw the various components and elements off scope broken down into this nice, hierarchical structure that we call the WBS. What we will now do is using the WBS. We will start entering the data in the Microsoft Project application. The first thing that you would enter and in the first line is the name of the product itself, since we're calling it the Project Pyramid. That's what we enter here. And as soon as you do that you would notice an icon appear right before the task name in the task moored column. The task mode contains type of the task that you're entering. The 1st 1 is the manual scheduled task and the other is auto scheduled task manually. Schedule tasks are simply those tests that you have full control to do to mine. When do the start and when that task ends, we will discuss shortly the order scheduled tasks. The next thing that we will do is start entering the three big major components off work that are right on top off the WBS, which are next year. Portion of work, the interior portion of work and the surroundings for the pyramid. What you now have as the name of the project which is right on the top, and the three big major components of work that the project could be broken down into to manage those portions of work easily and efficiently. What you didn't have to do is when you click on task, this Ruben appears that contains various options that helps you to modify the tasks that you enter in this grid. To keep this visible all the time, click on the pin here, comparing this to what we have in the W B s. You can see that this waas the level one on the lovely Bs, which is the top most level that corresponds to the final deliverable that comes out of this project, which is the pyramid. The next three are the three individual sub levels that we obtained from the WBS to make the level to task items appear distinct from the level about it. What we now do in Microsoft Project is click on this icon on the top, Rubin that intense these tests a little to the right to make it distinct and up here as if it is one level lower from the previous level. In order to do that, I would select the three times together at the same time and click on, but in didn't ask from the Reuben. As you can see here as soon as I do that, the three sub tests appear to be underneath the project pyramid, which is the level one. You can also now see that by default, Microsoft Project puts an assumed duration and as you start and finish dates, you will also notice that the task more for the project pyramid has changed to auto Scheduled, and this is because the start and end dates off the entire project. Pyramid is dependent on the start and end dates off the individual tasks underneath it. These are the task that we will control and tell Microsoft Project to start an end on specific dates. The duration column is the column where you enter the duration off that specific task in terms off. How many days, weeks or months Does this task take to finish from the WBS? What we also have is the level to decompose further down to level three, which is the level that we decided to stop and call them the work packages. What we would now do is we will enter those work packages within each of these level two tasks we just created. So let's start with the items under the extra year component. We see that there two components under the exterior, which is the stone blocks and the mortar. So let's now enter those two items in Microsoft Project. As you can see, the stone blocks and mortar correspond to the exterior portion off the scope and hence need to be written right below the task name where there is exterior. This can be done by inserting a task between the exterior and the interior line items. The way do that is your right. Click on interior and say Insert task. You can see a new line has been created and inserted, which is where you would enter stone blocks, since we need another one for mortar under the exterior. But as you can see, these two task items correspond to a level that is under the level two item. Hence, you would select those two items and do the same thing as we did for the Level two items and click on intent task As against he now, Those two tests have now been indented and put under as level three components under the task name exterior. We will now do the same thing for the interior, which is chamber and passages and select. Those two intend them to write, and roads and gardens are two of the tasks under surroundings. As you can now see the entire 100% off the WB, Esko has now been put into a software application for you to be able to track its progress and provide you control on an individual component of work that is more manageable and easy to track. 33. Define Activities: We will now get into the dimension of time in project management. It is a passage of time. There's absolutely not in control off anyone, let alone the project manager. The very definition off a project is that it is temporary in nature and it is the element of time that restricts a project from going on continuously forever, in which case it becomes operations. All the work that is supposed to happen on a project should be between when the project starts and the point in time. But it ends. Hence, the management of time is essentially in project management. The Schedule Management Knowledge Area is where we will discuss the ven portion off the project. The aim off this knowledge area in the planning phase is to deter mined the project schedule. Not only will we deter mine when will individual activities happen, but also when are important milestones and deadlines on the project are going to be set. We finished the school management with a very important output, or deliverable called the Scope Baseline, which consists off various individual documents, the most important of which are the Project Scope statement and the WBS. The process of decomposition left us with work packages as the last level at the bottom of the liberal Bs. We will now take those work packages and further decomposed them into activities. If what packages are denounce about the project, then the activities are the words are the actions that will be taken on those work packages ? Activities are those tasks that need to be done on the work packages so as to build and complete them? For example, let's say the work package to build a bicycle and the branch off wheels were tubes and spokes than the activities that are needed to complete. Those work packages could be something like ordering the material to build the tubes, assembling those parts and connecting them together to construct the wheels. The details off activities are documented in water call as activity attributes document. There is also an output from this process. This is done through the define activities process. Using the school baseline as inputs, we will apply various tools and techniques on these inputs and as we already discussed the decomposition as a technique 25 activities under each work package. It is sometimes not possible to do this for every work package on the project because some portions of the project are unclear or ambiguous in the beginning. For example, in the case of the bicycle there's another second phase that is to do with fitting a GPS device to track its real time position when it's moving. This only needed at a later stage when the bike is fully built, and hence of the time of creating the WBS for building the bike in the beginning, decomposition of this portion of the WBS is not needed and maybe deferred to a later stage . This process of differing the decomposition is called as ruling way planning. The idea behind this technique is that you elaborate the work on the project to the level of detail you know about at that time. If some project a deliverable is scheduled sometime in the future, the only component that might appear on the WBS is a sub product itself. At the end of this process, what you get is the list of all activities there attributes and more importantly, the milestone list. My stones are those significant events on the project that are closely looked at by the sponsors or customers. The performance of the project is largely measured in terms off meeting those milestones and most often have a cost component to them, meaning the payout off invoices for services Daily Word are based on milestones on most contracts. 34. Sequence Activities: once you have all the activities you need to perform on what packages sequencing of activities is the next step. It is important to logically arrange the activities on a timeline and identify the dependencies that exists between them. For example, you cannot start construction off a building until the foundation of the building is ready , and another example, you cannot put paint on walls under the primer Job is done. Hence, Sequencing is very important because not all project activities can be done at once, and you do the nature of relationships that exists between the work. Hence, knowing this relationships is paramount to coming up with the realistic schedule based on real facts on the ground there are achievable of the end. This is done toe a tool called as proceedings diagramming Method, or PDM. The output from sequence activities process is this schedule network diagram that is obtained by applying the president is diagramming method, dependency, determination, leads and lags, and usually a project management software that would generate the networking diagrams. In the example of the pyramid, as you see here for the sequencing of activities under the branch off building the exterior of the pyramid the two work packages we have are the stone blocks and the mortar. By breaking down individual activities under each of these work packages, what we do now is we sequence these activities in such a way that we take care off the relationships between these activities as we see here for creating the stone blocks that go into the pyramid. Excavation off the stone is the first step, then is the cutting process and then transporting it to the site where the pyramid of the Built. Since the work package mortar is independent off the work package for stone blocks, we will show it as a parallel activity that goes on concurrently when the excavation and transporting happens in Parral and by sequencing demons in this way through the president's diagramming method, we have shown here which activity starts first and which ones come the next. And also what are the concurrent activities that may take place because they are independent of each other. Similarly, the activities for the other work packages can be drawn and illustrated through the president's diagramming method 35. Estimate Activity Durations: estimating accurate intuitions is the next step. This process estimates the amount of time taken by each activity to complete, given the previous prerequisites, activities are in place, meaning those activities onto which the current activity is dependent on have been completed and snowing. The precursor activity is important in the previous step through the sequencing process, using various estimation methods available that are opting from the current organization process assets or from the knowledge gathered through these other means, internal or external, to the company. We can now know how much time it will take to complete each of these activities. Hence, in this process, off estimate accurately duration. We associate the amount of time taken by each of these activities from start to completion . The output is actually duration estimates from this process, which will then be used in one final last step that will be ultimately used to create the final project schedule. In the example off the schedule network diagram for the two work packages we discussed earlier even now associate the duration off activities onto each of these blocks as shown here. For example, the excavation off stones lets say, takes one month and since cutting is a laborious task for those huge blocks of stone. Let's say you take six months and then transporting it to the actual site of the permits takes two months in parallel. As you see the excavation for mortar takes one month and it's transporting to the side takes another one month. 36. Develop Schedule: the last of the final process step. Here is the develop schedule process. This is an important process because it produces a key deliverable on the project called the Product schedule, and using the activity, duration estimates and the list of activities and milestones, we will now be able to create the project schedule using various tools and techniques that we will now discuss. We now have the list of all activities day duration and their sequences to produce the final party schedule, and it is now possible to deter mine. The start and end dates off each activities, thereby putting these activities onto the project calendar, a technique that is used to do to mine the shortest amount of time to finish the project. It's called the Critical Path Method. This is calculated by determining the longest chain of tasks or activities in the schedule network diagrams. In other words, this is the longest link you confined in the network diagram upon whose completion the project can be deemed completed. Since this is the longest pap, all of the paths or shorter and will be completed concurrently. 