The Rhetoric of Story : learn the 7 foundations of powerful storytelling | Damien Walter | Skillshare

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The Rhetoric of Story : learn the 7 foundations of powerful storytelling

teacher avatar Damien Walter, Writer for The Guardian, BBC, Wired.

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

36 Lessons (5h 10m)
    • 1. Introduction to the Rhetoric of Story.

    • 2. What is rhetoric?

    • 3. What is story?

    • 4. Story = a form of rhetoric.

    • 5. First Foundation = Change.

    • 6. This story is 5000 years old!

    • 7. All stories contain CHANGE.

    • 8. Why do some stories avoid change?

    • 9. The three levels of change.

    • 10. The small story and the big story.

    • 11. What story are we telling?

    • 12. What does the story mean?

    • 13. The Self in story - part 1

    • 14. The Self in story - part 2

    • 15. The Self in story - part 3

    • 16. The Self in story - part 4

    • 17. The Self in story - part 5

    • 18. The Self in story - part 6

    • 19. The Self in story - part 7

    • 20. The Self in story - part 8

    • 21. The Other in story - part 1

    • 22. The Other in story - part 2

    • 23. The Other in story - part 3

    • 24. Conflict in story - part 1

    • 25. Conflict in story - part 2

    • 26. Conflict in story - part 3

    • 27. Events in story - part 1

    • 28. Events in story - part 2

    • 29. Events in story - part 3

    • 30. Structure in story - part 1

    • 31. Structure in story - part 2

    • 32. Structure in story - part 3

    • 33. Structure in story - part 4

    • 34. Emotion in story - part 1

    • 35. Emotion in story - part 2

    • 36. Emotion in story - part 3

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About This Class

College level instruction, based on 10 years of teaching and research, now available to Skillshare subscribers.

"Damien speaks with great clarity about a subject he really understands. His delivery is great. The ideas he delivers are fascinating." Rod Duncan, author of The Bullet Catcher's Daughter.

We live in a Golden Age of story. From blockbuster cinema and bestselling novels like Harry Potter & Hunger Games, to HBO television shows like Game of Thrones and American Gods, great storytelling is loved by billions of people worldwide. Writers who can tell great stories make huge fortunes.

Great storytelling can be learned.

The writers and creators of Star Wars, Breaking Bad or Mass Effect aren't just making things up. Today's most loved stories draw on thousands of years of storytelling techniques, from Aristotle's Catharsis, to the Monomyth of Joseph Campbell, and the Dramatica model used by many of today's highest paid screenwriters.

Based on over a decade of research, and bringing together ideas from today's most successful storytellers and story theorists, The Rhetoric of Story is an essential course for all creative writers, screenwriters and novelists.

Learn the seven foundations of powerful storytelling.

Stories are powerful. Just a few words on a page, or some flickering images on a screen, and for a handful of moments, minutes, or hours we can believe we are another person, living another life, in another world. How do stories have such a powerful, immersive effect?

Just seven core techniques provide the foundation for every great story every told. Together these seven foundations form a "rhetoric of story", that can be used to tell a powerful, immersive story in any medium, from a 5 page short story, to a 10 hour television series.

A scientific insight into story.

Stories are more than just entertainment. As psychology and neuroscience reveal the inner workings of the mind, we're learning how great stories appeal to the deepest drives of the human psyche. The Rhetoric of Story draws on the psychological insights of Freud and Jung, and leading scientific research, to reveal the 7 foundations of powerful storytelling.

Unleashing the power of story for all.

The poet and novelist Maya Angelou said, "There is no greater agony than bearing an untold story inside you." The Rhetoric of Story provides a simple, flexible toolkit to tell any story. Apply the seven foundations to your writing and produce powerful stories that audiences fall in love with.

College grade teaching at internet prices.

The Rhetoric of Story is based on courses taught at under-graduate and post-graduate college level, to students paying thousands of dollars in fees. it makes that knowledge accessible for all, at incredible value.

The 7 foundations of great storytelling, in one easy to follow course.

Ideas you will learn in The Rhetoric of Story:

  • Why no story can be great without a profound INTERNAL change.
  • A psychological insight into self, the engine of story.
  • The key to creating truly human characters: the web of relationship.
  • Conflict, why it must be present, and the 3 levels it must cross.
  • The "fractal" pattern of events; stories within stories.
  • Why it's OK to steal story fact it should be compulsory.
  • How to harness the secret super power of story: Emotion.

Who is this course for?

Anyone who wants to write a book, short story or screenplay and wants to learn the 7 foundations of telling a compelling story.

Writers who have many stories under their belt, but struggle to find an audience for their work.

Creative professionals - journalists, copywriters, bloggers, marketers and more who want to utilise powerful storytelling.

Experts, influencers and business executives who want to harness the power of story in their careers.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Damien Walter

Writer for The Guardian, BBC, Wired.


Damien Walter ( BA / MA / PGCHE / HEA) teaches good writers how to be great. His research and critical writing have been published in The Guardian, Wired, BBC, The Independent, Aeon and with Oxford University Press. He is a former director of creative writing at the University of Leicester, a member of the Higher Education Academy, and a graduate of the Clarion writers workshop taught by Neil Gaiman. He consults widely for businesses in technology, healthcare, and manufacturing to help them tell great stories.


