The Science of Easy Vegan Baking | Samita Sarkar | Skillshare

The Science of Easy Vegan Baking

Samita Sarkar, Author and Vegan Baker

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14 Lessons (50m)
    • 1. Let's Get Started

      1:37
    • 2. Easy White Frosting

      1:09
    • 3. Easy Fudge Frosting

      1:00
    • 4. Acids and Bases

      9:11
    • 5. Simple Cake

      2:45
    • 6. Shortbread

      2:12
    • 7. Gingerbread Cookies

      2:09
    • 8. Chocolate Coconut Bundt Cake

      2:43
    • 9. Lemon Chocolate Cupcakes

      2:10
    • 10. Zucchini Brownies

      1:58
    • 11. Home Style Cinnamon Rolls

      6:26
    • 12. Cherry Pie

      1:36
    • 13. Pigments

      12:54
    • 14. Goodbye

      2:36
13 students are watching this class

About This Class

The Science of Easy Vegan Baking features 10 easy-to-follow, completely vegan recipes to help people who are new to dessert preparation get a grasp on the basics. This includes cakes, cupcakes, cookies, and even homemade icing. None of the recipes use dairy, eggs, or peanut butter, so those with allergies and other dietary restrictions can enjoy.

These are just some of the recipes that are available in Samita Sarkar's vegan dessert book, Taste Tests -- and a couple that aren't!

Because baking is just as much a science as an art, this course also includes short, digestible scientific tidbits explaining the chemistry of the recipes and the ingredients, and why they react the way that they do.

Format of the Course:

*Note: A complete recipe list is available for download in the resources section, and can be referred to as needed.

Part 1: The Icing on the Cake

Watch the white and fudge frosting recipes. Download the "Breakdown on Sugar" PDF in the resources section.

Part 2: A Simple Cake from Scratch

Watch the Acid-Base and Simple Cake videos. You may start thinking about your project at this time.

Part 3: Cookie Chemistry

Watch the shortbread and gingerbread cookie recipe videos, and download the PDF on aromatics.

A bonus activity explaining moles and molecules (and how to use these concepts to discover baking ratios) is available for download as well. As an added challenge, you can complete the activity to find the shortbread measurements without needing to even watch the lesson! This is a good practice activity for students who are interested in science.

Part 4: Chocolate Goodness

In this section, we learn to make chocolate goodies: marble cake, brownies, and lemon chocolate cupcakes. Please download the corresponding resources on Flowers and Flour (marble cake), Photosynthesis (brownies), and Vitamin C (lemon cupcakes).

Part 5: Home Style Comforts

Finally, we learn to make comfort foods: cinnamon rolls and pie. Please watch these remaining videos, and help yourself to the corresponding downloads on Aerobic Respiration (cinnamon rolls) and Pigments (cherry pie) while you also help yourself to a serving of one of your creations!

Armed with your new baking skills and knowledge of kitchen chemistry, you're ready to finish your project and share the pictures -- or even the final product itself! ;)

