The Philosophy of Socrates or Plato in the Apology | Morris Callens | Skillshare

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The Philosophy of Socrates or Plato in the Apology

teacher avatar Morris Callens, Ódi et amó

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Lessons in This Class

10 Lessons (29m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Socratic question

    • 3. How to read the Apology

    • 4. Accusation

    • 5. Investigation of Socrates

    • 6. Sofia

    • 7. Meaning of life and his vision on death

    • 8. Daimonion

    • 9. Elenchus

    • 10. Socratic truths

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About This Class

Today, I will give you some insights in the philosophy of Socrates (or Plato, as mentioned in the class) which is used in the Apology. These lessons consist some important quotes of Socrates, his method on conversing with others, his meaning of life, his 'god', and much more.

The Apology is the only work of Plato which is not written in dialogue-form. It should be an oration of Socrates, defending himself in front of the 'down to earth' judges, but even if you think it is, then why does he tell the people to be quiet when he is speaking, not to say their comments out loud? The Apology is full of the secrets of his philosophy.

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Morris Callens

Ódi et amó


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1. Introduction: Good morning, good evening or good afternoon Today. I will be talking about the philosophy in the Apology of Socrates written by Plato, how it all works. I'm explaining in these lessons. Now what do you have to know? Socrates, he's, of course, man living in ancient Greece. And he lives in Athens each day he goes to the Gora, which is the marketplace to talk with different people. While he was having conversations with people around him, a lot of youngsters really were interested in his conversations. So we can call them students. And if I say student, it's not like in a classroom. No, it's on the marketplace, just listening. So one of these students was Plato. And Plato will, right after the death of Socrates, when you are annoying people with very difficult questions, they really get mad. They get that mad or they want to accuse Him for something and they want them to be sentenced to death. And the topology is his ration defending themselves from these gossips as being the only text of Plato which is written in prose, or this is a very interesting texts. If you are interested in reading this book, I will leave a link below where you can find a lawyer, which is a book with on the one side and English and only on the side creek. If you really want to know more about the last minutes of Socrates, I will leave down a link or that book too. So good luck. 2. Socratic question: So the question is, what do we know of Socrates himself? So he hasn't written down anything himself. So we have to look at other writers who have lived in the same period as he did or later. So here I have listed up three different reliable sources. I did bunnies and of the philosophy of Socrates himself. First of all, channel form after a list of honors and last but not least platoon. So first of all, Xenophon is, is not really a very good source because he is a student of Socrates himself. He admired him so much that you will always defend him. No modes ever may happen. So he's not critical at also no good source for us. Next up, we have a list of foreigners and re savannas IS a comedy writer. He presents Socrates as a caricature. So he says that he's always wearing dirty clothes. He is going barf with every day as students are always hungry, they are not drinking. So a very bad image of him, but we know that something of truth in it. Now, if we read between the lines, we can see that there's something positive in a tube. He has a lot of perseverance, he has a lot of stamina, and he will never allow himself to fluttering, even if he's hungry, that he cannot stand it anymore. So we can see this in the clouds, that book where Socrates is presented in this way. Maybe read it in translation if you like. So Plato, as the last write we have. And here we have to be a little bit more careful because he is a very good source, but we don't know what is of Socrates and what is Plato's philosophy. He has been writing after the death of Socrates about Socrates, and he will always do this in a dialog form, a path from depology which we are reading now. So he will take, for example, his own brother glocal and Socrates. These go in a conversation and this is what he writes down. How do we know that some part of philosophy is of Plato and another part is of Socrates. Well, Plato has written down things about Socrates. We know that every, it's close to the death of Socrates himself, then we know that it is the philosophy of Socrates. While if it's later and very late, then we know there's an evolution in the thoughts of Plato himself. So we know that as far from Socrates his philosophy. So we have to put all the works and chronic blood to flow. All the, we have three different criteria for that. First of all, we have the evolution and style of writing is don't write the same one you alkyd than when you are 13 years old, for example, then we have the evolution in philosophy. We can see that the beginning philosophy isn't the same as the end philosophy as your last philosophy of course. And then last but not least, the content. We know that the Republic as the last one of a Plato's work. So without is the philosophy of Plato himself. 