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1. Introduction to the Rhetoric of Story.: Hello. This is the writing practice. Welcome to the rhetoric story before you go away telling yourself that this sounds like a really complicated course I met tell you that. Actually, it's very, very simple. My name's David Walter. I'm gonna teach up with a rhetoric of story. When we were designing this course, we had a subtitle board and that subtitle Waas. It's about the stories, stupid know that I'm calling you stupid or anybody. But as writers, sometimes we are. Sometimes we lose sight of what it is we're trying to do. There are so many details involved when you're writing a book and you're trying to craft the perfect sentence or making a film, and every shot needs to be exactly correct or putting on stage. Play on the lights have to be amazing in orderto create the illusion of a world on the stage. And it's very easy to lose. Sight off the fact that all of these things, while very important, are all serving a much more fundamental purpose. And that's telling a story. It's about the story when the audience come into the theatre or the cinema, or the reader picks up a big fat bestselling novel. It's a story that there therefore, and it's this story that they keep coming back for on what we're really doing as writers is creating and crafting stories. That's our job, the aim of the rhetoric of story cause. And we will come back to this term the rhetoric of story A little later in this introductory lecture. The aim of the course is to give you a really simple, straightforward introduction to the fundamentals of storytelling. This will apply if you're a brand new writer and you want to tell compelling stories. You might be a more advanced offer. You might have many books in the world want toe review. Some of these issues see them from a slightly different perspective, because to master storytelling, we have to keep coming back to these fundamentals. If you're a creative professional and you want to use storytelling within your industry, you'll find that this is also a really good course for you. One of the key things I've learned on my journey to understand storytelling much better is when we struggle with storytelling, whether it's myself, whether it's writers, I've help, too edit whether it's right as I read in the slush pile when we struggled with storytelling . It's because we have forgotten or re lacking, understanding off the basic fundamentals of how a storytelling works on, even though we live in a world where we're surrounded by stories and there's thousands of years of history is of storytelling, which we're going to take a quick look at those basic fundamentals have remained unchanged there, the rhetoric of storytelling and there what we're looking at on this course. 2. What is rhetoric?: Let me pose you a question. What is a story? It sounds simple, but when you start to think about it, take a moment. Think it through. It's actually more complicated than it sounds. I pose this question to hundreds of different groups of people. To many of my friends online and in person on I get radically different answers. Have no doubt you can pose your own answer to me, Must we're talking in order to explore these questions. I want to take a very, very quick journey through the history of storytelling. I'm going to go backwards, starting today in 2016. So right now where we are in this time and place, we have Mawr storytelling techniques available to us than ever before. Computers digital technology of the Internet have revolutionized the ways in which we can tell stories so you can log on to a computer. You can watch YouTube videos, you can read blog's and websites. You can go onto Twitter and Facebook and social networks and get involved with stories whilst they're happening around you. On this is massively important video games, virtual reality coming, which can immerse us into a three dimensional worlds. on literally take us inside virtual realities. This is tremendously exciting, But for all of this, the question to what his story is remains the same. We think further back in the last century, we got films and cinema from the steam train pulling into a station which blue audiences away when they saw it over a century ago to today's multiplex cinema extravaganzas The Avengers and Captain America and Star Wars. We have tens of thousands of films that have been made there were very different, but storytelling techniques that they use are really very much the same. The modern novel You walk into a bookshop today, you see thousands and thousands of different novels, and they all seem very differently. Tell very different kinds of stories. You have genres like science fiction, that crime novel, the romance novel. The history of the novel goes back in fact, centuries in the begining of printing and even further back. You can go to back to the tale of Genji medieval China and find the first origins of novels . But for all this history and all this diversity, the way that I tell stories is very much the same as it's boys being if we go back even further, we look at the history of theater. I'm sure you're familiar of William Shakespeare, who developed some of the most compelling stories in our history. He wrote a huge number of stage plays, the storytelling techniques that he used date all the way back to ancient Greece on the tragedies that were presented in places like Athens and Sparta on. They were designed to help people better understand the human condition by telling stories . And even if you go all the way back to ancient Greece, the storytelling techniques that they were using were much the same as they are today. You can go back even further. Epic storytelling like The Tail of Gilgamesh, which is the oldest working story we have available to us through The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homa on You can come through to medieval epics like Beer Wolf. We don't know who wrote Bealls thes epic tales on there's Others like them or have a Ratter in India were designed for just one storyteller who would travel from the courts off the rich on the powerful on kings and princes of the day, and tell these great stories that help people better understand the culture that they were living in. Some of the most ancient MIPs that have come down to us like the myth of feces us are the founding stories of cities on. They helped the residents of those cities understand the values on the history of the culture that they were living in. But the way that that story was told remains almost unchanged. Toe how we tell stories today, some of the very oldest stories of all. If you look at great religious texts like the Bible, the Bible is a collection of stories, some of them true, some of them mythological story of Adam and Eve or Genesis. The creation off the world that we live in has helped generations of people have a context for their culture and for the history that they're dealing with. The way those stories are told is almost the same as the way they're told. Today, storytelling techniques had evolved and developed. We need to understand those, but the basic rhetoric of storytelling remains almost unchanged. 3. What is story?: rhetoric is the art off communication or, more precisely, the art of persuasive communication? Whether it's giving speeches, oh, in the written word or in the modern era, in visual imagery as well, rhetoric is how we persuade people of a particular message. The turn comes to us from task of Greece, where rhetoric was one of the arts that all young men on noble born young men within Greek society were expected to be able to practice because as part of their lives, they would be often standing up in front of others, giving speeches on having to act persuasively to exercise power and control revenge. Greek society, they were taught. The art of rhetoric are by the philosophers of the day whose names have come down to us, the most famous of which is Aristotle, who is, Ah, student off the also very famous boss. But Plato and these philosophers defined the basis off Western philosophy on among the teachings that came down to us. From them were records off the art of rhetoric as it is practiced in classical Greece on then in Rome as well, just how it came into the Western world. Aristotle documented a very specific rhetorical structure, which he divided into three parts, which were if US pay falls on low goats. E force meant roughly experience a public speaker, a military general politician, young man would stand up in front off an audience, and he would outline suddenly his experiences that men he was qualified on the topic at hand. So, for instance, if thesis ity of Athens was considering war with its next door neighbour at the speaker would talk about the previous wars. He fought in great acts that he had made during those conflicts, following up on the evils. He would then introduce pay falls so he would talk about on emotional experience that would incite a similar emotion, the audience. So he would talk, possibly about how war could be both heroic and terrible on how it would allow men to achieve the highest potential but also demand they live with losses. I am particularly loss of a loved one on this would incite similar emotions in the audience and then finally he returned to logos and he'd introduce the word that we have taken from logos into modern English is logic, and he talked about the logical reasons, perhaps for him to lead an Army toe war. On these three elements of the argument of the rhetorical argument that he's presenting to the audience, the false pay falls on low goats, Um, work very powerful E. And they do that, but cause they mirror how we as humans assess the authority of somebody who's speaking to us. We look primarily at their experience, but then we turn powerfully toe emotion and the emotions that they have okla Venice on. If we moved by those emotions, it almost doesn't matter what the logic of the situation is. And you see this particular American politics today with a presidential candidate like Donald Trump, Hopefully you're watching. That's a point where he lost that election because I'm recording it just before. So we will see that people don't make decisions based on logic and make decisions based primarily on emotions. And those very easily invoked by a speaker understands the rhetoric off the false papers and logos 4. Story = a form of rhetoric.: How does this relate to story? Well, story is simply another rhetorical structure like Kiefer's papers and locals has certain parts stories, however, even more powerful than those ideas that are assault liberal down to us story does something really, profoundly powerful un interesting. The rhetoric of story mirrors how we see the world, and it mirrors how remind on our brain constructing model of the world, which then become our reality. At the center of that model is us, US. Set surrounding us are people on relationships that we have. We have a central goal we're trying to achieve, which is the heart of our personal story. In the way of achieving that goal. A certain forces blocks challenges of antagonism that getting away on this continues on. This is where the seven basic foundational elements of the rhetoric of story come from. That is seven ways that our mind models the world around us and forms are reality. When we go into a cinema, watch those flickering images on the screen. When we go into a theater on the lights dimmed down. When we pick up a novel, we open the pages and we look at those squiggles on the page, they become story in our imagination. If this storyteller is doing their job properly, if they understand seven basic principles of the rhetoric of storytelling, then that story becomes this story in our imagination. It becomes our reality on this makes story incredibly compelling, an incredibly persuasive because for the time that we're in this story, the messages that it carries, the experiences that it's telling us about become all reality. The focus off the rhetoric of storytelling course then, is to give you a well rounded, solid grasp of the seven basic principles off. 5. First Foundation = Change.: Okay. Hello. Welcome back to the rhetoric of story. Thanks very much for joining me for our second lecture, which is on. And I know you're eager to know this is on the idea Off change. This is our first part, but the rhetoric of story If you remember in our first lecture we talked about the idea off how we can best understand story so that as writers and creators weaken, tell stories effectively. Sometimes we make storytelling very complex, the techniques of storytelling, particularly in the modern age. We're making films, producing novels, making video games. They are rather there are complicated in there driven by technology. But we fought about in the first lecture how, actually all of these technologies simply allow us to tell stories in much the same way as we always happy. We considered some of the history of storytelling going back through playwrights like Shakespeare, all the way to classical Greek theater. On even further back to the roots of Orel storytelling epic poetry on going right back in the history of stories all the way through the last 5000 years, when we did this for a very specific idea, we're trying to think about what's constant and continuous through this history of story on what that gives us is rhetoric, a story we have to think about the art of persuasion, this laser communication as defined by Aristotle, which is the idea of rhetoric itself on the ideas of e boss papers on logos that are the basic elements off record of speech giving. And we also employment writing today on how we persuade an audience by imitating the way that where humans make decisions. And that's what's really epistle in the idea of record that it reflects back to us how we think our brains look how our minds up, and this leads us to the idea of the rhetoric a story. But the reason why storytelling is so effective is because when we tell a story in a powerful way, it reflects back to us how we think how our minds work and how our brains work and how they make sense of the world around. This is the rhetoric of story. When we employ, he's seven basic elements of storytelling. We leave the reader the audience into an imaginative well, which is the world story itself. But the way that we do. This is really quite simple. Today we're gonna be thinking about the sauce one, but the basic elements the first part of the rhetoric of storytelling, which is the idea of change. 6. This story is 5000 years old!: there was a young mind. You know, this young man you'll recognize, and soon as I tell you his name. There was a young man cold. Yeah, What's important to know about Jack Jack? I enjoyed spending its time sitting around in the living room, on the sofa, possibly playing at sports. Watching the television may be doing all the other kinds of things that lazy young men Jack hated. The idea of tidying up the house during work. Didn't have a job to stay at home One day. His mother was simply sick of its With Jack's mother, Barton's living room. I had enough of your laziness, takes the cow our one and only valuable possession. I want to take it to the market and sell it, because if we don't sell the cow for money, we won't have any food. We're going to start on, Jack said. All right, then I'll take the cow. Whatever. So Jack left the house. He took a cow. He went down the world. But Jack just he really wasn't in a move any of this. So when a crazy old man came wandering down the street, just had a bag of beans in his hand. But he came down the lake and he said to Jack, I have the most amazing beans in the world. Nobody else has my beans. They're absolutely fantastic on Jack 40 himself. Well, I'm a smart boy. So he offered to swap the cow for the beans on the old man said, I don't know. All right, then, yes. So we handed over the beans on the old man, went off with a cow which was the only valued possession of Jack and his mother on Jack headed home with beans and he fought. He was the bee's needs and he went month. Mom, I've got these beans for the cow on his mom, health beings in her hands. And she was disgusted. She was terrified because Jack had given away the only valuable possession and she screamed and she said, Jack know, how could you do this? And she further beans out to the window and she began. It's a cross. I want you began crying. Jack felt terrible because he wasn't being told what to do anymore. That his mother had normal suggestions. He could see that his mother was terrified and upset that he was the cause of all the bits . And Jack went to bed feeling sick in this stomach the next morning, Jack Award can he saw outside his window a beanstalk on enormous, massive giant beanstalk curling up from the ground all the way into the sky and reaching up through the clouds. Jack Ford. I wonder where that goes. I enjoy climbing. I'll just climb up it a little bit. The jet climbed up to the first bean sprouts coming out of the store can default. Well, I could make it further than this. I'll carry on. And he went up all the way to the clouds and went through the clouds. I'm from above the clouds. Jack could see a mansion on Jack for Will I find all the way out being stalked? I'm just gonna go and see what this mansion is about. So just crept up to the mantra minute waas enormous. Even the first floor was 10 times cooler than the shack where Jack and his mother it was so huge, in fact, that Jack could creep under the door so he didn't. Jack crept under the door and he crept around in the mansion until he heard a booming voice which declared fee by, Oh, fum I smell the blood of an Englishman being here live or being dead all grind his bones to make my bread. Jack was terrified of this voice and ran for his life. But on the way Jack saw a sack of gold coins and grab them and he ran out the building and he ran back down the beanstalk and said to his mother, Mother, look, I've got I've got a sack of gold coins chats Mother was ecstatically happy and relieved because now they have money. On the next day, pain on Jack thought, Well, if I got a sack of gold coins last time, I wonder what I'll get from the Giants house this time. So Jack lined up the beanstalk all the way to the clouds and ran along the clouds and crept under the door of the mansion, crept through the mansion until he heard once again be by both fun. I smell the blood of an Englishman on this time, Jack round from his life, but he found a goose and he grabbed the deuce and tucked under his arm, and he ran again he ran all the way back down. He gave reduced. His mother, and his mother was twice as happy that she even being with gold coins. But now they have the goose that laid eggs and feed them every day. The next seven days for the whole week, Jacqui beautiful, it's cracked up to be installed, crept back down again every time hearing saying Giant Fellow C five phone fund. And on the seventh day, Jack heard another voice. He heard the voice of a young woman, and she was crying and got crept through the mansion, and he found the bedroom. But the Giant's daughter And he said, The Giants. Why are you crying? The Giant's daughter said, because I'm never allowed to leave the Giants matches. He has me trapped here. My father and Jack said, Right, we're getting out of here. So Jack took the giant's daughter on hand in hand. They ran back to the max and ran across the child's, and they began to climb down the beanstalk. But the John had had enough of its We've lost get sack of gold coins, lost his goose. He lost his heart. Ross's magic, like you've got something else that tracks stolen over about seven days now. Lost his daughter. He was gonna find out who this people odds and where he came from. So the Jack stormed out his mansion. He ran across the clouds and he began declined down the beanstalk. And it was a race between Jack and the giant. Jack is climbing down the beanstalk carrying Giants daughter on his back, and he made it to the bottom and you could see the giant coming. The Jack ran back into the hands when he picks up the acts that he had used to cut firewood for the whole of his life. When he took the act and he ran to the being stopped on impact of it hacked of it and he hacked it again until the bean stalk toppled over, taking a giant wither on the giant crashed into the ground. And after all this adventures, Jack was now great. He had the belongings of the giant had the giant's daughter here and the giants go toe wet . I'm not happy jacket gone from a lazy long boy. A grown man with all the things that grown man should have money on a family on the wife and he was able to take on the world, which is the quality a man should always be able to embody. And this is why Jack in the Beanstalk. It's such a powerful story. We've been calling Jack Jack for about 250 years. There's a whole series of Jack's stories, and Jack is usually either an Englishman or Cornish, and these were traditional English folk tights. Jack in the Beanstalk is the most famous off them, and it's one that's come down pretty agents. But we think that the story of a young boy who robs from a giant or from an ogre is over 5000 years old on folklorists have categorized under the island Thompson, who for categorization of focus fairytales. It is number 328. The treasures off the Giant. Why is it that this story has come down to us through so much time? Not just three centuries, but five Millennium of time spoken from mouth to mouth, maybe even thousands of years before that was just the first written record off traced back to, and it's because of the key change that the story tells us about, which is a story off the boy, becoming a man on the cross, every coats on the planet across all the things that divide us on that we see is different . There are archetypal transitions that we make archetypal changes. And when we talk about these changes in stories, they become really, tremendously compelling, powerful. And this is the first part of the rhetoric of storytelling, the idea of change. 7. All stories contain CHANGE.: there's an old saying usually attributed to the pre Socratic Greek philosopher Eric Lighters. But no man ever steps in the same river twice. The water that's running down the path of the river is always moving. It's always changing. It's always different water. So when we take our barefoot step into it, where is stepping into something essentially different than we were before? Because Hera Politis isn't just talking about Reverend not just talking about water. He's talking about life on the until I world around us, because everything everything is continuously changing from Chinese subatomic particles zooming around on quantum probabilistic paths to, uh, the planet, which is turning on spinning around the sun, which is in turn moving as part of the galaxy. And in fact, nothing is ever the same people. I never the same either A mind or brain has evolved, developed to be constantly tracking and trying to make sense of change. So we get up in the morning and it's daytime. And as the day progresses, the sun goes flying across the sky and it becomes the night. Time on the brain is trying to make sense off why the light has changed around us, The people that we know on ourselves. Days pass in the weeks and months passed and we age over time we're changing continuously, were born into a world where there is maybe a right wing government. And then a few years later there's a lech lingam. And again the world is changing around us and we're constantly trying to make sense of all this train. How do we do that? We tell stories stories of the way that you have off giving meaning to change. And that sounds very important, meaning and how we make sense of the changes going around us. So when we come to creating stories up a run, the idea training is arguably the most important element. Good storytelling but also the most overlooked and forgotten because it's so fundamental. How many stories down so very full thinking about Jack and the Beanstalk? We saw how the basic change in the story pull the tellings other over 5000 years has remained the same about the transition going from a boy. So a man and so many of the really great stories are about these basic, archetypal life transitions that we make and they help us not just understand that they often defined what these transitions are. We understand what it is to become a man being boy because of the many stories that we grow up, they tell us how we should do this. Sometimes they give us bad ideas about sometimes very good idea on. This is true off some of the most famous stories around its today. It's ever think about a few examples. Pride and prejudice. So is a young woman, Elizabeth Bennet. She's part of a family with many daughters, and she stayed to the challenge of getting married, which at the time that Jane Austen was talking about, was the most important change in the lights of most women. And she's faced a number of possible suitors, one of whom eyes the enigmatic Mr Darcy that she is suffering from problems with get in the way. She has pride and prejudice against the things she believed that Mrs Darcy, who is rather removed from trifle himself on you, don't seem to be the kind off a charming, sensitive man who would like to be with. And so a number of other men parts to a life from one after another. She finds that actually, they aren't suitable. Match assistance are going through similar experiences, and they show us in what ways women perhaps become unsuitable themselves. The marriage. Maybe like one of versus sisters, she is far too serious and takes herself party seriously to ever find a good wife medicines to lighting, which is going to end up with the wrong man. Or maybe some very, very beautiful. Apparently not very clever on. She ends up a very rich but rather dull Where's Elizabeth? Bennet manages to chart a way for the middle of these various balancing acts, and she finds Mr Darcy, ultimately the perfect husband on the perfect house as well stately manner that she inherits as becoming this adult white. And this is an interesting way to look a pride in part to this. There's a huge amount you can say about that novel is wonderfully written by, but because they fascinated as humans by change, because war is charting the kinds of changes going about this. We watch and read the details of this story that's being laid out with incredible attention , because Jane Austen is a very a street social commentator, she can take this winning into details mixed with your child. These changes happened one for storytelling. Old base around the changes lead from Ah, Young, single like two immature at Hope Married Spider Man one of my favorite stories since I was a very young boy myself, I read in the comic books wide Spider Man. Fascinating. Is it because you can shoot webs on his hands? Is it because you can climb buildings? Is because of his red and blue costume? No, it's because in a more modern way than Jack in the Beans, Peter Parker, who becomes Spider Man after being bitten by a radioactive spider and then has to deal with the great powers and responsibilities that come with, is more modern kind of example. He's on adolescent, struggled with feelings of being outcasts, feelings of not fitting the masculine model of data Let's in but instead finds a different kind of massacre until he can fulfill becomes a different kind of man granted superpower superstrong. But it's a more modern telling about transition from young man to responsible adult King Lear, one of the classic plays of all time by William Shakespeare thing that looks at the other rains of life. How the way. After having had a full life, we have become powerful and rich as a king on the pinnacle of society. What happens when we lose all that when we try to let all of that goes with it? You all of our relationships with our family with our daughters. King Lear, during the course of the plate, loses everything. He descends into madness and faces death itself. Companies, or wild by a full, is commenting on the absurdity, ease of King Leah's behavior and the choices that you make, which is all of William Shakespeare's ways commenting on this massive change in end of life , the decline of life and this is why king there with lasted, being produced a year upon year for almost 400 years. And it's all because of this basic element of storytelling. Basic elements of replica story train. These stories tell us about important changes in human life 8. Why do some stories avoid change?: waltz as humans. We are fascinated by change and were continually trying to understand all the thousands of millions of trying of trains going on around us any given time and telling stories about those changes. We're also a bit terrible. Change. With change comes Theoneste. We never know what's gonna happen on the other side, particularly the major life trains. When you go away to university, when you start a new job when you get ill and placed possibilities off all the changes that come along with that, he's a terrifying experiences. They convey a adventurous and challenging, but we always feel a sense of fair about them. That's well, change is scary. Change means letting go of friends means letting God, the people that we know, our idea. It's who we are. Job we maybe we're gonna head off in a brand new direction like they were emigrating to another country on. Everything we have in this country is going to be left behind. It's Gary. Change is difficult, tough and challenging so very often, when we sit down to be entertained by stories whilst there fundamentally about, they also deny change on this brings in on idea very important in story is the idea of equilibrium that the story will be a bounce and making changes with the end of story. The situation before the change is the story on This happens all the time in comedies, because the going and we want to look, think about an episode of friends or really almost any American situation comedy. You can think of what happens in a typical episode of Friends, where the six characters gather together in the inner of lovely New York apartments and they face a problem. Something's come up is going to be some kind of changed happening in their lives. Maybe Chandler's has quit his job. Rachel's being Clyde in the coffee shop. We want to know Well, Ross and Rachel get together, but way do eventually find out. Very end, like seven seasons of Friends. But within each individual episode, whatever is brought up which ever problem comes up its results. By the end of the episode, when we finished back with the same six characters, they haven't really got any older. Nothing bad has happened to them. Nobody has died. This isn't King Leah that we're watching on much of a humor and, in fact, the comforts of a lot of storytelling. It's about the restitution off equity liberal, particularly in comedy, but you find it in all kinds off popular storytelling because very often people don't want to deal with these big life changes just when they're being entertained. So when you find in a story that change this way and said to restitution of equilibrium because of this basic here, a change. 9. The three levels of change.: when we're thinking about change in storytelling, there are tears of change. There are ways that change happened. They affect people in different moments. Uh, big boisterous adventure stories, action movie, kids, comics. They're very often about physical change in the outside world. A war story is about the Allies versus the Nazis and the Allies. Defeat the Nazis and the world is kept as a democracy as it truly should be, depending upon your politics. Obviously, if you are reading in Nazi Germany, that would have a different ending. This is a big physical change in the outer world. Action movie, like Die Hard is about defeating. The terrorists have taken over Nakatomi Town. It's about a couple of other things that come back. You have social changes were considering in pride and prejudice. And this is an area that stage plays on a good literary fiction often deal with. And this is about how the relationships between people shift on alter over time. So how daughter, growing up in a family well age and develop new relationships with parents who will have to go from being a mother and father becoming friends in life? And now she formed new relationships with people in the rest of the world, these social relations really compelling on their in most kinds of story. And then you get down to the internal level of change, and this is often the most difficult to a. If you look at Randy Randy, powerful storytelling usually revolts around what's happening in side. This is people and how we change internally overtimes in ways that we actually find very, very difficult. Two spreads on. We often turn to the art of storytelling, so it's breast porous. What these changes are One of my favorite novelists, Haruki Merc Army is a real master of the internal change in Norwegian wood. The external changes the physical changes in the world very limited world as much as we find it was, the beginning of the story of social change is very limited as well for the internal train that we followed the story of a young man's 21 when we meet. Giving a value age is a few years. The internal changes that he goes through of experiences off isolation, lonely nuts, green lots. He's a really powerful it sport. For me, these are the most important things that storytelling take a center, another most difficult things as well. So when we stopped, consider the stories that we're writing this level off internal change out released social change on physical change beyond a really important and you can Charlton epic magnificent tales just by considering those different Thiel's train. 