Transcripts

1. Let's Get Started: Hi, everyone. Welcome to the science of easy vegan baking a course to show beginner Baker's how to make no nonsense, healthier desserts with no animal byproducts and a few ingredients as possible. I'm Sumita Sarkar, author of The Vegan Cookbook Taste Tests. After studying science, nutrition and chemistry at Athabasca University, I designed this course so that people with little to no background in cooking or nutrition could learn all the classic dessert staples, cakes, cupcakes, cookies and pies even frosting all in a self paced force that can take as little as 10 days . The chorus includes simple kitchen ingredients, unrefined where possible no trips to a specialty food store are required. The science behind the recipes is also described. You'll soon learn the hows and whys of exactly what you're making. This course is perfect for people of all ages who are interested in learning how to bake, even for parents with Children peeking their interest in kitchen chemistry at a young age. After this class, you will never need to buy a boxed cake mix again. Thank you so much, and I hope you enjoy this class 2. Easy White Frosting: Hi guys, samedi here and today we're going to talk about how to make icing. I start with 3.5 cups of ice and sugar into a food processor or a large bowl, and then I add a cup of margarine. I don't like to waste anything. Then I add a tablespoon of the milk of your choosing. I like almond milk or soy milk. Then I blend or whisk. If using a bowl. Once it's reasonably incorporated, I have the vanilla extract and continue blending until I get this lovely texture. If you're wondering why the hand looks different, my mom is the lovely hand model right now, and I am holding the camera so the frosting is finished. We store it. It should last up to about six months, and you can use it toe ice, whatever you want, takes cookies or, in this case, black forest cupcakes. Enjoy 3. Easy Fudge Frosting: Hi, guys. Sumita again, And it's time to make fudge frosting, so we're going to start with three cups of icing sugar into a bow or food processor. 3/4 cups of cocoa powder, then just 1/4 cop of dairy free margarine and about 1/2 a cup of the milk of your choice. I like almond or soy milk. You can use a little bit less if you want a thicker texture and blend or whisk it up. If you're using a bowl instead of food processor and this should be the results, it's time to store it in a container and use it to ice our brownies later on in the course . Enjoy. 4. Acids and Bases: hi guys today. I want to talk to you about assets and basis every single time that we bake a cake, we are creating an acid base reaction in our kitchen lab. And this is why I like to think of our kitchen as a laboratory, even though this isn't the way that we typically think. And if you work in science, you know that food in the lab is considered totally taboo, and we're never supposed to eat in the lab. Chemical compounds are not traditionally considered appetizing, but at the end of the day, our entire world is made up of molecules, and this includes the food that we eat. It's not only when we bake cakes or cupcakes, but any time that you bake anything with baking powder and or baking soda, you are creating an acid base reaction. So what exactly does that mean? First of all, our food behaves the way that it does because of its chemical makeup. Molecules are made up of atoms and atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons are positive, neutrons are neutral and they're both packed together in the nucleus of an atom with the electrons spinning around the nucleus in various orbital patterns. The electrons are negatively charged, electrons are very light, and the protons and neutrons are much heavier. The simplest and most abundant atom in the world is hydrogen, and it doesn't even have neutrons. It just has one proton in the nucleus and one electron the negative charge. The electron balances out the positive charge of the single proton, so when hydrogen loses that electron, it becomes an eye on a charged molecule. But this charged molecule is basically just a proton, because hydrogen without its electron, it's simply a proton. And it is these charged hydrogen ions, also called hydro knee um, ions that are released into a solution when the solution is acidic. Just this little pro time, this tiny subatomic particle is what makes an acid and acid. If this is a little bit confusing to you, let me break it down. Very simply, acids are proton donors. If somebody asks you what an acid is, that's simply what it ISS and acid is a proton donor, meaning that it releases hydrogen ions, a k a. Protons into solutions. PH means power of hydrogen and on a log arithmetic scale of 0 to 14. The lower that the number is, the more acidic the solution is. Seven. The pH of water is neutral, and anything below that is considered acidic, thes air. Some of the properties of assets, their Proton donors. They have low pH values, and they have a sour taste. Examples are lemon juice, vinegar and for juice. Bases are proton, except er's the bases pick up the extra hydrogen ions and increased hydroxide in solution. So when you see and acid react in any type of chemical equation, you will notice that the hydrogen ion concentration is increased. With a base, you'll notice the hydroxide or a wage increase. So