The Oil Painting Process - Part Three (The Upper Layers) | Jill Poyerd | Skillshare

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The Oil Painting Process - Part Three (The Upper Layers)

teacher avatar Jill Poyerd, Professional Fine Artist & Educator

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (2h 18m)
    • 1. Taking This Course

    • 2. The Underpainting

    • 3. Value Underpainting

    • 4. Blocked Underpainting

    • 5. The Upper Layers Paint

    • 6. Upper Layer I - Value Demonstration

    • 7. Upper Layer II - Value Demonstration

    • 8. Upper Layer I - Blocked Demonstration

    • 9. Upper Layer II - Blocked Demonstration

    • 10. Upper Layers - Master Examples

    • 11. Varnish

    • 12. Final Review

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About This Class

A comprehensive, simplified look at how to build an oil painting, from substructure to varnish.

This is the most thoughtful, comprehensive and beautifully done video on oil painting I have ever seen. The historical perspective in places was especially appreciated, as was the detail on surface preparation - a phase many of us skip over way too fast in our rush to start applying paint.” - David S.

This is an extremely comprehensive 5-hour long online painting class with a focus on the construction of an oil painting and the process of layering paint rather than actual brushwork and design. To truly master oil painting, it’s important to have a strong foundation; to thoroughly understand your materials and their proper usage. You have to know how to build a sound substructure or base, and then apply the paints in such a way as to ensure decades of life for the painting.

In this comprehensive course, students are taken step-by-step through topics such as supports, sizing, grounds, an imprimatura, the underdrawing, the underpainting, upper layers of paint, and varnish. Each layer is explained thoroughly and clearly, and then followed up with related demonstrations so that students can follow along.

The goal is for:

  • Students to come away with a clear understanding of oil painting materials and how to build a stable painting; 
  • To help those who felt intimidated by oil painting to feel that it’s approachable;
  • Experienced painters who have gaps in their knowledge to gain a more thorough understanding.

Meet Your Teacher

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Jill Poyerd

Professional Fine Artist & Educator


Jill Poyerd, NWS, is a contemporary realist known for her tranquil subject matter and unique painting style. Her award-winning work can be found in private collections both nationally and internationally. She has been featured in national publications, is the author of the portrait painting book Fearless Portraits, and is a signature member of several prestigious art societies, including the National Watercolor Society. Jill works in both watermedia and oil paints and has exhibited extensively throughout the Mid-Atlantic region as well as in national shows.

In addition to her work as an artist, Jill is an active member of the arts community. She has curated many multi-medium group shows, and is the founder of the Fine Art Professionals of Northern Virginia. Additionally... See full profile