10. The small story and the big story.: one thing that you see very often. In fact, I would arguing old stories. Is it always really telling at least truthful? That's a small story of the character at the center of the drug on the Big story. Going on around thes three stories. Always into relate only one. I mentioned Going Home Detective John McClane, played by Bruce Willis, and he's on a mission for most of the movie to stop. The terrorists were taken over the Nakatomi, and if you're going to look at it, you could say, Well, Die Hard is a story about depleting terrorists. That's not why we find Di are have been hundreds of trashy straight to video movies made about defeating terrorists. Most of them were Chuck Norris, but the Bruce Willis version is better, and we watch it over and over again and decades after is made its latching classic at cinema. Why is that when it's because around the big ounce story there's a smaller in the store on the other story is much simpler. It's about how bad gets his lost love, reunites with his divorce, why, and also later on the rest of his family and the diehard Sequels because the filmmakers know this, they understand. But what's really compelling, even if we're turning up toe cinema toe what gunfights and explosions and the defeat of terrorism by a loan hero on guns? What's actually really powerful importance in that story is the much more internal tail detective John McClane getting his life back on. This begins in the very first frying and feet of the movie. We understand John McClane characters isolated and cut off from what should be the most important things in any man's life. Which family? And they. Even while we're watching all the gunfights and explosions of diehard, we're actually following the details off how a relationship is rebuilt through the medical off on action Story on This is wonderful because in any kind of storytelling, however grand and boisterous, however quiet and small on internal, we actually have these two stories running side by side. The big story of the small story The big stories generally be out the world. A small story is a character on how they change. Have the center of all this again we come back. So the idea of change as the most important part really of our seven elements of storytelling in the rhetoric off story 11. What story are we telling?: in the early parts off Any story, the opening scene, bus sentences and paragraphs we tipped the reader off. We prime the reader so that they can begin to guess and then understand what this story is about. On what changed the story is exploring s so important prejudice the classic opening sentence. Any man with a fortune must be in one to the white. I paraphrase slightly. We're being told that this is a story about marriage. I socially focused story about how we find a good marriage and how young women developed in their lives. On these are very important values today that Jane Austen is writing. And so very quickly the audience. A cadence of this story is going to be for them or not possibly on the opening shots of Die Hard. Detective John McClane is on board plane he's carrying. It's the kind of gifts divorced father flies for his Children. Extravagant, overblown gets on even though we don't know Absolutely, because the human mind wheels people are very stupid observers off their society around us . We stop to pick up often these clues of what the change is gonna be on. It's enjoyable for us to put these pieces together. But once we primed our audience, once we have defined what the meaning of stories change we're thinking about. It's very important storytellers that we stick to them on that we don't go leaping around rule of the kinds of other changes, Uh, no matter how complex. And apparently an enormous story with it really will only ever be about one Shane at any given time. So take Game of Thrones epic Huge fantasy novel series by George R. R. Martin. Now a tremendously successful television show on HBO. This is enormous Bean through five now Six Seasons Television. There are six enormous volumes of a book, but there's only really one out of change being explored in game front on that is at the change off power. Who is going to win particular off roads on all of the characters that we are involved in one way or another? With this epic palace struggle for the opening scenes away through a chapter off chapter this Lloyd. It's the fact that it's coherent, and it has a unity around one form of change that we keep coming back, whereas if Georgia are mounted, have gone, leaping around for different kinds of change in timing switched character story would be much, much less compelling. Tow us of this unity, change in unity of storytelling really, really important. Another very important thing to consider. There's also another change, of course, happening within government friends in that speech off the individual characters, we have 5 6/2 a dozen individual, really powerful, archetypal transition. It's Jon Snow going from young boys, a great hair or Arianna stalking of the young girl. And she's becoming what we think will be an assassin. Sansa is becoming for great suffering the rebels, the ultimate archetypal queen. Bigger, like Queen Elizabeth, right down to write, have and we also recognize thes archetypal inner changes. And they all relate to the outer trains, the power struggle. They continue to be unified because the relationship between these changes really strong and powerful. So even if you're talking about more than one kind of a change of time, you want to try and keep this unity very strong in your story. 10. Because as soon as you loser, as soon as he strayed from the park, you trying your reader room, the audience wrecked away. They come expecting something, and you start giving them something else. 12. What does the story mean?: with this idea of change, Cools comes the idea of meaning. Barrington's rightist. So they were a nickel bit right, the normal phone back of the idea of me. No, it's not necessarily a bad thing if we go into a what, trying to convey a very specific and narrow I'm particularly political means It can become very deducted very quickly. But what we really turned to story. It's a look at the great changes off, like how they affect us on the physical or social plane or critically, how we change internally over time and to give some kind of meaning to these ideas. So we go all the way back to sort of Jack in the Beanstalk. Let's bring the idea of change exploring how a young man it comes. A mature adult in society. You could tell this story about a young woman as well. Justice easily. What we really want is not just a guy to the change on idea of how this change is mean. So beginning of story. Jack's life is kind of meaningless because of his Laney Laizans and at the heart off Jack and the Beanstalk. It's the idea that adult life has many has value on that. We can enter it, and we can become valuable members of society in more modern storytelling. In the novel art house cinema, these meanings might be much more complex. We might fresh value about. We might consider ideas as Hurricane Maria Carmi guns. Oh, being isolated or alone with this in its way, is its own form of Miller that we turn to as adults living complex modern life because we need that kind of in our lines. So when we talk about change, we're also talking fundamentally about our needs. The meaning on what we turn to in the best storytellers and what we're trying to achieve storytellers ourselves is the exploration of change. I'm finding profound, unimportant meaning we've been that the question, But I'm gonna leave you with or this lecture thinking about your own story, telling stories we're working on in your imagination, writing developing scripts for that, working on as movies that you're taking into other areas of life. What is the change at the heart of your story? It might be difficult to describe it in a single sentence. Answer that question in any way simpler than the story itself, but it's worth considering. What's the change of heart story? And perhaps what's the meaning you're giving through? Audience Likes flooring. Thank you very much again for joining me for the rhetoric of story. We've been exploring the first part of that rhetoric. Number one in seven elements of basic storytelling. The idea of change. I hope you'll join me again the next lecture. Thank you. 13. The Self in story - part 1: Hello. Welcome back to the rhetoric of story. Thank you for joining me again for our exploration of the seven basic elements compelling, powerful, immersive storytelling. Today we're moving onto the second way about the rhetoric of story, which we defined as a way of structuring stories that mirrors the way the on mines work and the way that we see the world around us to make sense of the world. Of all the changes that going on, we tell a story about welding. We place ourselves at the center of that story, and this is why when we mirror for the structure of story this way the online works stories become very, very compelling because we place ourselves into the center. But the story that's being told if this story teller has done their job right, we thought in the last lecture about the idea change an archetypal human changed at the heart of every really powerful, long lasting story. And you're illustrate this. We looked at the story of Jack and the Beanstalk. Sure, if it might be a Czolgosz 5000 years. It's lasted all that time because of the change it talks about, which is the archetypal change from boy to man, from young person to mature adult. We looked at how that story illustrates that changing how it Fred through every part of the story. Because once we have that archetypal human change in place, everything story does every scene, every decision made by characters, every exchange dialog in some way or another relates back to that changing gives the story a unity will support about the two kinds of story that are in every story the big story, the small story, the epic out to change, for instance, in Die Hard Fighting Terrorists, which is balance made more powerful by the small inner story. The change of character. John McClane reclaiming his wife and family. Powerful, archetypal story thought at the heart of the story. Whatever changer, exploring forever, powerful, complex it is that change must be happening to somebody at the center of every story is a hero. When I called him a protagonist, a central character, a person is a self as a self experiencing everything in the story, and it's this self that we go into as the reader as the audience. But this story, and that's the idea we're gonna be exploring through today's talk. The idea of self on how it sits at the heart of powerful storytelling 14. The Self in story - part 2: cast your mind back some 2500 years to the Greek city Off feeds, which is one of the great city states. The classical Greece Phoebe's is in a terrible possession. Feeds is afflicted with a drought. The crops died in the fields because of lack of water and people of feeds at starlet, and they do what people of Greek City state would do. They go to the king. The Great King delivers on. They say You depressed. We believe in some way. The city of Peter's offended the gods and use our king. Need to investigate and find out what lies at the heart of this problem. It's your responsibility. I need a percent. You're right. I am the king of thieves. I take on this responsibility, and I will investigate what we have done to offend the gods. And so to his chambers, it appears, calls the blind philosopher Tyree serious. Theresa has comes holding a stick, and he has completely blind and blindfolded stories here. Seize on a level beyond sight and interpret, says Terry's. Here's what have we done to offend the gods and Theresa's response. You don't want to know. Don't ask me this question need IPAss. It leads to places you are not ready to explore. Any purpose explodes in furious, as I demand Theresa's that you tell me what you know about this situation. And Theresa says Okay, This problem is caused by an outsider to the city of peace. And he has offended the gods by murdering his father and sleeping with his mother. Neither purses shocked and terrified by these news. When he was a young man, a purpose was told that a prophecy existed that he would indeed murdered his father and sleep with his mother. Two great crimes. And to escape the fate of this prophecy, it has fled from the city of current where he was raised and he fled along the road to feeds and his chariot. But his path was blocked by another man. A cruel, arrogant man. Anita Purse for this man and he killed him on the road was free. Needed has continued to the city of feeds needed parts finishes this story and his wife the Queen of Fades Jocasta response and says it prints. My husband was killed by a strange man on the road to current in this charity. And I think that man was you. And I think you were murdered. My husband Waas, married to me before we were wet. I need it, but says that can't be possible. So he summons one final witness to his chambers on that witness is a messenger on old man rules like those carried messages for the city of feeds and done the bidding of its king. I need to process over. What Do you know what this mystery on? The old man says as a young man, the king of feeds. Then Lance gave me his first born son a baby and told me to take it into the wilderness and kill it because there had been a prophecy that this baby, when it grew, would murder his father layers and sleep with his mother, Jocasta. And upon hearing this story, purpose finally understood the truth because he, as a young child, had been found in the world that's left for the world's and adopted by his family in current on now, eat up was finally understood What his crime Waas He didn't no himself 15. The Self in story - part 3: no thigh self, one of the most famous and most important ideas in the whole field of philosophy most commonly attributed to the Greek philosopher Socrates. What does it mean to know yourself? How do you know yourself? This is the question Socrates is putting to his audience for this statement. No, the myself. What does it mean that either parts at the center of the story of a typist eat IPAss that can eat oppose Rex, which is a 2500 year old play but parrots, soffit leaves presented to Greek audiences and embodied many of the values of their society . At the center of this play is either persists, lack of self knowledge. There's a major fact about his own life that eat a bus doesn't know which is his parentage on great society parentage. It was very important. It was seen to determine your whole fate. Who your father wants, particularly Anita. Purse doesn't know that his father is layers and layers, has committed a great sin by throwing his only son out into the world and has, by committing that soon grow true. The prophecy that he will be killed by his son and This is the core of the Greek tragedy. The thing about the central character that they're not aware off in themselves, their lack of self knowledge. We have a more complicated view of the world. We don't believe that everything is about who our parents are, but we're posed with an equally difficult question. How do we know ourselves? Everything that we see comes through, arise Everything that we hear. Conservatory is everything that we can feel a little sense comes through our hands, not sense of touch. So unavoidably, however, we see the world where always at the center of it. So to truly understand world, we have to know ourself and that's help. Today is a complicated idea. Many people in the world believe in the idea of a soul, so you are determined by the unique soldiers placed into you, possibly by God. Many other people believe in the idea comma, just quite similar to the Greek idea of the fates. Your actions will bring about a certain direction in your life. So if you do sinful things, come aboard term band and you will experience bad events in your life in the western modern world. Were Mawr, driven by psychological and cognitive ideas itself, that the circumstances that were placed into beer position of Khyber or great poverty all the people were surrounded by have a great impact and shape our behavior. And our storytelling tends to reflect this moral based with the task a storytellers of answering these hard questions of life. Why do people do the often strange and crazy or perhaps wonderful and beautiful and sometimes deeply self destructive things that people do? Why do Romeo and Juliet kill themselves over a youthful love affair that most people might simply grow out of? Why does Hamlet end up killing everybody in his family? These are the big questions the dramatic stories explore on the recent novel We Need to Talk About Kevin by Lionel Shriver. Explosive, powerful question and modern scientists we find very hard to face. Why do some parents not love their Children? I think the invest that Why do we love our Children? Told what is the power and energy behind this? And these are all the really deep questions that great storytelling explores, and it does it in the most powerful way by diving inside a human experience, placing experience at the center of this story as a self 16. The Self in story - part 4: Why do people do the things they do? This is the mystery at the heart of every great piece of storytelling. Whenever we sit down to start work on the story, we think about the central character, the hero itself, that we're putting in the center of this story. We're asking the same question. Why is this person going to go on this epic quest? This internal odyssey, whatever the style or shape of this story might be, This question is, Why is this person going to do any of this? On the most common answer that storytellers we give because it's a profound part of the human psyche, is we give the character great and powerful desire, something they want to achieve in the world of motivation. If you will think about the character. Rocky Rocky Balboa on the famous late seventies boxing movies, starring buying, written by and directed by Sylvester Stallone on a character Rocky when we meet her is a bum. He's a box of it is washed up. He doesn't fight, really fights anymore. He froze fights for money, eyes and nobody and almost entirely at random. The current boxing champion, Apollo Creed, selects Rocky to be his next opponent. Apollo's coming towards the end of his career. He doesn't want a tough fight. He's a showman. He wants to be up to get in the ring and show off with fighters. Not gonna pose him too much of a challenge. So he picks Rocky Bell. Bar the Italians Dahlia on now from nowhere. Rookie has a shot. He's a loser and he has a shot of being the champ. Rocky as a trainer, Mick and they set about training. But Rocky just can't put his heart and soul into the effort. He doesn't want it enough. He has a new young wife, a dream on that having a baby. And during the training process, there's an argument on Agent Almost has a miscarriage on. The situation is tense, and rocky might be about to lose everything. Actually, he values most in the world, and he's prepared to get rid of everything is prepared toe. Kick the fight toe one side for a fight so that you can have what you really want to life. The woman that lots of family but then as a drain awakes from a coma, she says to Rocky, the now famous words win Rocky Wind, and we go into one of the all time great montages and film history of Rocky running upstairs. He's being chased by Children for the neighborhoods off the parts of the city where he lives, and it's in that moment. Rocky then goes on, almost win the world championship. Boxing? Not quite. He gives Apollo Creed such a run for his money that a rematch is set up and they get to make a second Rocky movie. But the whole film hands off the moment that we see explicitly within the story when rookies desire for victory is formed. And if we don't see that moment and it is not properly shaped, we don't really empathise with the character of walking. We wouldn't immerse ourselves properly within his story. So seeing and understanding how Rockies desire is shaped is really important in their parts to this desire. On one hand, you have the boxing match that Rocky is going toe gone toe almost win, and he's gonna prove to be a true champion in heart in the process. But there's something more fundamental underlying this, and that's deep down. Rocky has a desire to be a winning has a desire to fulfill his potential in the world, and all humans have this desire, however lost or hidden. It might seem, however difficult l circumstances. We all have this basic desire to achieve something in the world to be what we can be to be the champion on some level. And it's because the rocky story taps into this desire that it's so powerful for us. And people are being going back to the Senate. Maher on their television screens, toe watch Rocky again and again and again for decades now. 17. The Self in story - part 5: the desires that we give to the characters in our stories really manifest on to levels we go back to the story of Eden Posey. Purpose has a conscious desire to solve the mystery of While How Feeds has offended the gods and therefore what is causing thing desperate situation that the city finds itself in . Miss conscious desire plays out in a number of ways. Firstly, eat Oppa's summons. Tyree, serious is doesn't satisfy his needs, so he speaks to his wife, Jocasta. This also doesn't solve the mystery, so he brings in the messenger. Each of these given him a different clue on this, eventually builds up to the climax of the story. This is very similar in many ways, to Jack and the Beanstalk. From Our Last talk, Jack finds out the bean stalk, and there's a number of items that you find. These are all the conscious desires of the character, but they're driven by something more powerful that lies underneath. And that's the unconscious desire and rocky, the unconscious desire that Rocky is quite aware office to fulfill his life potential. And this is played out in the conscious desire winning the match against Apollo creed. In the end, it puts the unconscious desire is for the character to know himself. And this is again one of our basic desires and drives is humanist. Understand who we are. See the parts of ourselves that were blind, too. By the way that we see and former ideas off the world, you can place this in a much more action or Intuit sense to get a better idea of it. In a James Bond movie, for instance, James has the country's desire to go on defeat the enemy of the British state, and he's sent on the mission, and he goes to a series of locations as a new clue is revealed in each part of the story. And this is how his conscious desires play out. But in a really powerful James Bond story, for instance, Casino Royale, which I think is the best Bond movie, were given a hint of what James is unconscious desire. It's on. That unconscious desire is formed by the fact that James isn't often and he's attached his sense of well being and safety to the British state, and therefore he will go on the kind of missions that most people went because it feels almost like he's saving his family in the process. And it's this interplay of the Contras on the unconscious desire that gives the self that we placed at the center of this story. It's Dr. It's the engine that pushes this story forward. And if we haven't on some level ourselves, whether consciously or unconsciously, as writers put these desires into place, that engine will be missing from this story. And it's the most common reason that stories fail. They lack the drive within the central character that comes from a deep desire, which in turn gives the character their willpower. 18. The Self in story - part 6: from the central desire that we give to a character, and it's conscious and unconscious levels comes the real force that drives them through the events of the story, which is there. Will, um, the playwright David Mamet defines world powers Thesis Ingle Most compelling quality of any character in a novel film, a stage play, any form of storytelling. If the willpower that keeps bringing the character back to difficult situations to achieve their desire that drives the story along. Consider again the character of James Bond. Imagine character with less, well, Pell, who sent on a mission to defeat Specter, the secret, all powerful criminal organization that manipulates the world. If you or I was sent on this mission, firstly would be terrified. Secondly, we would run away on, however great our desire. We might still run away. Not everybody is born a James Bond heroic, archetypal character, and it's Jones's willpower is the fact that if there is a car chase 150 miles now, James will drive the car 160 toe win the chase. If he's finds himself fighting a guy who's a foot in the heart torment him, James would just fight haga, and this is all an aspect of the unique, well power that drives the character along. But it doesn't have to be in a purely action oriented Iraq since we look again, eat a bus, it appears, doesn't face physical challenges. During the course for the play earlier in his life, he has killed him out. He turns out to be his father, either. Purses challenge is psychological because he knows very early on and play that this is about and and it would be much easier not to face the situation that he finds himself in the end of the play. 80. Persist, blinded and in fact, his willpower has driven him to a state of self destruction, although in the mold of the Greek tragedy that self destruction later on in the later it Appears, plays these to his enlightenment. On his wisdom is blind seer, and again, it's the willpower the purpose possesses, which allows him to pursue the place. So we're always dealing with characters. You have a level of willpower beyond the normal, and that's one of the elements that makes the storytelling experience so profound for us. Whether it's watching James Bond chasing adventure. Three circumstances that we wouldn't be out to deal with, whether it's watching King Oedipus pursue the clues. But the tragedy on this can also be brought into a much more model, realistic situations. David Mamet, who made this statement about willpower. One of it is a great state place turned into a screenplay. Glengarry Glen Rose is really a story all about the nature off Human will on the power that comes from it, were placed into a sales team. We don't quite know what they're selling real estate on other things attached to it, and this is a failing sales team. It's a bunch of guys late thirties, middle aged, with families trying to earn a living on their selling to do that, and they all want the best leads. The Glengarry Glen Ross leads because the salesman with the best leads gets the most sales on each of these characters. We have the oldest man. It's played by Jack Lemmon, and he was once a great salesman. He wants a great world power. Now he's on the final leg. He's trying to make money for his daughter's operation. She's terminally ill, and he needs to pay for operation, but he can't make the cells. Will is broken by. The situation is in there younger men in the silence. See, we simply don't have the power. Well, Toe Hackett, one of the Children brothers Alec Baldwin turns up as a top salesman from out of town gives them a speech on the speech is all about imposing his will over those men in the sales team . The league's house with the team played by Al Pacino. Go for a long sequence of scenes where it convinces some poor sap to buy this worthless piece of land on the drama. All turns in our observation of hell, much more powerful Al Pacino's willies, then the man he's negotiating with. Well, it's wonderful drama, all driven by these different ideas of models off what it is to be strong willed, tohave well, parent, how much they sits at the heart of all the stories that we tell 19. The Self in story - part 7: when we find ourselves, I'm really in love with a story when were drawn into the world. That story creates, and it becomes for the time that we're reading that book of watching that film, the reality that we seem to be inhabitant. It's because more often than not, the self at the center of that story has convinced us of its reality. And we treat that self is a real person. In fact, with the time we're engaged with story, we immerse ourselves inside that self. When we become that person, share all of their experiences through the events of this story as it unfolds. For that to happen, there is a small dog behind me. I don't know where it's come from. For that to happen, we need to understand the desire, conscious and unconscious, that's driving the character alone. We need to see the formation of that diet desire ideally and there we see this in the capture of Rocky about, but we see the moment when is designed to win the championship, become the great boxing champion is formed. We need to feel the strength of the will driving the character along, whether in it's it's in a heroic adventure story like James Bond are much more down to earth narrative like Glengarry Glen Ross about the thing that's really hooking us. At the heart of this self center of this story is what itself is becoming. This is really, really important in storytelling because humans are social creatures. One of the things that our brain is continually modeling is how it changing, picking up on this first element to the rectory story on what it is that we are becoming on what people around us are becoming. So there's a whole part of our mind which is really dedicated toe watching this happening in the world around us. And so we're continually watching it in stories that we go to the cinema to see that we pick up books to read in the classic novel Vanity Fair. By way of might be spattering, we are introduced to the young woman. Becky Sharp is itself at the center of the story that he isn't often. We could speculate that her deep desire is to overcome a sense of isolation as an orphan child which pulls up for a whole life on. This manifests her conscious desire initially to find a rich husband, which will give her the place in society. That she wishes Teoh claim is unconscious and conscious. Desire give her a strong, well, power to go through the many challenges which is going to face in achieving this. And it's a willpower, that leader in many ways, to do the wrong thing. Vanity Fair is subtitled A novel without a hero on Baker's Shop is not a heroic character in the sense off James Bond or Rocky Balboa. She's a floored, riel human being, things that Becky is trying to achieve, the things that many of us are trying to achieve climb in society, Andi Fruit that we think will achieve happiness. We, as the readers followed Story of Dante Fair through all the major transitions but Becky Sharps life. Initially, she becomes, ah, young debutante, looking for the right husband within society of the day. She moves on, Sheen married, and she becomes a mother. She's a rather cold, unfriendly mother to her son. She then climbs higher in society at the time, and she joins the aristocracy, and then she falls from that position, and she ends up among gamblers and card Sharps Onda. We follow these transitions because we're fascinated again as humans by how we all make these changes in life, how we become one kind of person after another. I'm well. It was written over 2000 years later than either post the king. It's the same question quality at the heart of Vanity Fair that drives its fruit because Justice IPAss didn't know himself or was ignorant of his parentage. At the heart of the self in Banteay Vera, Becky Sharpe is also a form of self ignorance. Becky doesn't really understand the all the things she wants won't give her a riel desire, which is to overcome a basic loneliness as an orphan. On that lack of self knowledge makes Becky Sharp like he did puts a tragic figure at the heart of the story, continues to fail in achieving her real desires whilst chasing these conscious desires that are actually taking her very far away from who she would really like to be. 20. The Self in story - part 8: when stories fail. When we walk out with Cinema Auditorium when we close the novel never pick up at that page again. It's all my stories because the self center of this story isn't strong enough to carry the story that we're building around them. And so we find ourselves when we're working on a story, continually returning to the self on the questions that we need toe ask of it in order to make it strong and compelling character at the heart of the story. What is the desire but the conscious and unconscious desire driving this character along? How does their willpower manifest? What are the events of this story that they have toe overcome in order for us to see for the into their world, pal, this question of the heart of many of the great characters in fiction storytelling? What is it that this character doesn't know about himself, and what is it requesting for in order to understand themselves better? And these can help us to build a really powerful self at the halt of this story. But this is only one way of understanding this idea yourself, and it's important to understand that that This is how we can model itself in many stories . But what we're really doing is just arriving at one answer to these big questions of life. It can help us answer why Rocky Balboa wants to become the world boxing champion. It can help us answer. Why eat a Plus the King? It's trying to solve the mystery of why the gods have been offended. It can help us understand why Becky Show is looking for the right marriage in the world and decline in society. But ultimately, you is a writer of facing these really hard questions of life. Why I alway the way that we are and you will need to find your own models and answers to those questions. 