while acids are proton donors, bases are proton except er's. They have high pH values above seven, and they have a bitter taste. The most relevant base that you need to remember in this course is baking soda, a k a. Sodium bicarbonate. When acids and bases react together, they produce a water and assault. This salt doesn't have to be table salt, sodium chloride and a C. L. It can be any ionic compound. In addition to water and salt, some assets, particularly organic assets also generate carbon dioxide gas, and this is what causes our cakes to rise and fluff up due to the release of the CO two bubbles. So here's what happens when we put baking soda in a reaction with any acidic solution or even a neutral solution like water, just something with a lower pH than baking soda. It reacts. It makes that typical Ohh hydroxide compound at his typical four basis to make. It makes carbonic acid, which then ends up really saying CO two. And we have Htoo with lemon juice, which has a much lower pH, then water. Due to the presence of citric acid, sodium bicarbonate again behaves as abates as it is. Want to dio? It reacts with the citric acid to form sodium citrate, the salt in the scenario water and carbon dioxide. Guess the reaction is rather potent and violent and beautiful and exciting to look at. Know that even though citric acid has a very low pH and it's a pH about to it, it's still not considered a strong acid. And this is because strong acids are not just compounds that are very acidic. But would we say strong acid? It's actually a chemical term relating to a compound that will disassociate completely in solution. It just becomes totally ionized, breaks up completely, meaning that the positive and the negative parts of the molecule are 100% separated from each other. This is not the case with citric acid and with organic acids in general, which are the assets that were going to use in this course. We're going to use organic carbon containing compounds, carbohydrate rich compounds that we can eat that are delicious. These compounds do not associate fully assembled associate. Some will stay together. Some will associate and then come back together. And that is the nature of organic compounds. So, yes, sister gas, it is very acidic, but it's not technically considered a strong acid, just a little bit of scientific terminology for you. Another common misconception is that acids are very corrosive. Some acids are corrosive, summer mild and even a strong base can be corrosive as well. So instead of judging and acid based on how corrosive it IHS or how strong it ISS, we should just stick to the scientific definition, which is that an acid, whether mild or not, will donate protons in a solution, and this is what is going to happen in our simple cake recipe. We mix baking soda with an almond or soy milk solution, which is basically a water solution and a quickest solution that contains some small amount of healthy proteins and fats. And in that solution, which is pretty much neutral because the baking soda is more basic and the solution is it will take on the role of the base. The amend or soy milk will take on the role of the acid. Our cake will form carbon dioxide bubbles in the batter. It will rise and fluff up, and we will eat it. I hope you guys enjoy. 5. Simple Cake: Heil Sumita Sarkar here, and it's time to make a simple white cake doing an acid base reaction in our kitchen. We're gonna start with a cup of flour. That's all you need. A couple of tablespoons of baking powder and a little bit of baking soda. Just half a teaspoon. It's We got a lot of base in the cake mix right about now. All right, in a large measuring cup will measure out 1/2 a cup of almond milk. You can use a little bit more if you want a little vanilla extract. Just half a teaspoon, a little bit of vegetable oil, two tablespoons. Look at that. 1/4 cup of maple syrup stirred all together and pour it in. If you need a little bit more on the milk here, that's totally fine. As you can see, I don't want to waste any of the maple syrup. It's a little bit expensive even here in Canada. Depending on where you live, you can do different sweetener. In Mexico, you can use a gobby syrup us. I think we have a Gavi as well. In India, they have date syrup, any type of syrup that you want. Stir it all up. You can see it's a little bit bubbly from the CO two so poured into a camp that is greased with dairy free margarine, coconut oil or even just a little bit of vegetable oil. It should pop right out. It doesn't even need to be, well greased looking pretty nice. Bake it for 20 to 25 minutes, depending on your oven. For me, it's about 23 minutes, and it comes out looking like this. The texture is really nice, and we ice it with our home made easy white frosting. All right, time for a slice. 