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1. Taking This Course: As oil painters or prospective oil painters, one of the critical parts of creating is knowing how to construct the painting. Look kinda Foundation. Does a painting neat? And what are the proper ways to layer the paint? Also wanted some of the best oil painters in history do. In this course, we're going to basically deconstruct a typical oil painting, discussing each layer along the way. Some layers are optional depending on your intention. In the process you select for an individual painting. The layers will discuss include the support, sizing, the ground, the increment euro under drawings, under paintings, upper layers of paint, and the varnish layer. I base many of my classes on what I've read about and learned about the masters and their apprentices. The fact that they knew their materials inside and out because of course they had to create their materials. This helped them raise their level of expertise and the longevity of their work if they follow the practices. I also feel that this is something that's lacking in today's society. For this reason, my classes go in depth. And in this one in particular, we take a serious look at each layer of an oil painting. This is not a course about color mixing, color theory, or really even specific brushwork. It's not a course that's based on how to depict a scene or an object with pain. It's about how to construct a proper oil painting and how to build layers from the support all the way to a varnish. Now throughout this class, I have handouts with summary information and step-by-step how-to. The best way to do it is to watch the class in chronological order. At the end of each section, I have a student activity that you can do. Some of them are optional. You don't have to do each one. I do recommend that you watch every section because you should know in depth the layers of a painting. But for example, perhaps you'd rather start with a pre-prepared support. Well then you don't have to do the activities for sizing and Jessica. Also, within certain topics, there are times when I'll demonstrate several options. If you plan to do the activities, you could do all of the options I show you, or you can just choose one that's up to you. I provide simple reference images that you can choose from or you can use one of your own. You should select one image to use throughout the course, printed out or use a digital form and create a black and white version for value reference. The image files are attached. Now, one of the things I did in this course, which I feel it was very important, is I clarified a lot of terms and topics. The art world I often say loves to complicate things. And so as I was researching, I would often find multiple definitions for one term. I'd find information that would be contradicted by a second reliable source. And so what I've done is I've waded through and found what I feel are the most accurate definitions and explanations. I feel very confident about what I have in this course. If you have any questions as you proceed, please don't hesitate to contact me. I'm always happy to help if I can. And so let's get started. In the next lecture, we'll begin with a brief introduction to oil painting supports. 2. The Underpainting: So far in this course, we've discussed the preparatory layers in an oil painting, the under drawing in a bit about painting and layering. Now we're going to cover the development of the painting image itself. And this is through an under painting and upper layers of paint. The under drawing, if you chose to include one, established the general composition. The under painting, on the other hand, begins to develop new forms. These forms are established by simply painting the local colors of your elements. Local color, meaning the base color for a former element. Another method is to establish the values of your forms. The lights, mediums, and darks in your image. In this unfinished piece by a follower of Raphael, you can see what must be his imprimatur. And then you can see how he started modelling the forms, establishing his lights, mediums, and darks. But the truth is, most artists begin their paintings with some form of under painting, whether they realize it or not, you need some guidelines or guidance areas to sort your way through the painting. This should be a Lean layer since it's considered a bottom layer of paint and therefore, it will need to have a faster drying time. This could mean adding a touch of solvent, adding a touch of alkyd medium to speed the drying, or simply applying the tube paint very thinly. Now, as mentioned in the beginning of this lecture, there are two paths that you can take within under painting. You can establish your values. The lights, mediums, and darks in your painting, which basically creates a three-dimensional version of your painting. Or you can block in your elements with basic related colors. These are flat areas of color, not dimensional. It's kind of the opposite of a value painting. Let's take a look at each. For our value painting, you can either use transparent color or opaque color. Generally speaking, there are two kinds of transparent value paintings of Adagio that involves the use of green earth tones and tonal underpinnings, which can be painted using one of various colors, or sometimes referred to as an open gruesome. Both forms are monochromatic, meaning using primarily one collar. Mono meaning one, and chroma meaning color. Let's discuss these a little bit further. I've adagio is in Italian term for a green huge underpinning popular with the 8-10 per painters On the Middle Ages and early Renaissance. It uses thin, transparent or translucent Earth pigment with a touch of either black or white to build values and establish phone. This is particularly useful to the portrait painter. As it automatically allows for a green cast under the skin tone, a natural part of the human form. Historically, it was made from a combination of white, black and yellow pigment or from an earth color such as Tara, verity, and block. Sometimes artists would add white as well. A tonal underpinning is similar to a Verdot cilium, in that it uses thin, transparent, or translucent paint to establish the values. But instead of green tones, it can be just about any color. And although normally monochromatic, you could use more than one color if desired, as long as it works with the finished product. The word tonal actually means using a limited palette. For example, Thomas doing was considered a Totalist painter. He used a very limited palette, only a few colors. And so a tonal under painting also uses unlimited number of colors, often only one or two. Both of adagio and eternal under painting, since they're established with thin paint, can be created by painting the darks or mid tones and leaving the surface to represent the lights. Or you can apply the paint all over and lift areas of the paint with a rag that will serve as your lights. Or a combination of the two. I mentioned the word crusade. The actual definition of accrues Al is in opaque or semi-opaque value painting using gray or neutral gray tones. Brazil is literally a French word, that means greatness. It uses black and white paint to build a broad range of values and develops us solid looking three-dimensional form. Because you're using a combination of Black or amber with white, you can achieve a wide range of values, lights, mediums and darks. And very often these values smooth together to create the gradients. The result is an almost sculptural appearance. Brazil's can actually function as standalone paintings, such as this piece by Anthony Van Dyke. But when used as part of the painting process, it's a foundation for future layers. Gazelles are meant to be used with glazes of transparent or translucent color. The dark shine through and often serve as the darks and the final painting. In fact, many of the values remain from the initial Crusade. While the glazes of color create the true color of the forms or elements. This method has been used since the early Renaissance. The concept was carried over from egg tempera painting, where the paint is applied in thin, transparent glazes of color. Because the paint had to be applied so thinly, values had to be established in the base layer. It was a critical part of the painting process. So it makes sense that when oil painting first caught on, artists simply follow the same procedure that they had when they painted in egg tempera. A gazelle was also helpful in that it allowed the artist to work out the composition in detail before adding the formal color. Another way to approach an under painting that also involves opaque paint is blocking in. Blocking in involves painting areas of color where the elements or forums will be placed. These areas of color can be the local mid tones, or they can be the value related colors, such as a dark medium or light tone. Now, a midtone refers to the middle range in a value scale. And a value scale is every light value between black and white. So amid tune refers to those middle values, as you can see here. Local color refers to the true color of an object. Or if you want to think of it as the midtone base color, absent any influence from light, shadow, reflective color or atmosphere. So using this portrait as an example, I'm identifying the middle values for each color region. If I were to paint these base local colors using a blocking method, it could look something like this. Then it's a matter of building up layers have transparent or translucent paint to define the forms or create color complexity. Blocking isn't normally transparent, but it sometimes scrubbed on. So ends up looking rather translucent, such as what we see here in this unfinished piece by Edward. Many notice how active his brushwork is. We also see it in this unfinished piece by Gilbert Stuart. This one's a little more opaque. You can see these areas in particular are solid blocks of color. The overall appearance of blocking is normally very flat. Think of the work of Vincent Van Gogh or Paul Gauguin. Although there is variation at a quick glance, they simply looked like blocks of local color. Blocking in opaque color isn't only from the time of Gauguin to the present. It goes back almost as far as Brazil. In fact, Titian is said to have used layers of opaque color for his Under paintings. Here you can see touches of the indigo blue that he often used for skies. And JMW Turner's said to have apply to washy form of blocked underpinning, loosely establishing the major color areas with his paint. We also see that in this piece by Joshua Reynolds, you can see he used to kind of scrubbed blocking in various colors and values. It's loose, multicolored, includes value change and is so thin that it's really translucent. So you can have freedom and knew some variation in the method. In this finished piece by doing, even though upper layers have been applied, you can tell that the under painting was blocked in using scrubbed opaque paint. So how do you choose which form of under painting you should use? Well, that depends on your subject, your painting style, and even how much time you have to paint it. There are many considerations. You may want to sample, several that appeal to you. Keep that knowledge on-hand each time you begin planning a painting. So how do you choose which colors to use? Generally speaking, underpinnings are usually created using gray towns, earth tones, or even certain blues, such as ultramarine. Some artists create the value painting using one of the colors that dominates in the finished piece. Or they may choose a color that contrasts with one of the dominant colors in order to give that final colors some punch. We saw a similar concept in the imprimatur layer. Basically, you need to consider whether you're under painting is going to be hidden or if it'll show. And if it's going to show, what color do you want to show through? How do you want it to impact your painting? It's going to take thought and planning. A tonal underpinning might be the best choice for landscape painters. As you can use more than one color. Perhaps a cool tone for the sky to imply depth, and a warm tone for the foreground to bring it forward. In the next video, I'm gonna demonstrate the three forms of value painting. 3. Value Underpainting: In this lecture, I'm going to demonstrate the three forms of value underpinnings of your dot u, a tonal under painting and agrees AL, will begin with a Verdot you. Normally, the earthy green tone of a adagio is used for figure painting, but I'm going to use it for the bass tone of this aged brass coffee pot. Brass tends to get a similar green cast as it ages. So I think it'll be a good candidate. I have a black and white reference image here, and I have the actual object off to the side as a reference. I'm going to use Italian tear, a rarity for the underpinning. And possibly the two colors seen here for the upper layers, but they could change as I perceive. This particular terahertz is very granular. You can actually feel the granulation. Also it dries quickly and map to features that usually go hand in hand. It's semi-transparent, which works when you factor in the large particle size. Now you can see by the swatch how granular it is. Take a look at that midtone. I've pretty sketched the image onto the canvas with a black watercolor pencil. Now, because it's a demo, I simply due to freehand sketch, one of the many ways you can do the under drawing. I'm going to use both a hog bristle brush, which is kind of stiff and a softer sable. This differ brush, the hog bristle scrubs the surface a little more than a sable, which tends to glide smoothly. The under painting can be done in either. It's really just a personal preference. This layer needs to be thin, even though this paint can be scrubbed on thin light and I know we dry quickly, I'm still gonna thin it with solid. I wanted extra thin. And so I'll add a tiny bit of additional oil as well to improve the layer integrity. Also need paint that's less diluted to function as the darks. And so I'll add a dollop of diluted paint and some black just in case. I'll begin with my Sable brush because I wanted to take this very thin paint and spread it smoothly thinly around the object. You can see how thin this is applying. I think the sable tends to give a slightly more even coverage. This is a large brush for these small areas of the piece, but I'm not aiming for perfection. This is because it's just an underpinning future layers to incorrect small ventures outside of the boundaries. And a large brush helps you keep from getting too detailed to early. Now, I'm avoiding applying the paint where there are white highlights. For now, the white of the canvas will function as the whites. This very thin paint, combined with an already fostering pigment, means this should be dry by tomorrow morning. Now that I've covered the object with a thin tone, I'm gonna go in and build up some dimension by applying some of the undiluted green, sometimes with a touch of black in order to convey the darks. Now I'm looking at my reference image and zeroing in on the dark areas. Fervor adagio, and these values are simply for reference. They don't actually function as the final values in the painting, but it'll guide me in the upper layers. So as guidelines, I'm not stressing over getting everything just right. I just want to get it generally right. The top of the coffee pot is too tight for this brush. So I'm going to bring in a small round Han bristle brush to apply that paid a little more dimension. And I'll paint in some key lines. Also remember that you can lift the paint with a rag or a paper towel to bring back a highlight or a light