21. The Other in story - part 1: Hello. Thank you for joining me for this bird whole talk in the rhetoric of story course In this talk, we are going to be looking at the idea off the other, which is the next major element in the rhetoric of story. Our framework for telling immersive, compelling, powerful stories way previous strokes. We introduced the idea of the rhetoric of story this way. Composing information. It words on a page, flickering images on a cinema screen that creates this powerful effect story before about the idea. Change the central, archetypal change. Be external out in the world or internal, the central character that drives the story ahead. We thought about the idea itself, the core very story that is a self central character protagonist, a hero on the desires of this character conscious and unconscious desires are driving story along and that the willpower. But the character is providing the engine. But the story today we want to look 1/3 of these elements. The father. What do I mean by the other in this context line talking about, Of course, the other people that surround the self the way that we make sense of the world around us. We tell a story about at the heart of that story we put ourselves. We look at the major changes happening around us on then we sketch in all the people who surround us on our brain is absolutely fascinated by other people on its this element storytelling that we're gonna be considering today. A young Federal Bureau of Investigation agent, Clarice Starling. It's called to the office for Superior Jack Crawford. Just given a mission. Just told to go on interview. A psychologist at serial killer Hannibal Lecter, she goes Psychiatric Institute where Hannibal Lecter is kept. She's taken down into the dank, deep basement elector. Let's she has to interview Dr for a psychological examination unless she's doing this. Lecture reveals information about ongoing case that the FBI holds one Buffalo Bill serial killer, so named because he skins his victims. Clarisse takes the clue that she's given. She returns to Jack Crawford on Crawford, extends a mission and says Paris, you have to continue to interview Hannibal Lecter. Get information from him about this case. It's not just Buffalo. Bill is killing people. He's abducted the daughter of a powerful United States senator and the senator shaking down heaven and hell to get her daughter back. The FBI's resources Now dedicated to hunting down serial killer Buffalo Bill Clarisse returns toe Hannibal Lecter in the series of meetings. She gets vital information from him about the case of a serial killer, but she has to give personal information about herself. To achieve this stakes growing, Cleary scatters more clues she has a friend of the academy, backs up her decisions. She does this to meet researchers museum, who identified the chrysalis of a month that becomes a pivotal clue. The turning point of the movie. Clarice Starling. Let's track down the first victim of the crime, a young woman who, like all of the victims, is a largest size woman. Paris has to go into the bedroom, these young women not much younger than she is. I look at all of the personal items that belonged to another human being who has since being brutally killed. I'm not at this point, Clarissa's motivation, a deep desire becomes to catch this killer is killing other women in the town with the first victim. Clarisse believes she might find the killer, and she goes house to house, searching for possible models. Jack Crawford tells or not to do this, he says. Clarisse, we have the address. Lecter has given us the vital importance information, but in fact Clarissa's being pursuing the right course information. The FBI agents are taken to the wrong house, and they're they're blown up. But now Maurice is on her own. There's nobody to help her in this hunt, and she ends up at the house of one James Gunn, who is, in fact Buffalo. Bill Clarisse sees a single moment that confirms his identity and knowing he's about to be captured. Buffalo Bill flees into the basement where he's committed the murders. The dark deep hole where he's keeping the daughter of the senator and Clarisse has no choice but follow him, and she pursues Buffalo Bill into his underworld beneath his house, and there were only a gun on the torch. She tracks him through the darkness, and she manages to locate the senator's daughter, who is panicked and petrified. Screaming don't need me here because she knows if glories loses this battle, nobody else is going to come and find on one on one. Clarisse hunts Buffalo Bill Jane Gun through the basement and finally shoots him twice in the chest and in the head and in so doing, blows open the window that brings light straining into the basement. And Clarice Starling is victorious in their quest is able to save senator's daughter. Bring justice for the other women who have being killed. This is the story of science. The Lambs, initially a novel by Thomas Harris, Fantastic one of the all time great froze in a film directed by Jonathan Demme. It's a hugely popular story that been a number of sequel novels in television. Siri's Hannibal made quite recently question. What put to you is, Why is this Phil so successful? Why is this story? So while it's set in our modern world, Silence of the Lambs is really not a modern story. You can think of it as a retelling of the ancient Greek method for seppinni on Haiti's Demitra, who is the mother of the up. She's the, uh, God that's responsible for all that grows in the world, has a beautiful daughter that's like the senator in science labs. Diameter. A starter is called 70 on for 70 is young and beautiful. She plays and filled on from jealousy. The diameter has such a beautiful daughter, the dark god of the underworld be under well, much like Buffalo Bills. Underworld Haiti's comes into the above, well, kidnaps for 70 and he takes up into the underworld. On this sparks a chain of events diameter, who goes crazy and she brings winter upon the world. She has to be brought back to life, to find her daughter by a number of the other Greek gods. And these classic archetype it's re occur throughout the history of storytelling. In the fairy tale Lubet looted is a rich old man becomes home to his town. He's gotten from for many, many years, and with his fortune he's able to die for himself a young wife, and he takes young wife back. His great mansion on the young Life First is very excited to have a rich husband. But then she finds in the basement of the matchup, he finds the dead bodies of all the other young wives. Much like the dead bodies of all the victims of Buffalo. Bill on the story or blue bed ends with the arrival off heroes to rescue the other, much like Clarice Starling in this story blue bid. It's usually the brothers of the young women who have been abducted, so these archetypes continue on what makes these stories so powerful, not transferred him through Time are the characters who raiding story, the relationships between those characters on the archetypal qualities of those relationships. And it's really this that we're exploring when we think about the idea of the other in story. 22. The Other in story - part 2: as humans. We are fascinated. Better go surprise, say that we are absolutely obsessed with other people. We're constantly observing. How was he behaving, what they might think and particularly what they might be thinking about us. Let me think about other people. When we think about characters in storytelling, what we're really thinking about our relationships, there's a very large part of online. What about brain, which is dedicated to charting monitoring on developing our relationships with other people ? This is really, really important for us to do as humans. We are social creatures, a great deal of our advantages as a species. It's our ability to work together in groups to do complex veins, whether that be a try hunting, whether being a corporation full of people making computers. Today, throughout our history and throughout our evolution as a species, this ability to work socially has bean parable for us. And this is why in storytelling, when we develop relationships between characters, these are fascinating to the audience, and the audience will pick up tiny snippets of information about relationships on draw conclusions from think about any soap opera that you've ever seen in the UK on the most famous soap operas is EastEnders, Coronation Street, or might be in the U. S. Dallas Other soap operas, which are ongoing today on the soap opera for its huge popularity, and people come back week after week, sometimes two or three times a week. So watch the latest episode of their favorite soap opera on the soap opera is entirely driven by relationships. It's about who is marrying who, who is betraying, who, who's allied with who, who's taking advantage of the circumstances. There's a quantity of gossip about so called because this is how we think about the relationships around this. Historically, we gossiped about people so obsessed with the relationships that develop in soap operas, that there's an entire business of magazines that just speculates on these unreal fictional relationships and how the guns developed in future episodes off sopa. What we have then, at the core of almost any compelling story, is a network of relationships, the old revolt around itself at the center of the story in this soap opera that self moves between a handful of characters on other forms of storytelling. Phil, also the novel tends to be just one self a center of the story. But in either case around each stuff, that story is formed around. There's a network of relationships that spread out from that central self. While the specifics of the relationship unique the relationships on the archetypes that they form really full into just a few categories, however many stories you look at whatever kinds they are. However, many characters are involved. It's just one or two Central story toe hundreds. It's in the car so very huge epic. You'll find that same archetypal relationships. Repeat, get itself at the center of this story around them. You nearly always have family relationships Mother, father, siblings. And we would hope these relationships are supported. But as we'll find with all of the archetypal relationships, in fact, they very often have a dark side as well. So if siblings thes of the people who we know best in the world, we've grown up with them and they know us base. But while there is a bond of familial support, there's also continually with siblings the issue, competition, jealousy. I'm sure if you have brothers and sisters yourself, you have encountered at least aspects of this in the novel east of Eden, for instance, the story turns on the competition between two Brothers Story, which goes all the way back to the biblical story of Cain and Abel, where we see the archetypal relationship between brothers transmitted for thousands of years of storytelling. The mental is another off the archetypal forms of relationship that crops up again and again in storytelling. On the mentor is bare to guide and support the development of the character in Signs of the Lands. The mentor, Jack his older, is more experienced than Clarice Starling, but the mental has a dark side as well. The mental has their own agenda. Mental was once the young hero on As in Silence of the Lambs. Mentor is on some level manipulating the hero in the actions that they take on. That's equally true of Obi Wan Kenobi in Star Wars or Dumbbell Door, the wonderful Dumbbell Door. But he has slight in manipulating young Harry Potter along the way, and these archetypal relationships always have this twin aspect supporting friendly roll on a slightly in manipulative, aggressive role that goes with it as well. The antagonised, it's character archetype that will be looking a lot more later in the rhetoric of story course, The antagonised stands against the hero and is in the way of everything that the aero itself at the center of this story wants to achieve. On however they manifest, the antagonised is always one of the most central and important characters in any given story. In science, it lands. The antagonised is Buffalo Bill and throughout story, as in most mysteries, Clarisse is tracking off low Bill I'm trying to defeat his crimes, and at the end of the story is Buffalo. Bill Clarisse has to confront and kill in the dark underworld beneath, and they said antagonist role is incredibly important across all forms of storytelling. Very often, the Antagonised is very, very close to the hero that her antagonist at the center of the story in the recent HBO television series Better call Saul Peaches. What what often happens in very interesting, complex storytelling. There's a hidden antagonised throughout the first season of Better Call Saul, which traces the career of a charismatic, loyal We believe that the antagonised is a senior partner in the law firm. But actually, at the end of the first season, spoiler a lot at the end of the first season, it's revealed. Antagonised is actually the central characters brother on its the closeness of the relationship between the characters that makes the brothers such a powerful antagonised. You think a little bit more about signs of lands. It reveals another one. But the archetypal relationships, the form, this network characters around ourself, protagonists at the center of the story. And this is the trickster, or the shadow or the shape, shifty character. They come in a variety of forms in the signs of lamps. The trick, sir, is Hannibal Lecter. It's very, very dark example of the trickster character on the trip stories here to continually push forward on drive itself at the center of the story. Hannibal Lecter doesn't number very scary things to Clarisse across there. Arc of Science lab. He eventually escapes from prison and becomes possibly a very great threat in Clarice Starling's life. He forces Clarisse to reveal personal information about herself and in so doing forces queries to confront aspects of our own personality. She's northen that she's from a poor background, issues that she's being hiding in her life. She forces her to confront these issues, which is what ultimately, quite apart from the clues that she's given its this driving forward the Hannibal Lecter provides. The character includes Starling. And in this way he's a classic example of the trickster at the shape shifter in the Shadow who drive the central character. And it's all of these archetypal relationships that repeat free story off the story. So this is what really comes through time in the history of storytelling. Today we have science labs, and it evolves from the fairytale blue beer 3 400 years old, which has in turn evolved from the ancient Greek Mick but damn ETA of the seppinni hatreds she's around 2000 years old on what really comes down through time are the archetypal relationships between the self and formed with the others in the world. 23. The Other in story - part 3: around self been at the heart of this story form a network of relationships which represent the other people, like Character is engaged with. These relationships are archetypal, and I repeat again and again and again in stories free time. And they're tremendously compelling. A powerful audiences. But why? Why is this think for a second about the sea? Imagine you're at the beach and you're watching waves. Roll it. So that's see on any beach you might go to on the entire planet. Or, for that matter, if you ever made it to another planet with oceans would have legs coming into the sea. Waves are a factor of a number of forces operating with C gravity. The influence of the moon coming past, which creates the ties on the shore, coming in from the deep sea and coming into the ever shallow waters until it comes up onto the beach on wherever you get these forces on a large body of water or any other liquid, you will have weight. So in that way away is an architect. It's created by forces beyond the object that you're looking at on the archetype repeats again and again and again whether it's a see whether it's in a lake with small waves lapping at the shore. Similarly, people behave in archetypal ways one of the best ways to understand this in humans and characters. Italian stories. It's free. The idea off royal court throughout the history of storytelling, storytellers being depicting the intrigues on politics of kings and queens, and princesses and knights and members of the clergy and whoever else might find in a royal court on the's Royal Court archetypes repeat again on Get through the strip storytelling. And it's not simply because storytellers a copy, it's much more fundamentally because humans are placed under the pressures of being in, they tend to behave in certain archetypal weights. So the king, whether this is a king depicted in ancient Hindu mix like my Harbor RATTO. Now, whether this is a king in European fairytales, whether this is a king in modern storytelling today, whether they seems a fantasy king in a fantasy world like Game of Thrones, the king tends to behave in certain ways. The king has to keep power, so the king, if his authority is challenged, I have to lash out and kill people. The King has to create a certain amount of theater around himself, became always has to sit at the front of the room, in a throat on. These archetypes are so powerful that they run through all of the characters in the world court. So the queen is the person married to the king is very often center of intrigue because the king can be seen to be exercising his power in certain ways. So the queen will do that. Instead, the young princes will be continually competing with each other for power the clergy, the bishops or priests. You're rolled into the royal court as well. We'll always be using their power to undermine the material power with kings, because that's very much what this spiritual power God allows him to do. And these archetypes so powerful that they repeat not just in role courts, but we use the model, the archetypal model of the royal court, to talk about all kinds of other things. So if you look at Pam Fiennes of God's, when we have these in almost every culture in history, they run through from the Hindu gods Ganesha, another's run into the Greek gods that we discuss already in this talk, even when they're not specifically a royal court. Thes archetypes, Pete within story Commedia Dell Arte was a form off theatre specific to the period off Rene . Since Italy was evolved in the city states of that period, uh, featured very, very powerful, archetypal characters. Each character war mask that represented their archetypal qualities on would be performed by the actors almost as a mind with very strong physical performance, which gave you each of the archetypes. The commedia Dell Arte was very large influence on Shakespeare and Shakespeare's characters repeat thes archetypal qualities so continually comes back to Royal Court Spirit. King Lear, Beth Hamlet histories. Shakespeare's plays are failed. Lee caught up with these archetypal storytelling forms. He was one of the important writers that brought these archetypes poured into the mountain Well and even beyond storytelling, a search of playing counts or tarot deck have the same archetypal symbols King queen, princes and they also delve deep into archetypes off the rest of society as well. A chessboard has the same archetypal elements, these archetypes of human behavior hugely interested, usually competiting for us to observe. I'm tremendously important in our real lives because we as humans end up replicating many kinds of archetypal behavior. If you go into a big business, you'll find, see, or that business behaves much like a king on the board around him. Behave like courtiers. And this behavior repeats in all kinds of areas of human life and this archetypal shaping that makes stories which employ these archetypes really interesting dress because we're learning all the time now these intricate social relationships that were psychologically evolved to be fascinated by how these relationships are evolving on how the others around us. Why do the same archetypal relationships repeat themselves throughout human society? Why's there paint themselves in stories? Why are they so useful for us as storytellers that we can draw upon these archetypes any time to create powerful, immersive storytelling for our audiences? Around the turn off the 19th into the 20th century, a lot of work was done about human psychology. Number of very important biggest in the development of psychology came for at that time. One of them, Sigmund Freud, developed some ideas which since then become simply part of our common day like ideas off the aid. The unconscious drives the first humans along the ego and the super ego Super ego is the possible personality. Seems like, ah, higher self we're constantly striving to achieve on the ego is into mediating between these parts. It you go super ego for parts of our mind. Separate how personalities in some ways, the cycle just call. Young took this idea, speculated that there are archetypal elements within our human self on that were divided into a whole range of different personalities that sit within the human psyche on the act at different times today on neuroscience, Rip Lex on reinforces many of these same ideas because we have processes prevent online. We've been all great, activate in different circumstances. We have processes that are based around fear and survival. We have brain processes that basically socializing, directed by the people, processes that allow us to be more creative and innovative as well. And these manifest as different forms off personality. So in a very rail sense, within each of us are a whole host of different people. When these different personality types are in balance, they work together fluidly with barely noticed them unless we placed into extreme ovary stressful circumstances that I simply operate together. We don't rate as a phone complete self healthfully in the world When they're announced on in nearly all of us, there are some dis balances within our psyche. They come into conflict on these internal psychological clashes. Conflicts Dr Much of our behavior on their of the heart of much of the most powerful storytelling. Think again about story. So into the limbs, the earlier versions of this diameter Stephanie and hatreds story, blue bed. And we have these archetypal clashes within stories, having we have the young innocent, the 77 to land centers daughter who is ranked down into the underworld by a monstrous part but the human psyche. Haiti's in the original story. Buffalo Bill during gum in science labs, Blue Bed. What we're watching or reading in this story is the progress of re balancing these parts of our personality, which clashed. And so in science lands, we have a hero character, blue bit. We have a hero character who comes into this story on defeats the dark part of the personality that has taken the innocent drachma Ndele into the underground. When we tell this story that scientist lambs, we know right, The progress of Clarice Starling, who is the hero center of the story. And when we showed going in to the bedroom, that young woman was first killed. We see the human heart disorder. We see the innocent who was killed by the monster buffalo Bill. And then we follow her progress hunting a monster going down into the basement, going down to the underworld. Our emotions are triggered by this, and I triggered tremendously powerful, even telling you this. Now I feel my heart coming up on that triggered because we all experience this conflict. We all know what it's like for the innocent, the creative, the hopeful part of ourselves to be overwhelmed by our darker side, our inner demons. Off Theus. We all know what it's like to long, perhaps to create, to write stories to make out. But to feel that we can't do this world will prevent us and instead to go and do that job that we hate to put up with the relationships that are no longer supportive of this. In day to day life is the dark side of our personality. Winning when we watch Clarice Starling is the hero, overcoming that dogs like we see the own struggle within ourselves on the hero than ourselves is triggered. And every time we go to the cinema, every time we pick up a novel about this archetypal relationship, the innocent being dragged down into the dark by the monster on the hero beating them and this is the archetypal relationship net hard in so many powerful stories. So many I'm not even gonna name the do that for yourself. It triggers this de emotional empathy within its and we will go to this story again and again, gonna get and it's not formulaic. It's not because we're lazy and just going to any store would be given. It's because we need this. We need to see this repeatedly throughout our lives, and we will go back to the stories that show us how evil triumphs over good in the full of , ah, heroic character. Because this is what sits at the center off our own personality, right psyche on the ways our brains ones. And this is what makes the relationship between self and other how we treat other in stories. Tremendously powerful part of the rhetoric story, because it's not just the details of every day Monday. It's not just repeating characters as they've been done in stories before. When we draw on archetypal character forms, there are many of these. But the relationship between light and dark in our personality is arguably the most powerful when we draw on these archetypal forms that reflected in the world as they reflected within our personality, which happened into some of the most powerful emotional responses that we will ever be able to seek with an old. 24. Conflict in story - part 1: Hello. Welcome back to the rhetoric of story to day. We're going to be discussing the fourth part in our structure for creating a compelling, immersive, powerful stories. And I will get to telling you what that four part is in just a moment. First of all, I would like to quickly look back what we have discussed so far. The rhetoric of story is away of structuring information, pictures, words, whatever it may be that creates what we might call the illusion of a reality for our audience. And when we do this properly, this rhetorical structure is so powerful that it sucks audiences into films, televisions, shows, plays, books, whatever it may be. On our job is a story tell Arrested nail. This rhetorical structure, part one in the rhetoric of story was change. All stories have it. Their heart a major change, usually on archetypal human change. The change from boy to man, girl toe, women, child toe adult, the change of the full of a nation, the change of the rise of a new political party. Whatever the change is thes, archetypal changes power our stories. At the heart of these stories is a self, a central character, a hero protagonist on the self experiences, the change. Everything we know about this story comes through the senses of the self. At the center of it. It is their story on the self forms around. A powerful central desire on the formation of this desire kicks up the story and the willpower of the character, drives them through the story and provides the engine and the power for the narrative that we're trying to convey to the audience around the self part. Three of the rhetoric of story around the self of the other, the other characters in the story, the relationships between the self and the other on also the way that we as human beings, have archetypal processes within our mind that we project out onto these other Selves around. This an element that we will be talking a bit more about today. But as inevitably happens once you have the change, the archetypal change on going once you have yourself with the center of it once you have the others arranged around the self What arises? Conflict. It's an unfortunate fact of life, but a fortunate fact for storytellers that conflict rages all around us rages in the world rages in our societies that rages in our families, and it created rages inside ourselves as well. On this is the fourth part of the rhetoric of story, the conflicts that arise inevitably in our lives. Achilles, the great Greek warrior looks down on the body of his friend and lover, Patrick, please. For many years they've been fighting the war between the kings of the Greek islands in the city state of Troy. The war began when the Greek kings agreed between them. That's the beauty of Greece. Helen would be married to the Greek king Mental s but refusing the steal. The young prince Paris stole Helen away and took her back to the city of Troy. Menelaos and his brother Agamemnon, the great king of Greece, declared war upon the city state of Troy as one of the heroes and great fighters agrees. Achilles joined the war, but really his heart was never in it. And he was offended by the king Agamemnon, who denied him his property, a slave who was taken in battle. And since then, Achilles has been soaking in his tent and refusing to join the battle and slowly but surely , the Greek kings have been losing against the mighty armies off Troy Patrick, please. Unable to watch the defeat of the Greek army's disobeyed Achilles order not to enter the battle he's stole Achilles armor, leapt into a chariot and joined the conflict. The great Trojan hero Hector, son of the king, prime brother, the prince. Paris, seeing Achilles finally taking the field, also leapt into his chariot on. The two men fought one another Hexter, one much more easily than he'd been expecting to. And he knocked the helmet from Achilles and saw that it was, in fact, Patrick, please, wearing Kelly's armor on the Trojan soldiers were so offended by this light, their honor, that they butchered Patrick please on the field. And now, as Achilles looks his lover, he sees him covered in blood, passed by hundreds of wounds. And Achilles, who in truth never had any passion for this war on was partaking in it only for a sense of sport has now lost the thing that was most important to him in the world, and he decides he has no reason to carry on living. This conflict has cost him everything that he held. Did Andi resolves take his own life to cut his veins? But Greek King Odysseus, king of the smallest island, Ithaca within the Greek realm on a very, very clever but a moral man comes into the tent of Achilles and says that Kelly's don't take your life now. This is not what the gods demand thinker Kelly's think. What is it that you can do with this pain that you're feeling? Where can you take it? Don't kill yourself, Achilles. What is it truly need? I'll tell you, it's revenge. You need revenge against Hector. You need to revenge against his father prime, and you need revenge against the soldiers of Troy and Achilles feels from the desperation and loss rage emerging on Achilles takes up that spear and shield that Patrick please had died wielding, and he challenges into battle. He locates Hector on the field of battle belief. The walls of Troy on the two men fight an epic battle. Both a great boys. They fight with spears. They fight with swords. They leap onto chariots and horses on eventually. Ultimately, Achilles is victorious. In the moment of victory, he feels a spark of glory he has never fought. Another man is capable. It's Hector. Having defeated the hero of Troy, he ties into the back of his chariot on for the next 12 nights, rides back and forth across the field of battle, dragging Hector's body behind him. Toe utterly disgrace the hero, Troy, for killing his lover. 