37. Critical Path Method: to demonstrate the critical path method. Here's a schedule network diagram for the list of activities that we derived from the WBS for the Project Pyramid. As you see here, the top most Pap is the list of activities, starting with the work for preparing the stone blocks that is going to take nine months till it is transported to the site. The next parallel path that can happen concurrently is the work to get the mortar ready from the site of excavation to transporting it to the site of the pyramid, which takes two months to complete. Another path battle to these two paths is the effort to prepare the surroundings around the pyramids by clearing the lands, constructing the roads and planning the trees around the pyramid. Since this path is independent off the previous two pants, he takes its own independent route towards the end of the project, and it takes four months to complete. As you also see here, the amount of effort to prepare the inside passage is within the pyramid, and the final resting chamber for the pharaoh together takes nine months to complete. The Critical Path method stays there. The shortest amount of time that this part it can be completed is by looking at the longest pap within the schedule network diagram. Which year is the path corresponding to the effort that starts with the excavation of stones, cutting them into the blocks of stone, transporting them and then building the inside passengers and the final chamber that in together takes 18 months to finish. Hence, the path that is shown in green is called as the critical Pap, since that is the longest pap among all the other that are present in this network diagram the quickest amount of time that the pyramids can be constructed from the starting to the point in time when the pyramids already is 18 months. Obviously, as you know, that may not have been the case in reality, but for the purpose off this demonstration, we will stick with those numbers the past that are parallel to the critical PAP, take shorter amount of time and hence has some leaving to start an end. This, in the project management terms, is called float. Were the start of excavation for mortar can be delayed by some amount of time. That will not jeopardize the final project schedules. Similarly, the activities on the path corresponding to surroundings could be delayed and adjusted, since it does not lie on the critical PAP, hence, By definition, any activity that falls in the critical path cannot be delayed and hence have zero float. But end off all these three Prosise. What you get is the final project schedule that will be used in subsequent activities and for important communication that takes place on the project, especially to communicate the key milestones that are part of the product schedule and the most important milestone being the date on which the final product is gonna be delivered. 38. Crashing and Fast Tracking: Let's now talk about another technique that is used to modify the project schedule. This will be used to shorten the progress schedule without changing the product scope. The technique that we're going to discuss is the schedule compression compression is simply shortening the project schedule to accomplish all the activities that we plan to do on the project sooner than estimated. Within the schedule compression, we will discuss two methods. The first technique is called crashing, which is a technique that reduces the project schedule by putting in more resources in terms off the number of people who are working on specific activities, thereby making the activities finish faster. Since now you have more people working on the same amount of effort. Not only could you put in more resources by increasing the number of team members, but also letting the team members work more than the schedule number of hours, which is typically eight hours per day. Crashing usually helps to reduce the amount of time to finish the project, but on the downside, it introduces additional risks. It increases the cost off the project because now you have to pay for the added additional resources to doing the same amount of work on the project. It can also lead to additional risk that you may have to consider when crashing. For example, in the case off building the pyramid you can double. The number of resource is involved in cutting the stone because that's where it is taking the longest to get the project done, thereby releasing the overall project timeline. Another technique that is used to reduce the party schedule is called fast tracking. Fast tracking means doing tasks in parallel that maybe scheduled to do sequentially in the beginning. Hence when the tasks are now done in parallel. Now, one of time needed to finish the tasks is lesser, since they're done concurrently, hence doing more more work in the same amount of time. Fast tracking also increases the amount of risk on the project, and sometimes fast tracking may not be even possible just because of the nature off the tasks. For example, here you cannot start building the passages of the pyramid before having the stone cut into its proper shapes and form and transported at the site. Hence you limited to the option off fast tracking in this example, although what you see here is the excavation. Cutting and transporting off the stone blocks are in parallel to the excavation and transporting off the mortar, which are in essence, fast tracking the project because they're done in parallel notice that the two methods off schedule, compression off crashing and fast tracking are beneficial only to those activities which lie on the critical Pap, meaning there is no point in adding additional resources to those activities, which are not on the critical path, since they do not deter mined the product schedule activities that are on the critical path . For example, in the case of cutting, which takes six months to finish in this case, if by crashing takes only two months to finish, the or product schedule could be reduced to 14 months, coming down from 18 months. 39. Project Timeline of documents - schedule: At this point, we now have all the elements that answers the question. At what point in time should things be done on the project? We first opt in the activities and milestones and from which we prepared the network diagrams onto which we added the duration estimates off each of those activities and from all those we finally prepared the project schedule itself as a major deliverable. At this point, we now know what are the important milestones on the project, and when will the project actually finish based on the baseline scope that we now have? 40. Microsoft Project Entering Activities and Durations: in the vent portion we saw. When are things to be done on the project? We were able to first deter mine in the Schedule Management Knowledge area through the define activities process. What are all the individual activities and milestones and then in the sequence activities process? Through the president's diagramming method, we were able to get a mind the relationships between the individual activities in terms off which activities came first and what followed after that. Then through the estimate activity durations, we also obtained the duration estimates off each of those activities. We will now start entering all the information we collected about the project activities into the Microsoft product application. In order to get the stone blocks scope of work completed, there were three activities underneath it which were excavation of the stone cutting of the stone and transporting it back to the site of the pyramid. What we will now do is we will start entering those three activities under the stone blocks component of work in Microsoft Project and we will in Dende to write so that they fall now under the stone blocks. Task me similarly for mortar and it contained two activities the 1st 1 excavation and the second being transporting. And we will end in this as well to the right before we going to the activities for the remaining components of work. Let's now enter the activity duration estimates that we obtained from the process off estimate activity durations. We didn't mind that the excavation takes one month to finish. So what we do is in the duration column. We enter one month and you can shorten this to just say I m o n. Similarly for cutting. We said that this would take six months to finish and the transporting would take two months to finish. At this point, what we've just done as list all the activities under each of the work packages and enter the activity duration estimates that we obtained from the estimate activity durations process. What we will not do is we will not put these activities and the durations on a specific date on the calendar because it is important to communicate the precise dates to the project team so that they know exactly on what date does the activity start and start working from there. Let's say that the excavation of stone is the groundbreaking activity on the project with kicks off the entire project itself. Let's say we pick this first kickoff activity to be a specific date on the calendar. And as you can see, the task mood is a manually scheduled task, since we are picking a date manually or on the calendar, which would also notices that Microsoft Project automatically calculates the finish day by using the duration estimate that we entered in the duration column and pushing out the finish date to end exactly one month after the start date. 41. Microsoft Project Sequencing Activities and Creating Gantt Chart: from the sequence diagrams that reconstructed earlier. The task off cutting the stone happens to occur after the excavation activity has finished . What this means is that the activity off cutting off stones is dependent on the previous activity off exploration. Finishing hence, the activity that precedes the cutting off stones is the exploration activity, and this is indicated in Microsoft Project through a column called As Predecessors. It is here in this column that you specify the number off the task name that corresponds to the preceding task. As can be seen. The excavation corresponds to a number on the left that corresponds to the task name, which is four as can be seen here. Excavation is the fourth number in the list of tasks that we have here. It is this number that you put here in the predecessor column for the task name cutting, thereby linking the two tasks together. And this makes the task name cutting follow after excavation has finished. As you can see here, once you put the predecessor for cutting as four Microsoft Project, which is a start date off according to a day that is, that occurs right after the finishing off the preceding activity. Hence the start off cutting starts here on 25th of November, right after the excavation has finished on the 22nd of November and since the duration war six months. Microsoft Project will push the end date off cutting six months after the start date, which is eight off May of the next year. Now here's where the task more can be changed to order scheduled because we know that the task off cutting follows the excavation task, Hence the start and finish dates off. The cutting activity is dependent on the previous activity off excavation. When you change the task to order scheduled Microsoft Project will automatically update the start and end dates off that particular task, depending on when the producer task finishes moving on to the transporting task, which takes two months to finish. We knew that this task also is dependent on the previous task of cutting, and hence the predecessor for transporting task is going to be five. As you can see here, Microsoft Project has automatically adjusted the dates depending on the dates from the preceding task. We do the same exercise for all the other activities obtained from the sequence diagrams we constructed earlier as can be seen from the sequence diagrams. We have one additional task in the surroundings that corresponds to the clearing off land, and this takes two months to finish in the sequence diagrams. We also do to mind that the tasks that corresponds to the excavation and transporting off mortar are in parallel to the excavation, cutting and transporting off stone blocks. This means that these two streams of work can happen concurrently and hence are independent of each other. Let's say that the excavation off mortar also starts the same deed ass excavation of stone blocks, whereas the transporting of mortar happens only when the excavation of mortar finishes and hence the predecessor for transporting becomes eight. Before we enter the dates for the into your portion, let's jump to the surroundings and assume that the clearing off land also begins in November and takes two months to finish. Whereas the construction of roads is dependent on the clearing off land and hence the professor is 14 and the activity on garden's or planting of trees is dependent on the construction of roads finishing and hence the protester for this becomes 15 and changing the task moved to order schedule. We'll make them automatically updated every time the producer changes now going to the interior portion off the task estimates and their start and finished AIDS. In our sequencing diagram, we had first the passages constructed, which took six months to finish, and then the chamber constructed, which took three months to finish the preceding activity that precedes to start off. The construction of passages are clearly dependent on the availability of stone blocks and mortar at the site of construction. This means that the previous two streams off excavation, cutting and transporting off stone blocks should finish and be available to be used in the activities for constructing the passages. And similarly, the excavation and transporting off mortar should also finish completely before the activity on passages can start. In Microsoft project, these kind of