The Search for Tutankhamun (Part 2): The Discovery of the Tomb | David ✏ Ault | Skillshare

The Search for Tutankhamun (Part 2): The Discovery of the Tomb

David ✏ Ault, The Writer Teacher

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12 Lessons (23m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:12
    • 2. The Last Season

      2:45
    • 3. The Water Boy: Did You Know?

      0:20
    • 4. Excavating the Tomb

      3:03
    • 5. Winter Palace Hotel: Did You Know?

      0:22
    • 6. The Antechamber

      3:56
    • 7. The Annexe

      3:16
    • 8. The Game of Senet: Did You Know?

      0:19
    • 9. The Burial Chamber

      3:40
    • 10. The Gilded Shrine: Did You Know?

      0:29
    • 11. The Treasury

      3:19
    • 12. Class Project for this Course

      0:30

About This Class

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The Search for Tutankhamun (Part 2): The Discovery of the Tomb
is aimed at history students, who are studying this period at school or university, as well as those of you that have a general interest in history (and Ancient Egyptian history in particular).

In part two of the course, I take a detailed look at Howard Carter and his discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings, where you will:

  • Learn why Carter was given one last season to find the Boy Pharaoh
  • Find out how the tomb was discovered and then excavated
  • Be given an in-depth description of the Antechamber, the Annexe, the Burial Chamber and the Treasury