12 nights later, Achilles is resting in his tent, finally sated from the blood lust that led him to kill Hector. An old man comes from the Greek attempt silently by night, creeping past the guards on enters Achilles tent. The old man is prime. The king of Troy, one of the most powerful men in the known world, who now has humbled himself wearing the clothes with beggar and come into the tent of the man who killed his son, and the king prime of Troy, now dressed as a beggar. Humbled turns to Achilles, says Achilles, great warrior Greece. You have taken my son from me. I ask that you return him or reason. Does Achilles have to grant this wish to prime Prime? Then says. As a boy, Hector listened to the stories of Great Achilles. You were the inspiration that drove him to become the hero on warrior that he wants and the man that you killed. And in that moment, Achilles realizes that Hector was the tourist friend he had on the field of battle and that he had been fooled by Odysseus and Agamemnon and the Greek Kings into fighting against the person he might have made a friend story off Achilles and Hector, one of theseventies stories off The Iliad, written by Homer, great epic off Greek legend, about 3000 years old again story that has traveled through history in this case because of the conflict at the very heart of story between Achilles and Hector, between the kings of grease on the city of Troy. As you probably know, the war is brought to an end when Odysseus again Trojan horse outside on city of Troy and manages to sneak force of Greek soldiers past the walls that they've otherwise being unable to conquer. And the fate of Achilles is to ultimately be killed. He's a Demi god, the son of a gold. It's almost indestructible, apart from one patch of skin on his heel, for which he shalt, by Paris, Prince of Troy. Homer's story at the war between the Greeks and the Trojans asks us a major question. There are about the inevitability of conflict in human life. Why is it that despite the fact that the Greeks and the Trojans would have been better off if they work together, why did they end up fighting? Why was it that Achilles, who have more in common with hex in any other man in the battle, ultimately had to kill the person who could, in other circumstances, have Bean his friend? This is the question that is put to us as writers and storytellers Is dramatis toe understand the nature of the conflicts that go on in the world and to examine them. Four. Our audiences Conflict plays on a central part in the rhetoric of story, because our attention as humans is unavoidably captured and drawn by any form of conflict that we encounter. Imagine for a second your in your local cafe writing. You have your no pad and pen, maybe a laptop onto the side of you. On argument begins maybe two people sitting at the table there, and they're trying to hide the argument. But unavoidably, your attention will be drawn to it. Imagine you're working. He started a new job and you have argument with another employee of the office where you're working. You go home that night and you keep thinking about this argument Another possibility. Imagine that you are taking a plane, right? Flying over the Atlantic Ocean on the plane is hit by lightning. Unavoidably, fear rises up within you and you can't do anything other than look at this conflict going on between the plane on the world around it. These are all forms of conflict, and they all capture our attention in utterly compelling ways. So when the storytellers we put any conflict into the story that we're telling it will capture an in rapture our audience in exactly the same way because as we've discussed through the rhetoric of story so far, our way of understanding the world is driven by stories driven by narratives replace into our narratives. We focus them around any element of conflict that arises on when we see conflict in a story , we begin to model it, we enter into the conflict and we see what our role might be within that conflict, how it might service how it might possibly hurt us, and in the same way that we assess conflicts and pay very close attention to them in the world around us, when they're rise in the story, we begin to examine them in exactly the same way. 25. Conflict in story - part 2: just as in life in story, for our central characters itself. At the heart of the story. It's the desire, the forms at the center of that self, on the well power which drives them towards achieving that desire, which is the engine that creates conflict in story. And it does this because, inevitably, those desires of frustrated when characters run into forces that prevent them from easily achieving that desires. In the story Off the Old Man and the Sea. It's written by Ernest Hemingway, published in 1952. He went on to win the Pulitzer Prizes. Short Develop on Old Man, who has beena fishermen for his entire life, is having a very unlucky spelling vision hasn't brought fish back to the shore. Uh, for somewhere in the region of 100 days and the young boy whose Prentice to him has been told you're not allowed to fish with the old man anymore. He has to fish on his own, and most people expect that he's going to die. So the old man takes an epic journey out to sea and his small boat, and he hooks a marlin day and night and day and night fight to this massive marlin, a swordfish toe, hole it onto his boat on. After days of this, he manages finally toe hold the mile in up to the books and stab it with his knife, and he straps it side of his boat. He's fighting against his own tiredness, against the wind and the rain, and even his as he's bringing his great catch the marlin back to see. Hey finds shocks and the sharks come in, and they stripped the marlin of all its flesh and exhausted old man lands back up at the fishing village with only the bones of the giant marlin. But the bones are enough for other people to see the court, this giant fish, and to see the dramas that he went through in the old man regains the respect of the other fishermen and the young boy. The Old Man and the Sea is a fantastic example of physical conflict against the natural world, against elements against everything external. To the character is one of Hemingway's great novels because it encapsulate this idea of what it is to be a conflict with the world around us, with the forces of those world and how they're in orderto overcome those conflicts. The characters desire, in this case to capture a huge fish which perhaps masters, deeper desire to regain his old status, to recapture the essence of life, his life as a fisherman, this desire on the willpower, the old man to pursue that desire, which creates this massive conflict at the heart of the old man on the sea. On these physical conflicts drive a lot of storytelling around us. The Four Sites saga by John Goldsworthy presents a very different kind of conflict. It charts over a number of generations the Foresight Family, a British family of what was called in time new money and set around the turn of the 19th 20th century on the foresight family, a profoundly concerned of all things material on With Money and Soames Forsyte, Character Center of this story. Celester and he spends all of his time pursuing money and material wealth, and that's how he understands the world around him. But he falls in love with a young woman called Irene, who is an artist she greatly admires music, painting, song, dance, all the things that Soames doesn't quite understand, that this is why he falls in love with Irene. Irene does not fall in love with Soames, but 31 move after another, she's forced to marry Soames and to enter this family of the four sites were so materially focused. Fru Irene. A number of other characters as well. Enter the foresight family Barson E. Who is an architect and who has an affair with Irene, which leads ultimately to his death in overtime. Foresight, Family and Soames, Forsyte Experience a Great conflict. This is a social conflict between the members of the foresight family. As over time, the material values the values of money and comments business that they hold on to slowly challenged by the values that Irene represents of art. Creativity, you could say of spirituality on the clashes and social interactions that these producers or what power? The foresight. Soccer along is a series of novels. Soames Forsyte is driven on the conscious level by his desire for money, wealth, material, standing safety. But unconsciously, as we see through his deep attraction to Irene, his desire for Irene Soames needs the arts, the creativity that Irene represents, and so, in fact, to the rest of the foresight family. And, as John Goldsworthy is commenting, the normal the rest of British society on from this deep desire that Soames pursues to be in contact with something greater than the material like he's obsessed with making a huge range of social conflicts erupt across the foresight family. Until many of the younger members of the family have really abandoned the old values on the old money of the family to form a new kind of life. And this is the social level of conflict within storytelling that powers many of the most fascinating stories around us today. But with these external conflicts and social conflicts, there's always a swell. An internal conflict lodged at the heart of this story, in the foresight slog of this internal conflict happens within Soames, Forsyte. It's this conflict between the material and the spiritual. His conscious desire, for one, is unconscious desire for the other, his deep desires driving and free this story in the old man and the sea. Yes, we have this archetypal physical conflict between man and nature, man and the elements, but this is really driven forward by the internal drives of the old fisherman because what he's really fighting against is his own well, power is really struggling. See how strong is? How good is he as a fisherman? And is this really who years? Cause he's now at the end of his life, He's approaching deaf and he's driven in a way to renew himself. And again, this internal conflict is central to the power of storytelling. In the story off Achilles and Hector, we have a huge range of conflicts happening in the iliac. You have the war between Greek and the Trojans. You have the arguments over Helen, the great beauty of Greece. You have the conflicts that raid on the social level between the Greek kings themselves, who are fractious bunch who aren't really designed to be fighting together about really powering. The story is the internal conflict that Achilles faces. Kelly's is driven to this act of revenge by the death off his lover, Patrick, please. But really, he's taking revenge against the wrong person. Hector is not the appropriate focus for Achilles raid. Yes, it Kilpatrick, please. But rarely Patrick leases being killed by this war by the actions of the Greek Kings and the situation they're in therefore becomes a tragic situation brilliantly sculpted by Homer . So as we consider conflict in storytelling, it happens in all forms of levels. The physical, the social conflict, which we find fascinating as an audience. But the storytelling is powered by the internal conflicts, but the characters which links to their deep desires there well power in the web of relationships around. 26. Conflict in story - part 3: as we build conflicts into our stories to make them compelling for the audience, we're inevitably drawn to thinking about basic ideas off good an evil, Uh, who is the goody in this story? Who is the baddie? We think about this within storytelling because inevitably, as humans, when we get into a conflict ourselves, we tend to think of our self as the person in the right. In the conflict, on whatever we're coming up against being the natural world, social relationships around us, or even, in many cases, our own internal conflicts, we will cast ourselves as the hero in the stories that we tell on everything other that we come into conflict with becomes the baddie or the antagonised and antagonise sit at the center of storytelling, right beside the central characters, the heroes that protagonists that we put at the center of this story. We considered the roll off the antagonised, the archetypal role a little bit in the last talk, antagonise recur again and again and again. Forces of antagonism. If it isn't a person and there will be a force there in the way off the Hero Central story , do you think about many of the hugely successful stories of today. They all turn on this relationship between the protagonist and antagonised, and the antagonised is in the simplest turns. The villain, the baddie In this story. If it's Robin Hood, it's the sheriff of Nottingham and King job. If it's Star Wars, Luke Skywalker on the Antagonised is Duff Veda. If it's Harry Potter, that the antagonised is Lord Voldemort and you can name really any Children's story any blockbuster Hollywood movie, lots of lots of stage plays and theatre Andi novels as well feature this strong antagonised in the story. And essentially, what we're doing in the antagonised is taking all of the forces that stand in the way of the hero, achieving their desire and placing them into the body of a person who very often becomes and overblown villain in the story you think about the antagonised in a classic Children's tale, we can find a little bit more detailed, bit more new arms in the idea of what's happening with this antagonised figure. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by C. S. Lewis. Tremendously successful Children's story There are a number of books seven books in the series all together. In this first book, The Lion, The Witch on the Wardrobe for Children are evacuated from London, Second World War, and they're sent to the house off their uncle, who's a professor. It's a big, rickety old building on their rather neglected while so there, and they start playing games of hide and seek, and they hide within a wardrobe. On this wardrobe proves to be a portal to another world, the world of Nanya and a number of occasions the Children go through this portal. They find that time moves at a different speed and 90 us very little time past when they return to the real world. And Nanya is a forest world, and it's a world held in coldness and winter. One of the Children travels through into the world of Nana. She encounters a character, Mr Tumnus, who is a phone. Mr. Tumnus is a very sad character. He is emotionally he feels sad on, Dhere invites. The young girl has come through from the wardrobe toe, have tea with him, and I have a wonderful tea together. But Mr Thomas becomes deeply upset because he's being told he's been ordered that he has to report any humans who have seen any human Children to the white, which and it's the white witch who now rules over the world of non yarns that white, which refer magics who was cast on eternal winter over the world of Narnia. What's happening in this story? Yes, of course. On one level, it's literally a story about the white witch in this magical world that she owns. And then, as you probably know, as land a lion in this world to ultimately, with the help of the Children defeats the white witch. But the white, which is standing for something that we encounter in our lives all of the time, really the white, which as the antagonised in this story. And this is in many ways what antagonise always represent in stories the white, which is the force of fear in the world of Narnia. The white which has come in and she has taken over, and she's driven. Everybody interfere on all the characters we initially meet in Narnia, like Mr Tumnus, a held in this fear, the fear of the white, which are magics on her revenge. If she doesn't do as they're told, C. S. Lewis was writing here for the 19 forties, and the book was published in the fifties. He was thinking about the world of Nazi Germany that Britain had defeated in World War Two and how that world had fallen. Interfere fear from the Nazis fair of Adolf Hitler. When people become afraid, whether it's on the individual level, when we fear the physical elements around us, whether it's on the social level, when we begin to fear the people who we interact with, whether it's on the national level, world level, when the world like Narnia, or when the nation like Germany under the Nazis is driven into fear complex arise. These conflicts are extremely toxic and dangerous. We understand now mawr of why this happens. We experience very deep field as humans when we placed into anything that we perceive is danger, and it literally begins to shut down the higher parts of our brain and all the parts of us that make us compassionate. Caring humans slowly stripped away and it's the fear gets worse and worse and worse, we become more and more animalistic, and among people who often not fight, who would not experienced complex the world of Narnia under as Land was not a world of conflicts who is not a well trapped in winter. The world in Nazi Germany was not a world off evil and conflicts and persecution of innocent people before the Nazis inflicted a literal reign of terror. Reign of fear over the land, on one of the main causes of conflict in our world. And hence in our stories of that world is fear. The effects of fair among people inhale as fear is brought into the world. It replicates and perpetuates itself. And in some of the stories I mentioned, where we have a powerful antagonise Star Wars doll, Fada the Emperor, the Evil Empire ruling over the galaxy Harry Potter with Lord Voldemort, who slowly arises and corrupts the world of magic around him. What we're really thinking about was a storyteller. The effects of fear on the most primal level, the antagonised represents the power fair in our lines and how it degrades and corrupts everything around it and causes conflicts to ripple around the world. Most of us most of the time, see ourselves as being in the right. If we get into an argument with our parents. It's our parents who are wrong. Have you ever falling out our colleagues at work, colleagues of work who are wrong. If we walk out of our door and it rains on us, it's the rain that is in the room. We don't have a problem. The rest of the world outside of us has a problem. But we have storytellers know that this is far, very far from always being the truth at the halt off. How we, as human beings, create our own complex with the physical world we are in our social relationships on our internal conflicts is a mismatch between how we see things and held actually all. And this is particularly true in our relationships with other people that the people were interacting with beer. Our loved ones or family or friends are work colleagues, anybody that we meet in the world. They are, of course, other complete cells as well. They're living their story, they have their designs. But we project onto them rolls within our own narrative within our own story that we're constructing to make sense of the world on when people fail to fulfill those roles that we are placing on to them. Conflict arises. We become upset when two people see things very differently when they're playing different roles within each other's dramas, Conflict arises. And it's this projection that we're all engaged in continually that produces so much of the rich, a painful conflict of storytelling. And it's this that we dive into as slightly more advanced storytellers, perhaps appropriately, this talk waas interrupted by the arrival of a thunderstorm, a form off natural conflict which had bean brewing behind me as I waas recording. So I've reconvened a few days later on a nicer sunny a day to provide a conclusion to this talk on conflict. All of us, whether we like it or not, and in real life, most of the time we do not like it. Find ourselves in forms of conflict might be physical conflict. We live in some ways in, ah, wealthier, kinder, gentler world today than perhaps we did in the past, but nonetheless we still face forms of physical conflict. Whether it's floods affecting our domestic properties are whether it's aging on the processes, sometimes of becoming sick or even dying. We do still face significant physical conflicts and challenges in life are social. Conflicts are arguably even more difficult than they were in the past. We face tremendously difficult social interactions. Sundays with family Sundays We're friends in our workplaces, in our society, at large. So all of these conflicts are out there facing us, and our internal conflicts are a strong and as powerful as they've ever seen before. On, of course, fear, as we discussed, has exactly the same effects upon us upon our physiology upon our brain and then reflected out into the society around us as it's ever done. So conflict is still absolutely a part of our lives, and that means the conflict attracts us magnetically, powerfully into stories. But whilst it's conflict that drags us into the story, it's peace. But brings us two stories resolution, and that makes us close. The book. Leave the cinema, walk out to the theater on Go and say to everybody we see. My God, I just seen an amazing story which took me deep into a conflict on. Then it showed me that conflict resolution. It gave me a happy ending, and sometimes it's writers. We criticize the happy endings in the world on even when unending isn't specifically happy when it's tragic, we still see at the end of the story what caused the conflict, and we see the potential for its resolution. Andi. So all of the great stories that we have Bean discussing in this talk come to their own version of a happy ending, an Achilles and Hector for all of the complex between the Greek kings and the city state of Troy and between the two great heroes, Achilles and Hector. A result when Achilles is able to return the body of Hector to his father prime, where we see the resolution most importantly of his internal conflict. But he's able to find honor on peace again in the old Man and the sea. This great physical conflict between a fisherman on the elements of the world and of the ocean reach their resolution in their happy ending when having struggled back to the sea pool, and we think this story is going to be one of simple, desperate desolation. What we actually see is that the bones that the great Marlin swordfish that the old man is hold back to the seaport are found by the young fishermen who were then able to see great evidence of the fisherman's greatness in The Forsyte saga, after an entire trilogy of amazing storytelling. The conflict at the heart of this story between the materialist four sites between the new members of their family, led by our green, who represent creativity and spirituality, is brought to a close when Soames and Irene have a final meeting in which their differences now as ex husband and wife, are resolved in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe to famous ending, reflecting the stories, Christian themes where the lion as land that's a kind of Jesus Christ is taken onto the altar of the right, which and sacrificed under her knife. But this act of self sacrifice brings life back to the frozen world of Nanya on defeats, the evil magics and the fear that the white, which has inflicted upon the land and this is the classic pattern of so much. In fact, I would argue all great storytelling, a conflict is introduced that's grown out of the desires of the central characters on the way that those desires clash between the self and the other. This conflict is a grown on explored over time. And then finally, the skills of storyteller show house how this conflict is resolved on how piece is brought to the world of the story. 27. Events in story - part 1: Hello and welcome back to the fifth lecture in the rhetoric story today. As you may be able to see, I'm recording in front. Amazing Castle, The Shadowed I Am Bars, one of the many castles in the Wild Valley location, inspired some of the great storytelling in history, not least the recent success of Game of Thrones. They doing that pay on orchestra musicians to sit outside the shadowed wine bars and remind theme tourists coming here during the day is a location that's inspired great stories through history, one of those stories that we will be considering a little bit. Today's story off King Arthur on Knights the Round Table, which will be illustrating the theme off today's talk. Looking out the fifth of seven major elements in the rhetoric of story. The idea. Off events first full ponds. But the rhetoric of story work together way with engine of story. Andi, you dig in 20. A great example of really, really compelling story telling bit Jack and the Beanstalk or Homer's Iliad or Bruce Willis is die hard. You will find these four elements and the rhetoric of story working together, but there the heart as the engine driving story down the tracks narrative that it's telling you need this engine in place in order for it to be compelling. What is this engine part one change. In order to understand the world around us, we tell a story about it. And at the heart of that story we identify a great change that's going on in the world weather that be a great war that's raging across the land on external change, or whether it be the transition from a child to an adult going on in the heart of character , or whether it be dealing with great powerful emotions like grief or joy or happiness. It's this change in the heart of the story that we follow along as an audience. Number two self at the heart of every story is a self that is experiencing the story because when we're telling the story of the world around us were the personal center of it , and we need a self. We need a pair of eyes to see through. We needn't experience toe, understand the story for, and driving self along is a desire, a great desire that we're trying to achieve in the world because this is how we understand the world around us in terms off our own personal desires, on the things that are stopping us from achieving them. And as we've heard already, this Cumbie on external desire, which manifests it could be the more internal kind of hidden desires which really dry characters along Andi give us also integrally to the rhetoric of story toe will power that drives us through the events of this story as they unfold Number three the other. The self isn't complete without the other characters who we encounter through the course of this story. And these characters tend to be archetypal Andi. Very often they reflect archetypal elements off the human psyche. Together, the self on the other produce the fourth part of the rhetoric of story, which is conflict. It's not only us who has great desires and awards everybody else that we meet on when these desires between our own personal desire, the desires by the characters in the story. When these clash, it inevitably would you say, is conflict. Is this being stuff like social conflicts which are at the heart of soap opera? Or it could be the internal conflicts that rage within each of us as human beings. The interactions of these 1st 4 parts of the rhetoric of story give us I'm calling it state the engine of story. And this is important to think about the way that we shape these four parts of the rhetoric of story. Give us the power source, the engine for our storytelling on. Without this, it doesn't matter. Cosmetic elements we build into our story doesn't matter what set pieces we deploy. It doesn't matter how great our dialogue is because all of this is powered by the engine at heart of a story. Tenant change itself the elder conflict. If these four elements working together provide the engine of the story, we're yet to think about the framework for which the story is actually told. And that's what I want to move into and consider in quite some depth over next three talks on this course, which you're going to be covering free separate areas. The last free areas of the rhetoric of story is going to include questions sets bit of a mystery for you. What do I mean by questions? We're gonna get to that in the seventh talk and the sick talk. We're going to be looking at structure the actual shape and form. Our story is given, and we're gonna be taking a bit of a short cut about how to find the best structure for your story. But what are we going to be considering today? To answer that question, I want to ask you a question. What it is, a story made off. It sounds simple. And across hundreds off writing workshops with thousands of students, I have placed this question to people on. I received dozens or hundreds, a different answers. What is a story made off? People are really interested in film. They tend to say pictures. That story is made of a series of moving images. People are really interested in books writing. They tend to say words. Stories are made of words. You've got all kinds of suggestions. Puppets, light and shadow stories are made of. People have a think about it. Tell me your answers. Note them down. What is a story made all the idea. I want to put you on that we're going to consider through the course off today's talk. His stories are made off events and that's impossible to tell a story without thinking coherently about what the most important events in the story. Oh, turn your imagination to the land of ancient Britain, the land ravaged by death and destruction and plague of violence. There is no king in ancient Britain. In the Dark ages, there are only warlords, knights who roam across the land, taking anything that they wish. One of these nights is the powerful who for pen dragon and with the help of the wizard Merlin, he has one by one defeated all of the other lords of Britain until only one remains the Lord of Kobol. Andi in battle, who for pen dragon defeats core more, reaches an agreement with him that who for will be the high king of Britain and core more will maintain control over his small parts of the land. On this agreement, seized, working out great feast is held until Cooper sees corm or wife grain, and he decides that he must have a grain, and he demands that Merlin helps him get her. And this restarts the war all over again. And Berlin is discussing and he says, OK, I'll give you what you want. I'll give you the woman that you want your child from this match will be mine on. Ultimately, this decision destroys who for here's intact, where the nights and he Ramses, sword, sword, Excalibur into a stone. And there it is, left for a generation. A young boy grows up as an orphan with an adopted family, and he's taken to help with all the son of the family in a great tournament. Winner of the tourney will attempt to pull the sword from the stone Offer has gotten the sword of his older brother. And so he runs around crazily until he finds a sword sticking out of stone and grabs it in his hands and pulls out. And in fact, offers pulled the sword from the stone is revealed. He is the son of Penn Dragon and the rightful hiking of Britain. But of course, the other nights can't stand for this. So offer has to ride around the kingdom, defeating them one by one, with the help of Merlin Justice. His father, Rufer, did, until eventually only one night remains