The Search for Tutankhamun (Part 1): Howard Carter and the Valley of the Kings | David ✏ Ault | Skillshare

The Search for Tutankhamun (Part 1): Howard Carter and the Valley of the Kings

David ✏ Ault, The Writer Teacher

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12 Lessons (26m)
    • 1. An Introduction to the Class

      1:13
    • 2. Howard Carter and the Search for Tutankhamun

      4:56
    • 3. Howard Carter

      3:34
    • 4. Howard Carter: Did You Know?

      0:26
    • 5. Chief Inspector of Antiquities Services

      3:38
    • 6. Lord Carnarvon

      3:14
    • 7. Highclere Castle: Did You Know?

      0:36
    • 8. The Valley of the Kings

      3:17
    • 9. The Valley of the Kings: Did You Know?

      0:28
    • 10. Theodore M. Davis

      3:13
    • 11. Theodore M. Davis: Did You Know?

      0:33
    • 12. Class Project for this Course

      0:30

About This Class

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The Search for Tutankhamun (Part 1): Howard Carter and the Valley of the Kings is aimed at history students, who are studying this period at school or university, as well as those of you that have a general interest in history (and Ancient Egyptian history in particular).

In part one of the course, I take a detailed look at Howard Carter and his search for Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings, where you will:

  • Be given a detailed look at Howard Carter’s early life as an Egyptologist
  • Discover Carter’s relationship with his patron, Lord Carnarvon 
  • Learn all about the history of the Valley of the Kings
  • Find out about the many failed attempts to locate the Boy Pharaoh’s tomb prior to Carter’s discovery