6. Shortbread: Kimora How everyone? Time to make some simple shortbread cookies. We're gonna start with a cup of unbleached all purpose flour and 1/2 a cup of rice flour, plus a pinch of salt. In a smaller bowl, get 3/4 of a cup of margarine and about half a cup of zyla tall cream that together margarine creams pretty easily so it shouldn't take long. All right. Now it's time to mix it all together in the larger bowl, and don't be afraid to need it together with washed hands. After that, you have a choice. You can roll up the dough into balls like that, flatten it and thank or you can roll it out with a rolling pin, and then you can use cookie cutters. The third option is to roll it Flatow and then cut it with a knife into squares. We've decided to go with all three options, making a variety of different shaped cookies and for the traditional Scottish shortbread look, don't forget to decorate the cookies by poking them with a fork. Baked them for 20 minutes at 340 degrees Fahrenheit, and they should be ready. Time to eat. Okay, 7. Gingerbread Cookies: All right, everyone. Time to bake a big batch of gingerbread cookies. Let's start with one and 1/4 cups of all purpose flour and a cup of whole wheat flour. For that extra fiber and earthy taste, you can use coconut sugar, which is unrefined, or brown sugar, which is refined, and a teaspoon of baking soda. Time for the spice. Two teaspoons ginger, one teaspoon cinnamon of course, A pinch of salt and we're not done yet. A pinch of allspice. Look at all those beautiful aromatics. All right, what ingredients? Margarine, coconut oil, molasses is and apple sauce. I like to mix them all together in a large measuring cup so I can incorporate them into the cookie mix at once, stir it together and then need it with washed hands. Here, you can either bring out your cookie cutters. Well, you can just roll and flatten them as ideo, but don't make them too thick because they do pop up even more in the oven. Then we bake for 10 to 12 minutes of 350 and we're good to go. Merry Christmas, 8. Chocolate Coconut Bundt Cake: This marble bundt cake looks fancy, but it's very simple. We just start with two cups of flour, a teaspoon of baking soda, two tablespoons of baking powder and 1/2 a cup of shredded coconut into a large bowl. Then we take half a cup of this cake mix and put it into a smaller role to the smaller ball at the coco powder and 1/4 cup of fresh nuts. This is going to be chocolatey, dense, rich part of the cake. Wet ingredients mixed half a cup of maple syrup with a can full fat coconut milk, and for 75% of that into the large bowl and the other 25% into smaller bowl, you can add a little bit of water to either bulls as needed. Add some vanilla to the Big Bull and our white cake mixes ready. It's time to pour it into the bunt baking pan. Once we're totally done with the white cake mix, we pour the chocolate cake mix on top and were careful to incorporate it as little as possible. It doesn't need to be heavily mixed by any means, because it is naturally thicker and denser. and it's going to sink to the bottom a little bit when baking, so we really don't need to incorporate it much at all. The Knicks was a little bumpy, so I just mixed it enough to flatten out the batter. Otherwise, I could have mixed it even less than this. Put it into the oven at 350 degrees, and 30 minutes later you have a cake. It comes out looking like this, and like all my cakes, it pops right out. You can either use this chocolate glaze recipe. If you don't want to use too much frosting, or you can use our easy fudge frosting recipe to decorate it or both or neither you can even just serve it as is. Our cake is ready to go. 9. Lemon Chocolate Cupcakes: and hi everyone. Sumita Sarkar here. Time to make lemon chocolate cupcakes. We start with 1.5 cups of all purpose flour. 1/3 cup of many chocolate chips. Full sized chocolate chips tend to fall to the bottom of the batter. Half a teaspoon of baking soda, a tablespoon of lemon rind and he's $30. All right. Wet ingredients. Almond or soy milk syrup, vegetable oil and a tablespoon of lemon use. I poured it into a larger measuring cups and then incorporated into the batter at once. If you need a little bit more almond milk, that's totally fine as well. You can add more as needed, and the batter is super fluffy due to the acid base reaction with the citric acid in the lemon juice, which has a very low pH. All right, time to fill up the cupcake moles. This recipe makes about a dozen cupcakes, and we bake for 15 minutes. At 3 50 You can beat this desert thousands, for you can bring out our easy fudge frosting completely up to you. This is why I started the course with the budge frosting and white frosting recipes so we can just bring them out of the fridge whenever we need them. See you guys soon 10. Zucchini Brownies: samedi here for this rescue. We're going to start by spiral izing and then chopping or using a greater and grading out a large bikini. So we end up with one and 1/3 cups of commenced a bikini. Then I preheat the oven and I start with the dry ingredients one in the third cups of unleashed flowers. So we have an equal oneto, one zucchini flower ratio, very healthy and, of course, the cocoa powder. A little bit of baking soda, wet ingredients, 3/4 of a cup of almond milk, 1/3 of a couple maple or adopting Sarah. Whatever syrup you want, basically two tablespoons of coconut oil and a teaspoon of vanilla extract. I measure that all out into a cup, and I set it aside until it is ready to incorporate at once to the cake mix. So first I get my shredded zucchini in there, I wonder. One ratio. Mom is the hand model chocolate chips, this person matted edginess, and then I can add in my wet ingredients. Stir it all together and you'll see the bikinis, but they aren't so noticeable. Once it's baked and frosted. Of course. Enjoy class 11. Home Style Cinnamon Rolls: hi guys