and he defeats this night in battle in the night, as how can this be or not even on anointed 90 of the realm and so off in an act of great magnanimity, passes the night his sword and says, Please make me a night and then I can be the hiking Britain. It's one act offer shows that is greater than all of the other nights in a row. Having united all of the nineths of ancient Britain, the now King offer decides to survey his new realm. But along the way, he stopped by a foreign night called Lancelot. Lancelot has been traveling across the realms of Europe, looking for a great lord to serve, and he will only serve a man who defeats him in single combat offer. A Lancelot fight on offer uses the powers of Excalibur to defeat Lance. Look in combat. In the process, Excalibur is broken. He tosses it into a nearby lake, and it's brought back to him by the lady of the lake, the true owner of the sword, Excalibur, who tells him and landslides. They must work together to create a union of nights. And so the Knights of the Round Table formed Zan slot takes a journey to bring the lady win a beer to marry King offer. But of course, arriving at the castle of Gwen appears family. He instantly falls in love with great beauty of the land and pledges his undying devotion to her. But because he knows that she is pledged his best friend on the Lord King offer, he exiles himself from the Knights of the Round table so it can never be tempted to act upon his love for the Lady Gwen of it. But the Witch Mo Ghana, guess is the secret of Lancelot. She whispers it to the night, Galahad says. Perhaps perhaps the reason why Lancelot is not a member of the Knights of the Round table is because of his secret love for Gwen. A. Very Galahad, appalled by the treachery of his fellow night, calls Lancelot out on the two men engage in single combat to decide which of them is telling the truth, and Lancelot just just manages to win this win. The combat one night offer follows Gwen appearance the forests, and there sees her meeting with Lancelot on that Lance Lakwena Vera. I'm making love, and he drives the sword Excalibur into the earth between the two lovers and then returns to the castle, where he falls into a dark and dispirited sleep on his office, sleeps in the land of Britain, returns to the chaos and pestilence from which he had helped it recover. And all the knights of the Round Table accord together on their scent on a quest by offer to recover the Holy Grail, which is the only item that can restore him to his former health and returned the king to the land on the Knights of the Round Table, right out across Britain, in search off the Holy Grail and the night Percival, the youngest of the Knights of the Round Table, finds the Holy Grail at the castle of the witch Mangano, where her son, Mordred, holds it. Percival manages to fight his way into the castle, but he realizes that the Holy Grail is not an item. It's an idea. Percival returns with the idea to the sleeping king offer and, he says, offer the truth of the Holy Grail is that the king on the land are one on this truth. This idea wakes offer from his sleep, and he rides out to recover the land of Britain to fight against more drink, but meeting more did on the field of battle offer discovers that in fact, more drayd is his bastard son, born from his relationship with the witch. More Garner who, although he didn't know it, waas his half sister and knowing this offer has to fight more did on the field of battle, Andi ultimately slays him and is killed in so doing on As his last act, he demands of the night Percival takes the sword Excalibur and frozen back into the waters until the Lady of the Lake from whence it came. These all the key events king off the Knights of the Round table. The Alfieri in myth, which has been told across Europe actually for centuries, has its origins earliest telling in Wales and in the Celtic people. Before there was even a nation of Wales, I was told in the courts off medieval France and in fact, was known across the Loire Valley where I am today filming in front of the Chateau du Anbar's. It's one of the oldest stories in European myth and story telling on what's kept it told across all of that time of the great events that the story rates 28. Events in story - part 2: what is an event? Hours, days, weeks off. Our normal Monday light comm parts. Without us really encountering any events, we might think that events have happened. But on the whole, our lives are actually quite event Lis. We continue doing most of the same things that we've always done. So we get up in the morning, we brush our teeth, we have breakfast, we go to work. We do all of our daily work tasks. We finish work, we come home on the way we go shopping. At the end of the day, we sit for a while. We watch television on. Then we go to bed on we get up the next day on. We do all of this over again. If you are a great king, who for Pen Dragon. Every morning you get up and you go and slay some enemy nights. So just the fact that your inner battle battle is what you do every day doesn't mean that an event has occurred. And this is why most of the time, most of our lives are essentially event Lis. Nothing really is happening. Andan event is something happening. On that happening is something that is beyond our expectations and beyond. The expectations of character that's experiencing on this is because as our minds tell the story for which we make sense of the world, our attention is focused on the unexpected. Our attention is focused on happenings on events that occur in the course of our lives. They are not the norm that are not what we usually experience. And it's this element off the unexpected that defines what on event is, and it helps us find the events that were going to tell the story free. Let's think a bit more about this story of King off on the nights a round table. What's the first event in the story? We know the background story. The land of ancient Britain is in chaos. Pestilence and plague are traveling for apple and killing people. There are warlords. They're riding around on their horses, killing people as well. It's a dark time. Do for pen. Dragon rises up. Is this the event? No. We understand that this is what's happening. This is woofers. Normal daily life was weird and unusual, as it might seem to us who for is fighting the nights One by one, he fights The Lord of core. More on the first riel event in the story is the unexpected Ufa. After the battle against core, More attends the feast where he sees core Mel's wife, the lady a grain, and he decides he must have her. And this is the first event in the story. This is the unexpected, and this is Tell me going to think about a bit, the gap in expectation that defines the events of this story. Who for attends the feast He thinks he's just gonna need to meal is gonna conclude his truth with Coleman. He's going to go about his business being the hiking of Britain, but instead the gap in expectation arises when he meets the lady a grain. And this is what defines all of the events king offer on the Knights for the round table. The next major event of the story. We move on some years all of the knights in the land, a meeting for a jails to decide who is going to try and pulled the sword from the stone. But this happens all of the time. This is not the event the event turns around now, the central cell for this story. The young orphan offer is just a boy at the time, and he's looking around crazily for a sword to give to his older brother. And he sees this sword sticking out of the stone in the polls cleanly, with no effort from this stone on offer the gap in expectation it expected to discontinue being northen boy serving his older adoptive brother, but know what has happened. In fact, he has become, quite unexpectedly for him or the Merlin knew this was going to happen. He has become the high king of Britain. This is an event you turn up one day to a joust is an orphan, and you leave as the high king of Britain. It's again this gap between the expectation, the character on what actually happens to them. It's the gap defines the event, and it's from this gap. That change comes let's look up. One other event, the final major event in the story. King, after King offer, writes the battle against Mordred, and he thinks he's going to defeat the dark knight, who has Bean bringing evil back into the lab. He's faced with an enormous gap in his expectations he's shown. Mordred, in fact, is his son, his illegitimate bastard son. Bastard sons play a very important part in the storytelling of this era. And again it's this gap in expectation. What will offer now? Do what? He must still decide to slay some. But in the course of doing that himself is destroyed and you can see that is symbolic of are being destroyed by his own sense on then possibly being born again in more Messianic tellings of King offer. And so it is these events with God in expectation that to find the story on its from these events that we get stories major change because each least events is in itself a small part of the change. That story is rating to us, but it's a gap in expectation between what character expects to happen actually transpires on their response to this. That creates a really event on its importance as a storyteller to think clearly about what the events of your story. Oh, because the mistake that less experienced storytellers make is bringing to the telling all of the happenings or small of the events in this story on, really you only have so much space in a film in a stage play in a video game in a whole novel in a whole series of novels. Doesn't matter how big will story seem to You have to choose the most critical events that make the story telling for your audience. The events off a story, however, do not exist in isolation from each other. Imagine if I set out to tell you the story off King offer on the Knights of the Round Table , and I begin with Great Lord, who for pen, Dragon and the land is in chaos on you for is going around beating the Knights of Pen Dragon. But it happens to just get border that So he decides instead that he's gonna go on holding , and it goes on a way to Yorkshire on because he already owns. You don't have to fight anybody there. So who for is in Yorkshire on? There's also a farmer who's in your shop on the farmer has bean living there for generations on the farmer has a son called Dougie Good old. The auction name on Dougie is actually a bit into the dice on gambling and beer, and he likes to go on, have on a lot of the evening. So Dougie just goes along to his tavern. And as you can see, it's actually really hard to do this because in giving your Siris of unrelated in fact, kind, non events and completely destroying any sense of the story and you very quickly lose any interest in what I'm telling you. And I started off by telling you, this is King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. But actually what I just told your Siris of random, unconnected events that don't seem to really make any sense of having a relationship on your mind. The machine of storytelling that you look around you in your head very quickly gets annoyed , frustrated on stops paying attention to this. So what is it that keeps your mind going from one event to the other? Well, let's think about this story of King offer, as we've actually told so far. Dragon is fighting to become Lord of the Kingdom, and he defeats the last lord of core more. And then he means lady agreeing. This attracts our attention because it's unexpected and this leads by a process of cause and effect to the next event in the story. Do for me to your grain leads to offer an offer. It's then and orphan boy who finds the sword sticking out of the stone. He pulls sort out of the stony becomes king of Britain, and this leads by a process of cause and effect toe offer fighting the dark nights across the land who he has to show that he is the hiking of Britain. He can defeat them, but they still don't think is a night and so handsome is sort and says, dubbed me a night. The unexpected has occurred again, and this leads by a process of cause and effect are surveying the land fighting tonight, and this is what makes a story expertly telling great events linked by a process of cause and effect. 29. Events in story - part 3: once you do know the events of your story. Once you do understand the chain of cause and effect that connects those events, you find you have a tremendous amount off control over the stories that you're telling. One of the ways you can alter and change your stories is free scale. What this means is that you can tell any story you know, the events in the cause and effect for at any length. You can see this in the history of the telling of this story of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. I was able to tell this story for you in just a few minutes by simply describing the main events story and how they were connected on this is the simplest way to tell a story like King offer for much of its history can offer was an aural tail on. It would have been told over a series of evenings at a royal court or the residence of Rich Merchant, for instance on. So this story worked on a completely different scale. Each of the major events of the story would have bean on episode that was presented in the evening the version off King offer the Knights the round table that we're most familiar Whip today actually comes from the right Redmond Mallory La Morte Darfur, which is in fact on example of an early novelistic text, was written down. It's designed to be read by primarily courtly, well educated audience on each of the major events in the story is presented as a chapter within the novel. They've also bean hundreds of novelistic versions of King Offer or presented it that length versions by Steinbeck versions by T. H. White. The once and future king T. H. White's version is a novel actually provided the structure on the form for one of the early film versions. King offer was the Disney version, The Sword in the Stone, and as a film, you can present almost exactly the same telling of the story of King offer, but it happens in only on air and 1/2 or two hours on each of the major events in the story , then represented as a seat just a Southie. Events of this story could be told on any scale on any length story. Events also fit within each other a little bit like a Russian. Dull stories exist within other stories, and every story is part of another biggest story. In a way, stories are fractal if you've seen on a computer most often very, very colorful patterns and pictures, and the more you zoom in on these patterns, the more you find that they repeat themselves. On the closer, you go into the detail of a fractal pattern. You find just the same patterns reflected again and again. Inside stories are very, very similar. We can see this again in the story of King Offer and the Knights of the Round Table. If you take any of the key events of this story, for instance, once the knight Lancelot has bean absence from the court of King Arthur because he's secretly in love with granite, we have this story laid out off the accusations by Galahad that Lancelot is a traitor to the Knights of the Round Table on, then the trial by combat, which unfolds, which Percival intervenes with, and this is one of the major events in most tellings of the story of King offer on it reflects all of the key elements of the offering tell it features most of the main characters King offer. When Avere Lancelot, it repeats most of the same themes of what it is to be a night. What it is toe have honor what it is to be a strong fighter and everything else that we understand to be crucial about the story of King Off is this fractal quality. That means you can drop into almost any episode with a story of King after any of the King events and find it at least somewhat compelling. Without really knowing anything else about this story. We can also expand the fractional nature of our story in the other direction. So what's the story of King Offer is a great epic, which can be told in just a few minutes or over many hours and many days for an epic court retail. It's also just one story of one king of England, and it could be presented as part of the history of England, in which case the whole story of King offer might only be a few sentences in the greater narrative off the entire history of a nation on this is true ovals stories, and it's a great way of getting an understanding of this story that you're working with, however epic or however intimate, you can find other stories hidden within it, and you can find that it's part of greatest stories that air around it. And this is really interesting way of thinking about story, because it leads us to understand what the basic storytelling element that we're working with is the events of our story that contain the gap in expectation that apart off the cause and effect of story that we're telling Oh, all miniature stories in their own right. And by working in that way, we arrived at the idea of scenes. Every part of the story is an explicit scene. Once we know what the events of our story are, we can tell that story in a multitude of different ways on at any length and crucially, at any scale. So the story of King off it could be told as a five minute tail is part of a lesson, or it can be an epic sweeping Drummond presented as a film over a number of evenings as a courtly entertainment. Any story can really be told any length, and all stories are made up of other stories on our part off greater tales. So the tale of King offer is made up of a number of stories, like the Quest for the Holy Grail. And it could also be seen as part of the greater story of the history of Britain and all of its kings, in which case the story of King offer would be What's a mere sentence on when we think about all of this? Together, we can see that every story, every event within our story is in fact, its own story on. In order to shape an event as a story, we present it as a C. And like any story, a specific scene has a beginning and a middle and an end. So let's take the famous scene. The drawing off the Sword from the Stone from King Offer on the Knights of the Round Table on Let's Consider it as a C. Let's think first about the beginning in the classic story structure. The beginning is the exposition, and it's where we lay out all of the information that's required for the audience to understand this story. So what do we have a king offer on his early drawing of the sword Excalibur from the stone . Well, we know that we have offer. We know that we have his father. We know that we have his older brother on the offer is a page on is helping prepare his older brother for a tournament on. We know that tournament is about who is going to attempt to draw the sword from the stone, which of the Knights of ancient Britain are going toe? Have that honor. So we're going to see Offer and his father and his older brother turning up at the tourney . We're going to see the tournament in action. Were possibly going to see the winning night of the tournament attempting toe. Draw the sword from Sone of failing to do so and this is setting us are seen. It's giving us the exposition and it's giving us location. Crucially, when we think about the beginning of any story, we're trying to give a sense of location, trying to give a sense of characters involved in the story. Middle, what's the middle of this scene? Withdrawing of the sword from the stone? Well, in a classic scene structure, following the exposition is the complication and it's in the complication. We also meet the key action of this story. So we have a serious of events within the event were presenting once again this fractal structure. Stories within stories, events within events. What happens initially Offer is helping his brother prepare for the tournament, and he realizes that he has left his brother's sword back at the castle that they came from . And this is terrible because it means that his brother won't be able to compete in the tournament. So now offer is in a panic. He's found the first complication. The action of the scene has begun, so often runs around him. He looks for solutions to this complication. What might he do? Well, there's another night next door, he goes on. Asked if he could borrow a sword in the night, says, Absolutely no way. Everyone needs their swords. For the upcoming tournament, you won't be able to find one offer. So after scratches his head and he thinks, What can I do? Well, wizard Merlin is here. I'll go and ask Merlin what I might be able to do. A Merlin says. Well, perhaps if you look really hard offer, you'll find a sword in the forest. Merlin here is trying to shape the action of the story as it unfolds. He's a magical character in that way, said a young orphan. Arbour heads off into the forest, and he does indeed find a sword, just an old sold sticking out of a stone. He grabs the sword in his hand and he pulls it out. And now we've encountered What have we found? Crucially, we've encountered the gap in expectation that's at the heart of the event. On that powers are seen and everything that's come before. This is about building up to the gap in expectation. On the young orphan offer, he runs back to the tourney, and he tracks down his father and his brother, and he says to his brother, Look, I found you a sword here, take it. And his brother, of course, recognizes the sword Excalibur but pretends that he doesn't know. And when his father arse um, was it you who pulled the sword from the stone first? He says, Yes, he wants the glory. But then he says no, he has to be honest. It was his younger brother, Arthur pulled the sword from the stone on all of the nights of the tournament. Gather around. And they proclaim that because offer has drawn the sword from the stone, he must be the new high king of Britain. So this is taking us through the middle of the scene, and now we end the event. We end the story we end the scene with the resolution on the resolution to the scene comes as offer is being proclaimed the high king of Britain. Potentially other nights are fighting against this, and this is giving us the cause and effect that's going to lead into the next. Scenes of the story on the resolution gives us the emotion we go into the self at the center of the story, surrounded by other characters. When we go deep into the self of heart of the story and we look at the emotion that the gap in expectation and his response to it has arisen, we think What is the emotion that offer is left with? And in this telling, a story offer is left with a sense of his own fate. As the king of England on this gives us the entire event. It gives us a complete seen on this structure is really important. The opening, which gives us the exposition, the information we need to understand the scene the middle get is the complication, a series of events within the event finally to closing the resolution on the emotion to the scene. Not only is this the structure for a classically designed seen within a drama is a basic structure for any story that we might wish to tell on this takes its own into next the sick part off the rhetoric of story, which is structure on. We will be coming to this in our next talk. We've looked here at a basic structure that takes a series of events that focuses on one event within our story on that gives it a structure. In the next lecture, we're going to look at the nature off structure in storytelling. We're going to look at lots of examples of structure and most interesting we're going to look up. Why structure? It's amazingly powerful and a bit of a cheeky short cut for you as a storyteller. 30. Structure in story - part 1: Hello and welcome back to the sick talk in the rhetoric of story, they were gonna be considering the idea of structure the six part off the rhetoric of story that we're being exploring so far in this course recording before you for a very special location. Greek theater in the ancient city of Syracuse, on the island off Sicily for centuries. In this location, the importance of famous plays a classical Greek society were acted out in this very amphitheater behind me on today I want to talk to you about one off the most important ideas in storytelling the six part but the rhetoric of storytelling. Today we're going to be discussing structure on how structure relates to your art, your craft as a storyteller on why it's so important in crafting compelling stories for your audience. So far in the rhetoric of story we have been exploring the seven key techniques that we as storytellers employ to create a powerful, compelling riel world for our audience is the first of these is change the archetypal change that we as humans or go through and the power so many of our great stories the second for cell the hero Theseus Entra character, the protagonist at the center of every story. The furred is the other, the other human beings. Other characters that surround the central character in the four that arises from the conflicts between the self and the other is conflict, of course. Taken together, these four provide the engine of the story, the psychological truth and reality that powers our narrative in our storytelling. Along the fifth, which we explored in our last talking rhetoric of story, are the building blocks of story itself. Events Andi. It's by thinking about events, the ways that events could happen at length and scales the ways that, like a fractal events, fit within events in our storytelling. By thinking about the fifth element to the rhetoric of story that we arrive at the sixth element, which is structure, how do we take the events off our stories and shape them into a story that stands up not just for one audience but for thousands of audiences on that lasts? Like those stories told here at the Greek Theatre in Siracusa for hundreds or possibly even thousands of years on, it's the consideration of structure which reveals the answer to this really important question. What is structure? It's a big question, and it's a question that divides writers and storytellers of all kinds, many storytellers, many writers. Belief. Structure is a kind of cheating. They're quite the word structure with formula, with a cliche with stereo types. But we want to think a bit more openly about structure, and I don't see that if you have this sense, that structure and to adopt a structure for your story is somehow cheating. I want you to put that aside for the course of our talk today, because the honest truth is that without fully understanding story structure, it's almost impossible to create a story of any size, scale or scope that will be compelling for your audience on without really understanding structure, you will find the process of creating a story on any scours, all to be much, much more difficult than it necessarily needs to be. But what are we talking about with the idea of structure? Well, let's have a think about structure in other contexts. What is the structure of a car on automobile? Well, cars are different. They come in different four forms. You have a four by four. You can have a hat, you're gonna have a saloon car. But they all have various things in common. They tend to have four wheels. They have a number of doors. They have seats, they have an engine, they have tires. And it's these elements to come together to form the structure of a car. And if you try and make a car which doesn't have that structure, you will run into great difficulties. What is the structure of a house? What is the structure of a skinned knee scraper? What is the structure of a cathedral, or even indeed, what is the structure off a Greek? A theater? All of these physical objects that's further computer in there as well. All have a structure which has evolved over a long course of time to build us. A great cathedrals did not invent every part of the cathedral they were building. In fact, all of the technologies that went in to building Great Gothic cathedral very similar to those found all over Europe, evolved for centuries before the first full scale cathedral was built. At the heart of the cathedral is the arch, the simple stone arch, which is one of the basic technologies and tools which are used to build a massive structure like a cathedral. If you put arches on top of each other, you conform walls from them. If you four marches into a circle, you can build a dome. And it's the understanding of how arches work that lets great architects and builders build massive structures like a feed, roles and fitters. Imagine if you set out to build a cathedral and you didn't know anything about techniques of stone masonry about how to form a basic archway about how to build a stone wall. Instead, you just took a big pile of stone and started on a freeform creative manner to just pile stones one atop the other, into chisel away with, um, with your hammer and chisel. What would happen? Well, I think you can quite obviously see that you wouldn't get very far in the task of building a cathedral. What would happen if you decided to build a car and you didn't understand mechanical engineering or steel smelting or how to make rubber tires? You just decided to take a big bunch of metal and to start hammering and fit and to form it into various different shapes. Maybe, maybe over many, many years you might, by trial and error, arrive it something a bit like a car. Or maybe just go cult. That might be the most you could achieve, and stories are really no different. If you just set out to tell a story, and you have no idea about the hugely interesting and beautiful and complex structures that stories take, you'll find the task incredibly difficult and frustrating. You might write an opening scene and then get stuck. You won't want to know what happens next, because structure is not just painting by numbers. It's not just following rules. Blindly structure is much more creative than that. If you understand the basic structures of storytelling, you're able to improvise around them. You're able, in fact, to be much more creative with structure them without it on. Get into this idea we're going to explore today one off the most important, I'm widely used structures in storytelling. Today we're going to be thinking about one of the most successful one of the most famous stories of recent decades, certainly of the last century as well, inarguably of all time. What is that story? Well, the story of a young person, a young man, a young woman on they're of low birth. Perhaps they're an orphan there, often adopted into a family. But they don't feel a great sense of belonging to the small world that they're in about. Miraculously, they receive a call to adventure on. They meet very often an old man with a white beard who is wise and who advises them on their story and their drawn into a stranger, sometimes dangerous world where they make new friends and they're caught up in a great adventure and a battle on a fight against a dark Lord and the forces of evil. The Dark Lord represents in a final showdown. They have to defeat the forces of evil and the Dark Lord, and in doing so, they become a great hero and find a sense of belonging in their community. What is this story? Well, this is the story off Harry Potter or seven books and the movies. This is the story of The Matrix with Chiana Reeves. This is the story of many great films or a popular television shows novels. Video games have adopted this story as well. This is story off the tremendously successful Star Wars saga I waas. All of these stories have their differences. They're all variations on the same structure, and it's that structure that we're going to be exploring more fully today in the talk ahead . 