area. And that's where I'll stop. Overall it has the right dimension and overall tone. So we'll move on to the tonal underpinning. Before we begin the tonal underpinning, I want to point out that I'm using very inexpensive canvas board. Because these are just demonstration pieces. There's no need to spend a lot of money on the surface unless you intend on producing a frame of a piece, in which case you should use an archival surface. Again, you'll see that I'm using a black and white reference photo. But this time I didn't increase sketch the image onto the surface. We're going to proceed as some of the masters have done establishing the image during the under painting stage. I have the colors I plan to use. I also have the actual object nearby in case I needed. I'll squeeze out a little of each page and then create a puddle of solvent with a touch of oil. I'm trying to mix up French ultramarine and tear very deep first. Material VOT is just too weak of a color to make a difference. So I'm going to bring in the powerful failed blue and add just a tiny bit. I'll mix it well. And it's always good to check your color on a piece of scrap paper. Once I think it's right and the paint is mixed, well, I'll use a Sable brush to lay on a thin coat of the color. This is a midtone. Remember as it tonal underpinning, my goal is to communicate the lights, mediums in darks in the same general color. Now as I lay this on, I'm seeing the impact of that favor them. One reason it's so powerful is that it's ground extremely fine. Increasing its intensity and making it staining is great for even coverage. But as you can see, because I wanted to use the white of the surface to convey my lights. The color is providing too much coverage. I'll need to try wiping off some of the paint with a paper towel. That helped. But you can see how staining it is. If this was an oil gesso or if there's an imprimatur, the paint would wipe off even more. So now I'll work on the darker values using less diluted paint and primarily ultramarine blue. When I look at the vase, as I do this, the darks lean towards that color and it's also part of our initial mics. So I feel comfortable using the ultra Marine for my darks. I'm eying up the dark areas in the black and white photo, trying to see those darks in terms of shapes. And I'm missing those really nice highlights. The paint simply won't lift enough. I could bring in some white, but I'd prefer to keep the paint transparent. Adding weight would make it more opaque. It's not a bad representation. The lights cannot be painted in the upper layers once the under painting dries. And here I'm using this soft goat hair brush just to smooth out some of the edges real quick. For now we established a good base tone through our underpinning, will set this aside to dry and take a look at it grew sale. Now we're going to create a Brazil under painting. I don't have a prepared under drawing, so I'll quickly sketch freehand the object for our painting. This is a simple blue glass pitcher. It has simple coloring and a good variety of values. Remember integral sale, the values are painted primarily in black and white and the paint tends to be opaque. You can usually find this information on the paint tubes. Often it's a small symbol representing opaque, semi-opaque and transparent. Here you can see the black amusing is opaque. You may also see text that says the transparency level. In this case, you can see my weight is also opaque. By the way, this particular paint is made with walnut oil. It's nice because it tends to yellow less, which is good for a white, but it's slower to dry. For this reason, it will be particularly important to add solvent in order to speed the drying. So now I'll squeeze some paint onto the palette. I think I may have more than a need for better too much. Then two little, I'll make three small puddles of solvent and then mix white and a tiny bit of black in the first pedal in order to create a middle gray. Then I'll mix a white and a black thinned paint. Once everything is mixed thoroughly, I'll begin by placing some of the middle gray on areas of the painting. You could start with white, but I find that white and black are so strong that it's nice to begin with a neutral value. Then I'll begin adding a little dimension with my black and my wife. Again, typically integral ZL. You don't use the weight of the surface for your white, you actually use opaque paint. Now I'm constantly referring to my black and white photograph, trying to see the picture in terms of shapes and values. I'll be going over these darks repeatedly, so no worries about getting it perfect in the first try. I personally like to ease into paintings, getting comfortable as I progress. Again, I'm eying up the darks and the lights, painting them on directly, and then blend them in with blended strokes using either a slightly cleaned brush or one with a touch of color. You'll notice I'm going back and forth between the three values. Just proceed as you feel LAN. But remember that black is powerful. It's easier to add black than it is to take it off. Although in this particular spot, the black line only connects to the areas below it. So it shouldn't get touched too much after it's applied. For that reason, I've applied it fairly boldly. Also notice my brush sizes. I started with a larger flat, so I could be looser and cover more area. Then I used a smaller pointed round to place my darks. It helps me not overdo it. I blended the darks with a wider flat. And I used a small, stiff, rounded bristle brush to apply the paint on the handle. I needed more control and a small but non pointed tip because the areas so tight. I'll throw on some of the darkest darks at this point. Remember, these will serve as the darks and the final painting. So I need to get them a little bolder in certain areas. And that's about it. I'm not smoothing it out as much as you could or as some of the masters did. I personally want the piece to be a little looser, but it has enough value to propose dimension. We can certainly amended in the upper layers as well. Now, as this is drying, I'll move on to painting some blocked in under painting demonstrations. 4. Blocked Underpainting: In this lecture, I'm going to demonstrate a locking in as a form of under painting. Using this method, the artist paints flat areas of color to represent the mid tones or values in colors in the painting. To do this, the first thing I'd like to do is evaluate the image using the color swatches from my paints. This is the image I'll be using for my demonstration. And you can see I have a color app on my computer that identifies the different color tones. So as I move my cursor around the picture, you can see that it changes according to the new color, the color in the sky. That bass tone is the same as the peach in premature that we created in the prior lectures. As I scroll over various parts of the image, you can see the colors identified. I'm trying to 0 in on the mid tones or local color for each element in the scene. As I do this, I looked through my swatches and figure out which one or which combination of them might come closest to in a match. Now the water has various teal colored tensing shades. I'll figure out the base tone and then the upper layers can adjust it accordingly. I'm trying to also limit the number of colors being used as that will help the peace maintain a feeling of unity. Once I have an idea of which colors go where I mapped them out on one of my reference photos. And this helps me keep my focus when I sit down to actually paint the under painting. It's a quick reference. Also, when I see all of the chosen swatches together with the image, it gives me an idea of whether I think this overall color scheme will work. And in this case, I think we are good to move on. The first blocking demonstration will be our midtone version. A mixing of the colors that we selected in the prior clips, trying to create middle values of each color variation. So here I'm trying to create a darker neutral from halo blue and venetian red. They're both very intense colors and the mix is very dark. So I'll add some white to lighten it up just a bit. Now for the sea color, again, I want a middle value, not light or dark, on balancing a combination of failed turquoise, ultramarine blue, and white. And it's important to test your colors. This is a piece of scrap watercolor paper. Now I'm going to need a light version of this colour as well for the Sea Foam. And lastly, I'll mix up a kind of hope for the sand. Now because the surface is already tinted. To work with the painting, I need to be aware as I work to save areas, basically to leave part of the sky unpainted. You'll remember this peach and permanent euro, which I plan to lighten in an upper layer, the very thin white glaze. Where to start is very individual. But I usually like to start in the sky if it's a landscape. That's usually one of the lightest values in the same. This is also where I want to preserve some of the base color. So I'll paint on the middle blue, scrub it into the surface with a hog bristle brush, and then lift off what I can with a paper towel that leaves a tint of color. Then I'll establish the horizon line and paint one of the darker areas of the water, the distant body. I'm thinking in terms of sections of relatively flat color. You can have blended variations of course, but overall, it conveys blocks of color. Now I'm warming up the sea color as I worked towards the front of the scene. It's a landscape strategy. The mid tones change as you travel through the composition. I continue to use a stiff brush and still a bit of a scrubbing action which helps to keep the layer thin. Remember you can lift paint, enlighten the value by wiping with a paper towel. Now, apply the lighter see color, the midtone for the C phone. Now for the rocks, that midtone is actually quite dark because the entire element is dark. The darkest values are almost black. Once again, wiping off is very helpful in spots. I scrub on the paint and carefully work the edges, always referring to my black and white reference photo. Placement of the element and its shape is really important. And since you don't have to focus on the details, your brain is freed up to 0 in on these factors. Also remember that changes can be made later in the upper layers. This gold, for example, is actually kind of unpleasant. Sometimes you don't know until the paint is on the surface, if it's gonna work. I'll remove most of it and deal with the sunlight effect future layers. Right now, just do your best to establish the values, the shapes in the placement. I think that should do it. Can you see how flat the image looks? Let's let this dry and we'll move on to another form of blocking. Now we're going to paint the same scene, but with a white canvas covered board and using color values. This is how I normally begin my paintings, other than the ink sketch, which you'll remember from the prior lecture. My normal practice is a semi grid under drawling using watercolor pencils. And use the same color mixes from the last demo. Except I'll deepen, enlightened a few of the tunes. So for the sky, I'm laying on a thin layer of white. This is going to act as a base for a future color, which you'll see. And notice I'm starting in the sky again. Now, I'll add a touch of red to the white mix and try to match the peach color sky. I'm not matching the midtone, but rather the light value. You can really start wherever you want. This is my preferred element. So I'll add white and of course solvent. And this is gonna go right into the white. That's already on the surface. The white prevents the peach pigment from soaking directly into the surface. So I can lift excess color easier if needed. And it keeps the entire colored lighter. This is a hog hair bristle filibuster. I chose it because of the bristles are stiff enough to scrub and it's wide enough to provide some good coverage. I'm sweeping the brush back and forth to blend the colors smoothly into the prior White. The base of the sky has a blue-gray tint. So my starting point will be to pick up some of the light Sea Foam color and work it into that spot. Notice I started at the horizon and swept to the paint upward into the white peach area. I want the blue-gray to be darker along the horizon and blend up into the white. A nice smooth gradient. Repeated brushing will help me do that. Now, apply the same color to the foreground, seawater. And the whole time I'm looking at my reference image to see how the value variations are placed within the scene. This area has an underlying color tone that's very light. But as I go backward toward the distant rocks, the blue value deepens. So I'll apply a darker tone there and use blending strokes to meld the areas together. The colors are blocked but blended at the scene. Notice the five versions of blue that have developed on my palate. You'll likely continue to make mixes as You weren't. Much of the ink sketches getting countered. Whatever shows will be covered up by the upper layers. Now I'm going to apply the darker value that sits along the edge of the sea foam. It's flat color, feathered on in a way. This is really for color and value placement. It's not meant to be perfected yet, just a close approximation. It will eventually be blended with the color and the foreground wave. I'll add a little to the edge of the distant wave as well and then blend it into the middle see color. So you can see that it's different from the first blocking version that I'm looking more for the dominant values within each color. Now I'm going to apply the color for the wave in the very front. But that looks a little too dark to me. It's a very light color. So even the mid or dark values in that element, light, I'll need to add some of the weight and some solvent. That's pretty good. It leaves room for future lights and a few darks. And then I'll gently brush to blend the seams with wiped off brush. So very, very lightly loaded brush and a gentle touch. I'm going to lighten the tone from the prior demonstration just a little bit. And I'm going to use the peach color as my Leitner. That'll help it unify with the sky ever so slightly. And for the distant waves, I'm going to paint some of the lighter tones there as well. The horizon line with those dark sea turns is applied. Next. I place those earlier in the last demo. So you can see that there's freedom in your approach and place a little habit in the Middle C area to tie the regions together and imply distance. It seems a little too dark, so I'll lighten it a bit. And with a slight the mountain of the color's still in my brush. I'll sweep it along the top of the sky. The light brush load automatically means it'll highlight Lee, which is what I want there. And finally, the very dark values of the rocks. I'll start with the largest structure. This gives me a better reference point for the other shapes. And I'm going to blend this seam between the large rock in the water. You can't see it, but I'm wiping my brush with a paper towel whenever it goes out of you. If I don't put too bold, color contrasts will smear a little too much. Another thing you may notice as you work is that on occasion and element may be off here. Once I place the two rocks, I noticed that the horizon is too low. So I just grabbed but that collar and raise the line, be willing to adjust as needed. I'm switching to a smaller brush to complete the under painting for the smaller rocks. Because the value is so dark and so strong, I want to be more careful with the edges. A small brush gives you a little more maneuverability. Getting these shapes and sizes right is really important. Not that it can't be fixed through change later. We can. But I'd prefer the size to be right, other than small details, especially when there's such a value change. Because as we saw with the horizon, you're shapes and sizes help you gauge the other shapes and sizes. Some little touches here and there. The piece is ready to drive. Notice the range in values, but also the fact that each element is still blocked by color. And for the most part, plan will let it dry and move on. Now that I've demonstrated multiple methods for executing and under painting and have given you instructions for each in your handouts. Select one type of under painting or if you'd like, you can pick more than one, due several paintings complete, you're under painting. And then you can move on to the next lecture, where will talk about the upper layers of paint. 