double dependencies can be entered in the predecessor column by simply using comma between multiple processors. Since we know that the to preceding activities for the passages where they're transporting off stone blocks, which here corresponds to the line Item number six and the finishing off the transporting off mortar which corresponds to line item nine hence the predecessors for the start off passages is six common nine, and by changing this to are scheduled, we make it automatically a beaded every time there's a change is what you now see is did the preceding items for passages or the to task, corresponding to the transporting off stone blocks and mortar and written in this way. Hence what you'll notice is that all activities on passages we'll only start when all the stone blocks and the mortar has been transported and available at the site of construction off the passages. Since you see that the finish date off transporting of stone blocks his third of July, whereas the finish date offs transporting or mortar is Tony it of December of the previous year, the later off the two dates is taken as the start date for the construction off passages, and that becomes the sixth of July. The chamber is the subsequent activity that happens after the passengers have constructed, and hence the predecessor for this simply is 11. Therefore, what you now see is all the information that WAAS estimated and obtained through various processes in the Scope Management Knowledge Area and the schedule management knowledge area have now been put into this software tool, which is where you can now track and control these activities more tightly. After entering all the list of activities, the durations and the relationships between various activities, what you will now see is on the right. Microsoft Project constructs the gang chart, which shows you the flow off all the activities happening on the project. In a more visual fashion, the horizontal bars that you see here are individual tasks flowing from left to right, and the links between them are also shown. You can obtain a full picture off the entire project by zooming out what is within the project on this time scale. 42. SectioMicrosoft Project The Project Schedule: after having done all this, The last step that we will now do in Microsoft Project is to create the project schedule itself. The project schedule is automatically constructed in Microsoft Project. Once all the activities, they're defined the entire scope of the project or enter into it with their durations, start and end AIDS and the predecessor links are completely entered. So what you see here is for the example Pyramid, We have finished entering all the available information about individual project activities and now we're ready to obtain the overall products. Could you, as we discussed on the right, is what you see is the gang chart which shows you clearly individual activities. They start and end dates map on a timeline with precise started in dates. It also shows the links between the various activities with these arrows that you see on the ganja. The project schedule in Microsoft Project is sure in the timeline section on the top, as shown here. But what you now see is an empty timeline with just a start and end date of the project. As you can see, the start of the project is the 20th of October because that is really the first activity that takes place on this project, and the end date is the 12th off March, which is full 18 months from the start date. You may recall from the discussion around the critical path in the earlier lectures that the project duration is determined to be 18 months. So let's start adding the relevant activities that you want to show on the timeline for the project schedule To make the timeline with less clutter and easy to read, we will only add the three major components of school, which were the exterior interior and surroundings portion of scope. For that, what you would do is you said it the task name and click on the after timeline that is on the task Ruben on the top. Similarly, for interior and lastly, for surroundings. If you notice on the timeline, those three components of work are added on to the timeline. To make them distinct enough, you could click on each of these components of work and make them appear in different colors. So by selecting exterior like it now, click on the background color to be yellow interior. I could choose to be off a different color. Let me Big green here and the surroundings I will pick the blue color. Therefore, what you now see is those three major portions of work showing up on the timeline for the products. Could you if you compare this to the network Bagram we we created earlier you can see that the progress schedule closely matches the diagram. What we obtain in the network Bagram. He saw that the exterior portion work proceeds all activities before the interior portion of work can start and the work on surroundings is in parallel to the exterior and interior portion of work. What is not shown here on the timeline are some major milestones that happen on the project . What I will now do is add one major milestone which defines the end of the project. And the milestone is when the entire pyramid is fully constructed and and the entire scope of the project has been fully completed and the entire project work has come to an end. Let's mark this major milestone as grand opening off the pyramid. My stones really do not have any duration entered, but the value of duration for milestones is entered as zero which denotes a point in time on the projects, could you when the milestone is completed, he reached a major milestone off grand opening of the pyramid only when all the other activities have been completed. Before we did the mind what other predecessors for this major milestone? Let's actually collapse these product activities into just three levels off work. As in the WBS, you can see that the grand opening is indented towards the right and falls under the surroundings, which is not what we want, but rather what we want is this to be a milestone on its own and not under the section in surroundings. In order to do that, what you do is you would click on the outdated task which moves the task towards the left, which makes it fall outside the earlier summary task which was set awnings. Now, when you collapse to the major somebody tasks on this project, you can now see that the producer for ran opening are essentially these three major components of work on the exterior interior and the surroundings off. Pyramid has the predecessor for grand opening is gonna be two comma 10 comma 13 and let's change the class mood toe order schedule. And once you do that, you can now see that the grand opening is automatically calculated to fall on the 12 off March 18 months after the start date. If you wish to show all my stones on the timeline on the top, you could click on the staff and do the same thing as we did earlier, which is after Time line, And this puts this milestone on the project schedule or the timeline. You can change the font color off grand opening to make it bold enough so that it is easily visible on the timeline. Therefore, what you now have is the entire project timeline or the product schedule that is available now in Microsoft Project. The product schedule, as you know, is an effective medium of communication to precisely show what activities are happening on the project and what are the major milestones that the project stakeholders will be looking up to. The private schedule is also intended for the project resources so that they know men are there set of activities scheduled during the course of the project, and how much time do they have to complete them 43. Estimate Costs: As you saw, we just obtained one of the most important project deliverable the project schedule. We now know when are things on the project going to happen? Were now off to knowing how much does the project need in terms off, the resource is like people equipment etcetera or how much money is required to get the project done? Or even to what extent do we want the quality of the project to be satisfying to the stakeholders? And lastly, how much risk can the project take or a wide to get the project? Daily word. These are all the quantitative items that we will discuss now. As you see here, the cost, quality, resource and risk management knowledge areas are the areas that we will be discussing that belonged to the how much are the how many portion of the pie and this is where you will be doing most of the map that maybe in world on the project, very similar to the Schedule Management Knowledge area is the cost management knowledge area. As we saw earlier, we obtained the project schedule by breaking down the WBS in individual activities and deter mining. The activity durations to each of those activities, which then could be rolled up to obtain the final project schedule on similar lines. Virility to mine would on a project budget using the inputs we have so far. And as you see here, the Scope Baseline and the product schedule obtained from the Schedule Management Knowledge Area are the primary inputs that we will use to deter mined overall project budget. This will consist off to process is the first of which is estimated costs. This is very similar to estimating activity durations that we saw earlier, where we estimate amount of money that is needed to perform each of these activities based on the information we have from the past. Projects are from the estimates we will receive on the current project from the various estimation methods. As the estimate cost process produces the activity cost estimates that will have the amount off money that is needed to work on each of these individual activities at those specific points in time. That would be the mind through the schedule management process, taking the pyramids example and working on one specific portion off the scope, which is exteriors of the pyramids. We can now estimate the cost off Working on each of these activities as shown here as you see here, the costs on working off each of these work packages on building the stone blocks and working on the mortar. We can associate a certain cost to the activities off excavation, cutting and transporting the stones, and also the excavation off mortar and transporting it to the site. These as you see our matter under the same schedule network diagrams so that we could sum up the cost on each of these paths. 44. Determine Budget: The final process in the Cost management knowledge area is the deter mined budget process that will aggregate the cost from each of the activities that we data mined in the previous process off estimation. And by summing up all of them to levels that we want on the project, we could do to mine the budgets that are necessary to work on the project. Sometimes the aggregation off costs are done to a higher level on the world program structure to make it meaningful for the organization's accounting systems to handle the forms. These air called control accounts, which makes it easier to monitor and control the project budget on smaller components of the project, broken down by various departmental activities or other scope of the project that are independent of one another. Hence, the important product vulnerable we get from the Cost Management Knowledge area is the project budget, which is an important to definition. Do you know how much money is going to be spent on the project 45. Project Timeline of documents -budget: At this point, we have the project budget ready, which means we now know how much money does it take to work on this project and build the final product or service? 46. Estimate Activity Resources: similar to the previous steps pertaining to estimating the amount of effort on each activity and the amount of money needed to be spent on each activity we can now do to mine . The number of resource is on each activities as well. This is done in the resource management knowledge area. The first process in the resource management knowledge area is the estimate accurately resources, which is a process that is used to estimate the number of resources we need to put on each of these activities to comfortably deliver them in the amount of time that we did a mind earlier and amount of money that will be spent, hence using the same inputs there. We often from the previous prostheses, we could now estimate the number of resources that may be needed to work on each of the activities on the project. The output that we get from this process is the resource requirements document and the resource breakdown structure, which is another hierarchical structure that shows you the resource assignments on each of the activities on the project. Sometimes it is the assignment of resource is on the activities that may deter mined the costs that will be incurred on each of the activities and hence may be needed to be done before the estimation of costs on the activities using the same example in the Pyramids project. As you see here, the determination of the number of resources is done through the estimation techniques that are available on the project based on the experiences from the previous project and the organization process assets. The resource assignments on each of these activities are illustrated to show you vaguely the number of resources that may be needed on each of them, as you can see here, the cutting of the stone, many more number of resources relative to the excavation process and transporting it for the blocks of stone that make up the pyramid. Until this point, we have now quantified the amount of money that is needed to be spent on the project to execute the project, and the number of resource is in terms off the people with the relevant skill sets to work on the project or deter mined here in this knowledge area 47. Project Timeline of documents -resources: At this point in time, we now know how much project resources are needed to deliver on the project objectives, which means we now have a good understanding off who are all the project team members who will work on the project. 