The Complete Jazz Theory Course - Jazz Chords/Scales and more | Martin Cohen | Skillshare

The Complete Jazz Theory Course - Jazz Chords/Scales and more

Martin Cohen, Teacher, musician and composer

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54 Lessons (3h 23m)
    • 1. Introduction video

      2:21
    • 2. Quick reminders: Intervals

      8:43
    • 3. Quick reminders: Chords (dominant 7th, minor 7th, major 7th, (half) diminished

      4:26
    • 4. Adding notes to chords Introduction

      1:03
    • 5. Adding notes to 7th chords

      4:12
    • 6. Adding notes to dominant 7th chords

      5:37
    • 7. Adding notes to minor 7th chords

      2:11
    • 8. Adding notes to major 7th chords

      1:50
    • 9. Adding more than 1 note/The altered chord

      4:33
    • 10. Summary section 1

      0:40
    • 11. Major scale theory I

      6:03
    • 12. Major scale theory II

      3:22
    • 13. Major scale theory III

      5:20
    • 14. The 2 5 1 progression

      2:35
    • 15. Other common chord progressions

      4:48
    • 16. Examples of chord progressions

      3:00
    • 17. Playing over the 2 5 1 progression Avoid notes

      8:43
    • 18. Playing over the other modes

      4:35
    • 19. Phrygian and sus chords

      5:04
    • 20. Tritone substitution

      5:37
    • 21. Summary section 2

      0:15
    • 22. Natural minor Harmonic minor Melodic minor

      8:40
    • 23. Melodic minor theory Introduction

      1:05
    • 24. Melodic minor harmony 1st mode

      1:15
    • 25. Melodic minor harmony 2nd mode

      1:17
    • 26. Melodic minor harmony 3rd mode

      1:20
    • 27. Melodic minor harmony 4th mode

      1:15
    • 28. Melodic minor harmony 5th mode

      0:49
    • 29. Melodic minor harmony 6th mode

      1:19
    • 30. Melodic minor harmony 7th mode

      3:16
    • 31. Characteristics of melodic minor chords

      5:45
    • 32. The minor 2 5 1 progression

      4:42
    • 33. Think key not chord

      2:25
    • 34. Summary section 3

      0:16
    • 35. Diminished scales

      6:40
    • 36. Half step whole step V7b9 chord

      5:44
    • 37. Whole step half step diminished chord

      3:34
    • 38. Summary section 4

      0:16
    • 39. The whole tone scale

      3:08
    • 40. Summary section 5

      0:20
    • 41. The pentatonic scale

      9:51
    • 42. The blues scale

      2:30
    • 43. The bebop scales

      6:13
    • 44. Playing outside

      6:40
    • 45. Summary section 6

      0:15
    • 46. Slash chords

      10:29
    • 47. Scales on slash chords

      7:19
    • 48. Some more on slash chords

      4:43
    • 49. Summary section 7

      0:14
    • 50. Reharmonization Introduction

      6:00
    • 51. Reharmonizing minor 7th chords

      5:26
    • 52. Reharmonizing V chords

      2:47
    • 53. Reharmonizing I chords

      2:21
    • 54. Summary section 8

      0:15
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About This Class

Learn how jazz chords are formed, which notes/scales to use for your improvisation/solo, understand the relationship between scales and chords, learn reharmonization techniques and much more.

Topics covered in this class:

-Adding notes to chords

-Major scale harmony

-Melodic minor scale harmony

-Diminished scale harmony

-Whole tone scale harmony

-Other scales (pentatonic, blues, bebop, playing outside)