5. The Upper Layers Paint: Now we've reached probably the most important stage evolve, and that is the upper layers of paint. The upper layers are where your painting is formally developed. And it can consist of multiple layers of paint. They take you from the base under painting to completion. This is the part of the process and that's especially interpretive. It's where your creativity and artistic style come into play. There are many, many ways to complete this stage that makes this part of the course a little tricky because each person, as well as each composition is individual. Your process is also affected by how you choose to establish the base layer. What did you do for an under painting, for example, that may determine what you do in the upper layers. Do you have an imprimatur? And how much of it do you want to shell? These are all things you need to think about. Ultimately, your goal is to use brushstrokes and paint color to create your vision for the composition being painted. Before you can proceed into the upper layers of paint, however, you need to make sure the under painting is drawing it. It should be what we call dry to the touch, as it can take months for an oil painting to fully dry. But dry to the touch is dry enough to perceive. One way to tell if it's ready is to push your fingernail into paint layer. If it leaves a mark, then it's not ready. If it doesn't, you can proceed. I personally take a tiny piece of dry paper towel, gently dab it on the surface. If any paint comes off, it's not ready. I do this in several spots as some paints maybe slower your dry. If it stays clean, I'm safe to proceed. The upper layers of paint consist of multiple layers of paint created through a variety of brushwork. In my class, mastering brushstrokes, which some of you may have taken. I cover 22 brush strokes used by the masters as well as by artists today. These brushstrokes, when placed in groupings, can create a single layer of the upper layers of paint. For example, you may apply a glazed layer, and once that layer dries, you may then decide to buy a series of broken strokes over the area of glaze. Once that dries, you may then decide to apply some feathered strokes. Each of these layers, the glazing, the broken stroke, grouping, and the set of feathered strokes would each be considered an upper layer of paint. One important thing to note is that typically the upper layers are applied in succession, one after another, allowing each layer to dry in between. But they can also be applied into still wet paint. Really, you can work until a film begins to develop over the paint. This method is part of what's called direct or alla prima painting. For the alla prima painter who would complete their painting in one sitting. You could apply an under painting and go right into the upper layers while that base paint is still wet. Or you could skip an under painting altogether and go right into painting the subjects straight into the upper layers. If you decide to layer, there is no perfect number of layers you should apply. All individual. Really, you just need to think through a plan of how you can build up the paint to convey your vision for the image. Your knowledge of pigments, drying time, and later flexibility are important pieces of information. As you complete these layers. Remember, you want to increase the fat content, whether it's oil, medium or layer thickness as you add layers. Or you can simply decrease the amount of solvent. Either way, it's an increase in the oil content as you work. The very last thing to do once you've completed your formal painting is to sign your work. If it's something you're proud of, sign it. And this can be done using a very small round and diluted paint. So the way we're going to handle this is I'm going to first demonstrate to upper layers for each of the underpinnings that we had painted, the three tonal and the two block. And then we'll look at some master examples and see how they layered their pain. After that, you'll be encouraged to complete your own painting. Let's begin by applying the first layers to the tonal underpinnings. 6. Upper Layer I - Value Demonstration: In this lecture, we're going to begin our demonstrations by adding the first upper layer to our value underpinnings. Keep in mind, I'm working in my own personal style, but most of the concepts can apply to any painting style. A VR dot u under painting establishes the values as well as provides the green undertone. The next step in this kind of painting is either to paint a cruise sail. Some artists like to do that, or apply a layer of color that brings the image closer to the true color of the object. That's what we'll do in this piece. I need to approximate the color of aged brass. That's the tricky color. But by experimenting with different mixes, I was able to determine what color combinations will get me there. It's basically trial and error. I decided on a mix of a French Gray and yellow ochre. I'm going to use raw number for the darks and the main mix plus white for the light values. The fringe gray is very granular. In fact, if you were here in person, you could hear the particles grind on the palate as a mix. Always check your mixes as you work to see if it's the color year after. I use a piece of scrap watercolor for testing, I need to thin the paint down so it will allow some of the green to show through. But I don't want it as thin or as lean as the base layer, so I'm not adding as much solvent. And because the French Gray is quite matte, I'm adding some fat. This time walnut alkyd medium because it drives past and has some gauze. Remember to mix in additional medium or solvent very thoroughly, so the paint dries evenly. Now I'll begin with a stiffer hog bristle brush because I want to scrub the paint onto the surface to ensure a nice thin coat. Notice the angle of the brush and the lightness up my touch. This is kind of a gentle scrubbing motion and the layer should function as a kind of glaze. Now as I mentioned, the gray is a pretty granular paint. So it's gonna lay on the surface a bit rough. It's the opposite of the failure of blue that gave a smooth by intense coverage. In order to spread it around, I'm going to lay down thicker paint and then scrub it all around form. For now, I'll avoid those white areas that represent the reflective highlights. Now, I think instead, I'll use my lighter mix and fill it in with that. This way the entire base is smooth together. Later I'll add the highlights. Once the layer is dry. I switched to a smaller round brush in order to fill in the top of the form. Since it's a pretty tight spot. Can you see that the values underneath are still visible and there's a faint green tone to the object. What I'm doing is applying and all over color tomb to bring it closer to the color of the object. And while doing this, I'm keeping an eye on the shapes of various value patterns, areas of dark and areas of light looking at them strictly in terms of shape. Then I use my light, medium and dark mixes to convey those values. Notice I've switched to a soft Sable brush. Once off the brass base color is applied. This is to help me smooth out the transitions. I have my black and white print out as I like to follow the original lighting situation. This affects where I put the highlights and shadows. I chose raw numbers, my dark tone because it's physically darker and because it's warmer than block. This object whose very warm tones, you can see how applying the overall tone begins to make it look more realistic. But you still have a very subtle hint of that base green, as you can see in the object itself. And the light and dark placement makes it look more dimensional. I'm using a small round and the umber to directly paint some key shadow lines. These are important marks. You'll notice that my wrist is resting on the dry surface. That's for stability. It helps me maintain good brush control through delicate spots. And again, I'm just looking at the object and deciding where the key lines and shadows are. At this point. I'm not placing every little detail. But of course you could. That's a matter of personal style. And then I'll let it dry to the touch before adding some highlights and making any small fixes. Keep in mind, a background can be applied first along with this phase. After it's completed. That's up to the artist. Between the solvent, alkyd, and thin application. It should dry quickly, allowing me to apply another layer within a few days. Now we'll add a layer to our tonal under painting. Now, if you remember in the tonal underpinning, we saw that the failure of blue spread evenly. Even though I had thin did a great deal. This is because it has a very fine grind and it's very staining. And I mentioned that we can adjust the values in the upper layers. That's what we're gonna do in this upper layer. The doll is to convey a glassy transparent appearance. We're not gonna worry about those bright highlights yet. We'll take care of that in a follow-on layer. I'm also not going to deal with the glass texture. That's a detailed best saved her final layer. So we'll focus once again on the lights and darks. First, I need to mix a light color. It needs to be lighter than the under painting and a little warmer in color tune. I'm using the same colors as the underpinning, but with white, which makes it more opaque. The odds and failed turquoise to warm the mix-up. In this layer demonstration, I'm not going to add any solvent or medium, will just apply the paint very thinly. The initial layer had a good amount of solvent. So by using pure paint, we're keeping to the increasing fat and flexibility requirement. Once I think the color looks right, I'm going to use a stiff bristle brush. This time, a medium round and scrub on the lights. I have the actual item here for cholera reference, but I'm using the black and white print out for value placement. Notice how opaque the white mix the paint, giving it more solid coverage. But also notice how thinly I'm applying it, the more pain, no more coverage. And I'm almost feathering it out into the blue. I normally paint with the painting directly or nearly directly in front of my eyes. This helps you gauge the shapes better. But for video purposes, I'm off to the side. The areas of highlight here are a really important a place light paint there, but the stronger highlights will be added later. Once this layer history, I wanted to be sure they're very strong and that they won't get tinted by surrounding paint. That's the of painting onto a dry layer. Again, notice how thinly the paint is applied. It's a very lightly loaded brush and the paint is almost dry brush down, a very light stroke. This allows the base blue to shine through while lightening the overall value. Also, notice that I've switched to a smaller brush, still stiff in order to get into the tight areas. As with the Verdot CIO piece as I'm painting, I continue to look at the reference image in a, see the light areas as shapes. This is really key. You may see that the edges are still fuzzy. That is something we can refine when we apply the background. Or for loose paintings, we can let it be or even enhance the freedom and the lines. Now you'll notice that I have my palette knife in my left hand. Sometimes one thing I like to do is to keep it by my side with a little bit of the paint on it. And I use that to reload my brush. It's kinda handy because it brings extra paint over to the painting urea. So I just have to touch my brush to the end of the palette knife, pick up more paint, and continue working. I forgot to mix my dark paint, so I'll do that right now. Remember a tonal painting places, lights, mediums, and darks in a single color. But it's not intended normally as the final code. You're just using values to place your forms. In the upper layers. You refine the values in the edges and you perfect the color. Because the object is glass, I'm going to try to keep my darks as transparent as I can so I'm avoiding adding black. My black is opaque. Also since I applied the lights all over and that paint is still wet. When I apply the dark paint, it can smear together along the edges very easily. You just have to be careful not to overdo the amount of dark paint as it can easily overpower or overturned the lights. When you add darks, you have a choice. You can either blend it into this rounding paint, creating what's called the soft edge. Or you can leave your stroke as a direct stroke with what's called a hard edge. Each has a different feeling. So you, as the artists, have to decide what you want in that particular spot. And I'm going back and forth with lights and darks, blending and spots and leaving some areas more direct. Everybody's going to have a different working process. I basically just go frankly where my feelings lead me. Here are some key lights that need to be added. The nice thing about oil paint is you have plenty of time to adjust and rework areas as the paint doesn't dry within minutes, like many of the water media paints. I continue to look at the colors in the real object and the value placement in the reference photo. I see that the top of the vase is little off, so I'm going to use my dark color and raise the lift just a little bit on the right side. Now if this base was sitting next to other objects that had color, you'd have reflective color in there as well. But I'm trying to keep this very simple for us. We're just learning right now about layering paint. And that's about it for this layer. Sometimes you can actually finish the piece in one upper layer of paint, but this one needs another go. It's going to need adjusting texture. A little hint of texture at least, and highlights. All of that will make it come alive. For now, we'll set it aside to dry. Sometimes when I know I need to apply another layer and I like the color mixes I've used. I'll scrape up the remaining paint and place it in a little disposable plastic cup that has a lid. Once the lead is attached, I place the cups in a little plastic baggie and place it in my freezer until I'm ready to paint again. When I want to paint, I just need to take it out of the freezer for about an hour to thought and it's ready to use. Now we're going to apply a glaze to Brazil underpinning that we created. Because the colors so similar to the tonal pitcher that we just worked on. I'm going to leave the remaining paint on the palate and simply add solvent and oil alkyd medium. We're going to want it to be very thin. So this should actually work well. Remember the paint was straight from the tube, so there's no prior solvent are medium to worry about. Still, this is quite thin. But since the pigment is so very fine and we're adding fat to this mix, it should be stable enough. I'm using a medium round bristle brush and I'll pick up a very light brush them to apply the paint. I'm gonna scrub very gently because I know that this paint likes to cover very thoroughly. And I really don't want it to be very dark. As you can see. It's thin enough at this point to allow the base values to show through. And that's what we want. If it goes on to dark, you can always wipe off the top layer. That should lighten it a bit. Now, I can do almost this entire glaze with the one brush. And it shows a slightly larger brushes because we're just applying one color over the entire form. And the form is a decent size. Generally, I switch brushes according to the size of the area being painted. The handle of the object needs a smaller brush head. So I'll use this brush, but it still has a little bit of the prior paint on it. A little bit of white. Since I have solvent in the glaze mix, I'll just swish it in that and then wipe it off with a paper towel. The solid will help release some of that white paint, giving me a cleaner brush. And then it can use it for the handle. In many gazelles, the values function as the final values and the painting. But you can also add additional paint over top to reinforce those values. It's up to the artist. In this case, I just want this layer to be an overall colored glaze. And then I'd prefer to refine the values in the third layer. Blue is still a little bit dark for me. So I'm going to use paper towel to lift some of the pigment. That helps a little bit. Now if I wanted to, I could apply some dark right into the current wet glazed like this. But I prefer to wait, let it dry and then refine it. This is the piece I wanted to paint a little looser. You don't see it in this layer as the objective was simply to add the local color. But once it's dry, our follow on layer could be an opportunity for perhaps a little bit of river or work. In the next lecture, we'll apply the second upper layer to our tonal paintings. 