48. Plan Quality: it is not enough to simply deliver project in its defined scope boundaries under the agreed budget and in the time frame decided. Although meeting those constraints are necessary to deliver a product successfully, the product service or result you plan to deliver must satisfy the needs of the stakeholders as they expect to get. This is where we will discuss the Quality management knowledge area. First, Let's discuss what is quality quality. Is the measure off to what extent you are satisfying the customer or the sponsor by meeting their requirements on the project Very similar to product and project scope, there is product quality and project quality that needs to be defined, planned and controlled authority off the delivered product is not difficult to understand. It is simply the final product that the customer can decide if it meets their expectations or not. Based on what was initially agreed at the start of the project, these are product quality norms that are to be followed to deliver the right product or service. In addition, there is the project quality. It is a measure off how efficiently you're executing the project or how much did you sway from the original baseline plan. To make this determination, you need some kind of metrics that can be used to measure the performance of the project. For example, the percentage off number of actual tasks completed Worse is the planned. How much delay is it in the project beyond the planned schedule or even the cost overrun? You may be about the planned budget. These are all the quality metrics that are important to remind the health of the project. While quantifying the number of defects encountered and resolved during the testing phase is on projects that in while product testing commander product quality there as variations from the baseline project parameters like the scope, cost and time commander project quality from the organization process assets objective comparisons can be made from other historical projects done in the past. This is due to mine in the plan quality process with the inputs off all three baselines on scope, schedule and cost and more importantly, the stakeholder register. If you recall, the stakeholder restore contained the expectations off each stakeholder that were captured in initiating phase of the project. Since quality is all about satisfying them, the stakeholder register becomes an important input to this process. The output you get are the quality metrics that are quantifiable measurements through which you can deter mined the health of the project. These metrics become the underpinning off project communication to senior management and project sponsors by summarizing the overall health of the project or a higher level, probably as traffic light statuses in red, yellow and green color coding or some other easier form off summary ization techniques to represent overall product status. The tools to deter mine the Prada Cordy is testing, whereas the tool through deter mined the project, quality is benchmarking. Testing is ensuring your product or service is doing what it is supposed to do when it is finally going to be Delaware. Example. In the case of permits, imagine the main door to the entry to the pyramids is jammed on its first use. Testing to ensure the door to the passageway opens when needed, is ensuring there is enough part quality building. The project benchmarking is a process off comparing previous similar activities to the current project activities to provide a standard to measure project performance. This comparison will also help you derive ideas for quality improvements on the current project 49. Project Timeline of documents -quality metrics: by finishing the plan quality process. We now have the quality metrics available at this point which will help us in the future to control the project when it actually moves in the execution face. 50. Intro to Risks: we will not be discussing an important concept in project management called as risk management. So far, you did your best in capturing the scope, schedule and cost on the project. And among other things, you also assign people plan for quality and ensure that the project is on track for a successful completion. But just like the world we live in, projects operate in a lot of uncertainties. Just like you don't know if it is going to rain a month from now or not, you don't know what will happen far into the project to explain the concept of risks. Here is an illustration where you the PM very required to navigate your way through this landscape, which contains a lot of holes in the ground and those holes present wearing degrees off danger to you should you fall in them. Your task is to safely find your way by awarding the danger, are falling in these holes and reach towards the end. The idea here is you're taking your project all the way to the end by navigating it through various uncertainties that you will encounter during the course of the project. Risks are uncertain. Events that matter to the project and should they occur, have an effect on the objectives of the project. Know the words uncertainties that matter. Not all uncertainties are risks to your project. Example. Whether it's going to rain or not, tomorrow has nothing to do with if you will go live with your software development project . However, this may be important to know if you're in a construction project. All uncertainties that matter should be considered as risks to the project. The uncertainty or falling in one of these holes is a risk that you have to face in your effort to meet the challenge. As you see here, the first hole is a smaller risk off you falling into that is not too deep, and that contains nothing dangerous in it. The second hole, though, is a bigger risk in comparison to the previous one, because not only is the whole larger in diameter, but also puts you with a danger off getting harmed by a Neil that is at its bottom. In the third hole, though the diameter of the hole is smaller than in the previous one, which means that you could easily cross it. However, should you fall into it. You run the risk off being bitten by a poisonous snake. There is cold up at its bottom, moving to the last hole. You can clearly see that not only is the diamond or of this hole too big for you to easily jump over, but should you fall into it, you run a greater chance off putting yourself in life threatening situation due to the big , hungry bear that waits at its bottom. Hence, what we have done here is illustrated the concept off the various degrees of risks that you may face on a project based on two dimensions that we will use to quantify risks and measure them for our analysis. 51. Identify Risks: in the planning phase off risk management, we will go through three processes that will create an important are put called the risk register. In here, we will identify all possible risks you can encounter on the project, analyze them and categorize them based on some high level categories and finally prepare the risk register. Each process here will produce the risk register as its output that gets updated every time after going through the subsequent process. The output from the first process is the wrist razor, but the output from the second step process is also the risk. Traister a little updated from the previous document and in the third sir process, you get the final risk register, which contains all the necessary data to evaluate the overall risk of the project. The first process is to identify the risks. The places where you look for wrists are pretty much everywhere. We will use all the information we now have about the project in terms off its scope, schedule, budget quality, human resources, the organization process, assets, even the enterprise, environmental factors which may be external to the company. Since there's so many places to look at, there is a high likelihood you will find a lot of risks and hence there is a need to document them. This will be done in the risk, Treaster. And this is where you document the risk event who came from what might be its impact and, more importantly, who from the organization will be assigned as the owner of the risk there many tools and techniques used to identify risks. Some of them are the expert judgement, data gathering and analysis meetings and SWAT analysis. This what analysis is a technique analyzing the risks. Using the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within the organization. As we will see in the next processes, we will be updating the risk register with additional information that will be documented at each step. 52. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: they could have been many more risks identified in the previous process. Now it is important to deter mine. How many of those lists are off your immediate concern and which ones need your immediate attention? Now? This is done in the perform qualitative risk analysis. This process first starts with categorization of the risks into big buckets are types of risks. For example, technical wrists which are associated to the product or the service itself. Project management risks which may pertain to the risks with respect to the human resources , staffing and other aspects of the project, and also external risks which may put into the political climate around the project or factors in the marketplace. The categorization of risks can be summarized into the hierarchical structure called as the risk break ground structure or simply the RBS, which is another hierarchical structure similar to the de BBS. For the work breakdown structure is used as a tool to break down the wrists into categories and manage individual risks at those levels which are then easy to manage and report on. The risk waster that was obtained from the previous step is now updated here by adding additional data that quantifies the risks. This is done by adding the probabilities of occurrence off each of those risks happening and their impact once they happen. The probably describes the potential for the risk event hunkering. While the impact describes the effects or consequences the project will experience in the event, the risk actually occurs. Therefore, a risk that has a probably of recurrence and greater impact should certainly be the one on top of your mind to find ways to mitigate and reduce its impact on the objectives of the project. So this gives us another matrix structure where we can map risks on a scatter plot, showing us their concentration and how we deal with them later in a plot that we call the probably an impact matrix. Let's try to understand the probably an impact matrix through the visual illustration off our challenge of crossing the danger infested landscape. So here's as we discussed the probability off falling in the whole when the diamond of the whole a smaller is represented by the first half off the X axis, the impact on falling in the hole is equal into not only the depth of the whole but also the kind of danger that resides within it. Hence the impact of falling in a hole that is empty, or maybe a small nail at the bottom ofit is represented in the first half off the Y axis. Now this situation where the probability or falling in a smaller hole but with a dangerous snake at the bottom off, it has a greater impact to you when falling in it. Hence, that scenario is represented here, since that is off. Ah, higher impact, the probability of falling into the jaws of the hungry bear at the bottom or for deep it and a large hole is clearly higher. What we've done here is we have mapped out the various risks on the project on a two way scatter plot with a probably on the X axis and the impact on why access the amount of risk that you're taking is the multiplication off the probability or that risk occurring and the impact on the project. When that risk happens in this example, you can clearly see that the risk of crossing a smaller hole with nothing in it is lot of lesser than the risk off crossing a wide gap in the ground and a bear waiting at its bottom is immensely higher. It is these kind of risks that have to be on top of your mind when you're dealing with a large number of wrists and those that we need your immediate attention. The case off crossing this small hole is a low probability, low impact risk. Whereas the probability off crossing over this whole with a nail is a high probability, low impact risk. The probability off crossing this whole with a snake is a low probability, high impact risk. And lastly, the probability off falling in a wider hole with a bearing. It is a high probability high in back risk. 53. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: the next process is the perform quantitative risk analysis. This process is very similar to the previous process. Off perform qualitative risk analysis, except that now a lot off data and mathematical calculations are used to quantify the various risks. This is done by using various modeling and simulation techniques like the Morning Carlo model. Donadio Diagrams Decision Tree analysis, etcetera. When you do quantitative risk analysis, you associate numbers and calculations to the probability and impact off various wrists you encounter on the project. Taking this example, you would actually calculate the diameter of each of the holes here and the depth off the holes and obtain a quantitative number that is associate ID in crossing each of these holes . Hence, you would calculate and reach to some kind of a number to the probably off crossing each of these holes and also derive a number to the impact when you fall in that hole. 54. Plan Risk Responses: the most important in the final process in the planning phase, off risk management is to obtain the risk responses using the plan risk response process. Imagine what is all that effort worth in identifying and quantifying all the wrists if you can't do anything about them. This is where you will plan for actions that you will take if in the event of the risk coming true are really happening. Using the data we have so far in the risk registers, we will now strategize and think through our actions for the various threats and opportunities that may arise during the course of the project. As you can see here from the tools and techniques, this is completely a mental activity done with teams. Send stakeholders on the project with one aim in mind that is, to reduce the effects of the risks when they happen in future. The output from this process is is the updated risk register, but with the key edition added to it, which is the risk responses? When you do plan risk responses, you now use the analysis and assessment you have done in analyzing the various risks and come up with actions that you will perform when you actually encounter the risks. In the case off this example, the wrist response you would take for the biggest risk when you encounter is how would you cross the large gap that poses the highest risk to you. Hence, you would use the numbers obtaining the quantitative analysis to do to mind the speed off your jump that you need to take to cross this wide gap. 55. Project Timeline of documents - risk register: with the finishing off. The risk management processes were now equipped with an important document called Last the Risk Register. And now we know how many risks are anticipated on the project and to what magnitude are those risks going to impact the project objectives and what will be the responses people take once those wrists happen? 56. Plan Communications: when the project is ongoing and the rial products or services to be dead a word are far from the final delivery date. The most important output or deliverable for the customers or the sponsors is project communication itself. Project communication becomes the most important and often the only form of deliverable for the customers or the sponsors of the project. Hence, all forms of communication from the project manager about the project is white and key to keeping the stakeholders happy, motivated and supportive of the project. This is done by knowing they're in the organization are outside the organization. Should you as a project manager communicate in order to keep the key stakeholders informed , different stakeholders need different levels of information about the project be shared with them. Example. You don't need to share day to day project operations, issues and activities with the product sponsors, but rather only the high level summary of project health status. Key shoes or risks are any important decision making Points are to be communicated to them . All of these needs about communication requirements to the stakeholders are documented in the communication plan to account for the various needs to each of the stakeholders. This includes what they need to know, how much and when do they need to know the relevant information and in what format or mode , like e mails, meetings or in person contact as they profess. Hence the communication plan becomes an important output that will contain all the necessary information about where in the organization are outside the organization. Does a project manager communicate at what points in time and through what means to the relevant stakeholders? Hence the input to the plan communication process is the stakeholder register. 57. Project Timeline of documents - comm plan: we now know, really, we communicate among all the stakeholders to transmit necessary information that is relevant to those take holders and this is described in the communication plan. 58. Plan Procurements: many times. New project work is done in part or in whole by external companies to obtain various components or parts for the product or service you're trying to build, and sometimes for their expertise on a specific area within the project. It is through procurement management that we will know where to reach out to to opt in these services from outside the organization and through what proper legal and financial means. Procurement is about identifying what goods or services you're going to purchase from outside the organization and how you will make them available to the project through allowable means. Not only will you decide where to get your goods and services from outside, but also how much and when will they be made available? The inputs. You will need our documents pertaining to the scope, activities, budgets and timelines on the project. These air coming in from multiple processes that were discussed earlier. The outputs, though, are make or buy decisions in which a determination will be made if a specific contractor or an agency have to be engaged for their services. The procurement statement of work is also another output from this process, which will lay out all the necessary conditions off work, the scope that the external contractor is going to be engaged in, the timelines and the cost off engaging their services. The tools and techniques are the make or buy analysis through which a binary determination is going to be made as an output off this process and lastly, the various available contract types that could be leveraged depending on the type of the project. 59. Project Timeline of documents - procurement: we now have the make or buy decisions we made finalize on the external renders. We will engage during the execution of the project and we also have the necessary statements, the work that contractually binds those external vendors. 60. HOW are things done on the project: We're now at the point where we know much about the project, having finished the initiating phase completely and almost finishing the planning phase. And I say almost because there's one last important process that needs to be completed before we completely wrap up with the planning face, we now know why are we doing this project which can be found in the project charter that we completed in the initiating face and in the integration management area? We also know who are all the project stakeholders that were identified again in the initiating face in the stakeholder management Knowledge area and which is contained within the stakeholder waster. Then we moved into the planning phase very obtained much more information about what is contained within the project. This is where we elaborated for their own. What is all part of the project's go that is encapsulated in the scope baseline documents, which we did as part off asking the question. What is the project scope? Then we move into answering. The question went in time. Will things happen on the project and the various activities within it and those were identified, sequenced, estimated, and finally put on a timeline called as the product schedule. This was done in the schedule management knowledge area. Then we moved into answering how much off various aspects of the project should be in place before we begin the project. It is very identified how much budget our money is needed to get started. That is part of the project budget in the Cost management Knowledge area. We also did the mind to what extent off quality should the project be meeting and those were captured in the Quality metrics document as part of the Quality Management Knowledge Area and in continuing with the same line of questioning for how many resources are needed , that becomes the project team to get the project work done. This was due to my in the Resource Management Knowledge Area, where we identified the Project Teen An estimated the number of resources. Then we moved into more important aspect off. How many risks will the project encounter in the future? Very preemptively deter mined the unforeseen events that might happen on the project and we developed the responses or actions that we will take when those events happen. These were part off the risks and responses in the Risk Management Knowledge area and then we moved into answering the question. Where in the project should we reach out to for the various communications that take place between the project stakeholders and the various parties in world within it and this was done in the communications Management Knowledge area and lastly, we identified the various procurement aspects and developed the necessary contractual agreements between external parties that may be leveraged to get the project work done. This was done in the procurement management knowledge area. These were the 1st 5 pieces of the pie or the five pizzas off the first visual pathways in project management. Now we will get into the last portion of the pie, which is how are things to be done on the project to get the actual project work done. The dots that you see here in the other face of the project and the two dots that still exist in the planning phase correspond to how you will be managing each of those areas. And at those points in time during that specific project like cycle, each of these darts will correspond to a question asking How will you manage that specific knowledge area in that specific phase of the project. For example, this don't that corresponds to the scope management area in the monitoring and control face corresponds to the question. How will you monitor and control the scope of the project? There was deter mined in the planning phase and there will be starting to stake shape during the executing face. Notice that there is no process present in the executing face for the school management schedule and the cost management. This is for one important reason that Prosise do not exist in these three knowledge areas. It is because the actual project work in terms of building the product, service or result is done by the project team that has been identified in the Resource Management Knowledge Area and, if necessary, external vendors that may have been identified using the pro human Management Knowledge area. It is never that the project manager will ever be involved and actually building the product or the service because it is not the job of the project manager to be involved in those tasks. In other words, the project manager does not actually perform the project work for which the resources have been assigned and allocated. Hence you do not see any processes of present in these gnarly areas. You must also remember that for this reason, you should never be actually in world in executing the product scope that other team members are involved in. For example, on the Pyramids project you don't actually go. Do excavating for the stones or motor, or it's cutting to its proper size that will end up for the pyramid. There's a whole host of resource is assigned to doing this, that specific tasks or activities within the defined timeframe and cost allocated to it. Similarly, you see that there are other processes available in knowledge areas that correspond to the quality resource management, etcetera in the executing and the monitoring and controlling face in the executing face. Most of the effort by the project manager will be in terms off managing that specific knowledge area and ensuring that the activities are according to the plan that have been laid out in the planning face 61. Develop PMP: the last and final concluding process in the planning phase is the Develop Project Management plan. This is an important process because the output from it is all the more important, which is the project management plan. The project management plan lays out the guidelines as to how the project will be done in the following faces, and it shows the roadmap off how we will lead the project to its completion within the defined constraints, off scope, schedule and budget. The inputs to this process is, firstly the Project Charter, which is the document that contains the high level requirements or why we're doing this project and the objectives and goals that will be met. The other imports that feed into this process are all the individual management plans, as you see here from every knowledge area we discussed so far. These are the scope, management cost, schedule, quality, resource risk communications and procurement management plans. All of these documents are reviewed and put together to create one consolidated management plan called the Project Management Plan 62. Creating Individual Mgmt Plans: We will now discuss how to obtain individual management plants that constitute the project management plan. The individual management plants are obtained by asking the question. How will we manage each of the aspects of the project that we discussed so far, not only from the planning phase but also from the future phases of the project which are the executing and monitoring and controlling face in every knowledge area we discussed so far? There is one process that we intentionally left out to be dealt with. Now. The process we're talking about is applicable to all the knowledge