So go ahead and enrol in my class and I look forward to seeing you on the inside

Transcripts

1. An Introduction to the Class: Hello there. My name is David James Salt and I would like to welcome you to this skill share class, which is the first part of my history course. Howard Carter and the search for Tutankhamen classes aimed at history students who are studying this period at school or university, as well as those of you that have a general interest in history and ancient Egyptian history in particular. In part one of the course, I take a detailed look at Howard Carter and he searched for Tutankhamen in the Valley of the Kings, where you will be given a detailed look at Howard Carter's early life. A Zen Egyptologist. Discover Carter's relationship with his patron, Lord Canavan. Learn all about the history of the Valley of the Kings. Find out about the many failed attempts to locate the boy Pharaoh's tomb crier to Carter's discovery. To go ahead and enroll in my class, and I look forward to seeing you on the inside 2. Howard Carter and the Search for Tutankhamun: until 1922. Not much was known about Tutankhamen and the little that was known about the boy. Pharaoh hinted at a rather uneventful reign. The reason for this lack of knowledge about the 13th ruler, the 18th dynasty of Egypt, was in part down to the fact that the 15th and final pharaoh of the dynasty Horemheb seem to make it his life's mission to expunge any record of tooting car moon from the history books. It is likely that Horemheb actions may well have played a part in keeping Tutankhamen's tomb in the Valley of the Kings relatively intact throughout the years. Although the tomb was broken into by tomb Raiders on at least two occasions shortly after the pharaoh's burial, it seems that perhaps this later animosity may have helped keep away any future grave robbers. Another Faeroe who played an important role in helping to keep the tomb safe was Ram assist , the six during the construction of his own tomb. Workmen's huts were built in the top of the entrance to Tutankhamen's, too, thus hiding the tomb on basically ensuring its safety. For the next 3000 or so years. Now, the tomb was not only well hidden from grave robbers, but also from 19th and 20th century archeologists, some of whom were not even convinced the tooting car moon was in fact buried in the Valley of the Kings. Indeed, the prolific Italian explorer and archaeologist Giovanni Battista Fells only who had already discovered several tombs, including those of I and setting the first famously declared in 18 19 that all of the tombs have been found and nothing of note remained to be found. Little else was discovered in the Valley of the Kings until the beginning of the 20th century, when the American archaeologist Theodore M. Davis had the excavation permit to dig in the Valley. Davis ultimately proved Belzoni statement to be incorrect, and he actually discovered several royal and non royal tombs, including the tomb of the aforementioned Horemheb. However, in a 1912 publication, Davis himself ruled out the possibility of finding Tutankhamen's tomb in the valley when he declared that he feared the Valley of the Kings is now exhausted. However, there was one man who still believed that Tutankhamen's tomb was waiting to be found in the Valley of the Kings, and his determined at times almost fanatical search for the boy Pharaoh resulted in ensuring Tutankhamen's place in history as not only the most well known of all the pharaohs but also a household name. That man was Howard Carter. This course will begin by looking at Carter his early career and his relationship with the Lord Can Arvin before discussing the Valley of the Kings on some of the discoveries by archaeologists leading up to 1922. We should then look at the discovery of Tutankhamen's tomb on describe the four chambers that make up the two, namely the ante chamber, the annex, the burial chamber and the treasury. Before looking at Tutankhamen himself, we shall first discuss his family and in particular, but most of the fourth Amenhotep, the third back in art in and never TT the course thing continues by considering in turn, the reign of Tutankhamen, the death of Tutankhamen and the curse of Tutankhamen before finally taking a look at the legacy of this, the most famous of pharaohs. Throughout the course, I have included some interesting did you know, snippets of information and there is actually a quiz at the end of each of the sections, so you can test your knowledge as you go along. I would like to take this opportunity to thank you for investing in the search for tooting car moon. And I hope that you find the course both enjoyable and educational. Thank you very much. 3. Howard Carter: Howard Carter was born in the affluent district of Kensington, London, in 18 74. The son of the artist Samuel John Carter, who was a well known animal painter, Samuel Carter worked for the illustrated London News from 18 76 to 18 89 on was also a portrayed painter. During that time, the young Howard followed in his father's footsteps, showing artistic talent from an early age, which his father was quick to encourage as a teenager. His ability is an artist to develop such that he was able to gain a commission and traveled to Egypt at the tender age of 17. The reason that such an extraordinary opportunity was gifted to Carter at this early age was in part due to his acquaintance with Lord and Lady Amherst, who lived in the stately home of Bedlington Hall, near to the village where he grew up The AM Hurst's owned one of the largest private collections of ancient Egypt antiquities in England, and they were able to arrange a meeting for Carter with the Egyptologist Percy Edward Newberry. Having seen Carter's artistic ability, New Pre commissioned him to help document tubes in middle Egypt, where he began work tracing paintings at the ancient Egyptian cemetery site off Bernie Hassan. Before long, Carter had caught the eye of Flinders Petrie, the well known Egyptologist and archaeologist who at that time was exploring the city of El Amarna. Carter soon joined Petrie, a