7. Upper Layer II - Value Demonstration: Now that the first layers are touched dry, we're going to apply a second upper layer. And at this point in the creative process, you have several choices. You can continue to use your reference image or object. Or you can simply proceed on your own judgment in imagination or some combination of the two? I personally like a combination of the two. I don't include every little detail, and I like the freedom of artistic license. If you geared towards abstract, you may have even tossed out your reference image from the beginning. We're all unique. I'm placing the paintings on my easel this time so I can better evaluate the image. At this stage, it's always a good idea to step back and evaluate your progress and what needs to be done. So let's look at how I proceeded through the next steps. You'll remember the aged grass coffee pot that began as a Verdot CIO and was followed up with a layer of transparent local color. Now I'm gonna add some of the highlights and darkest darks, as well as tweak any areas that I feel need adjusting. This way is actually slightly 2n2. I'm painting the opaque color on fairly thickly, although a little base term will still show through. I'm using a synthetic round because I want firmer bristles, but a software application. Because the base layer is touched dry, I can lift the current paint with paper towel if needed. And my paint has an extra drop of medium in order to fatten up a little more than the prior layer. It's amazing how small touches of contrasting or late P at this point can have an impact. Notice how adding this tiny highlight suddenly brings additional dimension to the piece that went on a bit strong. So I'll wipe somehow that blends it nicely. You can also amend areas of paint such as adding sky holes in foliage. Many of the masters did this, or in this painting, adding an open area of the handle. Again, small touches can make a big impact. This is also a nice stage for adding reflective color or light. That is, the color that reflects on the element from surrounding objects. And that's about all I'm gonna do. I could fast with it a little bit more, I suppose. But when I reached the point where my inner voice says, That's it. I listen. I stopped knowing I can always let it touch dry and add another layer of later if needed. And I'm fine with this. Now let's address the blue vase that began with a tonal underpinning. It's time to add highlights, a little texture, and some more precisely placed darks. I have my reference image nearby, as well as the object itself for color reference. This piece needs quite a bit of work. I need to lighten a lot of the color. And the only way I can do it at this point is through the addition of white and a more opaque appearance. That's not a bad thing. It's just a fact. I began by adding the strongest light value at the base. Throughout their application. I'm also going to be adjusting the shapes within the form. Hopefully the result will be a mark glass-like appearance. I have my photo zoomed in to this specific spot that I want to work on. That way I can better see where the key lines are, as well as the shapes. This is the stage where I'm going to add those reflective highlights. Its a key. The painting, it'll help. It looked like glass. I wanted the base dry, if you remember, so that the white would stay white. And in this case, the white amusing is untainted. I want it very strong. When I work, I like to work all over the piece as the situation moves me. Some people start in one spot and work from there. Completing it as they work. Notice I'm adding min tunes to as needed and really adding paint almost over the whole thing. And I've fattened up the paint by adding a touch of medium. Now let me show you that you can add a background at anytime. Some masters did it first, some after the main forms were painted, and others somewhere along the way. It's up to you. I'm kinda demonstrate adding it near the end. What you have to be aware of is that a very dark value like this will make adding paint along the edges of the lighter objects tricky as the dark paint can easily tuned to the light pain. So try to think your process through before you work. This paint looks black, but it's really a very dark blue that's been toned down. I'm using a small round brush to paint around the edges of the object in a large flat to apply it more freely in the open area. The edge where the two p values meat is pretty strong. It's what we call a hard edge as there's no blurring and that's a matter of personal choice. But let me show you how to blur it if you want to. I prefer that as it makes the object meld into the background a little bit more. To blend that line, use a small brush. Again, I have a small synthetic round here. Wipe the bristles off and gently stroke the tip of the brush along the line. You're trying to pull a tiny bit of the dark into the light and vice versa. If you pull into much dark, you can add some light paint and stroke it repeatedly to blend it altogether. This is a small movement and you're working in a small space. So be gentle and cautious. And I'm going to add a touch of impasto highlight to the main reflection to bring it out a little bit more. I need a few small adjustments and really could continue to work the top, I have it melding into the background right now. But I could also opt to add, highlight and bring more dimension to that top. However, for our purposes, it's fine. And notice how the soft edge around the object softens its appearance. In our third demonstration, we'll add a top layer to the blue pitcher that began as a museum. We had applied a thin glaze over top, allowing the grizzled values to show through. I could add additional glazes over top to enhance the color or add touches of Other reflective colors. But I'm going to go in a different direction. I want to paint this a little looser, a little more abstract. So I'm gonna keep to a simple color scheme and enhance the dark values with strong blue glazes. Remember the upper layers are where you can add personality and style. I'll begin by raising the values throughout the piece, basically a glaze of white, avoiding the dark lines. And now I'll reinforce the darks with a blend of fairly transparent blues and using one or two strokes if possible, to convey the lines. This forces me to think through each stroke. I'm not perfecting this and I'm not handling reflective color. I'm just aiming for a slightly impressionistic expression of the form. Now I'll add some denser white paint in spots to help add some dimension. And I'll place some stronger, more impasto highlights in areas of reflection, blending in some, in adding lighter lights in key areas of reform. Notice how placement of lights and darks can bring a piece to life, even when you're working very loosely. And that's it. It shows form but in a fun way. And thanks to some key highlights, it even has a feeling of glass. Next, we'll touch up the two blocked landscapes. 8. Upper Layer I - Blocked Demonstration: In the prior video, I demonstrated applying an upper layer of paint to the three kinds of value underpinnings. Now we'll do the same thing for the two blocked underpinnings. And I'll begin with the one that I usually use, the blocking in of values. As with every painting session, I'll begin by mixing up an approximation of the paint mixes on me. I'm not adding solvent as this layer needs to be a little fatter than the under painting. This particular mix has burnt umber, which is fast drying. So that'll counter the white. In selecting my brushes, I'm thinking about what kind of strokes I plan to use and would affect I want. When I plan landscapes, I often like my paint texture a little rougher. So I'll select some bristle brushes. These aren't huge or tight areas. So I'll choose medium to small brush heads. Gauge your brushes by the size of your painting and the size of the form being painted. Gauge with bristle type by how you want the paint to lay on the surface. Here, I'm dabbing some medium valued paint onto my small flat brush. Remember I painted the rocks the darkest value. So now I need to add color variation and other values to give it form. I only need a tiny bit of paint on the tip of my brush for it to make an impact on the darks. The value contrast will do most of the work. Think of your brush as an object used to apply the paint. The paint lays on the bristles and then the way you move your brush will determine how the paint will apply to the surface. So here I'm using a smaller flat bristle brush, laying it kinda flat, and then gently moving it around the surface with small movements. And notice that my hand is resting occasionally on the dry paint. That gives my hand stability. Just make sure the paint is dry. This is basically direct painting with a little scum ball action as well, gentle and strategic. I'm focusing my eye on the value placement and thinking in terms of shapes. Once in a while I need to stop and look at the image on a whole to make sure it's communicating as rocks. It's kind of a double-check. Now this area is eventually going to be sunlight, but for now, I'm just going to place some lighter, warmer color there. Along the edge. This rock in the foreground would be a little bit lighter as it's closer to us. Notice that every application of paint changes the dimension of the object. So placement is very important. Still, it can be wiped off if you misplace a mark. Now, you're depiction doesn't have to be exact. In fact, allowing some freedom of expression can help a painting have a little more character. I use the reference image plus artistic license, meaning my own gut response or would I feel would look good. In blocking, the colors are usually fairly flat, single colors. So in this upper layer, it's nice to add some color change. Here I'm adding a touch of red earth turn for variation. I can touch up the rocks further a little later or in another painting session. But for now I've established a solid start. One thing I recommend is to have your head right over your painting or right in front of your painting surface. Here I'm off to the side. It's definitely not ideal because it makes it hard to judge shape without having a skew. So make sure you have your painting in front of your eyes. Now that we've added some dimension to the rocks will work on parts of the water. I'm going to pick up a midtone and add streaks of it to parts of the water to imply water movement. Now, I'm looking at where there are mediums, are darks in the foreground water. And I see there are few spots close to the front. Those are pretty dark. That makes sense as it's closer to the viewer, where details in elements become more visible. For each shape you plan to paint, you need to select the shape and angle of the brush that would make that mark. Pickup the amount of paint you may need. And then stroke the surface in a way that will best convey that shape. So here I have slanted lines in the water that I wanted to paint. I'll pick up a fill Bert or a flat because the edge is rather straight. And I won't pick up too much paint because it's a small mark. Then I'll stroke in an upward direction, allowing a little blending around the edges in order to meld it into the surrounding color. Just a bit. Now, I'm gonna move on to some of the lights, especially in the water. The water froth in the very front may need to be toned down a bit. So I'll add some see color to my white and mix it well. Many artists don't recommend using pure white. I'm not a strict adherence to that. I think it's always nice to have a slight tint to your wife. But there are times when you just need pure white to get that punch. The value is still very, very light. So even though it's a tint, it should have an impact. But it will also blend into the surroundings because tinted with the same color. And I'll scum ball that on wherever I see areas of wave. Now try to remember where you have dried paint. The benefit of those areas is you can feather or brush your new paint over the prior paint, creating valuable effects such as the wave hitting this item, the rock here. If the paint was wet, it would have been a little more difficult to convey. Also, pay attention, as I said, to the direction in which you apply the paint by sweeping your brush in the direction of the element, in this case, the crest of the wave. You can help imply reality. I'll continue to work around the painting, still adding lights and being careful not to overdo it. You always have to check yourself because it's easy to get caught up and lose your perspective. And sometimes overdo it. Now on the sand area, I'm going to use a barely loaded brush and gently scrub along the surface of the paint, adding some weight to the area of sand in order to imply a very thin layer of water. I'm gonna do a little bit of blending here in there. Just a few little extra touches before I stop. It's important to know when to stop. I can tell when my creative energies fading. If I continue at that point, that's when I'm likely to make a mistake. It's better to stop and simply finish it in another setting if needed. So pay attention to how you're feeling. Will let this dry and come back to it another day. Let's move on and apply the first upper layer to our midtone blocked painting. So here's our second locked in under painting. As you may recall, this piece established the midtone local colors of each element. Now we'll begin adding the lights and darks to develop the forms. A little different from the first effort. On the left you can see my palette, which was used in the prior demo. We're using the same colors, but this time I mixed up some extra dark and some extra light colors. I based these colors on the colour reference photo on my phone. In fact, I'm going to use some of the same brushes as well, since the painting size and the colors are basically the same. The first thing I'm gonna do is add some darks to the light mass of rocks. I wanna establish those dark, dark values right away because it'll help me gauge and