31. Structure in story - part 2: well over 2000 years ago, Greek philosopher Aristotle came regularly to fitters just like this one to watch great place signs some of those places and survived a number of them so far in the story. Onda Aristotle in these texts that's come down to us is the Poetics tried to determine what it was about the place that succeeded in the Greek audiences that were popular and that won the contests for playwriting that were part of Greek society. What it was about those plays, the successful stories on the place that were unsuccessful that were unpopular with the audience, most of which have not survived. To this day, Aristotle was trying to determine what made each of these stories a success or a failure, and he made a whole list of observations which recording the poetics. Central to his idea was the concept of the three act structure on Aristotle defines thes three x, The simplest waited to find Mrs Beginning middle and end. We'll talk in a bit more detail about these, but you find the three act structure very similar to the one outlined by Aristotle throughout storytelling. Today you find it particularly in film and in Hollywood filmmaking, where three act structure has been adopted as the default structure for film, you find it in place and, in fact, from Greek times. Along with acts, structures three and five AC structures have been common. In fact, all my stool place employees the structure plates for much of its structure and slightly so across modern storytelling. You find this three act structure repeated beginning, middle and end, but as a storyteller is useful to go into considerably more detail about how this sanction actual works. And we did touch on this at the end of our talk on events. Thea structure is formed of events, and each of us has events within it, and they fall into certain patterns. Backed one with three act structure. And we're going to illustrate this by thinking about this story off Star Wars. What happens in the first active Star Wars, or indeed, in mice films or any story exposition? Act One is dedicated to the exposition off all the details and elements of story that we need to know in UN in order to understand what's happening, so were introduced toe all of the characters that kind of soul was We need, of course, Luke Skywalker, the heroic story itself Central story, and we also meet many others around him. We meet is what uncle you're kindly but rather small. Mine didn't don't want Luke to go off to pilot school and get involved with the rebellion, and they're also worried. We find out about his father, Anakin Skywalker, and this mystery is introduced. We also meets Ben Kenobi. Wise old man with the white here is out in the world that's waiting for Luke to come along . Look is called The New Hope in the first Star Wars movie because he brings hope. It's a lot of the characters who he encounters. We meet Princess there, who is the female character in the center of the soul way by the Dark Lord. In this story by Darth Vader. We also meet See Threepio and Artoo detail. So in the exposition of the story, all of the characters are given. Famous yellow writing recedes up screen, beginning with Star Wars with about a war between the collective way. All of the elements that we need to understand stand general outline, Star Wars in the events they're going toe unfold in the story. The Booth Act, one of the three act structure, always contains absolutely always one very important event. Going to consider these central events of the structure as we proceed most important events in acts one off any three X story Is Theo inciting incident? This is the event in this story that takes itself the hero looks Guy Walker in Star Wars on Hell's Him into a world of adventure in Star Wars three inciting incident, which occurs across a few scenes of the story. His Luck's I Walk is discovering the Princess Leia has been kidnapped by gulf later on that she's going to be potentially executed so that Luke is gonna have to go on rescue her. And after discovering this look also finds that his parents, his adopted parents, his aunt and uncle have bean killed by imperial stormtroopers on after this point are these events have unfolded? There is no way for Luke to return to the world he was in before, and this is a very important aspect off the inciting incident in Act one of story Act to in any three act structure that one has taken up. That's 25% of story. Act two is going to take up 15% or must be a little story to is the middle, and it's about complication. Enact one. Luke Skywalker has been sent off by the inciting incident into his adventures in the world . An act to him. He's a Siri's off complications, which increased the tension off the story. So look, sidewalk is taken off in the Millennium Falcon. What then happens? They need to get away from Thai fighters. Richard chasing them so locum hand of firing laser bolts to escape the tie fighters. Once they've done that, they need to escape to light speed. This, of course, produces another complication that the engines aren't in the right format to escape. Once Luke Skywalker and Han Solo on Lenin four can have gaped the type fighters that chased them and made it to into hyperspace. They arrive at what was the planet old around, which was their destination, only to find yet another complication. It has bean blown up, and then now, in the midst of its rubble, they then encounter, of course, the death Star, which tractors them in with its tractor beams on Now, further complication. They're trapped onboard the death star, and they must find a way to escape. The complications continue through out active but Star Wars. So this point, however, that you reach the pivotal event within any second act of a free out structures story. And this is the turning point of the story of the inciting incident through the hero into a world of adventure. The turning point is the point of which our young hero, Luke Skywalker, in this case, takes control of the situation they find themselves in. Previous to this point, Luke has Bean reactive has been led by Obi one. Kenobi has been led by hand solar. At the turning point of the movie, Luke discovers with the help of R two d two, the Princess Leia is being held aboard the Death Star. On that, he's going to need to break his promise to. Everyone can know Vito, wait in the loading dock off The Death Star, in fact, is going to need to take a decision himself and go after Princess Layer. And this is the turning point where Luke goes would be young, adept on his way to becoming Jedi Knight, his first step towards becoming a true hero who is making decisions off his own accord as this turning point that gives Act two of three act structure. It's dynamic town, following the done the turning point, the complications of act to continue and in a very long story you can continue the complications for as long as you want. This is technique that story tellers can use to control the length of the stories that they're telling, but its most important just to understand that this is the dynamic back to its about. The introduction of complications and thes complications very often complied with the law of rising force. So each complication, one after another, will be mawr important and more difficult for the hero toe overcome. So at the very end of act to the Millennium, Falcon is still caught in the loading dock off the death stone on the complication that have toward become is Darth Vader himself. The ultimate challenge on board the death star on this rising force keeps the dynamic tension of Act two building for as long as you continue to raise the stakes on your hero. Act three in the three act structure this is the resolution. Whatever forces in this story well unleashed in Act one, whatever parts we put in place in the exposition on whatever was adventure was begun with the inciting incident. It's an Act three that all of these elements are resolved in the case of Star Wars. This happens for a series of events which also in unfolds in every third act of every free act structure which is ever being written on These are the crisis. The climax on the resolution is this series of events which give factory it's basic shape. So the crisis, the hero of this story, is faced with a crisis which you can't escape from. He has to confront it. He can't run away from it. He can't dodge it, as he night have done with the earlier complications of Act two in Star Wars. This is the appearance off the death star at the rebel base, and it's going to destroy the moon that the rebel basis on and in so doing is going to forever end the rebellion against the evil empire, which Luke as a hero must bring down. So Luke has no choice but to join the X wing Starfighter pilots Onda sort the death star before it could blow up the rebel base on this. In our crisis climax and resolution, Siri's gives us the climax, which is the climactic battle installers between the X wing fighter pilots on the Death Star and as the death star is closing around, the planet is coming within firing range. Off the rebel race, Luke completes the final climactic trench run on this, one of the most famous scenes in film history as he zooming along the trench, the other excellent fighter pilots of being blown left and right away from him. Crucially, Darth Vader, the dark Lord who must be involved in the crisis climax resolution of this story, eyes flying along behind Luca. We have the famous line. The force is strong in this one, which prefigures the big revelation of Empire strikes back. The climax of the story of the third act Reaches is absolute pinnacle, as Luke turns off his battle computer and uses the force to fire his vote on torpedoes into the heart of the death star and blow up the monstrous demon, which is what the death star represents in styles that is trying to destroy the young heroes community. In this case, the rebel base is, or massively archetypal storytelling following the climax. The third part of our three part of our three act structure that completes the third act is the resolution. We wouldn't be happy just was seeing the death star blown up. We need to see the hero rewarded on. That's literally what happens at the end of Star Wars in a special medal ceremony are the heroes who have defeated the death star look. Skywalker, Han Solo and Chewbacca as well are all awarded medals by Princess Leia, and this also resolves many of character relationships in the story in the kind of simple way that the heroic storytelling it's starboard's requires. 32. Structure in story - part 3: the three act structure is, without doubt one of the most popular and most effective ways to structure a story in almost any medium, with its beginning, Middle and End. The Act one of exposition at two, a complication in Act three of resolution, the special events that exist within this story, the inciting incident, the turning point of the crisis, climax and resolution you're given as a storyteller very clear structure around which to shape absolutely any kind of story you might wish to. Within this act structure. There are other elements which very worth considering. Each of the three acts also contains a Siri's off sequences sequence is a set of events which tell you a small story within the story. So in Act one, our Exposition Act in Star Wars, we have the opening sequence off the rebel Caribbean Cruiser being pursued by Stardestroyer across space and captured on the Rebel plans and Princess Layer being kidnapped by Darth Vader on this is a sequence off events. There are half a dozen distinct events within sequins. We then move on to the next sequence off to Androids R t d two and C three Po escaping onto tattooing and their early adventures and meeting the dollars we then have. The next sequence were introduced to Skype on its by thes sequential sequences that you're able to clearly my reasons to do this. But if you chose instead to a jump between these events to jump help between them, you have a much less clearer storytelling arc for uring audience to engage with. So the sequences are very important. Within each sequence are scenes we discussed scenes in the talking events earlier in the course on each scene is one event within your story. So if we think about the sequence where Luke Skywalker heads into the deserts of chattering after R two d two, who's run away to try and begin his mission to rescue Princess Leia, he's trying to track down Ben Kenobi. We have a Siris of scenes we have Luke shooting off across the desert in his land speeder. We have Luke being attacked by the monsters in the desert. We have Luke meeting Ben Kenobi for the first time, and we have Luke being given his father's lightsaber Blade Bank, and this Siris of distinct scenes forms are sequence on, as we considered in the last talk. Each scene has a major gap in expectation, a major turning point within it. And it's those turning points that really, really form the compelling heart of each scene and that a basic building blocks of our story. However, this structure goes down a level further. Each event in the story each scene is composed from beats. The beats are the units off behavior usually expressed in dialogue. The arch changed between the character. So if we take the single scene in Star Wars, where Ben Kenobi on Luke Skywalker are discussing Luke Skywalker's father, who Ben Kenobi claims to have known a number of beats of behavior passed between the characters, Luke is intensely curious about Ben Kenobi on, then intensely curious about his father. Ben, on the other hand, knows a great deal about Luke. He knows, in fact, that Anakin Skywalker became Darth Vader is Luke's father, but he doesn't reveal this bunny is implicit in each beat on each beat, usually expressed through dialogue. It might also be key imagery and my also be behavior. A look conform a single beat in a story. Each beat is an exchange between the characters and the beats are the smallest unit of storytelling. But they're very, very important to consider because when you're trying to write great dialogue, it's about the beats. It's about what goes on said between the characters. It's about the motivation of each character that express in the beats. It's about what each beat is trying to achieve because nobody ever says anything without a goal that they're trying to achieve for language and ultimately your story lost. It is an act structure whilst it contains sequences. And once it contains pivotal scenes, your your story is a long set of beats is exchanges of human interaction. There's a lot more that could be said within the free act structure within any other structure about this kaleidoscopic structure of acts, sequences, scenes on beats. We really only just touched upon it here, but they are key to understanding thes structure of absolutely any story that you're attempting to tell. One very common variation on the three act structure is a structure which allows you slightly more scope to develop and grow your characters on. To tell stories over a slightly longer period of time and crucially, give your character's mawr emotional growth on to trigger more emotion in your audience as well. The three act structure tends to be devoted to shortest stories, which are happening over a short period of time. The adventure in the first Star Wars movie, a New Hope takes place over only a few days on the three extractor is ideal for that. We want to tell a story over a longer period of time. We often swap to a five act structure to give you a good example off five Acts structure. I want to think for a moment about another Hollywood movie, which is quite similar to Star Wars when you actually think about some of the details of character and plot. And that's the movie Gladiator, starring Russell Crowe, which many of you will have seen. Directed by Ridley Scott on amazing, visually sumptuous movie but also amazing storytelling, Gladiator is the story off the General Maximus, who is the leader of the Roman armies of the North. He's just defeated the Germanic tribes, and then he's made defender of Rome, and he's asked by the emperor was very old near to death, to return to Rome and to return it to being a republic. But before General Maximus can do this at the son, Commodus of the Emperor assassinates the emperor and takes over the leadership of the Roman Empire. This is the set up. This is acts one. This is the exposition of Gladiator on X one in a five act story is much the same as Act One in the Three Acts story. It's in the second act that the changes really begin to show instead of an act purely of complications, which leaves the story swiftly through and takes the hero to the third act of the resolution Crisis Climax Resolution story In a five act narrative, the second act is divided into three on these three acts. Each have a distinct mini story, which they play out, which extends the length of time that stories told over and gives more scope for the emotional impact of this story. This is because each act off Anak structured story reverses or in some case, extends the emotional journey of our protagonists with central character in the frac story . Then you only have to opportunities to reverse these story on its axes. So when Star Wars Luke finishes Act one actually in quite a low place, his adoptive family of being killed his on the run from the evil empire. But by the end of Act two of all of its complications, he's triumphed already once over Duff later on, he's escaped the death star, taking Princess Leia whipping so he's now is in a point of triumph. Act three then takes into his ultimate triumph. So you have these reversals on extensions of the emotional charges. But the story in the five backstory you get on a additional three opportunities to reverse or extend three character arc on the emotional challenges story on this is exactly what happens over the central reax. Gladiator in Act two. Russell Crowe as the General Maximus. He has a the end of Act one being almost killed. His family have been murdered by the troops of accommodates, and he's left as a slave, and we follow through back to the story of the gladiator as he trains. His gladiator skills is already a competent fighter as he impresses the audiences in the provinces of Rome on Act Two climaxes with Russell Crowe in a way again victorious, although there's an irony that has now become a brutal murderer in the process. In Act three, the gladiator is taken to the new gladiatorial games in Rome to the Great Coliseum, which was actually a little bit like the Greek theater behind me. Here on, he achieves an even greater victory. He triumphs in a fight where he should have been killed. The Emperor Commodus has to enter the arena to face him. Down on Russell Crowe is the gladiator wins over the mob to his side. So across x two and three, we have this great rise in the characters fortunes on, then in Act four. Of the five that structure this is entirely reversed. Act four shows us a plot against the emperor political forces rallying to the side of the gladiator. But this is all destroyed in the four fact of this story. And in fact, Russell Crowe's then left lower than ever a prisoner in chains to face the fifth and final act. But the story which takes again the structure off the resolution, the crisis climax resolution off a three act or a five act structure in which casing Gladiator. This is Russell Crowe facing off against the Emperor Commodus. and finally defeating him and then the restitution off the Roman Republic. This five act structure gives us a storyteller more opportunity, as I've been saying to reverse the fortunes of the character, to extend the emotional charges of the film on to create a story which runs over a longer period of time on has ultimately more force. And that's more ironic force than the simple three act structure over the adventure story like stones. 33. Structure in story - part 4: beyond react on five act structure. There are, of course, a whole host off alternative narrative structures that you can apply to your stories. One of these comes from Japan. One way to think of it is a four act structure, and it's called in Japanese storytelling. Kiss Scholten Tetsu on each off the syllables in cash. Odin Catcher key shorten kept suu stands for one of the four traditional acts off Japanese storytelling, and these work a little differently to the five acts stories that we've been discussing. If you want to see an example of a shortened cat suit, one source that used it very often were the cartoons off Charlie Brown and Snoopy. In fact, they're often used within cartoon structures, which is why the very popular in Japanese storytelling, where cartoons very common, the four structure of a shortened cat suit is less dependent on conflict than the three or five act structures of Western drama. Instead, it uses contrast on a twist in story telling. So, for instance, in the first act of the custodian Katz's structure, we might be introduced, introduced to the three daughters of a great emperor on, we're told, a little story about the free daughters on how they enjoy hanging out in the Emperor's Garden. In the second act, we're showing the three daughters again. A little time has passed on. A small drama plays out between the three daughters bats on a suitor who's interested in marrying them. Then, in the full fact of cash Odin cat suit, we've thrown into an entirely different setting. Perhaps it's the steps off Mongolia and a Mongol horde on. They ride around, firing their bow and arrow up people, then in the four fact of castrating cats. So we go back to the three daughters of the General, and we're told that like a Mongol horde, the three daughters also have bow and arrows. But they're no weapons. They are instead, their eyes with which they fire terrible glances at young men who come to court them on. It's this contrast. Different topics could be expressive in a poem or short story, or you can spend a whole play on this showed in Gansu structure. It's this contrast on this twist of the third act into the four fact, which produced the irony which the CAS Oaten tetsu structure dependable as well as the whole host off alternative narrative structures. It's possible to employ as a three act structure, which we've been exploring through this talk in a variety of different forms on mediums. We've been discussing it in terms of film and particularly Hollywood filmmaking, which such a powerhouse storytelling today. But it's also the most basic structure of televisual storytelling. If you think about any of the currently very popular HBO television shows like Game of Thrones, The Sopranos band of Brothers are currently very popular, Mr Robot. They used the three act storytelling structure as well. But instead of telling just one story over the course of a film, they tell a series of stories in episodes, usually 10 episodes to a season. On each of those episodes is a complete three act story, so if you take a single episode of Game of Thrones at the beginning, we will have the exposition off. The key characters were gonna be involved in that episode of Game of Fronts. There will be an inciting incident. The inciting incident will for us into a second act, which will introduce a series of complications to this story. Onda. We will then have a crisis climax and resolution in 1/3 act, resolving this story. That episode. This is all done typically in around 50 minutes for a standard episode of HBO Stone Television. In addition, there will also be one or two subplots on each of those subplots also has a complete three act structure but may only be shown in one or two scenes where, as as we fought about with the filmic three act structure, each act has a few dozen scenes, and those are divided into sequences. This episodic storytelling structure is very popular because it allows you to explore wide range off character interactions and even more so than film, the very popular HBO former storytelling that we have at the moment is all about exploring the interactions between a wide variety of characters. And, of course, with a three act structure in every episode over 10 episodes, you have a huge range of interactions between the characters that you can explore in it. What it's what makes a show like Game of Thrones so popular. We've been using the story Star Wars to explore the three act structure. In this talk, we also had a think about the story. Gladiator to explore five extraction. Both of these stories are classic examples off tax structure in storytelling. They're also classic examples off what is one of the single most famous narrative structures are off the last century? Definitely, And thats I suggested to beginning to talk. It's employed in all kinds of storytelling. Throughout different media's It is the structure of Harry Potter is the structure off the Matrix. It's also starkly structure of many religious mitts. The Story of Jesus, The Story of Buddha, The Story of Moses. It might surprise you to find that these are all, in some ways, the same story to think about what this story is. I want to introduce you to the idea off. The mono myth Monument is very famous. Now you may well have heard of it on it. Waas, developed by the comparative mythology gist Joseph Campbell Campbell became famous through the 19 forties and into the 19 fifties for thinking vary widely about the mythologies of the world as a comparative mythologies, which was a job he invented when he was 1st 1 Hey considered what all of these mythologies had in common, and he fought not only about religious mythologies as I mentioned this story of Jesus, biblical stories of the Old Testament story of Moses Story of Buddha, all of which came from very different cultures. But he considered as well the plays of ancient Greece, which will played in theatres like The Amphitheater Behind Me, which were considered by Aristotle in his poetics. And he realized that all of these stories contained many of the same structural and mythic elements, and he called thes the mono may on because in the mano me, he found the same elements in the same characters, repeating over and over again. He wrote about them in a book called Three Hero With 1000 faces suggesting that whilst all these heroes be they Hercules or Jesus or face IUs from Greek myth or neo in The Matrix Today, or Harry Potter or Luke Skywalker, or any of the heroes that we're considering that while they all appear different on the surface underneath they're all playing out the same archetypal story, which is the mono me. So the hero of 1000 Faces outlines what this model myth is, and it became very important to storytellers for the 20th century. The mother myth has a number of stages. The full monument has 17 stages and all. They're not going to run from a lot for you today. But there's certain key elements in the modern. One of these elements that is very early in any scientific story is the call to adventure. Our young hero, who finds himself often orphaned and his feels alienated from the world around them in some way, receives a coal to adventure in the Hero of 1000 Faces. Joseph Campbell looks at the example off the Golden Ball. The princess on the Golden Ball princess has a golden ball, and he's playing whether in her garden, she tosses the golden ball into the pond and it sinks since the pond where she cannot return it. But from the pond leaps a frog and he brings the golden ball with him, and the frog invites the princess, too. Leap into the pond on this is a call to adventure. It's the same call to adventure that Luke Skywalker receives in Star Wars, where he's invited by over one Can Obie to join him on an adventure and go into the galaxy and to fight evil empire. It's a very similar call to adventure Linse received by Neil in The Matrix, who is in his apartment alone. Searching produce the Matrix when there's a knock at the door on a young woman with a tattoo over white rabbit on her shoulder, which is indeed a nod to another quarter adventure. Alice in Wonderland when Alex spots the white rabbit who's running out of time and he leaps down, holding the ground that she then follows on This is Joseph Campbell's point across. All of these stories, which seemed cosmetically very different. We have the same structural elements. The call to adventure is very often followed by the refusal of the pool. The hero, scared of what might confront them on the adventure, refuses to take up the call. This happens to look, Skywalker installs. He refuses Ben Kenobi's invitation. He says that you must return home to the farm, only to find that the farm his adoptive parents have bean very sadly slaughtered by imperial stormtroopers, which then for us in on the quarter adventure. Another element in the mono myth is the crossing of the fresh hold. Next I walk across is the fresh hole when he takes off in the Millennium Falcon into space . There's no turning back at this point. He can't go back to the farm anymore. These steps in the Monem If continue you you enter in the mid point of the story the belly of the beast, which is the darkest point of the heroes adventure. Again in Star Wars, the belly of the base is encountered when having just rescued Princess Leia from a cell aboard the Death Star, the hero shoot a hole in the wall, and they jumped down a chute into a trash compactor on, they literally find themselves in the belly of the death star, the belly of the beast that they're fighting against, which is filled with trash and rubbish and whether almost crushed by the trash compactor, a lot of these elements of the monument appear again and again. Temporary storytelling. Joseph Campbell. I would argue that they appear over and over again because they are mythic in nature on because they tap into something deep within our human psychology, and I agree with that. I think that's very much the case on that. This is why we find these so compelling But there is another reason why thes monem ethic elements pop up again and again in contemporary storytelling. And it's here that I want to come to my cheeky suggestion for us storytellers in how to employ structure in your stories. Because structure can be complex and trying to invent your own narrative structure from scratch is extremely difficult, like building a cathedral like making a car. You're going to find that the structure you use is very similar in many ways, to the timeless evolved structure that hundreds of other creators have contributed to over decades or centuries. You may adapt this structure. You may twist it to become your own, but ultimately, as a storyteller, you're employing structures that are larger than you are. A very good example of this is the screenwriter and director off Star Wars, George Lucas. It became tremendously famous and wealthy in creating Star Wars, part of Lucas ease inspiration for the Star Wars movies, where the pulp television Siri's like Flash Gordon that he had watched himself as a child. He also loved samurai movies, which is where the sword fighting elements of style was come from. But none of this was holding together as a cohesive story until he found the work of Joseph Campbell. George Lucas read the hero of 1000 Faces at a college student, and he applied it in his early career as a Hollywood filmmaker on DNA own. Did he use it? It was then adopted by dozens, in fact, hundreds of very successful filmmakers and storytellers across dozens of different mediums to tell many of the most compelling stories of the 20th century. And this, ultimately, is why these monolithic elements appear again and again in films, novels, video games, plays as well throughout the later decades of the 20th century and still now in the 21st century. My suggestion to you as a creator of stories is that particularly when you were starting out, that you should steal really good narrative structures from other stories stories that you love, stories that you can analyze stories that you can break down in the way that we've looked. Stories like Star Wars and Gladiator Today as examples of three act on five extraction in a way that were being thinking about Kaye Shelton Ketziot for structure traditional Japanese story turner, this ultimately, along with the other tours of the rhetoric of story is the absolute key into creating compelling stories on a professional level. And if you take any storyteller that you really love being a filmmaker, a novelist playwright, I am absolutely 100% certain that when you look at your stories, you'll see their borrowing, which I would pull stealing but stealing in a good way, dramatic structures off the kind that we have been exploring today in the sick of our seven talks for the rhetoric of story, please come back for the seventh and final Talk, in which we will be exploring questions. 