pioneer of systematic methodology and archaeology who would play a significant role in his mentoring and training as an Egyptologist. It was underpay trees supervision that Carter learned how to responsibly and systematically excavate a site. Incidentally, the city of El Amarna was built by Tutankhamen's father, back in art in for his revolutionary religion that worship the sun disc Nothing. It is quite likely that this was the first time that Carter became aware off the boy Faeroe . By now, Carter had become quite adapt in improving the methods of copying tomb decorations. And from 18 94 18 99 he worked with Edward Nephew at Deir el Bahari, recording the wall reliefs in the Temple off Hatshepsut suit. Unlike Petrie, the Swiss archeologist had little regard to the detailed evidence to be found in the course of an excavation, being more concerned with the large scale clearance of sites and for this reason he was often criticized by his peers. Certainly Novell's archaeological methods were in complete contrast to the painstaking detail on systematic methodology used by Carter himself later in his career. 4. Howard Carter: Did You Know?: did you know Howard Carter was quite a sickly child? And due to his ill health, he received his schooling privately under tutors. In later life, Carter felt his education to be minimal, which frequently frustrated him. 5. Chief Inspector of Antiquities Services: In 18 99 the 25 year old Carter had become quite established, is an archaeologist and was appointed chief inspector of the Egyptian Antiquity Service for Upper Egypt. This was quite a responsible role for a man of his age, and he successfully supervised a number of excavations at Phoebe's. It was also during this period that Carter first came into contact with the wealthy American archaeologist Theodore Monroe Davis, who had obtained the coveted license to excavate in western Thebes. Davis enjoyed great success during his 12 years excavating in Thebes, discovering some 30 tombs in that time, which eventually included those off, Horemheb and Queen had chip suit. He also financed a couple of excavations for Carter, who successfully looked for and then found the tomb of tough Moses. The fourth this'll was Carter's greatest discovery to date improved the Greek block system he used to search for tombs to be successful. Unfortunately, the tomb had been plundered by grave robbers, but nonetheless there was still a number of important items left, including the tombs, colorful wall paintings. And so the find was considered quite a coup for the young archaeologist in 1904 Carter was transferred to the Inspectorate of Lower Egypt, where he was praised for his improvements in the protection off and accessibility to existing excavation sites. However, Justus Carter's career seemed to be going from strength to strength. He suffered a major setback with an incident that subsequently became known as the Saqqara Affair. It centered around a noisy confrontation between Egyptian site guards on a group of French tourists, where Carter loyally sided with the Egyptian personnel. He was accused by the French tourists of Disrespect and was then ordered to apologise to them by his employees. Carter. True, too stubborn nature refused and instead resign from the antiquity service in 1905 With hindsight, Carter's resignation may not have Bean the wisest thing for him to do. Certainly, for the next few years his career plummeted, and he struggled to make a living as a tour guide, the dealer in antiquities and from selling his watercolor paintings. During that time, he longed for a chance to dig excavator site, using his meticulous grid block method, and to finally discover an intact, too. However, it was not until 1907 when he met with Lord Can novel on the recommendation off Gaston Maspero, the director general of excavations and antiquities in Egypt, that Carter's luck began to change. 6. Lord Carnarvon: George Edward Stanhope Malan. You. Herbert, fifth Earl of Carnarvon, was born in 18 66 at Highclere Castle in Hampshire. Educated at Eton and then a Trinity College, Cambridge, Canavan succeeded his father in the Oldham in 18 90 8 24 In 18 95 Canavan married Al Meena Victoria Maria Alexandra, one. Will, the illegitimate daughter of the millionaire banker Alfred the Rothschild, her father provided are meaner with the £500,000 dowry, which allowed her financially strapped husband to maintain the family state. At Highclere Castle, Donovan was an enthusiastic owner of racehorses and established Highclere stud to breed thoroughbreds. He also had a passion for driving automobiles, often quite recklessly and unfortunately, had a serious motoring accident in 1901 Nie to Bartsch fall back in Germany. Although Canavan survived, the accident left him extremely weak and quite vulnerable to the cold British weather. This led to the old spending his winters abroad, and in 1903 he visited Egypt for the first time. Although the Cairo whether suited Canavan's health, he soon found it to be quite a boring place to live and so decided to take up the hobby of Egyptology toe help pass the time. Little did he know then just how much of his time and money this new hobby would take up. Can Arvin first approached Lord Cromer, the consul general of Egypt, if he could find him a small excavation to oversee Chrome obliged with a site in the area off Sheikh Abdel Kuna. And soon, Canavan had moved from Cairo to Luxor so he could be nearer his new interest. Despite six weeks of digging, the site returned few results. But rather than deter Vo, he instead decided that if he were to succeed in this newfound hobby, he would need to hire some professional help. This time, Canavan turned to Gaston Maspero, the director general of excavations and antiquities in Egypt, asking if he knew of anyone suitable. Maspero immediately thought of Howard Carter and arranged for the two to meet, although from totally different backgrounds. Cartoon Canavan seemed to hit it off straight away. Lord Canavan had found the professional he needed for his new hobby, and Carter had found the source of financing he needed to carry out his work 7. Highclere Castle: Did You Know?: Did you know Highclere Castle is the setting for the very popular period drama Downton Abbey. Although most of the upstairs filming takes place at Highclere, the downstairs filming is done in a studio in London. Meanwhile, a museum showcasing Canavan's Egyptian antiquities and collection of automobiles takes up much of the seller rooms. 