3. How to read the Apology: How can we read and comprehend the apology? Well, there are three ways, and I will show you them. So first of all, we can read them as three iterations which follow-up each alpha. Second we can read it as literary and philosophical texts. And third one, we can read it as a justification for the life of Socrates as live for philosophy. So first, the three iterations, we can see that the Apology starts with an accusation. Socrates became to tell us about what he was accused for. So first of all, he was accused for blasphemy. That is an action or an offense about a god or some things secret. And next he was accused for spoiling the youth. So with that ration, he will still found guilty. So he knows enough, he's sentenced to death. And he is able to do a counter proposal on that's the second pulse. And what he says is little wit with, he asked for a reward. He want to be in the proton ion. And that is the City Council of Athens. Well, that's a little bit of a weird request, something new put against the sentence of death. He says that he wants to stay disease in Britain Nao. He says that he has never done something wrong to anyone. So why would you do that to himself? And he says, if I go in Anxur there and I have to go to another city. So there are occupied by me there. So that's a good solution. He thinks. Now that will reward was a bit of a weird one-off cause because a proton a and the only people who have done something good to the city from one important, from another city can go there and gets a meal, gets a night sleep. So it was weird request, but in the end he asked for a ticket of 13 Munshi. So that's something else of course, and a revolt. The third part of his aeration can be those last words he says. The second way to read this is as a philosopher, goal, literary text. So there's topology isn't really a realistic kind of a ration, of course, because the goal isn't winning. You can see that throughout the text that the goal isn't to win. He even brings annoyance to people which are sitting there and listening. So we know that the goal is not winning, of course. And even in the beginning he says, I will speak like I always do. Even if you get annoyed, I didn't care, really, that's what he says. He says, I won't give you the rhetorical truth, I will give you the philosophical truth. So what he does really here is he is saying that I'm not a sophist. Southwest are people who think they have the truth and they can form it to their own well. So I can give you an example in modern days how the surface would. Act here. So the first day they were given a ration about how good smoking is and everyone has to smoke and stuff. And you would think, yes, maybe I want to smooth. But the other day they give narration about how bad it is. And you say, No, no, no, I won't smoke. Like it's doubly can form the truth to their own. Well, that's what the Sophists think. But Socrates says, no one truth. And I am going to look for the truth. And the third way to read this topology is as justification for the life of Socrates as alive for Philosophy. Socrates says that there is a traditional Sophia, there is a traditional knowledge. If you know something about society or if you know a skill, then you are wise. Socrates says, No for me, not smell aids. Socrates, his philosophy is known through pair sofia. So a human knowledge and human wisdom. And he says, if you have insides and something, what's beyond your senses. And if you have an insight in the cause of something, then you are wise. He's always looking for what is good, what is right and wrong, what is good? And what is right values above your senses. You can't sense goodness or something. There is an anecdote which I really want to fit in this presentation. There was carried on. And he went to the array col of Adelphi. He asked, is there someone more wise than Socrates himself? And that array called, said, no, there isn't. Now, really, what is this re-code doing here? This gives really a meaning to the life or to an action of an person has live, becomes an official status as a Beall's philosophers. So a life of philosophy. Socrates says that if you want a proof, I am the proof. I am sitting here and I am giving you my life philosophy. If you want to be able to know what is good, you have to exercise on your knowledge. Of course, you have objective knowledge than you know what is truth. And if you know what is good, then you can surround yourself with things that are good. For example, if you are surrounded by all those good things, then you can be happy. So the goal is to find truth. And if you have truth, you are able to be happy even before death and after death. So those others who think they know that they know truth, they don't know it really because if they know what is truth, then why would they do something bad? Someone who knows the truth won't do anything bad because he knows the truth. Of course, after Delphi, his interpretation of knowledge, of wisdom changed because all those thing, they are wise. But I know I am not wise. I know that I know nothing. So I know something more than they do said that I knew nothing. I know that I know nothing. And so does one of the Socratic truths, which I'll touch on later. 