areas that are here, and this process is to create individual project management plans in each of these knowledge areas. Starting with the stakeholder management area, you will have ah process called as land stakeholder engagement and the output of which is the stakeholder engagement plan. This will contain guidelines as to how you will keep the stakeholders engage throughout the project through various means, off motivation and proper communication. Then, in the Scope management area, a process called plants cope management, we create an output called as the school management plan. This is a document that describes the processes for determining the project scope and encapsulating it in the visual work breakdown structure, which speaks to what is going to be in the product scope and what is not gonna be the project scope. And also this document will describe how the product or service off the project is gonna be verified and accepted in the later phases off the project. The scope management plan will also document how changes to a scope will be handled in the schedule management plan that comes out to a process called as planned schedule management . The document will describe how the projects could you will be developed and controlled, and any two years to it will be dealt with in the cost management area. The process, called as the plan cost management, will create the cost management plan, which will describe how costs will be managed and controlled, and again, how changes to the costs will be approved and managed. Similarly, in the quality management area, you will have a document coming out. Carla's, the quality management plan that will describe how the organization's policies and procedures will be applying and implemented. What are the quality control procedures and measures that happens during the monitoring and controlling face will be contained in this document. Additionally, any continuous improvement procedures will also be mentioned in the quality management plan . In the resource management plan. It will talk about how the resource will be acquired, kept motivated on the project. How will they be rewarded for their effort? At the end of the project and other guidelines related to two people, management in the risk management area will create a document called Risk Management Plan that will describe how the risks will be managed and controlled. What other definitions, when they're probably leaning back matrix were created. However, the various risk categories did used and the various risk tolerances that the project may have it was very is enforcing events. All of these are part off the risk management plan in the communications management area. They will be the communications management plan that will describe the communication needs off the various stakeholders, how they wish to be communicated and what frequencies and modes of communication will be mentioned in this document. Lastly, a document called Last the Poor Human Management Plan describes how the procurement processes will be managed that will contain guidelines, how the contract and how the various external vendors or agencies will be managed. All of these individual project management plans will then be fed into the Develop Project management plan process to give us one consolidated management plan that will be used all throughout the project. 63. Project Timeline of documents -individual management plans: At this point we have all the management plants from the individual knowledge areas, which means that you now have a good understanding off how we will manage each of those areas in the future as the project progresses into the execution face. 64. Project Timeline of documents - PMP: This is the conclusion of the planning phase where we now have the most important document , which is the project management plan, which is going to be off big help when we move into the execution face. 65. Direct and Manage Project Work: you're now in the executing face of the project, and this is where you have an approved project management plan. By now, as an output from the planning face, this will function as your road map for the project. This is where the rubber meets the road. In other words, this is where the real action takes place in terms off actually building the product or service. The project teams can now get to work with approved plan and the resource allocations in place. This is also where necessary purchases are made from the outside Wenders for their services or parts of the product. Money that is allocated to the project is now, but I need to be spent here. The process that will Qaida's is in the Integration Management Knowledge Area, and it is called direct and manage project work. Since this is where the deliverables are created, the output from this process is the deliverables. As you see here, it is also here that you will collect data about how the project is performing in terms off the number of tasks completed or delayed. Issues encountered costs incurred, But even how the resources are performing on the project all these data points going to the upper called the work performance Information, as you will see in the next lectures how this data is gonna be vital for you to be able to have control or the project and prevented from slipping away among the tools and techniques you will use a project management information system, which is usually a software tool that can help you in keeping track of things happening on the project in terms off scheduling, work authorizations and even tracking off money, and usually varies from organization to organization. It could be from a simple Microsoft Project software do or enterprise wide information system. Have you seen the inputs for the direct and manage project work? It brings in information from all aspects of the project, primarily from all the management plans that we prepared in the planning phase, various risks that before saw that might happen on the project containing the risk register and, more importantly, the actual scope of work that is contained in the school baseline and the requirements traceability matrix. The requirements Traceability matrix contains information about who does what so that the actual part can be built. The milestone lists and the schedule will help to contain the project in a specific time frame and prevented from going out of control. There is another input called project communications to this process. These are all the various communications that happen between the stakeholders, the project teams and external vendors, which all have to be coordinated and funneled properly where the project manager to get the actual project work done in a controlled and coordinated fashion. It is also here in the executing phase that you will start to manage the stakeholder engagement to ensure that the stakeholders are satisfied and constantly supportive of the project. In here, you'll also manage the quarter portion of the project, acquired the resources, developed the teams and manage them in the resource management area. You'll also manage the communications that are happening on the project daily. In terms of risks, you will actually implement the responses that we plan for in the event. Those risks actually happen in terms of procurement. You would actually now conductor procurements by own boarding the external vendors to perform the job on the project 66. Project Timeline of documents - deliverables and work info: Since this is the executing face where the actual particle service gets built, we're now starting to receive portions off the product or service being daily word that will eventually form to become the final product or service. This happens all along the executing phase when the project team is working hard to build the final particle service. We also have now the work performance information available to us, which is the data about the project, which speaks to how the project is performing and indicates the project health. 67. Monitor and Control Project Work: although you not be doing the actual project work in terms of building the deliverables for which there are resources allocated, you will closely monitor and control the project at all times. When the actual project work is ongoing. It is for this reason you have a process called monitor and control project work in here. You will constantly check for deviations from the project management plan and ensure that the project work is on track. As laid out in the management plans. You will use the collected data from the executing phase about the work performance and create reports call as the work performance reports. These are summary reports about progress of the project and an indication off the overall health of the project. These reports then could be used to communicate widely information about the project to the important stakeholders, sponsors or customers and inform them about. If the project is on track for delivery in the promised time frame, there's one another. Output from this process called us change requests, as you will see in the next lectures what happens when there are new requests off changes to the project in terms of adding additional scope that the stakeholders on the project feel necessary to be added and those that were not initially captured in the planning face . This could also be requests for additional time to extend the project timelines. For whatever reasons, the stakeholders feel necessary. These are called the change requests on the project that will be handled in a systematic process on the project led by the project Manager has its primary driver. As you see here, the inputs for monitoring and control project work for all the project management plans, the risk register quality metrics, which is where you can see the performance parameters that we laid out initially while planning for quality on the project. 68. Project Timeline of documents - change requests: We now have the change requests in the monitoring and controlling face that are being initiated to readjust the project in terms of the scope, schedule or cost, so that the project parameters are adjusted to the reality on ground. There is also the world performance reports being built based on the data we're collecting continuously in the executing face. 69. Project Knowledge: There is always something new to learn from every project. New insights into how things are done, sir face all the time during the project, and those may be helpful to remember, recall and use on future products. These air called lessons learned in project management terminology. Hence, it is important to keep a record off these observations in the form off lessons learned from the projects you're working on. And it is for the benefit off you, other project managers and the organization itself as a whole to benefit through a collective knowledge base that is built through this parcels. It is for this reason there is a process called as the manage project knowledge that is found in executing face off the project and sits in the Integration Management Knowledge Area. The inputs to this process are pretty much all documents that you're prepared on. The project primarily the project management plans which describe how you're doing the project toe, what metrology, what has worked and what has not worked during the project. The inputs can also be various deliverables that are obtained due to the project effort and also the stakeholder register to know who are the people you need to reach out to, to operate in the inputs. The output of this process is the lessons learned Register, which is a race to track all the observations and insides, opt in from the project and keeping track off where they came from. All these lessons learned or then updated and stored in the organization of process assets where they reside to be retrieved and used in subsequent projects. As you will see shortly in the closing face, you will finalize this lessons learned, register and archive it for later use. 70. Project Timeline of documents -lessons learned register: At this point, we now have the lessons learned register which we have now started to build. Based on our observations and findings. As we're doing the executing face, these, as you will see, will become important to capture and record in the closing of the project. 