the rest of the painting. Here, I'm just brushing the paint on in a standard manner. Direct application, beginning with the darkest part of the element. As I get closer to where there are mid tones and lights off, slow down and be more careful. In this case, I need to avoid painting where I see those values. It's kind of an opposite way of thinking from the first demo. Now that Sun struck spot will be dealt with in the later stage, just like the first demonstration. Notice how adding those darks adds some dimension and possess its bold however. So I need to be careful around the water edge. I chose a flat brush because I want some hints of straight edge. It's natural for rocks. And because it's also nice for painting straight edges such as where the water line is. And I'll do the same thing for the distant rock, making sure I save some mid tones. And the same for the rock in the foreground. Now, I need to lighten the value in the sky, but still allow some of the color to show through. So I'll use a large, stiff round bristle brush. And apply a thinned tinted white paint mix all over that element. I'm scrubbing it on very thinly so that we can maintain that transparency that we're going for it. Notice that I'm stroking repeatedly in a horizontal direction. As mentioned previously. It's often good to stroke in the direction that's natural to the element. I have to be careful around the rocks because some of that paint is wet. If the brush picks it up, it will likely stain the white paint. Now, it might have been better when I painted the rocks to avoid painting close to the edge of the rocks where it meets the sky. That way I wouldn't have to worry about this, but it's okay. We'll just take it slow and manage. It'll work out. If you do get some as a dark on your brush, you just have to wipe it off, reload with your paint color and gently stroke over any smears. While that helped a lot, you can see him so the color still, but it's a more natural color. Now, I'll do something similar with the sand. However, it needs a slight tint. See green. Well that went on a little too thick so I'll wipe off the top layer of pain. It always kinda leaves a stain which acts as a form of glaze. Now to add some darks and lights to the water. Looking at my reference image, I'll paint on a bit of dark sea tone. I'm not blending it in, just placing it. Now I'm going to take that same color and add a bit of a lighter mixture in order to deepen some of the tones in the water, as well as refined the horizon line. That's a little bit too dark and to blue. So let me add a light color into it. It's the beauty of oil. You can just add a little bit of light blended in an analyte in the overall value. I can also always adjusted in the next painting session if I end up not liking it. But let me apply some of the lights and see how that balances things out. My brush is lightly loaded and I'm holding it at a pretty good angle. Notice how I'm gripping the handle. This is really a form of stumbling. The action of the brush determines how the paint will lay on the surface. I sometimes turn the brush, it's around brush in order to access additional fresh paint when desired. So just by turning the brush, there may be some fresh paint and I can get a strong dollop of white. I'll do the same thing with the water in the front, stroking the paint on in such a way as to imply action. The waves in the very front are similar. But with each wave line, I need to be aware of the pattern I'm making. I don't want it to look too predictable or to street. They won't look natural if it's like that. But again, remember, adjustments can always be made in the next sibling if needed. So now you can see I've added the darks and the water and some of the lights. And what I'm gonna do now is just blend it a little bit. I want to help smooth it together, but still show value variation. Some kinda be careful not to overdo my blending. It's a very gentle touch. I'm almost done with this effort. So while I have some of that Tintin white on my brush, I'm gonna just go back and add a few very light touches to my rocks. Just a few moves like this can sometimes connected areas of the painting. It ties it together. This section will need refining, but I'm actually kind of tired now and they need to step away. It helps to remove yourself and then take a fresh look another time to finish areas off. It's not bad. It definitely has more dimension to it, but it needs refining, like I said, a second upper layer or a third in total, if you include the under painting, will let it sit to dry. I added a drop of alkyne to my slower drying paint so it should dry enough within a few days. In the next lecture, we'll apply the second upper layer. Two are blocked in paintings. 9. Upper Layer II - Blocked Demonstration: Now that the first layer has dried to the touch, we can begin our second upper layer. Here we have the landscape that we blocked in different values, as in underpinning. In the last lecture, we painted an initial upper layer. And now we'll refine it. By the way, if you are working on a horizontal surface periodically during the painting process, you should place your painting that I level so you can gauge shapes, perspective, color, etc. the whole scene. Even if you lay it back down to paint, Take the time to evaluate it at eye level first, we'll talk about this some more a little bit later. When I review are blocked in painting, I feel like this part of the sky needs lightening a bit and I need to refine the edge along the clamp. And I have a choice. I can either take the rock color and extended a little bit, or I can match the sky color and touch it up there. That's a little more difficult, but I don't think I want the cliff any larger, so I'll match the sky. Another area I need to work on is the sand. I just need to add a little water movement. Basically make it look a little more real. Plus, I need to add some darks and sand color in here. I'm also not thrilled with the shape of this rock. It seems a bit squat, so I'm going to bring this out a little bit. Now, one issue is that area of white in the waves. It's still not dry to the touch, but I need to move on. So I'll try to avoid those areas. I'm also using pure pink so it should dry a little slower. It should work out. Everything else is touched dry, as you can see. Now when I premix my colors, once I think I have a close match, I'll bring it up and hold it to the painting. And then if I want to, I can put a little bit on a piece of scrap paper right next to the painting. And that gives me an idea of what I might need to tweak. Here. The blue is pretty close. It just needs a light and dark version of it as well. I've selected my brushes. This one is a small soft synthetic round. I like that it's soft with a small point. It should do a nice job blending along the edge of the cliff. And then I picked a very soft synthetic Hilbert for scrubbing on the watercolor. And then there's a fuller synthetic round for more precise application. Notice that they're all pretty much smaller brushes. That's not uncommon for final stages, as you usually work a lot of detail. And for the rock, I may use that thicker small room. I want a little extra texture, so I'm not sure. I might end up with a hog bristle brush. We'll see. Amusing, pure to paint. And I've prepared my mixes. I'll start by touching up the area along the cliff. The color that I'm using, the sky color, it seems like a good match. And only applying a tiny bit. And I'm gently blending into the open sky. Because most Is touched dry. I can safely rest part of my hand on the surface to give me stability. And notice what a small and careful movement this is. Then feather the paint outward to blend it in. If you remember, we were going to put a son here. I decided not to do it with this piece. It just doesn't seem to fit the way we have the coloring. And that's an example of how you need to be a little flexible as you work. And now I think I'll extend the front rock a little bit. And I think I will use a different brush. I'll use this small round hug bristle brush. Rocks, in my opinion, should have a little texture to them. A stiffer bristle will help communicate that. This paint looks a little bit flu, so I'll warm enough with a touch of burnt umber. And I'll slowly push out the shape. Notice that I'm resting my pinky on a dry area of pain. Again, that gives me stability. I'm working slowly so I can gauge how I want each shape. I know I want it squared, but how big? I can always add more paint, but it's not always easy to take it away, especially one that's this dark. So it's better to be cautious. This isn't bad, but I think I'll bring it up a little bit and add a lighter value to give it form and also to have it blend in with the rest of the rock. I like that shape better. It needed to be larger since it's the focal point. And I wanted a slightly more interesting and solid looking shape. So we fixed this and we extended the rock. Now we'll add color and value to the front water. Let's see how it looks. If I stumble on some of the sand cone where the water is right here, this is an area of very thin water. So the sand color would peek through. I'm loading sand color on one side of the Hilbert and see blue on the other. So all I have to do is turn my brush to change the color. What we want, our little peaks of that sand color, not all over coverage. The softness of the Filburn will help the colors blend in with fewer brush lines. Basically, smoother blends. And I'll do the same with a darker see color as well. Notice I'm laying them on in a directional manner. And I'll bring in the small, thicker round to add some slightly imposter weights in the front. The smaller head will pick up a nice amount of the paint and deposit it in a heavier manner. If I work the brush right here, I'm scrambling it on. My painting styling oils is a little more on the Impressionistic sign. Some artists would be very careful and precise at this stage. Others looser. As I keep saying, it's a very individual. Here, I'm adding slightly darker sand and see color to imply the edge of the water. And I'm stumbling small movements to convey this in water. Plus a thin line to mark the front edge. A touch of darker sand right in front of that line will help it look more dimensional. I'd like to add some hints of color to the waves. But I know it's still a little Dale. I think it might be dry enough over here, so I'll add a tiny bit of paint their course, if I'm only adding touches, it should be fine even if it's damped. I've decided to add spots of impasto paint. Since I'm adding impasto, which takes much longer to dry, the bottom paint will dry much sooner than the impasto. As far as our rules for layering, it should be OK in the end. Still if you can wait for touch dry, that's always better. I normally do. Right now I'm working under a time constraint. The blue areas of paint are touched dry, so I'm fine to apply thinner codes there. And now I'll turn down the top right area of the sky. I just think it's a little too dark. I'll brush on a small amount of paint and then use a paper towel to gently smear it into the surrounding pain. It's a lot like a glaze. A tiny bit more. And that's about right. And that's about it for this piece, I can always let it dry and then add dimension here and there. I kind of like the rocks and overall, it's not bad. Now, I had actually put the painting aside and then looked at it again a few minutes later. I actually hadn't noticed that these rocks in the back look a little too much like meatballs. They're two similarly round. I need to change that. I also want to fix this large white area and put a touch of red in the foreground rock as well. So we'll do that real quick. For some reason, the earthy red paint isn't showing up on this video, but it's there and it coordinates with the red in the larger chunks. It's just a touch, but sometimes just a tiny bit can unify the piece. Now we'll address those rocks. All I really have to do is change the value pattern. I'll selectively place some darks and lights so that the implied shape and the form changes. And this really shows you the power of value placement, doesn't it? That's more pleasing. And now we'll address the white area. It really just needs to be broken up a little bit. This particular area of white is thinner and seems like it may be dry enough. I'm standing back between strokes to judge where the next stroke should go. You may not be able to tell here. I don't want to overdo it. And so stepping back helps me gauge. And I'm going to blend the spots of color into the surrounding paint a little bit. This is where I'll stop. It has a good feeling, which is primarily what I'm after. I let this sit for a few weeks and then evaluated again with fresh eyes to see if I want to tweak anything. But you have to be careful at that point not to lose any freshness. So now let's move on to the midtone blocked painting. This is the painting that we started with a colored in primitive era. And then we added a midtone blocked underpinning. It has a moody or Sky, possibly a sunrise or a sunset. So the area of sun that we talked about adding would likely be a better fit than the prior landscape. It may not work out, but we'll give it a shot. Evaluating what it needs. I feel like the foreground rock needs a little warming up in order to bring it forward. And the front area of water needs lights, touches of sand color and implied water movement will also add some brighter whites to the crests of the waves. I also need to clean up the horizon line, which is usually very street. And do better conveyed the thin layer of water in the very front. So there's a lot to do. I'll begin by addressing the horizon line. I have this sky color from the prior painting and it should be a pretty good match. I'll use this thinner synthetic round to gently apply that color. Evening at the line there. It's a good batch Actually, we worked out. This isn't the greatest rush, but I like it for this purpose. Notice how haywire the lower bristles are. This makes it nice in that the thin point can apply a good line and the crazy lower bristles can smooth. I'm barely using any paint here, by the way. Now, just like in the prior painting, I periodically step back to see how I'm doing. You need that different perspective. Sometimes. The age is a bit heavy. There's kind of a line of paint. So I'll swipe once with a paper towel. It just lifts off the excess and gives it a small blend at the same time. And now a blend, the upper part into the dry sky. Now let's see how the area of sun goes. I'm not a 100% sure that I want it. But anyway, we'll try it. I'll begin with an area of slightly gold tinted white. Right on the edge of the clip. It's sun on because I don't want it to dominate. I just want it as a supporting element in a blended into the surrounding sky color. I was going to make it more gold. But as I'm working, I decided to skip it. Again, be flexible and listen to your gut. I'll just leave it like this and add the gold to the Sun struck rocks. I was gonna do that anyway, and it might be enough. We need some value change there. So I'll add a little bit of dark and blend it in. And now I'll gently sweep the light tone into the ROC area just to blur the edge and hint at streaming sunlight. It's almost a feathering action. A few more accidents here and there. Now for the addition of some warm tones in the front rock. I'm using a mix of burnt umber and yellow ochre. Let's pretty strong, but will melt it in. I'll just add some dark and then some highlights. And just keep going back and forth until I'm satisfied. The colors blended all around now, giving it a warmer feeling without being too bold. Although frankly, the bulb color was kind of nice, wasn't