4. Accusation: So next up we have the acquisition in his accused for two things. First of all, I say bear as a verb is blasphemy. So that's an action on offense about a god or a sacred thing. And next up, he is accused for spoiling the youth. So we can ask ourselves, who are these persons who accused him of that? Well, I have got three persons which are mentioned. First of all, we have metalloids and he is a poet than we have our nitrous. Anita is a politician. And last but not least, we have like whoa, that's someone who studies rhetorics. What do they have in common? Well, they have all gone to school. They have a family with a lot of money and they have a lot of knowledge while they think they have a lot of knowledge. So a lot of people follow them around. So if we look at the accusation now, first, it was blast for me. So I'll say Baia. So something really strange happens in the ration while there is a conversation between metalloids and Socrates. So they have a conversation about, am I just accused for? Well, he says, he is an atheist, so he doesn't live in any gods. Well, he says Dan, you have the wrong person because I believe in things that come from a gold. So I have to believe in the goals. You are confusing to you people here, he says, you are confusing me with a philosopher who believes that nature only exist and there's no gold. But I instead, I believe that there is a gold. So he explains, Next up, we have the spoiling the youth. Well, he says, I am conversating with a person on the ago, Laura. And there were a lot of listeners because his conversations were really interesting. So the Youth became interested and they started doing the same. Because it's annoying when someone asks you a really difficult question when you're on the street, David came mad and annoyed. Not only at youth, but add Socrates to, well, they didn't really know what he did. They couldn't explain what he did, but they became mad. That's the point. So they couldn't explain why they got mad. So they thought, why not accused him of blasphemy? Well, socrates says, and next to that he can't be DOE one whose pose the youth, there isn't one person who responds to you. So there has to be a lot of persons who sprawl to youth and order to spoil the youth in general. Well, he says I can't be the only one because I know from experience, what do you use like an I know do youth human tellers, you don't come in contact with them so you don't know what they like, who they are. The only person you have cared for, as yourself. Socrates says, he really does here is he takes the acquisition, he turns his to his hand and bunches it back. That's really what he does right here. And he also says that they have the wrong image of Socrates, his philosophy. That's a really good one. And then all the rest are gossips really. Here you can see that the goal isn't to win. This even gets people annoyed. 5. Investigation of Socrates: Next up, the search of Socrates. Yes, he has been doing some investigation in, he tells us in the Apology, and he has been investigating politicians. He has been investigating all sorts of jobs, even the normal working man he has investigated. And he in, his conclusion was that those who have more power are less wise than those who have less power. Because those who have a lot of power think they know it, but those who have less power, faith and they don't know it. So they have a writer insight in what is goods, all right, known as had a lot of consequences for Socrates himself. First of all, they became annoyed at him because someone telling you that you're not smart, that you are not wise, isn't fun to hear, of course. So they had the feeling of losing their status, so they wanted revenge and that's why they accused him. That's one of the consequences. Now, another consequences is a very important truth, which I will explain in a next video about Socratic truths. And that one is, I know that I don't know. Oda Jati would annoyed. 6. Sofia: So in this lesson I will talk about Sophia. Well, is that a Sofia? Well, in short, that is knowledge, really before Socrates it was more knowledge about something technical, having a technical skill or having some insight in society and the gods in the men. When Socrates arise as Gets its classical meanings, meaning knowledge, having insights in what is outside your senses, and having insight in the causes of some phenomena. This wisdom really comes in when his friend went to the oracle and ask if there was someone who was wiser than Socrates. Well, the Oracle said, no. He thought that all those who know, they know something, they really don't know. So that makes me know something more than they know. I know that I know nothing. So I know something more than they do. That's really a Socratic truth, which was really important. We have ODA, hace, would then Oda, a really famous sentence. So he believed that the God wanted him to be an example for everyone. He had to unmask those who thought they knew, but really they had the delusion of their wisdom and all of what they knew of their knowledge. Here's the host fly who has distinct a really big holes which represents the city. He has to wake him up and he has to keep them wake up. So his task is to show people that money, glory, and honor are not that important in your life. You have to APA MLA style. You have to take care for your so you have to get inside, you have to get truth. And if you know what is true, then you know what is good. And when you know what is good and you can surround yourself with what is good and so you can be happy. That's all it is really important here, not the things you have, but truth, which is really important. So he wants on mosque DOS who think they know, but they don't really exactly know. And after they have found out the truth, they can be happy too. 7. Meaning of life and his vision on death: In this lesson, I will teach you something more about the meaning of life. For Socrates, first of all, he thinks that what ever you do, you have to be led by what is good and what is right with the rules of God. Now when they say to Socrates, you can choose all, you stay alive. You stop being a philosopher. Or you die. He will choose, I want to die. Philosophy is his life. He says philosophy for him than searching, investigating, and then refuting that Mrs. meaning of life. You always have to do self-reflection. You have to get out to mirror, look at yourself and see what is wrong. How can I be better? He says, chronology, seldom know yourself. That was a quote which was written on a temple and when he sold it, he thought, Why do I think about anything else