today, we're going to learn how to make home style mouthwatering cinnamon roll. This recipe will involve a little bit more instruction because the process is a little bit more complicated, unlike baking a cake or making cookies or cupcakes. Making cinnamon rolls does not involve a chemical reaction, although carbon dioxide gas is still generated, which will make the baked products rise and become fluffy, this carbon dioxide gas isn't generated through an acid base reaction. Instead, their reaction is biological. It's a slow metabolic combustion reaction that occurs because of cellular respiration, which is also called aerobic respiration, through yeast microorganisms, which metabolize the sugar. All right, let's get started. Step one is to take 18 gram packet of dry yeast, which is equal to about two and 1/4 teaspoons, and to place that into a large bowl with 1/4 cup of warm water or almond milk. Keep in mind that this water or almond milk needs to be warm but not boiling, and add in a tablespoon of maple syrup. Keeping the water warm will help this biological reaction to occur more quickly, but using boiling water would kill the yeast once our mixture is set. We should leave it for 10 minutes and let the yeast get to work on aerobic respiration. Step two. While the yeast is feeding on the syrup, add 1/2 a cup of dairy free margarine to a pot on low heat and set that on the stove. It should melt, but again it should not boil at another one cup of almond milk and stir this milky butter mixture until it is consistent and warm but not hot or boiling. If you dip your finger into the mixture, it should resemble the temperature of a pleasant bath. Step three. By the time that this mixture on the pot is ready, yeast microorganisms in the bowl should have also begun their reactions, and you should notice tiny bubbles in the bowl. Tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide gas Pour the contents of the pot, the warm milk and margarine into this bowl. Add another three cups of flour into this bowl as well, and begin to need step. Five. Pour a little bit of flour 1/4 cup or so onto a clean kitchen countertop. Take the kneaded dough out of the bull and continue kneading it onto the counter. Rinse the bowl, Greece it with a teaspoon of coconut oil for margarine and then place the kneaded dough back into the greased bowl. Now the dough is in good shape. It's well needed. An oiled. Cover the bowl with some plastic wrap and let it sit for one hour while you're waiting. Now is a good time to prepare the filling. Preparing the feeling should only take a couple of minutes, and after that you set the filling aside and continue to wait for the full hour. You will notice the dough will start to rise substantially. Your yeast is active and it is working heart. Roll it out. Using a rolling pin, roll it into a rectangular shape about a centimeter thick. Place the filling onto the dough, leaving an inch diameter clear all around the sides and edges. This will help prevent the filling from spilling out. All right, now it's time to roll your cinnamon rolls. Once you have finished rolling the dough, cut it into pieces and these pieces will become your cinnamon rolls. Place these rolls upright onto a greased baking tray or a casserole dish and cover it with some saran wrap or a clean and damp kitchen towel and let it sit for another 20 to 30 minutes. This step is optional, but it does make the cinnamon rolls more fluffy, so it is highly recommended. Making cinnamon rolls is a long process. Once you have waited the 20 to 30 minutes for the cinnamon rolls to start to rise, you'll notice that they look puffed up and fluffy. Er, when you remove the plastic wrap or the kitchen towel, now they're ready to place in the oven. Bake the cinnamon rolls for 25 minutes at 350 degrees Fahrenheit. While you're waiting those 25 minutes for the cinnamon rolls to bake, you can prepare the glaze. The glaze recipe is also very simple and should only take a few minutes. All right, After this long process, your cinnamon rolls are finally almost ready. Put on your oven mitts, remove the rules, pour the glaze over them and enjoy 12. Cherry Pie: The last recipe in this course is a good old fashioned cherry pie. I'm starting with a pre made pie crust, but I also have a great vegan pie crust recipe. In the description. I poke some holes in it with a fork, and I pre vague it for 10 to 12 minutes or so so that it gets lightly brown before I pour in the filling. To make the feeling I use a bag of frozen Cherries. You can also use four cups, which was about a leader of fresh Cherries. I boil that on medium heat for 10 minutes or so, and then I take some of the cherry juice are, and then I mix in two tablespoons of cornstarch into that juice. I then incorporate this corn starch juice solution back into the cherry filling. If I poured the corn starch indirectly, I would end up with really clumpy filling, so I never want to do that. At this point, you can add sweetener or cinnamon whatever you want to taste. That's totally optional. I didn't add anything, and I just poured it into the pre baked pie crust. It only needs seven more minutes of baking at 3 50 I like to cool it and then serve it. It's a little soft the first day, but once it's been stored in the fridge, it tends to gel up pretty quickly, though it usually doesn't last