it? That can always be added later. If I decide to punch to color up a bit, I'm actually adding a hint of red. But again, for some reason it's not showing up here. But it's there just enough to offer interests. Now let's address that water in the very front. And I'll begin as I did in the prior piece, I adding some small areas of sand color, a gray or sand. And this time I'm adding medium in dark tones and I'm moving my brush in the direction of the lines in the sand and in the water. I'll imply the edge of the water, much like I did last time with the same color. I could define this area here a little bit more, but I actually like it being more abstract. It helps keep the, I focused on the other areas of the painting. So I'm gonna leave that pretty much untouched. Now. I'll add some bright whites to the front wave, as well as to the larger wave crests. These areas are drier than the earlier painting that we did. So we should be safe. Plus amusing, fairly impasto paint thicker than the prior layer. Notice my smaller brush is pretty horizontal in the way I'm holding it and I'm scrambling the paint on a meeting areas without much thicker, bright white because it would be overwhelming to have it everywhere and it really wouldn't look like foaming water. Sometimes less is more. And stumbling is nice because it allows you to skip around the surface. I'm going to imply movement through the placement of the paint. You may not see it, but I can turn my brush even a little bit to access more paint. In oils, the paint sits on the person's making IT convenient. File you have to do is turn the brush to access marr. Now I'll wipe off the brush and use it to scrub the paint into the surface a little bit. Some marks can remain hard-edged and some are going to be blended. This makes for a nice visual variation. Now I'll step back and evaluate the value in color placement. I'm gonna continue to add and blend here in there, just working until I feel satisfied. Again, areas of paint are fairly imposter. I like texture, especially in my landscapes. While my brushes lightly loaded, a dry brush load, I'm going to apply some lines to convey the very thin water in the front. Now, I need some bright whites here. And so I'll paint them on in the direction of the water movement. Using thick paint. This helps it look like sputtering water. And like I did before, I'll turn the brush for fresh paint where I need it. Being really careful not to overdo it. This is pretty close to completion. It has a feeling of action and mood, which is what I want. Remember if you reach a point where you're pleased, but you haven't actually completed your whole plan. Listen to your inner voice instead of the plan. Often, paintings don't need to be taken as far as we intend. This looks nice. I could add some glazes of additional color, but that's his decision now make later. Actually, like in the prior painting. After letting it sit for a few minutes, I decided that I want the front rock a little bit larger. It needs to be a touch more commanding. So I'll add some color to the right side that is pretty shaded, so I'll keep it dark. I liked the resulting shape better. And that's about it. I'll let it dry and take a fresh look after a few weeks. I hope these demonstrations have been helpful. Just to remember that each of you will have your own style and method for creating your piece. It's one of the reasons are so exciting. In the next lecture, we're going to look at layering strategies used by some of the masters. 10. Upper Layers - Master Examples: Now that we discussed in some detail how to approach painting the upper layers of paint. Let's take a brief look at some of the strategies used in select masterpieces from history will be looking mostly at layering strategies. And I'm going to ask you to think through what those strategies may have been. It's a lesson in how to dissect paintings visually. Pause the video as needed as we move along. The first piece we'll look at is a realistic floral painting. See if you can identify the base color the artist may have used in the background. If you look closely at the wall behind the still-life, you'll notice a glowing orange color. You can see it behind the table, but you can also see it behind some of the flowers. If we get closer, you can see a kind of orange halo around some of the forums. That orange is very likely an imprimatur layer. And if you look carefully, you'll notice an earthy green color stumbled over top in spots. That color seems to be an opaque color and it's painted thin enough to be translucent. So it mostly, but not totally covers the orange. It's hard to know for sure when it was painted on in his process, but you can see that it's skirts around the forms. So is painted after the flowers are painted. Now what strategy did the artists used to bring the flowers forward visually? You may have noticed that anything painted with white in the mix comes forward. And the more white, the closer it appears. He also purposely leaves forms that need to receive either transparent or dark and opaque. Here it appears that his improvement you're out may have stopped at the table line. How do you think we know this? Well, notice that the table color appears to go over the orange, where the two colors neat. That gives me an idea of the painting order as well, at least for that spot. So I know he did the imprimatur era and then the table colors probably applied. And look at this spot here. This tells us that the flowers were painted after the emperor mature and the table color. Notice how you can see both through the end of the leaf. Determining the process used to paint the flowers is a little less obvious, but I went guess that he may have worked in the mid tones first, then the darks, and then the lights. But he also may have completed each flower one at a time. Some artists work that way without deep analysis. These are only guesses, but he surely used glazing in here to achieve those brilliant and perfectly placed colors. Now take a look at the lizard and quill pen. How does the artist make them receive? In this case, he implies distance in the forums at the base of the base by increasing the transparency where they received. It's a great example of how opacity and transparency can be used to impact the painting. In this painting by coop, we'll begin by looking at the sky. Which color do you think he painted first? The blue or the warm beige at the horizon? I would guess that he painted the blue tone first. And once that was dry, he probably came in with the sienna color along the horizon. How do I know that? Well, if you look very closely, you can sense that the sienna color overlaps and fades into the blue. Then he probably let that dry and used a thick opaque version of that same color plus some darker blue grays and scrambled them around the chop to convey foreground bulky clouds. Notice their degree of coverage. And in some spots, it almost looks a little bit impasto. Can you guess the layering process he may have used in the sale? To me, the sale was probably painted in a midtone first. And then once dry, it looks like he swept the lighter colors over top to build form. He probably did the same thing with the darks, but they look a little more translucent to me. The figures and the boats appear directly painted and it's hard to tell at what stage that process took place. But notice in the water how the light areas appear very opaque. You can kind of tell that they're sitting on top of the other colors, meaning they were probably painted last and used to convey the water movement. Here's a piece by Raphael created around 1500. If we zoom into the main figure near her neck, Do you see something unusual? Perhaps evidence of one of his base layers? Look at the child's fingertips. Artists often change parts of a composition as they work. And sometimes the under drawing can become visible as the paint ages and becomes more transparent. So in this case, we're beginning to see the initial under drawing. I also noticed that edge of her neck, there appears to be what may be remnants of an initial under painting edge or some kind of outlining. See the sienna color where it meets the sky. Note that it looks like it was painted after the sky. So take a guess at what order do you think he painted the different colors that we see here? Look for overlapping areas of paint. And pause the video if you need to. To me, it looks like the sky was painted first, then the outline, then the skin tone, and then the ribbon. If you look carefully, you'll see how they overlap. So it was likely one of the final elements to be painted, which makes sense. The lights are usually painted last when they sit on top of a darker color. Speaking of which, you can also see that the Ribbon was painted on top of the red dress. So the red dress was painted first and then the ribbon. Now here's a close up of the Red Dress fabric. This looks like it was built up with accrues AL first and then the red color was made brilliant with multiple layers of red glazed. Look closely, can you see some of his brushstroke lines? I see some coming down here. So you can see how he moved his brush. And you can see that there are thin layers of pigment over the shadow color. This tells us that the Black was laid down first. Now, let's look a little closer at the background. Do you see any brush lines here? Can you tell how Raphael may have stroked his brush? If you look closely, you can see fine bristles, streaks running horizontally. Raphael was using blended strokes to build these forms. And the small details are very loosely and quickly painted. Last, small darks over the light blue areas of pain. I almost feel like the blue area was painted after those MID grand trees. But I can't tell for certain. What you're looking for is whether the paint overlaps other pain. If it does, it was painted after the first layer. Looking closely at the face, can you identify something particular about her cheek color? That area of pink looks fairly opaque. It looks very solid. So I know that was blended on after the base skin tone. And again, I'm seeing hints of Sienna lines along the cheek. I still think those may be remaining under painting lines. Another thing that's hard to determine is whether the shaded areas were painted first. For example, a cruise sail covered by glazes. Or if it was painted afterwards, a shadow glaze, it's hard to tell. Distinct facial features are also normally defined in the final stages of a painting. And they're usually directly painted because they're the focal point and very important details. For example, when you look closely at the i's in this image, how do you think Raph AS applied the dark values? To me? It looks like he painted one or two strokes using umber paint and a thin brush. While we're zoomed in, can you see any brush lines from when he applied the base skin tone? I see some very smooth blending here. And even some of the bristle lines showing us what stroking pattern he used. Because he did so much smoothing or blending work. His figure has kind of sfumato appearance, which we see in the work of Da Vinci. So let's switch gears a little bit and take a look at this painting by Winslow Homer. It's a looser painting style. Let's see how he built up his liars. First, when we look at the base of the painting, what do you notice about the application of paint in what's considered the floor of the painting. Can you see how Homer layered his paint? Here we can see what could be a hint of a thin and loose in premature. Notice all the lines in this area that have the look of very thin, transparent paint. Over it. You can see small areas of loose translucent paint. Do you see the opaque off white and the opaque blue? They were clearly painted after that loose base and offer an aged feeling to the floor. They're kind of stumbled on. You can also tell that the music book was painted separately. And there are even halos around the figures showing us that the blue and the floor was likely painted over the entire mature. But after the figures. Or he may have left the figure area blank and simply painted around where the figures would go. In the center area, you can see what it looks like, locked areas of paint. Can you identify some of them? You can see it in the base like color, the red jacket, the black coat, even the instruments. Homer must have initially blocked in his colors and then come in once they were dry and applied the lights and the darks. Notice how Homer builds his three-dimensional forms. Details are implied by the use of light values and stronger color. And finally, the top area. Again, the heads look like they were blocked in with opaque paint and then followed up with very brief but strategically placed areas of paint to define the forms in a very loose manner. Also notice the small but critical areas of the lightest paint. The highlights perfectly placed final touches. Speaking of the importance of those final highlights, notice how thinly painted this piece by Velazquez is. How would you describe the bulk of the brushwork and layering here? Everything but the face and the white elements has a very transparent or scrubbed on feeling. The wall looks like an umber based imprimatur, and the body looks scrubbed on very thinly. After that initial layer was dry. The girl's faces painted quite differently. How would you describe that difference? The lit side of the girl's face uses more opaque paint and it's carefully modeled. Such an important part of the piece. It's the most realistic part of the painting. It's a small area, but very powerful. It could have been applied around the time of the white elements because they don't touch one another. If not for those two elements in this area, it would simply look like a loose been under painting over an umber in premature. There is a touch of what looks like dry brushed, bold, rust paint around the girls waste, which looks like it was applied over the dried in premature as well. The sleeve and piece of white fabric as well as her cap and jug for all opaque white and boldly painted. They were likely one of the last things painted. Taking things one step looser. Here's a painting by either Gonzales. Overall, it has a very different field from the last piece. It's very solid and opaque. The Impressionists were known for their love of opaque paint and would usually block in the initial color with muted tones to be covered with fresh color and loose, short brush marks. When we zoom in to the back wall, can you identify some layering of the paint there? Look closely. Here. We can get a peek into what appears to be a muted gold underpinning or perhaps an emperor material, because they often wanted their colors to stand out. The Impressionists tended to use complimentary colors to add some punch to their work. So here we see a mild gold color, which helps bring out the important blue tunes in the painting. It provides a nice colour contrasts and at the same time it may help warm up the skin tone. You can see a little of that gold base here in the lower right corner. It's paled by some of the opaque white paint. It creates a pleasing contrast to the white and blue. And notice the simple lines to imply form. Can you tell when they were painted and whether they were painted over wet or dry paint? They had to be painted after the layers had dried. Otherwise, we would have seen smearing at the end of the stroke. Instead, it looks more like dry brushing. The boldest values are saved for her face and hair, which when combined with the end table and the back wall, create visual balance against a large areas of white. Now abstract paintings can use some of the same application methods. This painting by Georgia O'Keeffe uses a lot of gradient brushwork. But when you