So go ahead and enrol in my class and I look forward to seeing you on the inside

Transcripts

1. Introduction: Hello there. My name is David James Walton. I would like to welcome you to this skill share class, which is the second part of my history course, Howard Carter and the search for Tooting Car Moon. The class is aimed at history students who are studying this period at school or university , as well as those of you that have a general interest in history and the ancient Egyptian history in particular. And impart to, of course, I take a detailed look, a talent Carter and his discovery off Tutankhamen's tomb in the Valley of the Kings, where you will learn why Carter was given one last season to find the boy Faeroe, find out how the tomb was discovered and then excavated on, Be given an in debt description off the ante chamber, the annex burial chamber and the treasury. So go ahead and enrolled in my class, and I look forward to seeing you on the inside 2. The Last Season: such was the lack of success in the preceding seasons. Canavan was forced to make a decision he would have to stop financing. Carter's work on would give back his concession for the excavation of the site. He then sent for Carter so that he could tell him off his decision. Face to face Howard Carter made the journey back to England for his meeting with Lord Gonave. In knowing that the girl was about to pull the plug on his attempts to find Tutankhamen's tomb, the news was confirmed to him at Highclere Castle. Canto understood Canavan's reasons but pleaded with him to at least keep on the concession so that he could try and finance the work out of his own pocket. Conniving was so impressed with Carter's commitment that he not only agreed to keep the concession, but he also agreed to pay for one final season himself. Thus, Carter returned to Egypt, knowing that the 1922 23 season would almost certainly be his final one. In the search for the tomb of tooting car moon. Canavan's generous nature and confidence in Carter's ability was about to be rewarded. The 1922 23 season began on the first of November. Carter's diary, from 1922 reveals that he began the excavation where it had stopped the previous season. At the northeast corner off the entrance to the Tomb of Ram, Assist the six. Over the course of the next three days, ancient workmen's huts, which were used during the building of Ram assists Sixth Tomb, were first cleared off with rubbish covering them before being removed for further investigation below. Then, on the fourth of November 1922 only three days after the new season had begun, the top step of a stairway was discovered, which turned out to be the first step of the northeast corner of a sunken staircase. As the staircase was excavated, Carter became confident that it was up the type which would lead down to the entrance, often 18 dynasty tomb 3. The Water Boy: Did You Know?: did you know it was actually the Waterboy responsible for making sure the workers had enough to drink while they were working, who actually found the all important first step of the stairway leading down to the tomb of tooting car moon? 4. Excavating the Tomb: For Howard Carter, the fifth of November was certainly a day to remember, having worked hard, excavating the staircase all of the previous day and then until sunset on the fifth, his team of workers that clear down to the 12th step of the stairway, where Carter was now able to see the upper portion of a sill doorway. It was the entrance to a tomb on. What's more, the seals appeared to be intact. Carter further believed it to be an intact to due to the fact that the ancient workmen's huts built on top of the entrance, dated back to the 20th dynasty. He told his men to cover up the stairway to the tomb until the time for its uncovering and then with great excitement, cabled Lord Can av in the following telegraph at last have made wonderful discovery in Valley a magnificent to with Seal's intact recovered. Same for your arrival. Congratulations, Canavan replied to Carter's telegraph on the eight, stating that he and his daughter, Lady Evelyn, would arrive in Alexandria on the 20th. But it was not until the 23rd of November that they had arrived in the Valley of the Kings on work was begun by Carter's colleague Arthur Calendar on uncovering the To. By the 24th of November, all 16 steps have been uncovered, and now the whole of the sill doorway could be seen together with various seal impressions bearing the cartouche of Tutankhamen. It was now possible toe open the first door way, but not before a wooden grill was first made for fixing over it. The following day, the first doorway was finally open, which led down a descending passage, unfortunately, strewn along the floor of this passageway. In amongst the rubble were broken alabaster jars and colored pottery vases. On seeing this, Carter realized that these items pointed to the likelihood that the tomb had, in fact, being plundered by tomb Raiders at some point in the past, most likely just after the pharaoh's burial. Undeterred cartoons, men continued to clear the passage off, although rubble until finally they reached a second seal doorway. Now Carter would find out the extent of the plundering and whether or not all his hard work was about to pay off 5. Winter Palace Hotel: Did You Know?: did you know? It is said that the discovery of Tutankhamen's tomb was first announced to the world when Howard Carter pinned the announcement on the bulletin board off the Winter Palace Hotel in looks or where he was a regular guest. 6. The Antechamber: on Sunday, the 26th of November 1922. The time had come to break the second seal doorway Open prison to this monumental event were Carter, Can Arvin, Lady Evelyn, Arthur Calendar and the two foreman of the Egyptian workers. Carter himself made a small breach in the top left hand corner of the doorway before putting a candle through the hole to test for foul gases. Carter then whitened the whole and by means of the candle look team. It was a little time before Carter could see anything. The escaping air from the tomb made the candle flicker and then took a little time for his eyes to adjust to the glimmer of the light. But slowly, Cart was able to see different objects stacked upon one another. An impatient Canavan demanded of Carter. Can you see anything? To which Carter replied, Yes, wonderful things, wonderful things. Carter was peering into what would become known as the anti chained off the tomb, and among the wonderful things that he himself described were too strange. Ebony, black effigies of a king gold sandaled bearing staff and mace loomed out from the cloak of darkness, gilded couches and strange forms. Lion headed, Hathor headed and beast infernal, exquisitely painted, inlaid and ornamental caskets, flowers, alabaster vases, some beautifully executed of lotus and papyrus device. Strange black shrines with a gilded months to snake appearing from within. Quite ordinary looking white chests finally carved chairs. A golden in late thrown a heap of large, curious white over form boxes beneath our very eyes on the threshold. A lovely low to form wishing cup in translucent alabaster stools of all shapes and design of both common and rare materials. And lastly, a confusion of overturned parts of chariots glinting with gold appearing from amongst which was a mannequin. The very next day, Carter, Can Arvin, Lady Evelyn and Calendar entered the ante chamber with electric lighting in order to make a careful inspection of the room. Such was the amount of items crowded into the chamber. They had to be especially careful not to disturb or damage anything. The results of this initial inspection was that it was clear that they had discovered a Faeroes to, and not merely a cash, and also that they had found a royal burial that was almost intact except for some hurry plundering from ancient grave robbers. It was also clear that this anti chamber was not the only room in the tomb 7. The Annexe: it was discovered that there was a second, smaller room attached to the anti chamber, which was access through a small door cut between the legs of one of the three couches in the chamber. This room, all the