that long. 13. Pigments: hi guys. For the final recipe in this course we make cherry pie. Cherry pie is known for it's delicious taste and the rich, dark and deep red color of the filling. The reason that Cherries have a color that they dio is because of these little molecules called pigments. And before I explain a little bit more about pigments, I just want to take some time. Teoh appreciate all of the things that we've covered so far in this class that reflect how the micro level relates to the macro level. All of these amazing molecules that we've worked with acids, faces, aromatics and pigments all show how what they do on a very small scale can influence the bigger picture. This is a field called quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is the study of the smallest particles that we know of atoms and subatomic particles, and why and how they do what they dio. Acid base reactions are just reactions that involve the exchange of protons, something so small and minuscule, something subatomic, and yet that helps our cakes to rise. Aromatic molecules, which have aromatic a K A benzene rings in their structures, are what makes our food smell amazing, like our delicious gingerbread cookies and pigment molecules also contain these de localized, free roaming electrons through resonant structures just like aromatics. But instead of our sense of smell is our sense of sight that is affected when we look at these beautiful molecules, Pigment molecules are the molecules that give our food. It's amazing color. We've already worked with pigments a little bit in this class. For example, the zucchini in our zucchini brownies has lots of chlorophyll, which is why it is green. The chlorophyll pigment is also the pigment molecule located in the chloroplasts organelles of plant cells, and it is this pigment molecule that triggers photosynthesis. So it is because of these beautiful pigment molecules that our plants can make their food. Carotenoids are another well known pigment found in carrots, of course, as well as pumpkins and squash, and the Kurata, annoyed and carrots called beta carotene, is a precursor for vitamin A, which we need for our I helped. Another famous class of pigment molecules are the anthocyanins. These pigments are red or purplish colored, and they can range from being on the warmer side, the reds and pinks to being more on the indigo side, like blueberries in the presence of a base. They will turn clear blue like the sky and the nutshell pigment molecules act the way that they do because of their interactions with photons. Pigment molecules are molecules that absorb photons of visible light. Photons are massless packets of energy that can behave. It's either a particle or a wave. Photons come in different energy wavelengths, with 400 to 700 nanometers being the wavelength arranged that is required for visible light . As we know, pigments like aromatics have resonance D localized electrons, and these electrons are readily available for photons to excite them, meeting that the molecule can absorb photons, its electrons get excited and jumped to a higher energy orbital. And then the energy is released. The wavelengths that the pigment molecules cannot absorb are reflected back, so chlorophyll reflects green photons. Carotenoids reflect photons of the orange wavelengths, and anthocyanins, like the pigments in our Cherries, reflects red. This is only a tiny portion of the photons spectrum, also known as the electromagnetic spectrum, which ranges from very short photon wavelengths such as UV rays and X rays to the longer wavelengths like microwaves and radio waves. These wavelengths are longer and lower energy than visible light, and the colors that we see it is so mind blowing to think that whether we're getting an X ray done at the doctors or were out working on our tans and the sun getting some UV rays and getting some vitamin D, or were admiring our beautiful, colorful food or warming up something in the microwave or even listening to a song on the radio, all we're doing is interacting with photons of different wavelengths. It's pretty mind blowing when you think about it. And other interesting quality of the anthocyanins pigment family is that there p H indicators, meaning that they change colors when they react with an acid or base pigment. Molecules tend to have some polarity. They tend tohave. Some part of the molecule that is more positive or negatively charged for that contains a heavier elements, and the anthocyanins um, pigment family, for instance, contains an eye on as part of its core structure because it has this ion, meaning this charged part of its molecular structure. It is susceptible Teoh acid base interactions, which are basically interactions involving the exchange of protons. Acids like to give protons and solution and bases like to receive them. When anthocyanins interact with molecules that are assets air bases, it changes their structure and therefore changes the way that the pigment reflects lights. More than 500 anthocyanins have been isolated from plants, and one in particular the anthocyanins that is found in red cabbage is particularly susceptible to acid base interactions. And this is why, in our Grade nine science classes, we do as the base testing with cabbage juice. When the anthocyanins in the red cabbage interacts with a base which wants