34. Emotion in story - part 1: So what are we here for today? This is Oh, my God. Yes, absolutely. Hello and welcome. This is the final talk in the rhetoric of story course. I have bean all over the world to give these talks. And now I'm back where I began on the island of Bali, an island and culture with a fantastic history of storytelling. Hello. Hello. And welcome to the rhetoric of story on to the final talk in our core. So far we've bean through on exciting series of talks, looking at the fundamentals off, compelling on engaging storytelling. And when we talk about story here, we're talking about story in any form. So this might be writing a novel. Could be making a film writing scripts for the stage. It might also be story in a variety of other settings. Where else to refine story We find story in advertising. Every single advertisement you see is a little miniature story. Find story in business writing. If you're trying to communicate what it is that your business does too the world In fact, stories adjust tremendously important. Our whole world runs on stories. How do we understand what's going on in the world. We turn on the news and the news tells the stories about the world. How do you understand the country that we live in? We know about the history, the story off our country. And that's how it is that. How do we know what's going on in our lives where we tell a story about our lives? And this is the core of the rhetoric of story. It's about understanding what makes thes stories work, what makes them compelling on what makes them immersive. What creates the effect that we are for a time inside story that we're watching all that we're being told at the heart of the rhetoric it story are seven foundational elements of story we have in the previous talk being For the 1st 6 of these, we considered the idea of change. There is no story without a true and profound change around which this story turns, and this might be a huge dramatic change in what it might be a war won or lost by one side or another. It can also be a much smaller and more intimate change. It might be about simple things, how we grow up, how we go from a young person to an adult, how we achieve success in the world or how we grow old thes of the changes. That story is truly about following change what is at the heart of every story itself. There's a person, a hero, a protagonist that we follow at the heart historians itself for his eyes and ears, and senses that we pick up with the details off the story. What is there around himself? There are others. There are the characters who surround the hair of the heart of the story on these others. 10 Terfel into archetypes, the friends that helped the enemies and villains that get in our way after these others. In the story, we have conflict, the forces of antagonism, which make the hero's journey story. We're telling hard and conflict reading. And again these might be external forces, like an old man fighting against the seed Paul of Fish back to the coast. But they might be internal, like the internal forms of resistance that we face every day. Just get up, go to work or look after our kids. This is 1st 4 are the engine of the story following that a to more the external shape of the story that we're telling events every story made of a Siri's off events. On that these events follow our order off cause and effect. One event leads to another in the telling off the story. The events that the story is made off are formed into a structure, and the structure of the story is bigger than the story itself. We find structures in the story that we love and admire the most common. The three act structure, which shakes most plays nearly or Hollywood films, many novels and other forms of storytelling as well. The beginning, Middle on end of the story, the opening exposition. The Central Conflict on the Final Resolution of the story, These are the six elements off compelling story telling that we've examined so far Today we're gonna be talking about the 17th on final foundational elements storytelling. This is two story, as the ability to fly on jump over tall buildings is to Superman. The seventh of these elements is the secret superpower storytelling. That's why we've left it until last. What is the seventh of the seven foundations of storytelling? It is emotion. Let's think back briefly to the great Greek philosopher that we started these series of talks within the rhetoric of storytelling on that is Aristotle and is writing about Greek theater. Ari Storm defined one quality of bubble else that we are seeking in a storytelling experience, that quality he called catharsis. Catharsis is quite simple toe understand, and it's really about emotion. Aristotle Illustrated passes where the simple story of a man fighting a lion. Let's consider this for a moment, as our estoppel did. If you were really fighting or possibly running from a lion, you would feel intense fear. The emotion of fear would completely dominate your entire experience of the world. For that time, you wouldn't be able to think so. You would be having a very intense emotional experience. We need to have no opportunity to consider it much later. You might think about what it might be like To fight a lion on this consideration would be entirely logical. You wouldn't really understand the emotions at the heart of the experience on DSO, Aristotle said. Story on the quality of France's Give us the ability to experience both of these at the same time. Once you're watching a play about a man fighting a lion. We feel the intense emotional experiences, but not so powerfully that we aren't able also to think and consider what it is about this experience that is so powerful and possibly transformative. I'm through the combination off our logical thinking mind our emotional feeling Mind were able to reach a moment. Off passes were ableto purge yourself off the fear that we experience when considering the idea of being eaten in the line. Oh, when considering other fearful ideas were able to purge ourself off the emotion of fear that we feel when we think about being eaten by a lion on this experience of catharsis is tremendously valuable because we experience fear or the time experience other emotions like love, hatred, these emotional experiences drive us through our lives on story helps us to better understand them through the effect. Aristotle cold catharsis. Greek culture had a number of ways off, considering emotion. Now you're bound up with the idea of time. The Greeks had two words for time. One was Kronos and this waas it's where we get the word from chronological time on. This is how we generally considered time today that there are serious events that follow each other one after another. And, of course, Kronos has a major part. Plays story coming. But the Greeks also had another way off, considering time, and this was the idea. Tire offs on Cairo's with emotional time. And you'll understand this, I'm sure, because you will all have had the experience off feeling intense emotions on instead of experiencing time flooring normally around you, you become or internalized. You feel the emotion on you. Remember all of the other times that you have also experienced this emotion. So perhaps the emotion off loneliness, and you'll find yourself as an adult alone somewhere in the world. And you remember the time that as a child you were perhaps separate from your parents, and for the first time you felt intense aloneness. That emotional experience and this is Cairo's. This is the way that we perceive the world fruit, our emotions in a fascinating match with our scientific understanding off both time and emotion. Today we find that fruit study our brain for neuroscience and throw our understanding off human personality and behaviour Free psychology. We also consider two different form's off time on emotion on experience. One of these is our logical symbolic mind, which understands thing rationally. On the other is our emotional and social consciousness that understands things through our emotions. On this is really hard wired into our brain. There's a part of our brain which evolved to think logically, and there's a part of our brain which evolved to give us information about world emotionally. Crucially, this information is tied to other people. It's tied to our sense of self on our sense of safety for ourselves, and it's tied to our sense of family. It's evolutionary Titou, our tribe under the society that we live in for all of us as storytellers. This is a fascinating insight into the Arctic crafted story. Why is this? Because if, as Aristotle says, we're trying to fuse logic and reason in our storytelling for the effective capacities than to create emotion in our audience, we need to tie it to people. To relationships to family toe are tribal identity and to society. And we can see in stories that this is how deep on intense emotion is created in the audience of how do we create intense, powerful emotions in our readers in our audiences, and this is the single biggest challenge that we face as storytellers in the fantastic world of young adult fiction, they call creating emotions in a story the fields. Because you feel it, you feel what the story is trying to tell you. You feel the events as they unfold. You feel the emotions of the characters that you're following. But why? How these emotions triggered in us? What we discover from both the Greek idea of Cairo's Andi from a modern understanding off the social and emotional relationship in our brain is that strong emotions are triggered by relationships toe other characters in the stories that give you an example. Refiner cells on a bus and the bus is going 50 miles an hour down the street. But it's gonna block if it goes below 50 miles an hour, which is the key idea from the film speed Or can he reads. This idea on its own isn't particularly emotional, but if we know that our grandmother is on the bus, our Children are on the bus. Somebody that pretty courses story we have learned to love as a character is on the bus. Then we will feel deep emotion about the experience. So it's proved looking at the core relationships of the characters in our story that we generate really powerful emotional experiences for audiences. And this is tremendously useful to know. Let's think about on example of this at work. Let's go back to the story that we started the rhetoric story course where Jack and the Beanstalk you all know and love this story will hurt its Children. It is to recap the story of a young man, Jack, who ultimately has to kind of bean stalk, face a giant and steal certain valuable objects from that giant. This story has Bean remade a number of times in recent years as a blockbuster Hollywood movie with a budget of hundreds of millions of dollars on it largely failed to tell the story in a compelling way. Why Waas? That it was because the very skilled team making the story, however, forgot the core emotion that drives readers through the story this centuries old and has passed from one culture to another. What is that emotion? Let's think about this. What is there in the story of Jack and the beanstalk that my insight, emotion in its audience, Jack and the Beanstalk is a story told for young people, young men, young women who are faced with the experience off growing up. And we're very specific part of that experience, looking out to your parents, who is there, who is the parent of Jack and Beanstalk, Mother Jack's mother. And it's the emotional experience off looking after your mother that really drives Jack and the Beanstalk tell the story in this way, beginner A little bit earlier. There's a young woman. She is pregnant. Her father is furious about this and froze ER out onto the street. She's homeless. She travels across the land. She has the baby. She has a young boy. She has a baby that she's looking after. She eventually finds a terrible job of Rajauri, a small house. They're living in poverty, and she grows old and to grow sick. And eventually, in desperation, she turns to Jack and says, Jack, I need you to be responsible. I need you to be a man. You to take our cow to the local market and sell it for money. Otherwise, we're not gonna have food, and I'm just too sick to do this. And now Jack for the entire story, for every single event is driven by this emotional desire and is a desire that every member of the audience can deeply empathize with the need to look after your elderly parents responsibility. This is the emotion at the core Jack and the Beanstalk, and it grows from this relationship. The relationship between Jack and his mother on it is the social and emotional parts of our brain and consciousness that allow us to feel these emotions very, very deeply. This is really important for us to work with as storytellers. In many ways, this is the most important tool that weaken door upon. 35. Emotion in story - part 2: of any story that we might choose to tell. That's a film, a novel, regardless of the format, whether it's Ah, tiny one minute Weizman or an epic HBO television series, we need to ask ourselves, What is the emotional experience that this story is exploring? Because any story in any former, regardless of length, his ultimately exploring one singular emotional experience, however complicated the story might seem album many characters in my hand. How have many different plotlines it might involve? That's just one key emotion. There might be other emotional experiences woven for it, the complimented. But there is just one key emotional experience driving story, and the most important question we can ask of any story is what that emotional experience is. And you can really take any story in one of the best ways to understand it is to think about what the emotional experience at the heart of the story is. Pride and prejudice again know the story we talked about in the course of the retro good story? Pride and Prejudice is about ah, young woman Lizzie Bennet, who ultimately marries. That's important part of the story, but what's the emotional experience with this It's about falling in love. It's the emotional experience off love, Star Wars. Seemingly there could be no more opposite story than Pride and Prejudice. And yet something that it shares is that there's an emotional experience at the heart of the story in the case of Star Wars. And Luke Skywalker, who defeats the Evil Empire, is the most experience off becoming my hair room, and then it becoming responsible for your own heroic actions. Heroism. That's a powerful, powerful emotional experience. It's not always possible to put the emotional experience off the complicated story into a few simple words, like falling in love. The story exists to help us explore this emotional experience, but if the story is going to be powerful, if it's going to attract an audience, if it's gonna be a story that lasts for a long time in the way that Jack in the Beanstalk has lasted, then that emotional experience must be there in the mawr. Archetypal more universal, that motion experience is, the more people will engage with the telling of the story. Let's take a store. Example. Great piece off contemporary, hugely successful storytelling. The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins, both ah, bestselling series of novels. Onda hugely successful blockbuster movie. What is the singular emotional experience at the heart of the Hunger Games? And how is it created Deng gender about a young woman, Katniss Everdeen? And she lives in a kind of dystopian future where her small nation is ruled by a capital city of the great dictator on She lives in one of the outlying regions from the capital. This is all very interesting. She's going to, as the title suggests, going to fight in the Hunger Games. That is a very interesting device for this story, but this is not what creates the emotion of the story. The emotional focus of the story is introduced in the first paragraph, and it's Katniss is younger sister print as this relationship, thinking back to ah, social emotional brain and it's triggered by Katniss is relationship, whether young sister who she needs to protect, I'm throughout three novels, three or four films, depending on how you count them can. This is driven by the emotional need to protect her younger sister, and we, as the audience, are driven because we deeply feel these emotions off protectiveness. Two youngest sibling or to anybody who we are charged to protect. This is the singular emotional experience of the heart of the Hunger Games, and it feeds through a number of other questions for which the story is told. One of these on again. You find this in nearly all stories, I'd go surprised to say all stories, even if it might be unusual in some of them. And this is the dramatic question. We can't just write about emotions in the abstract. We have to have something concrete of the heart of the story. We can't just write about falling in love. We can't just write about heroism. We can't just write about being a protector. We need a dramatic question, and the dramatic question is the concrete heart of the story. In the Hunger Games, the dramatic question arises in the first chapter. There is a drawing of lots in the village where Katniss lives on, and the lots are for the Hunger games. Katniss ultimately volunteers to replace Prim, who she has emotionally driven to protect Cantonese volunteers to join the Hunger Games. And this introduces the dramatic question at the heart. The story. Will Katniss survive the Hunger Games in Probably prejudice. This is a story about love of the dramatic question is about marriage. Early in the story were introduced to Mr Darcy on the relationship between the central character Mr DLC, on the dramatic question is, well, Elizabeth Bennet end up marrying Mr Darcy on all the events in the story. Relate to this core dramatic question in Star Wars. The dramatic question is interest in the first act, and it's quite simply, well, Luke Skywalker be able to blow up the Death Star. We've had the plans introduced we have Luke introduced on. We know ultimately that this conflict between Luke and the depth stories going toe happen. And it's the dramatic question which drives dolls. And it's the reason why you spend two hours absolutely nailed to your seat watching that story. Once we have the dramatic question in place, however, we then need to divide our story into elements that are each emotionally compelling in their own way. And we do this by introducing tension and suspense. Consider for a while these two things are they're closely related. They're often confused. Many writers sadly don't know how to work them at all, but they're absolutely essential to compelling story telling tension is to give it its simplest example. There is a bomb about to go off. Let's use a famous example. There is a bone on a public bus on the bus has to keep going at above 55 miles an hour in order for the bomb not to explode. This is the movie speed, with Chiana Reeves and Dennis Hopper very successful movie in its day full of tension. This is what the tension turns on. Will the bus explode and then the tension is then moved into other areas. Later. Attention is extremely important. Stories have one form attention after another. For instance, in the Hunger Games throughout the after, Hunger Games themselves were given various forms off attention. Initially, Countess's training and there are certain goals that she has to hit to move with the story . These Airil tents. But what gives them suspense is once again that important word emotion. When we take a story event that he's tense and we introduce emotion and the social and emotional relationships, the other people, the family members, the tribe members that create emotion than us. This is how we convert tension into suspense. This is how Alfred Hitchcock, the great filmmaker, defined suspense that suspends is tension plus emotion. This is incredibly important to understand. As storytellers, let's look at that example Speed. It's tense when we know that the bus might explode. We experience suspense when we begin to bond with the characters on the bus and when canneries, as the heroic off duty police officer, are falls in love with a young woman who is on the bus. This introduces suspense that it's thes, emotion inducing social relationships that create the suspense in the story. Let's look an example of Star Wars were introduced detention because we know that Luke has to fight the Empire and dull Fader. The tension becomes suspense when the character Princess Leia is introduced on. We know that layer is a princess. She's beautiful. She's the archetype off the innocent who needs to be rescued on the loose. Skywalker is on a mission to rescue her from the moment that he sees the small, holographic finger being projected from R two d two, it's this conversion off tension into suspense for the emotional relationship that again makes the story compelling. We also see in Star Wars that the tension and suspense our packet it out through the story . Initially, we have Lukes mission to escape from Tattoo Rinne on then to go to the Death Star than the tension on board the depth stories transformed into need to escape the Death Star to liberate the linear Paul come from the ship on. Then the tension and suspense are taken on to the conflict against the Death Star. Most stories that are compelling that are going toe hold an audience for any length of time have to for the events and structure of the story. We've both tension and suspense to complement the singular emotional experience at the heart of the story. The dramatic question which is driving us through in concrete terms. The tension and suspense which impacted out for the story. Great story talents will also employees mystery. There's another question that we put toe us story. What don't we know at the beginning of the story that we are desperate to discover what is the mystery at the heart of our story? The most common form of mystery by far in any form of storytelling is a dead body on. It's such a common device that it names the whole mystery genre. This is most famously probably written by Agatha Christie on almost all of Agatha Christie . Stories start in a very similar way, were introduced to a group of characters, and there's a detective among them, which might be Miss Marple or her cure. Poor Road Andi. This detective is then faced with a mystery. When a dead body is discovered on the Orient Express, for instance, from the moment that we discovered the dead body of heart for mystery story were given the mystery Who killed this person? How would they kill? Why were they killed on these questions that relate to the mystery? Drive the story along one off. Today's great storytellers J. J. Abrams, the creator off Lost Eyes, also involved of rebooting the Star Wars and the Star Trek franchise, is talks about mystery as a box mystery boxes. If I come onto the stage, I'm holding a book for the whole time I'm on stage. The audience will be wondering whether I asked him to or not what's in the box, and this is how we think about mysteries. What's in the box when you introduce anything unexplained in your story, it sets up a mystery. Let's think about what story Starwood's very early on in the movie were told about the fourth, but we don't know what the force is. This is a mystery. This is why. Later on in the Star Wars star go. When George Lucas explained the forces kind of magnetic creatures called Medic Laurean's, he completely destroyed the mystery that was at the heart of story. And he almost destroyed his own very great story in the protest. Mysteries are really, really profoundly important again. When we think about stolen this mystery of Who is Darth Vader? It's very, very important. So the storytelling. This is also a great example of another one of the techniques that we used to shape the emotions offer audience for the storytelling experience. Stall was introduces. The character of Darth Vader also introduces the character off Luke Skywalker. And in doing this, it gives us one of the greatest setups in storytelling history. In a set up, we introduce one or more small details in this story that when they are introduced, scene almost irrelevant to the story we're told early on in Star Wars that looks Father was killed by Dark Beta. He's given the light saber that belonged to his father. There's one of the great moments off inheritance in any storytelling saga, but they're setting up the great revelation that won't come into the end of the second Star Wars movie four hours or more screen time. When we find out in the famous words Luke, I am your father, the doll Fader is indeed Lukes Father and in our mind goes back for all of the details that was set up for the food two films, The procedure that moment on this invokes a tremendous emotional responsiveness and in any story that we're working on these tiny details that set up the later emotional revelation. One other supple ISS on most advanced forms off emotional shaping that we can utilize in any form of story. You can see setups introduced in a slight, more emotionally subtle weight in Pride and Prejudice, the story of Bennett and Mr Darcy on the dramatic question of Will They Marry? Because for out with story, we're told that these characters hate each other. They suffer, as the title of story suggests, from pride on from prejudice towards one another, but were also given tying her for details that the audience will enjoy interpreting for the later set up that, in fact, these characters are in love, and they have been in love throughout the entire novel again. They see this is brilliant emotional storytelling because the tiny details that set up this later emotional revelation create really profound emotion in your audience. These are the questions that we use to shape the emotional experience off any story that we might choose to tell. What's the singular emotional experience on the half the story? What is the dramatic question with which we're providing the concrete details? Story proceeds? How do we deploy and divide tension and its big brother suspense throughout our storytelling? And how do we put title set ups into our story, which give us the big revelation later on in this story telling 36. Emotion in story - part 3: Let's think more about the idea of emotion by applying it to a simple idea for a story on. Not only are we going to think about emotion seventh part of the rhetoric of story whilst doing this, we're also going to bring in all of the earlier six. We're gonna review the whole thing. For example, of one story idea. Let's take the idea from Aristotle. The classic idea of a man fighting a lion seems almost too simple to tell a story about that. Theres a tremendous story in their story that you could write a novel that you could make a film you could produce, even as a 10 hour HBO television series if you wanted to. All begins with the idea of a man fighting a lion. What's the emotional experience at the heart of that story idea? Well, of course, it must be fear. That's the emotion that we're going to experience when we're fighting line that we want to give to the audience in a story. Once we got that emotion experience, we need a dramatic question to go with that. And of course, the dramatic question in this story is, will the man defeat the line. Throughout the course of this story, we're gonna becoming bank to that dramatic question. Will the man defeat the lion that gets us the seven Part of the rhetoric of story, the emotion, emotion, experience at the heart of our story? Let's go back away the beginning to number one the first time into the rhetoric of story change. What's the change at the heart of this story? We have an external change that your feet ultimately off the lion. We know really that from the beginning of the story that's gonna happen, the lines going to be defeated This is the external fight external change that we're following. But what's the internal change? This is the battle with fear. This is what's archetypal about this story of a man fighting a lion is that in this story we see our own battles with fear. Whether it's a battle is a trial because we're scared of going to school or a battle is an adult because we're scared going to work the's, the fears that we face, and they're represented archetypal in this battle of a man against the lion. We have the change in place number two. The self at the heart of the story. A man that's too generic. Let's say he's a warrior. He's a tribal warrior. He's in a stone Age. Well, he has his spear. He sees a wild and dangerous world around him. He's going to use this single weapon. The spear toe Fight the lion. This is the self. How the horse the story. Now we have details coming in. Number three. Once you have the self, we have the other. Where this is a tribal warrior. We know he must have a try. Elders, other warriors, wife and Children. Other people surrounding him. We know. But there's an antagonist in this story, the lion who the man is fighting. We also want to do introduce on emotional focus. Let's have a child, a child in the tribe who the man must protect from the line. Now we're really starting to tell a great story. Once we have the change, the cell, uh, and the others in place, we have comfort. This story is almost telling itself at this point we have the tribal wire. We have the child who needs to protect, and we have the external conflict. The lion. There's also an internal conflict. His own very has come over overcoming his fear to go out and fight the lion in this way. Okay, this gives us the engine of our story. Now we have the next element of the rhetoric of story. We're gonna move on to structure. What's the structure of the story? Let's take a three act structure. We have the first act of the story. The expedition. We meet the tribal warrior. We meet the child who's gonna protect. We meet the tribe Andi, the Lions introduced. Then we move on to the second act. We're gonna have a series of conflicts between the man. I'm the lion in protection of the child is going to be rising action growing drama as the story unfolds. And then finally, we know in a free act structure, we're gonna have the final crisis climax and resolution of the story of the man finally fighting and defeating the lion. And then, of course, our emotional resolution taking the child on returning with him to the trying. You see how much of the story were already happier? Just by applying the basic elements, the rhetoric of story, then we have events, we take our structure and we fell in with specific events. So we see an event between the man and the child. The child, let's say, is his daughter and they've gone hunting together. Now we have another event. The man teaching his child to hunt. This is taking us on a cause and effect. There's a huge storm. They're separated from the tribe on their thrown out into the world. Miss. Now we know there's gonna be a key event of them. Encountering the lion in the wilderness will also see further events following on in the story, the first conflict with the lion from which the man in the child run away. Second conflict with a lion. Whether noun is desperately injured, they seek shelter in a cave. Uh, in the cave. Let's have another character. There is an old Wiseman who imparts a secret to the tribal warrior about count, fight, align. The secret is that the line is even more scared than the manners. This also implies further events in the leader since the crisis climax resolution of the story, the final battle between the Manimal Lion and then a key event returning to the tribe on a great party and celebration at their return. Here we started with a simple idea. A man fighting a lion. What we end up with is on archetypal story that we could tell in any former because we have applied the elements of the right trick of story. The final one of these is the one that we've been discussing in this final talk emotion. How does emotion play for this story? How those other elements, tension and suspense, How do you we tension and suspense through this story on our final revelation. How is this set up? Earlier on? Perhaps we see a small seen earlier in the story off the man facing a fear that he's facing the fire. The details of this story we can add later. What I hope you take from it is how we can actually apply the rhetoric of story and how pivotal emotion is to that story. Because if we think back to the beginning of that process, it was identifying the emotion at the heart of the story. On what these elements the tribal warrior, the young child, the lion, what they represent to the emotional experience in this case, family around out on talk here. If you take one thing away from this, it really should be that while stories maybe tremendously complex. While stories may come in many different formats from film stage two books, what stories may have many different elements was there may be about to change. They will have a self, they will have others, they will have a structure, and they will have key events. What's really imperative in the story and what will define your story for your audience is the emotion at the heart of the story you're telling that brings the rhetoric of story to a close. I hope you have enjoyed it and you've got a lot from it. I mean, Daniel, also, thank you very much.