before I know myself before that is handled on the interpretation while the first invitation was, don't interfere with the gods. Knowing Thank You are higher than the gods than you are. So don't have who police is a Greek word for that. Maybe you're asking, why isn't he scared of death? You won't be frightened when Q. Well, he says, if you are scared of death, you think, you know what, that is. Maybe a can be paradise or it can be very bad, but you don't know, there hasn't anyone come back. So we call NOW, when he thinks of a representation of deaf, he think, first of all, of nothingness, is this an eternal sleep? He says By can also be a medoid cases. Middle cases is a move to another place. So another place as really the paradise for the Greek, of course, after death. And he really wants to be there. Why? Because there are judges who know what is right. So here on earth, there are judges who think they know what the right thing is. But they really do not know because they are judging on the laws of nature and XML Hinton controversies everyday, all day with people who are treated really bad or really any right. And next up, he can be sentenced to death anymore because he is already dead. So he can't be punished anymore. So that will be a paradise for him. Now, really the positive thing for him right now is that he has a diamond mm, which I will explain in the next lesson. And the next day, he things out for good people. There can't be anything bad. And last but not least, you don't have to worry about life anymore. He says. 8. Daimonion: So in this lesson I want to touch on diamond neon, which I mentioned in the last lesson. And maybe you're asking, What is that word? Well, let me tell you. It's a little spirit is a diminutive of diamond. And diamond means spirit. In Greek, autoimmune means happy. So really if you break up that word, you have l, which means good, and diamond which means spirit. So a good spirits. And this has a positive connotation, but we also have a word which comes from diamond. Demon is the world that has a bit of a negative connotation because there's a reason for that. And Christians wanted, get rid of all the things that are not Christian. So the word diamond became demon over the years and has such a negative connotation. So that's why today we use daemon as something bad, but then it had a good connotation. So here you have to think something good. You could think of your diamond as your conscious really. Metella said that supersedes had another gold. Well, Socrates says, no, I have a diamond known in my head. And it tells me if I am doing something wrong. Now, it's not telling me when I'm doing something good, only if I am doing something wrong. So it's really like you're conscious or something. And he says now, I am saying this and now when I am almost ready to die, my conscious isn't saying that I have to stop. So dying for me is something good. Well here the division on the goals really change. They are good. They are wailing. That's really in-country with what it was before. They use people and all sorts of ways. So they are really nasty. Well, no, he says, my goals, di ammonium. Little spirit is a good one. 9. Elenchus: In this lesson I want to touch on the nn close method. Well, really a length Heyne in Greek means to investigate and to refute. So first you need a more role subject to talk about. And then the person has to form a definition of what he thinks is rots. Now, Socrates began with his a Romania that has asking questions to see the statement hippos is really right. For example, now Socrates will use a Socratic irony. So he pretends not to know where this conversation is going, and he was pretending not to know that the statement is incorrect. So he keeps asking annoying questions to the point where the other person says, I don't know it anymore. Our Boreas, We call it. Now, then begins the Mayawati get acne, getting the knowledge which is already inner self out and making someone conscious of it. That is what my name is. I will give you an example in the text itself. He was conversating with materials and he was saying that he did. Some are say Baia. Now Socrates asks, what do we really mean with that? Then he said, You are an athiest. So the conversation kept on and Socrates kept on asking questions. I'm kept only the conversation until the point where terrorists believed that he believed in things of goals itself. So he must believe in a god. 10. Socratic truths: So in this last lesson, I want to touch on Socratic truth. Really there are few ones, and let's begin with the one we have covered before. If you have objective knowledge, then you are able to have chew arete in Greek. And if you are able to practice that in then you can be happy because you know what happiness is. So when you do something, you have to let yourself be led by what is good or right? But first of all, you must know what is good, all right, so you need that knowledge, which is really important. And with that knowledge, you can surround your soul with everything that is good. So then you can know what happiness is. Soda is really important for his philosophy, being happy. The next Socratic truth is, today's heck on how Martin a, a translation could be. No one does anything phone terribly wrong. If you know what is right, you will do that right. If you have that moral knowledge, it becomes an obligation to do it. It becomes, so from LA, or rational self-control, uninstalled Lesbos against that occur ACIA, which means not being able to control yourself. A third one can be that revenge is immoral. And the last one is that it is better to be the one to get injustice done to than to be the one which does injustice to someone else. So I hope you really got something out of these lessons. And I want to thank you for watching and listening. Goodbye.