to accept protons, its structure changes and it ends up reflecting not red or purple but blue lights. Cabbage juice will turn blue with just a little bit of baking soda. With a little bit of lemon juice, it will turn red or even this neon hot pink magenta kind of color. You can play around with cabbage juice in various solutions and make a wide variety of colors, ranging from hot pink Teoh neon green all the way up to bright yellow. This pigment is so susceptible to acid base reactions, which is why it's used as a pH. indicator meeting that you can know the pH or the acidity level of a solution by adding some cabbage juice and seeing what color the juice will turn. Because at every different pH level on the scale of 0 to 14 that cabbage juice is a different color, pretty much making all of the colors of the rainbow. Other types of anthocyanins within the emphasising and pigment family are not as sensitive to acids and bases as red cabbage famously is, but they're still pretty reactive. Which is why, if you bake a cake with Cherry Paul, as I do in one of the recipes in my Look, the cake turns brown, even though the batter is beautiful and pink. When we bake, we tend to use baking powder and or baking soda, and this changes the color of anthocyanins pigments. They lose their deep, gorgeous red that they're known for, and this is all because of how they interact on the level of quantum mechanics. All right, so why are pigment molecules so amazing? It's not just because they're colorful and because we can use them to test pH levels. Pigment molecules are also anti oxidants, meeting that they are cancer fighting. Many other molecules are such as vitamin C, but pigment molecules air, even stronger cancer fighters, then vitamin C. They're even more potent antioxidants. So what do I mean when I say that pigments are antioxidants? Well, as you probably learned when you were a lot younger and you tried to hold your breath for the first time, things can get pretty ugly when we don't breathe. Breathing is essential for metabolizing our food, which we need for energy. However, some foods can fight cancer, and other foods can cause it. The process of cellular respiration, or aerobic respiration, is conducted by all air breathing creatures like you and me and even yeast. In this process of turning sugar into carbon dioxide and water, the glucose is reduced to carbon dioxide and the oxygen is reduced to water. When I say reduced, I mean a reduction in charge, meaning that these molecules are gaining electrons. Oxygen is a six a adam on the periodic table, and this means it as six valence electrons, abs like toe have eight total valence electrons to be stable, happy and non reactive, so the oxygen atom tends to always be wanting for those two extra electrons. Meeting that 02 which is in the air we breathe, wants four electrons. It gains thes electrons when it is reduced to water. But when fewer than four electrons are accepted by an oxygen molecule, reactive oxygen species, also called roos or ross, are form. These molecules have an unstable number of electrons, though they are useful in our body for cell signaling and other processes are less. Molecules can easily strip biological molecules of their electrons. They can damage biological molecules. They can cause DNA mutations and in high numbers, are less. Molecules can even kill cells and promote the development of cancer. So all air breathing organisms like us require a balance between roos and antioxidants in order to inactivate these roos molecules when needed. Because all pigment molecules have antioxidant properties, eating a colorful diet rich in fruits and vegetables is a great way to stay healthy. And this is why Canada's food guide recommends that we eat at least one orange and one green vegetable every day. It is very healthy. It's eat, Ah, Whole foods diet that's very rich in colorful fruits and vegetables, and you should always try to eat the rainbow as much as you can. So let's appreciate pigment molecules. They are nature's food coloring, nature's pH, indicators, photosynthesis, starters, vitamin A precursors and cancer fighters. And this is what we dio in our relatively healthy cherry pie recipe. Because we are not using any base. We're not using baking powder or not using bacon soda, the Cherries, a bill retain their beautiful, rich red color. I hope you guys enjoy. 14. Goodbye: high class you have done it. This is the end of the road. And I am so proud of all of the things that you have accomplished so far you have learned how to make kick ass simple, healthier versions off classic desserts like cinnamon rolls and even cherry pie. You have learned how to make simple cakes, cupcakes, brownies, cookies and even your own icing from scratch. No more boxed cake mixes for you unless you are really, really crunched for time. You know how to make cakes and cookies and pies with no animal products. And not only can you bank really well, but you understand bacon, you understand why cakes rise. You know about acid base reactions. You know about different types of plant pig men's different aromas, why things look and smell and taste the way that they dio. All right, guys, I hope you enjoyed this class. And even more, I hope you enjoyed eating all of the lovely desserts that you made. And best of luck with your future baking endeavors. Goodbye