8. The Valley of the Kings: the Valley of the Kings is an area in Egypt just west of look. So where the pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom were buried from the 16th to the 11th century B. C. In ancient times, the official name for the burial site was actually a bit of a mouthful, the great and majestic necropolis off the millions of years of the Faeroe Life strength health in the west of Thebes. Unsurprisingly, it was more commonly known as the great Filled. The first pharaoh to be buried in the Valley of the Kings was put most of the first. This new location was chosen by the pharaoh's adviser in any as it was considered to be far less conspicuous than the pyramid tombs off the earlier pharaohs. We should all be plundered by grave robbers in any actually wrote on the walls of his own. To that when he built his pharaoh's tomb, he did so no one seeing no one knowing. Some Egyptologists believe that the workers who built the most this tune were killed on its completion in order to keep its location a secret. Whether this is true or not, the attempt at secrecy ultimately failed because, despite being less obvious than the pyramids, the tombs in the Valley of the Kings were still all plundered by tomb Raiders to some degree or another, including the tomb off that most of the first, The Valley of the Kings actually consists off two valleys east and west. The East Valley is where the majority of the royal tombs are to be found on. The tombs are numbered K V 12 kv 63 in the order of Discovery, with KV standing for Kings Valley. Meanwhile, the West Valley tombs have a WV prefix but follow the same numbering system. For example, W v 22 W. V. 25. When Carter and Canavan first met, the concession for digging in the Valley of the Kings was actually owned by the archeologist Theodore Davis, who Carter had previously none work for between 1902 and 1904 in his role as inspector general of antiquities for Upper Egypt. Although Carter's ultimate goal had always been to systematically excavate the Valley of the Kings, this was not possible. While Davis owned the concession on DSO, he and Can Arvin would have to content themselves with other sites in the region. Nonetheless, during this time, Carter always kept a close eye on the progress Davis was making in the Valley of the Kings . 9. The Valley of the Kings: Did You Know?: did you know? Despite being called the Valley of the Kings, only about 20 of the 65 tombs discovered in the East and West Valley's contained the burials of actual kings. The remaining tombs are made up of the burials from other members of the royal family and nobles, as well as unmarked pits on embalming cash. 10. Theodore M. Davis: On the whole, Theodore Davis was enjoying some considerable success in the Valley and discovered or cleared about 30 tombs in the 12 years he owned the concession. One of his most well known finds was that of Khorram Hips, too, discovered by the young British Egyptologist Edward Curtain in 1908 another important discovery, again excavated by Ed Werder. Tonight, behalf of Davis was that of Cavey, 54 in 1907 Various storage jars were found within the two, which contained pottery dishes, animal bones, floral colors and, most importantly, linen containing text and dated to the final years of Tutankhamen's reign. This discovery led Davis to incorrectly declare in 1912 that he had, in fact, found what was left of Tutankhamen's, too. By 1913 Davis had grown weary of the Valley of the Kings and disillusioned with the fact that he had been unable to discover an intact royal, too. He was convinced that the area had now been exhausted, and so he finally gave up his concession toe excavate in the valley during the 1913 1914 season. This, of course, was the moment that Howard Carter had long been waiting for, and he wasted no time in convincing Lord Can Arvin to now take up the concession. Carter was initially quite successful with his excavations, but unfortunately, World War had begun to have a major effect on life in Egypt, and he found that he was not able to spend much time on his archaeological work due to his wartime post as a diplomatic courier. Following the war, Carter and Carnarvon agreed that they would now concentrate on a systematic search for the tomb of Tutankhamen using Carter's Greek block system. However, the very nature of Carter's methods meant that thousands of tons of rubble needed to be removed from each block on the Great if the area was to be properly excavated, leaving no stone unturned. Seasons of hard work followed, which on the surface did not appear to be producing any noticeable results. The costs involved in the excavations mounted on slowly, but surely, Canavan's interest in the Endeavour began to wane. By the end of the 1921 1922 season, Canavan was beginning to think that perhaps Theodore Davis have been correct all along, and that all the tombs in the Valley of the Kings had already being discovered 11. Theodore M. Davis: Did You Know?: did you know photographer Harry Burton conducted excavations for the American archaeologist Theodore Davis between 1912 and 1914. He later admitted the wind. Davis terminated his last excavation in the Valley of the Kings. He was, in fact, only two meters away from discovering the entrance to the tomb of Tutankhamen. 12. Class Project for this Course: Hello. In this short video, I'm going to talk about your class project for this course. Quite simply, Once you have completed each of the lectures in the class, I would like you to state your favorite fact that you have learned from this module of the course in the project gallery. So good luck with your project. And I look forward to seeing your favorite fact in the project gallery soon.