annex, as Carter refer to it, contained many items, such as oils, wines, pottery, dishes, stalls, games on baskets, which appeared to have been left in rather a disorderly manner. Due to this disarray, which was almost certainly caused by ancient tomb rangers, Carter decided that the annex would be the final room to be documented. An interesting item found within the annex was an elegant looking game board made of Ebony , ivory, Lapidus and gold. The game was caught Senate, which was a very popular game in ancient Egypt, based on the movement of drafts across a board consisting of 30 squares arranged into three parallel rows of 10 squares. Each of even more interest than the annex was the second room leading off from the anti chamber on the right and war this chamber was still sealed on was actually guarded by two sentinels. This room especially excited Carter, as he immediately believed it to be the support cruel chamber or the burial chamber. However, before any official openings of that room could take place, Carter made the decision for the anti chamber to be carefully cleared. Photographed a meticulously processed. Carter soon realized that this was going to be a huge project on that he was in desperate need for assistance. He immediately set about recruiting experts and the different fields that he felt were needed to successfully make an historic record of this incredible discovery. Amongst the new recruits were Harry Burton, who joined the team is the official photographer Alfred Lucas, responsible for the chemical preparations to preserve objects and textiles, and Arthur Mace, who became Carter's invaluable right hand man. His team assembled. Carter began the arduous job of clearing the ante chamber. This pain staking work would take up most of the rest of the season, however, By the middle of February 1923 every object had been cleared from the anti chamber and removed the laboratory, except for the two sentinel statues who still stood there guarding the cell door. And it was to this still Doorly. But Carter and his team now turned their attention 8. The Game of Senet: Did You Know?: did you know Senate is a game that is still played today, and you can even buy yourself a set from Amazon. There have also been many studies of Senate Online, which explained the history of the game as well as the rules in detail. 9. The Burial Chamber: according to Carter's own notes and the photographic evidence, it would appear that he, Lord Can Arvin and Lady Evelyn actually into the burial chamber shortly after the tombs discovery and quite a long time before its official opening. It is quite understandable to think that Carton can Arvin would want to have a quick peek to satisfy their curiosity as to whether or not there was a sealed sarcophagus awaiting them on the other side of the seal doorway. However, the official opening of the burial chamber did not take place until the 16th of February 1923 where it was open to some fanfare at 2 p.m. Carter Can Arvin, Lady Evelyn on the main members of the excavation team, namely Mace Calendar, Lucas and Burton met with a total of 10 officials of various description. By 2:15 p.m. The privilege. 17 were all gathered around the entrance to the tomb, ready to be led down the passageway and into the empty anti chamber below. The sentinel guards have been screened with a wooden boarding serves to protect them from any possible damage on a small platform was erected between them in order to enable access to the upper part of the doorway, as Carter had considered it safest to knock through the doorway from the top down, thus causing the least amount of damage. Then, before the watching eyes of the guests, Carter proceeded to chip away at the plaster off the seal doorway. Once Carter had made a hole big enough to look into the chamber, he inserted electric torch and, to his surprise, so a solid wall of gold only a yard away from his face, which stretched as far as he could see. Now, with the help of Mace and Calendar, Carter very carefully chipped away at the whole, stopping only to remove the uneven slaps from the wall on past, um back to be extracted from the tomb. Before long, it became apparent that the solid gold wall was actually part of a huge gilded shrine, which had been built to cover and protect the sarcophagus. After two hours work, a space have been fashioned large enough a cart to end to the burial chamber. There was a drop of about four feet from the anti chamber on quite a tight space between the chamber wall and the gold trying, but Carter was able to take a portable light on lower himself down Canavan. Lady Evelyn then joined him, and they made their way along the narrow passage between the wall and the shrine. It soon became apparent that the huge gold shrine took up most of the space in the room, leaving only a few feet between each of its four sides on the walls of the chamber, while the roof of the shrine almost reached up to the ceiling. Meanwhile, unlike in the ante chamber, the walls of the burial chamber were decorated with brightly painted scenes and inscriptions. 10. The Gilded Shrine: Did You Know?: Did you know the gold shrine discovered in the support crew chamber actually house the Siris of Nestle coffins, each of which had to be carefully removed before access to the innermost coffin was possible. This coffin was made of solid gold, which housed the mummy of King Tut and his fabulous golden death mask. 11. The Treasury: as they made their way to the far right side, the burial chamber from the anti chamber. Another surprise was awaiting them. There was an entrance to yet another chamber, and this time the doorway was not sealed. So Carter was able to look through and get a clear view. The contents of the room. Just from that first glance, it was clear to Carter that this was the room where all the treasures from the tomb had been placed. At the center of the chamber, which became known as Treasury, stood a large, shrine shaped chest completely over laid with gold, which Carter later describes as the most beautiful monument that he had ever seen in front of the shrine. At the entrance to the treasury stood the figure of the Jackal guilt. A new Pius, while immediately behind him, was the head of a bull. These were both emblems of the under. Well, the treasury also included an array of other wonderful things, such as black shrines and chests, the funeral statue. It's off the king caskets of ivory ostrich feather fans and a number of model boats, with their sails and rigging complete. Unlike the ante chamber in the annex. There was a lot more order to this room. Most of the boxes in the chamber still had this seal's intact. After Carter Can Arvin and Lady Evelyn returned to the anti chamber, the other members of the team and distinguished guests were allowed to see for themselves the marbles that have been discovered, a process that took until past five PM Once the initial joy of this incredible discovery had passed, Carter's thoughts turned to how best to records and process what they had found so that history would always remember it. The hard work was just about to begin. Such was the extent of the painstaking work, which Carter undertook to ensure that the discovery of the tomb was properly processed and photographed that he remained in Egypt, working on the site until the excavation was completed in 1932. When asked why he was so methodical and exact in his methods, Carter replied that it had Bean are privileged to find the most important collection of Egyptian antiquities that had ever seen the light, and it was for us to show that we were worthy of the trust. And thanks to Carter's thoroughness and attention to detail, it was also possible to put together more information about two Tutankhamen actually Waas 12. Class Project for this Course: Hello. In this short video, I'm going to talk about your class project for this course. Quite simply, Once you have completed each of the lectures in the class, I would like you to state your favorite fact that you have learned from this module of the course in the project gallery. So good luck with your project. And I look forward to seeing your favorite fact in the project gallery soon.