71. Perform Change Control intro and process: We will not be discussing an important concept in project management, which is how do we manage changes to the project, which are introduced in the middle of the project. So let's first understand how our change is defined. If you recall in the discussion around school baseline, we froze upon the scope of the project at a point in time after agreement with all the stakeholders that the scope mentioned in the school baseline documents is the initial starting scope that the project team will work upon. So as is he here, the documents on the left are the school baseline documents that encapsulates the 100% off scope that is expected out of the Partick team and the project. So the initial school is this product that you see here that the stakeholders or the sponsors or the customer expects to see at the end of the project. However, as you see here, let's say at some point in time a stakeholder or a group of stakeholders thought this product, which is the bicycle, could be improved by putting a GPS tracking device right into the bicycle frame so that the precise location off the bicycle could be tracked and traced through modern communication methods using the Global Positioning Systems satellite technologies. Now, clearly, that is a change to the scope of the project that is requested in the middle of the project and that which do not exist in the school baseline documents. Hence, the change request is defined as a formal proposal to modify any project document deliverable or more importantly, the baseline. No debt. The baselines could be either the school baseline or the schedule baseline, which is basically the agreed upon schedule. There was communicated in the initiating phase of the project, or even the cost base line, which is the agreed upon budget that the project will use for delivering the scope that was initially agreed upon. No, Dad, these requests are coming in at a time way into the project execution and sometimes even at the near end of the completion of the project. Hence, it is important to have a process in place that manages these kind of changes that are introduced on the project. This is done using a dedicated process called as the perform integrated change control that rightly sits in the Integration Management Knowledge Area because it entails obtaining inputs from various places that reach out into all the other knowledge areas. The perform integrated change control process happens in the monitoring and controlling face off the project. Hence the inputs to this process are all the project management plans prepare so far and primarily the scope management plan, the schedule management plan and the course management plan. It may also include other plans like the change management plan, etcetera. These are fed through this process to create one output which is called approved change requests, nor does the word approved in the deliverable from this process. Not all change requests that are run through this process are approved through the various tools and techniques that we will discuss now. Hence the only output that comes out of this process are the approved change requests which have been reviewed and approved by the stakeholders in this process. As you can see here, the tools and techniques used here in the integrated change control process, all the expert judgment, the various change control tools that we will discuss shortly and meetings controlling a project to the baselines is an essential part off project management. The change control process for the project will follow a standard process that may exist within the organization and it is applied for our projects uniformly. The project manager has the overall responsibility for exuding the change management process for each change that is requested. 72. Perform Change Control -Change steps: Now we will discuss the process off taking the various change requests that arise on the project and getting them approved at the end so that to become a part of the project and are implemented as part of the execution of the project, the first step that really happens in any change that its proposed on the project is the change request that is made by the project stakeholders. Changes can be requested by anybody on the project team or even from the stakeholders, the sponsors or the customer, or even the external parties that may be involved in the project. This is usually accompanied by a valid reasoning and the rationale for requesting the change. Once the changes requested by a project stakeholder, the change request needs to be formalised as a change request in most organisations. This is done through formalised change request forms that needs to be filled out by the change requester. The form usually contains the reasoning behind why the changes being requested, the rationale behind it and the benefit off implementing this change. The third step It is a project manager who picks up from here where he or she registers the change in a log by filing it with other change requests that may already exist. In the next step, the project manager will conduct a preliminary analysis on the impact of the change to various parameters on the project, primarily on the scope, schedule, cost and even the risks if needed. The project manager then may seek clarification from the team members or the change. Requester and impact analysis is done by the project manager on various project parameters , and that is this Minutes president and do a group of people who have authority to approve or disapprove the change. These are the people who sit on what is called last the change control board and these are the people and ask for it the authority. Do approve or disapprove the change. Request the project manager with submit to change request, as well as the preliminary analysis to the Change Control Board for review. It is here that the Change Control Board will approve or disapprove the change request based on its rash now and the benefits it may bring to the party. The Change Control Board will discuss the proposed change and decide whether or not it'll be approved based on all the submitted information in the next step. The decision is made on the submitted change request toe a form of communication that the change has been approved. This means that the change can now be implemented back into the project and implemented in the product or service that is planned to be built. The last is where the project manager will take the approved change and re baseline the entire project. This is an important step that has to be taken up by the project manager. The project manager has overall responsibility for executing the change management process and it is here that the project manager will re baseline all the elements of the project and obtain the changed parameters. As shown here. The triangle in red shows the initial project parameters in terms off the scope, schedule and cost, whereas the outer triangle in green is the updated project parameters, with the new scope, schedule and cost that reflect the changes that have to be made on the project to accommodate the approved change. In case off the bicycle that we just discussed. The initial school may have bean these squares in red, whereas the new school that contains the effort for fitting. The new GPS device is shown here in the Green Square. This is an update to the deadly Bs or the work breakdown structure, and this will be further elaborated into its individual work packages. Those work packages will then be decomposed into individual activities and from them the project schedule will thereby be updated. It's what you see here is the dash line is the initial promised project schedule for the delivery of the project, whereas the updated produce schedulers this solid line that has moved from the original timelines you to the you change that has come in. Lastly, the project budget is also a beaded to accommodate the cost for the additional effort. In fitting the new GPS device to the bicycle, they may be updates necessary. Do other project documents in the areas off risks, quality, procurement and resource is as well 73. Project Timeline of documents - approved change requests: we now have the approved change requests that are being finalized so as to implement in the executing face and onto which the product teams will start to work on. These requests will ultimately be implemented as part of the final product or service. 74. Control Cost: We will now be discussing an essential topping and project management for the controlling off costs and managing of budgets. Up until now, you saw how you could do to mine the project budget using the deter mined budget process. In the planning phase, the project budget there was obtained through various cost estimation methods and rolling up off amounts from the individual control accounts. It is your job as a project manager. Do now insure that the project is daily word in the defined budget. The way you ensure your project costs are not shooting beyond the allowable limits is through the process called control costs, which lies in the monitoring and controlling face. As part of this process and important concept in project management will be discussed, which is the earned value management. This is the only topic in project management where you will be required to crunch in numbers and performs some level of mathematical calculations. Before we dwell into the calculations and formally used in earned value management. Let's first now discuss the inputs, outputs and tools and techniques off this process called as control costs. What you do here is you first take the project budget that is opting from the planning face as input to this process, along with the project management plan, the work performance information and the organization process assets. As you may recall, the project management plan contains all the necessary information about who and when will be performing individual tasks on the project and the work. Performance information is a vital input to this process because it is here in the work performance information that you will know the exact status of the project in terms off what activities have been completed so far and what activities remained to be done on the project. Would you get as the output of this process are the budget forecasts and other metrics pertaining to the costs and the budget of the project? There are essential for you to control the various costs on the project as the project is being executed. The tools and techniques you will use in this process, or the own value management in some form off project management software, usually the predominately used Microsoft Project. Before we start to describe the various terms and earned value management, let's first revisit the project budget that was discussed in the planning face what we obtained from the planning phase. Using the deter mined budget process was one level off project budget obtain from rolling up estimates from individual control accounts has shown here these air simply the cost estimates and the amounts needed to perform the India, which will work packages on the project and within the defined project scope. Although this number is a good indicator off how much money is needed to perform all the project work, it still does not include other components off costs that are needed to be included. If you wish to obtain the true project budget, you may recall from the discussion on risk management, all projects are prone to risks sometime or the other, and we're performing the risk management steps you end up with risk responses that you will take when the risks on the project happened to occur. These wrist responses haven't associated cost to them and hence need to be included as part of the project budget. So what we now do is, we add these costs associated to the risk responses are called as contingency reserves and are a result off the contingency planning that you do within the risk management processes . One additional component or budget that exists on projects are called as the management reserves these air amounts or funds that are kept aside by the management or the sponsors of the project to cover for unplanned changes that may happen on the project and those that may not have Bean identified during the risk identification steps. These management reserves may be tapped into in the absolute worst case scenario where the project may be deficient on budget. Hence, by adding up all these three components off project budget, we now obtain a larger and overall project budget, which is the true estimate off the overall amount off money that is needed to perform the project with all the costs paid for for the planned activities and also and planned events that may happen on the project. In project management terminology, this overall project budget is called as the budget at completion or B A C. Hence. What you see here is the initial project budget is the sum total off all the cost estimates operating from the individual control accounts, plus the contingency reserves and lastly, the management reserves 75. Planned Value: to the own value management. We will not be able to deter mined the Project health and its performance based on a few numbers that will become part off the project Metrics. Let's say our project, which is the project to build the pyramids, takes 18 months to complete. This is what we obtained from the Critical Path calculations from the earlier lectures. Let's now say, after nine months into the project, we want to now monitor and control the project costs. As part of this process, we will also do the mind. How is the project performing not only in terms off the number of activities completed, but also are we doing okay with the budget? Let's now introduce a few additional concepts in own ready management. The 1st 1 is called as the plan value at this point after nine months into the project, let's say, according to the Project Mannion plan and the product schedule, you are expected to finish 50% off the project work. The plan value is the cost of work that has been authorized and budgeted for a scheduled activity or WPS component in the given time frame. So let's say you never Pyramids project, which is 18 months long in duration, right at the midway point off. Nine months into the project, let's say that the team has been able to construct exactly 50% off the scope of the project . In other words, 50% off project offers have been completed. The plan value is calculated by multiplying the percentage of work completed and the B A C , which is the budget at completion. Let's say, for the sake of this example, the total budget for this project is $100,000 So that means the plan value will be 50 divided by 100 which corresponds to the 50% off work completed multiplied by 100,000. So the result in value, which is $50,000 is the plan value at this point in the project duration. 