zoom into the piece, you can see that she seems to have blocked in areas of flat color. Initially. Once that layer is dry, it looks like she painted ingredients of color over top while leaving parts of the original color exposed. When we zoom into this section of the piece, can you guess how she likely layer the paint? This section looks like it has an initial coat of maroon, red, and black. It seems like that was left to dry. And then a cleaner, maroon red was applied over top, fading into the dark maroon. Once that was dry, it looks like she applied the center coat of translucent light maroon to create a three-dimensional form. You can see the opaque white in that mix. Repeating this with different colors and value combinations creates this very interesting artistic expression of shapes. Now let's look at a painting that uses heavy amounts of impasto paint. This pieces by George Bellows from a distance. It looks like any other painting. But when we get up close, you can see various applications of the very thick paint. It looks like he did some form of initial blocked underpinning and then smeared Earth stroked on the very thick paint. This spot in particular is incredibly dimensional. You can see the elevation differences even better when you view the piece from the side. In this spot, do you think he painted his final layer over wet or dry paint? I would say dry paint. We know this because the edges don't blend mode. While other areas are clearly applied wet and wet. Notice not only the smeared paint, but also the buildup of paint along the edge of the stroke. It clearly pushed paint out of the way, kind of like a snow pack. Using these observations, we can determine to a degree the order in which the artist's laid down the paint. And here's an imposture painting that uses less dimension and instead more of a consistently thick body of paint with some texture on the surface. The artist must have waited for that base layer to dry and then added a thin oil heavy pain over top to portray aspects of the boats. The sales and rigging were painted over dry paint. How can we tell that? Well, notice the fine lines in this spot. You couldn't achieve that if the base paint was still wet. Even though the paint is more evenly spread, that texture and the heaviness of the look given the painting of very unique expression. And finally, if you ever are examined paintings live, make sure you look at the painting from a side angle with a reflection on it. You can get a good view of a lot of the texture, which will give you additional insight into how the artist layer there pain. Now that we walked through multiple painting examples and looked at some of the strategies of the Master's. It's your turn. Go ahead and complete one of your paintings or multiple paintings, however you want to work it. Think through what layers you wanna do and then proceed by completing your upper layers of paint. And I've provided a handout with some additional helpful information. In the next lecture, we're going to discuss the final layer in an oil painting. The varnish layer. 11. Varnish: Throughout the prior lectures, we learned about the base or preparatory layers of an oil painting, as well as the actual layers of paint. Once your image is complete and it's been allowed to dry. The final step is to apply a varnish. A varnish is a protective coat of either natural or synthetic resin. Resin is essentially sap from a tree. When it's diluted with a solvent, such as mineral spirits or certain forms of alcohol, it becomes more fluid and can then function as a varnish. A varnish layer is meant to protect the painting from dust and pollution that can accumulate over time. It's also used to restore saturation or even out the xin in oil paintings that have become mat in spots. But a good varnish must be removable. As long as the varnish is removable, It can be replaced and thus restore the painting to its original condition. A good varnish should also be transparent, colorless, and fairly fast drying. Before a painting can be varnished, however, it must be completely dry and not just to the touch. To be fully cure. An oil painting needs six months to a year to dry depending on how thick the paint is applied. There are two exceptions. You can apply a varnish called gam far, which only requires the painting to be touched drive. Or you can apply a retouched varnish. Basically, it's a thinned version of regular varnish that allows more oxygen to penetrate, thus allowing base layers to continue to harden. Technically, you can paint over a retouched varnish, thus the name. But some experts don't recommend doing that. Opinions on this or mixed. One interesting thing to note is that it's wise to allow your completed painting to dry where there's access to some degree of light. Experts have found that paintings that dry in complete darkness tend to dry darker and the whites tend to yellow. Although some of that can be reversed with exposure to light, apparently, it's not a complete restoration. Paintings should also be left to dry where there's good ventilation and lower humidity. This will aid in the oxygenation process. The masters often used natural forms of varnish, such as mastic or Damar. But this is one product where the natural form may not be best. Synthetic furnishes tend to age better. They're less likely to darken or crack. The drawbacks are that the film isn't as strong as the natural varnish. And there's no long term track record for their use. Natural furnishes include mastic, DMR. And Coppola. Mastic comes from this app of the pistachio tree and is dissolved with turpentine. It's removable, but it's known to darken and degrade over time, so it's not recommended. Dmr is a more popular varnish that also derives from south. It too is removable. But like mastic, it's not recommended by experts because of its tendency to darken yellow and become brittle over time. Many artists, however, still use it today because it creates a strong layer and it has really good saturation. Cocoa varnish comes from a range of trees. It's dissolved in alcohol solvents. They're not recommended for the same reasons as mastic and Damar, but in addition, they're difficult to remove, making them even less desirable. Synthetic furnishes are broken into two categories, low and high molecular weight. Basically light and heavy. Heavier molecules result in a strong flexible film. But the light molecular films are more saturated, mark glossy, and they love out better. They're a closer match to natural varnish without the yawing and deterioration. Because these furnishes are relatively new, the long-term stability isn't certain. There are, however, several that experts have studied and feel comfortable recommending for long-term conservation use. These include talents, picture varnish, natural pigments, cons of our varnish, gamma far and Winsor Newton artists gloss varnish. I've included helpful information on each of these in the lecture handout. One thing to note is that most furnishes are potentially harmful to your health when they're applied. The toxicity is primarily through inhaling the fumes and is one of the reasons you should make sure you varnish in a well ventilated location and consider wearing appropriate mask, as well as protective gloves. For those who prefer to avoid toxic materials. The only options I can find our Applying the form of wax like renaissance or cold lacks, which is much more Matt oiling out in your painting, which risks future yellowing or darkening or skipping the varnish layer altogether. Furnish isn't mandatory. In fact, some of the Impressionists skipped that step altogether because they prefer to Matt appearance in their work. The drawback is that the oil paint is less protected. A removable layer or varnish allows future conservators to remove and replace the varnish and thus clean the surface in a sense. Now I mentioned oiling out. This is simply a matter of applying a small amount of oil to areas of repainting that appeared dull due to a lack of oil in the paint. Drying oil is rubbed onto the surface and any excess oil is wiped off. Boiling out isn't actually recommended by experts as a varnish layer because of the tendency for drying ILT yellow or darken. Some experts feel it can be used in lower layers of paint as you work, but it's important to use as little as needed and to keep it very thin. Some artists, especially in the past, liked to use varnish between layers or even mixed in with oil paint like a medium. But today's conservationists don't recommend it due to the risk of poor adhesion. Meaning the patient may not adhere to the layer below it very well. And because it can increase the brittleness of the paint. Although it may be tempting. Alkyd oil mediums, such as liquid should never be used as a varnish. Their intended only as a medium to be mixed in with the paint. When used as a varnish, since they contain drying oil, they're very likely to yellow and darken. And since they're permanent, they're not removable. It can permanently compromise the appearance of the painting over time. Varnish can be brushed on or sprayed on. Now there are pros and cons to each. Sprays provide very even coverage and they apply quickly, but they expose you to more fumes and can sometimes puddle around textured paint. Brush on varnish offers more control over application, but it's more time consuming and can result in thicker layers. If you choose a brush application, use consistent parallel brushstrokes or follow the lines of the painting and always apply it as thinly as possible. Brushing is what is normally recommended for textured paint surfaces. If varnishing of vertical painting always start at the top. And consider long strokes with a little bit of overlap. Used for varnishing are usually made of soft but strong bristles. And they tend to be wide and flat rushes. They can be natural or synthetic. And some experts recommend brushes with fewer vessels, while others, the standard density. Most varnishing are glossy, but some are listed as satin or even met. These are basically standard for niche products. With the addition of either wax or silica to tone down the reflective quality. It can however, cause slight clouding if applied to thickly or if the bottle isn't properly shaken before US. One method for lessening machinery, very glossy varnish is to continue brushing as the varnish dries. Even vigorously brushing. This does risk smearing any reactive pigment that is activated by the solvent in the varnish, however, so be sure the painting is appropriately dry and check your product specification. Another method is to apply a thin final coat of varnish or Renaissance wax over the dried varnish layer. Wax has a natural satin or map machine. You may want to test a portion of your painting using a cotton swab and the varnish. To see if it smears or the sub one of migraines always smears no matter how long I wait. So be careful. Another thing to keep in mind is if you have an area of the piece that is significantly mat and you're using a varnish that can take repeated applications. You could spot, apply the first layer only where it's Matt. And then once that's dry, you can varnish the entire painting. Basically it's a double layer where you have some sinking in. You can also partially varnish if desired. I sometimes avoid varnishing broad areas of sky because I like them being mad. They tend to recede a little bit more when there. If you do varnish before the painting has fully cured. Other than if you're using gam far, the risks are that less oxygen could reach the paint layer and thus prevent proper drying. And the varnish itself could meld into the top layer of paint, making it impossible to remove in the future. At this point, let's go through a full demonstration. This piece is actually from a different demonstration that I did in my brushstrokes, cause I'm trying out a different varnish, a satin, which I haven't used it before. It's always a good idea to try a new product on a piece that you don't care too much about. This was stored in my closet, which by the way, did result in it darkening. I have the painting laying flat with a protective sheet underneath it and I'm going to dust off the surface before proceeding. You can use your dry brush or a non abrasive duster. You should always do this as you don't want dust mixing in with your varnish. Next, I'll gently shake the bottle of varnish. In this case, I'm using a SAT and gamma bar and you can see it's not mixed. I'll give it extra shaking to make sure that matting agents are spread evenly and wouldn't shake vigorously. Just a gentle shake. Once ready. I'll pour a little bit into a plastic cup. I like plastic cups because they're disposable. Notice I'm not using very much. It'll be applied very thinly. Now I'll stroke back and forth with some shorter strokes IRR in there to get into the texture and along the edge. I'm doing my best to keep it thin, not picking up much at a time and spreading it around. Now normally, you may not want to go over areas you've already covered, but I want to make sure it's fairly Matt. So I'll keep stroking. There's no smearing paint, so it should be safe. Check crippling or missed spots. Once it's covered completely in thinly, I'll let it sit in a dust free area to dry. You can see here that the xin decreased dramatically once it dried, resulting in a really nice satin surface. After a day or two of drying. You can then proceed with framing your painting. In the next lecture, we'll review what we've learned and close out the course. 12. Final Review: Let's take a minute to briefly review what we learned and close out the course. Throughout this course, we learned about the various layers of a proper oil painting. We began our discussion by talking about the different kinds of supports from common materials, such as canvas, to the less than common, such as wood panel. We then covered sizing, both natural and synthetic, emphasizing the impact this layer can have long term. After that was the ground. We learned how an acrylic gesso can take the paint differently from an oil Jessup. And the concept that you can color either JSON as well. The next stage was an imprimatur, which can set the stage for the future layers if you wanted to. Then we learned about the under drawing. This can be executed freehand using a transfer method or skipped altogether. And after the under drawing came the under painting. In this section, we discussed and demonstrated the various approaches you can take to begin your image. Once we established the under painting, the next step was to apply the upper layers of paint, whether through layering or alla prima. This is where you develop the piece and put your own personality in the work. The final step was varnishing. We talked about the different types of varnish and learned about some important facts related to a paintings longevity. But not every layer is mandatory. You don't have to apply sizing for example, although it is a very important step. And you can skip an imprimatur era altogether or even the varnish. There are many, many ways to make this your own while adhering to best practices. Just remember, there are a few things that aren't okay, such as applying rabbit skin glue over stretched canvas. Some rules need to be kept stability of the painting. But for the most part, you can mix and match aspects of each layer as it best assist you in conveying what you want to say in your piece. Always look for ways to put your own voice in your work and try not to compare your work to others, as we all have a different artistic voice to each his own. As my grandmother used to say, I wish you the best in your artistic journey. And if you have any questions about what you learned, please don't hesitate to ask.