76. Earned Value: the earned value is defined as the value work completed to date as it compares to the budgeted amount assigned to the work component. What this means is the earned value indicates the value that the project has daily were so far, depending on the actual work completed on the project. Notice the difference between the plan value in the urn value and the difference is the earned value is based on the actual completed work on the project rather than the plan completed work. Let's now say that the project team was only able to deliver 40% off the work, as indicated here in the reduced height off the pyramid. In comparison to the earlier case, the urn value is the multiplication off the actual work completed on the project at that point in time, with the budget at completion or the B A C, hence to calculate their own value. In this case, we will multiply the 40% with a total B A C, which is $100,000. That comes out to 40 divided by 100 multiplied by 100,000 which is $40,000. As you can see here since the team did not deli, where they expected amount of work after nine months, and we expected that work to be 50% complete. But rather since we observed that the team was only able to finish 40% of work at this point, the earned value comes out to be less of than the plan value. In cases where the team may have deli word more than planned, the urn value will come out to be more than the plan value. 77. Schedule Performance Index and Schedule Variance: they're two of the metrics in relation to the two parameters we just studied. Let's first take a look at what is the scheduled variance. The schedule variance is simply the difference between the urn value and the plan value. In other words, it indicates, But what amount has a team has been lagging behind in terms off delivering the expected value on the project At that point in time, as can be seen here, this gap between the earned value in the plan value gives the scheduled variance, and in this example, there we found out that the own value was less than the plan value. The value of scheduled variance will be negative, since the E V is less than PV. What this means is when the value of schedule variances negative, it indicates that the team has failed to Delaware by that much amount on the project. And at that point in time, it doesn't mean, of course, that that will be the case for the rest of the project and the team's me catch up to the expected performance. Another metric. In relation to these parameters, it's a schedule performance index or SP i the SP I is their issue off the own value and the plan value and it indicates the health of the project in terms off the schedule or the timeline of the project. This means depending on the value off SP I, you will be able to gauge if the project is on time delayed or ahead of time. If the value off SP I is less than one, that means that the project is behind schedule. If the value of SP I is greater than one, it means the project is is ahead of schedule and if it is equal to one man, means it's right on schedule. 78. Actual Cost, Cost Performance Index and Variance: the actual cost is the cost of completing the work component in a given time period. This means it is a some off all the expenditures on the project. Let me have been incurred until that point. In time, they could be in the form off salaries paid out to the project team members and workers on the project, invoices to external vendors, equipment poor, chased, etcetera, using the actual cost we can now do to mine to other additional parameters when used in combination with the own value. The first is the cost variance. The cost variance is the difference between earned value and the actual cost. In our example of the Project pyramids, let's assume that the some off all the expenditures on the project so far some up to the total off $30,000. That means actual cost is 30,000. As you can see here, the difference between the urn value, which we sought to be $40,000 actual cause, which is $30,000 comes out to a cost variance off $10,000. What this means is that the team has spent less than the expected amount off budget to deliver the 40% of work that has been finished so far. This could simply mean that the payments on the project to the relevant parties are not being made in time, and hence the amount of money that has been spent so far is less than the expected amount, which is indicated by the own value. Another metric that is used along with the urn value and the actual cost is the cost performance index or the C P I. By dividing seven value over the actual cost, you can now do the mine the Cost Performance index very similar to what we just discussed for the scheduled performance index. Whenever the value off the C P. I is less than one, it means that the project is going over the budget, which is because more amount of money is being spent. Then what is the word off work that has been accomplished at that point in time? Hence, whenever the value off e v years less than the A C, you get a C p I. That is less than one, indicating the project is going over the budget in cases where the CPI I is greater than one it means that the product is delivering work under the budget. And when the C B I is equal to one, it means the project is really wearing right on budget. 79. Budget Forecasting : putting all this together, we can now actually forecast how we will perform on the project in the future, meaning if the amount of money that currently exists is sufficient enough for us to finish the project right on time and under the budget, or if we will exceed the stipulated amounts. Forecasting uses the information we have gathered so far. Based on the calculations we performed on own value plan value, actual costs and the other derived parameters. As you've seen, these numbers were based on the actual work performance information that is coming out of the project in exactly what is being done in reality and using these numbers from the work performance information, we will now be able to predict the future performance of the project. Let's now study the first forecasting parameter in the controlling off costs on the project . This is called The estimate Had Completion or E. A C. This is simply calculated by dividing the budget or completion over the Cost performance index. Has we've seen the CPI, I indicates, How are we doing on the project In terms of the cost? A C p I off lesser than one indicates that we are underperforming by going over the budget at that point in time and a CP I off greater than one means we're delivering the school under the expected budget. So let's say in our example, off constructing the pyramids right at the mid point where we know that the cost performance index has been calculated to be 1.33 which means that we're currently doing good in terms of the budget and if he assumed that the project team continues to perform in the same capacity off delivering MAWR. By utilizing lesser budget allocated, we can aim to deliver the entire scope of the project safely under the overall project budget, which is the b A C or the budget at completion. Therefore, when you do wide the b A C with the CPI, I, you can now estimate how much will you project actually cost when it is completed at the end. So in our case, where the bs iwas $100,000 when divided with the CPI I off 1.33 will result into an estimated cost of completion with the value off 75,000 1 $88 as you can see here. This number indicates that the team will Delaware with lesser amount of budget needed to finish the entire scope of the project, and this difference between the overall budget, which is a BSC, and the estimated completion E. A C has another term called us. The variants at completion, or V A C hence V C equals two b A C minus e a. C. And this difference, or gelato, is the amount of money that the project team can expect to save from the estimated overall budget. That then can be used for our the faces of the project or altogether different projects. In our example were we expected the pyramid to be constructed in $100,000 is not gonna be taking only 75,000 won, $88 to complete, and this we're able to estimate at the midway point. On the other hand, if the CPI I waas less than one, the value off the estimated completion would turn out to be a value that is higher than the B A C, which is the overall budget, as you can imagine. In that case, the project manager we'll have to reach out to external sources for funding because off the increased budget demands and the variance of completion will turn out to be and negative value. Because the E. A C is greater than the BSE, one last parameter in the forecasting off budgets on the project is called as the estimate to completion notice the difference from the estimate at completion. The estimate to completion is simply how much more money do you need from now till the completion of the project? Given the fact that you already spend a certain amount of money to Delaware, a portion off the scope of the project, in our case of the moment example, we know that the actual cost is this some off all the expenses and the costs on the project so far have the midway point, and we assume that this value to be $30,000 at this point in time. The estimate at completion was calculated to be 75,000 won $88. Hence, the E. D. C. Or the estimate to completion is calculated as the difference between the estimate at completion and the actual cost. More e A C minus a C. In our case, this turns out to be 75,000 won, 88 miners, $30,000 which comes out to 45,000 1 $88 hence. This is the amount of money that you need to ensure that is allocated to the project and that is available at your disposal to be expended on the project for the scope off work. There's going to come now. Therefore, the estimate to completion is the amount of money that you need to know currently exists allocated to the project so that you can deliver the remainder of the scope on the project do its completion. 80. Close project or phase: we're now at the end of the project and this is the closing face, which is a last concluding face on the project. Remember, from the definition off projects, all projects have a defined end. This is now the closing phase of the project leading towards that end. The project team has built the required product or service and is now ready to deliver what they initially set out to build. Hence, it is now time to close the project by finally delivering it to the sponsor or customer as the final steps. You will now obtain the final acceptance from the sponsors or customers, thereby ending the project. In addition to relieving the project resources from the project, you'd have to perform some additional steps to formally close the project. In the case off a project that delivers a service, you may have to transition the project to a separate team human being tasked with the maintenance and support off the service. It is in this face that you will perform that product or service transition to happen. The process that is involved in the closing phase of the project is called the Clothes Project, or face. I noticed that you may be closing a face and moving to another phase of the project that may be a project in and of itself. Having is defined, start and end as the process Name is close project or face. The inputs to this process is the punch of management plan and the various project documents that may have been developed during this project. It is also the organizational process assets that were constantly updated and those which contain all the knowledge base that was built during the course of the project. The upwards from this process is to obtain the lessons learned from the project by meeting with the key stake holders and operating their insights and observations in how they feel the project could be improved upon one and done differently in the future. You see, as a project manager, you may have slipped onto those proverbial project management bananas during the project. Maybe you may have failed to notice the extra scope that may have sneak into the project. Or maybe you failed to assess and important stakeholders needs and expectations more thoroughly. In Central, you need to look back and do a kind off postmortem of the project to identify those moments where you or your team may have stumbled upon or simply overlooked certain aspects of the project. This is done with an aim to see what could be improved. How could have Bean done differently with an intention to note, remember and apply that knowledge in future on similar projects? This exercise should never be a fault finding mission about the project team members, but rather to educate and identify oneself towards continuous improvement. It is, through the excise off gathering lessons learned that the project manager can up pain great insight into what could have been done better during the project. The last activity that a project manager is required to do is to archive all project documents into the organizational process, assets that will then be used as important inputs to efficiently guide through and be a great help to the future projects. 81. Project Timeline of documents - close: We're now in the closing phase where we're starting to deliver the final product or service and transition it to other teams who will take it up from here. We now also have lessons learned documents that were prepared in the executing face, which are now to be archived for later use. Finally, we will now update the organization process assets so that the lessons learned and the insights we obtain from this project can be permanently made part off the knowledge base of the organization.