-Slash chords

-Basics of reharmonization

Transcripts

1. Introduction video: Hi. Welcome to complete just the recourse that teaches you all the just theory that every just musician shoot No, My name is Martin code. I'm adjust musician, music composer and also piano science and math teacher. After following this course, you will have a general overview of how Jess words. You will see the relationship of the single elements like the court scale relationship. And you would also know which notes Toe adds to basic courts. To make themselves more Jesse, you will know everything about major scale theory, melodic minor scale theory, diminished and whole tone scale theory. Other skills like pentatonic, blues and bebop scales. Try it on substitution. You will learn about playing notes outside the court, changes, slash courts and re harmonization. Most important, you will know which scale or scales you can use to improvise of records and court progressions like, for example, a pentatonic scale over this court progression or a blue skill over this court permission, you will also know techniques for playing outside, like in this example. Now, this course is for all just musicians, whether you'll begin to play Jess or your arm or advanced jazz musician, and you have the desire to play beautiful jazz and to improvise. You want to know what you're doing without having to guess which note our scale has to be played next. This course is for all instrumentalists, whether you're a guitar player, sexism player, piano player, bass player or singer or whatever other instruments. Be aware that discourse is not for beginning musicians that don't know anything about music theory. You need to know basic music theory like basic major and minor skills and courts and how to read notes. I'd like to thank you for your interest in discourse. I really hope we will meet each other soon inside this course. 2. Quick reminders: Intervals: before, starting with just theory. It's good to review some basics of music theory in this lesson. I will quickly review intervals and I will start with smallest interval. The half step, also called half tone or semi tone. The half step interval is the interval between for example, C and D Flett, or between F Sharp and G, or between E and F. There is even another name for the half step interval and that's the minor. Second since the half step interval is the smallest interval, I will use it to describe other intervals in numbers off half steps. I will first jump to the interval off 12th half steps, which is called an active so from sea to sea is inactive from F two F is inactive from a flat to a flat, etcetera. The whole step or holds own interval is an interval that consists off to half steps. Examples of whole step intervals are the interval between C and D, or between a flat and beef let between e and F sharp between B flat and C. Another name for the whole step. Interval is major second, an interval that consists off 3/2 steps is a minor third interval. Examples are from sea to E flat from d two f from F sharp to a. An interval off 4/2 steps is a major third interval. For example, from C to E is a major third interval from E two. G. Sharp is a major third interval and from F sharp, a sharp is a major third interval. An interval off 5/2 steps is called a perfect fourth interval. Very often this interval is simply called forth. The interval between C and F is a perfect fourth. Other examples are from G to see from E to A from F sharp to be from E flat to a flat. The interval that consists off 6/2 steps is a special one since it divides inductive exactly into two equal parts. 6/2 steps is the same distance as three whole steps. That's why this interval is called the dry tone interval. The interval between C and F Sharp is a tri tone interval when from F sharp, you go again to try to him up. You arrived again at C an octave higher, so you see that a tryto divides an active exactly into that right on interval is also called an augmented fourth interval or a diminished fifth interval in this case, so the diminished fifth. You would probably prefer to write the interval as the interval between C and G flat. Other examples off dry tone intervals from F to be from E fled to A from G to D flat. The interval off 7/2 steps is a perfect fifth, also often simply called fifth. For example, the interval between C and G is a perfect fifth between G and D is a perfect fifth between F Sharp and C Sharp, or also between e flat and beef. Let the interval between Sea and a flit consists off 8/2 steps and it's called a minor sixth. Another name for the minor six is the augmented fifth. In case off the amended fifth, you would rather write the interval as going from C to G sharp. Other examples off the minor six interval are from G to E flett from B to G from A to F. A major sixth interval consists off 9/2 steps. The interval from Sea to A is a major sixth interval. Another name for a major six interval is a diminished seventh interval. In this case, you would rather write be double flat than a other. Examples are from G to E from D to be from F Sharp to D Sharp. 10 half Steps is a minor seventh interval. Also called on augmented Sixth, for example, from C to B flat from G to F from E two d from B flat to a fled 1/2 step. More so 11 half steps is a major seventh interval. So, for example, from C to B from G to F sharp from E flat two d from F Sharp to E Sharp, we've seen already the interval, consisting off 12 half steps the active. It's possible to make intervals that are even larger than inactive, like the ninth, the 11th etcetera. We will see those intervals later. During this course, I will now talk about some characteristics of intervals. Look, for example, at the interval from C to G A perfect fifth when I know go from G a perfect fourth up. I arrive at sea an octave higher than our initial C. So a perfect fifth and the perfect fourth added together make up exactly one active. This means that starting on C, I can go to G in two ways, either by going up a perfect fifth or by going down a perfect fourth. So a perfect fourth and a perfect fifth go hand in hand. There are more pairs of intervals that go together so that make up together exactly one active. In fact, every interval has another interval with which it makes inductive. It's easy to find when you take the number off half steps off which the two intervals that go together are formed. They add up to 12 half steps inductive So, for example, a minor, third and major six add up to an active a major second and a minor seventh ed up to inductive. A dry tone needs another try tone to make conductive. In the following table, you see an overview off all the intervals that add up to an active notice that a minor interval always goes together with a major interval and a major interval goes together with a minor interval and a perfect interval goes together with another perfect interval. 3. Quick reminders: Chords (dominant 7th, minor 7th, major 7th, (half) diminished: before we really begin, I'd like to quickly remind you off a few things. First differences and characteristics of dominant seventh chords, minor seventh chords and major seventh chords. In this table, you can see the notes into three types of courts. Dominant seventh chords have a root major third, perfect fifth and a minor seventh minor seventh chords have a root. The minor third, perfect fifth and minor, seventh and major seventh courts have a root, a major third, a perfect fifth and a major seventh. The root and the fifth are for all the courts to sing. So only the third and the seventh determined equality off the court. For this reason, in just the one who plays the accompaniment, courts very often doesn't play the fifth. The fifth is only important when we look at diminished courts, since they don't have a perfect fifth, and even the root is very often omitted by the one who plays the accompaniment courts. Anyway. The bass player mostly already plays the route, so it's not necessary to double the route. Okay, let's have a look at diminished and half diminished courts. A diminished seventh court is made by three stepped minor third intervals. Let me illustrate this. With the sea diminished seventh court, we start with the route the sea a minor third up We find the second court note. So this is an e flat again. A minor third up and we have a G flat. The third record note For the fourth quarter Note. We have to go up from G Flit. One more minor, third interval to be double flit which is an harmonically equivalent to a The diminished court consists off the route the minor third, the diminished fifth and the diminished seventh Note that the diminished seventh is the same note as the major sixth. Okay, let's move to the half diminished court Ah, half diminished court is made by two stepped minor third intervals and a major third interval. For example for see half diminished We start with the route see from sea a minor third up to e flat from e flett and minor third up to G flat and finally from G flit, a major third up to be flit half diminished court consists of the route the minor third the diminished fifth and to the minor seventh in the next table you can see older courts with their characteristics. I left the root out since this is the same for all the cords. Notice that now not all the courts have the same fifth. The diminished and 1/2 diminished courts have diminished Fifth, where the dominant minor and major seventh courts all half perfect fifth. 4. Adding notes to chords Introduction: In the next lesson, you will learn what notes you can add to the basic minor, seventh dominant seventh and major seventh courts. These notes can be added to the courts by the one who plays the harmony the courts, so this will mostly be the piano player or the guitar player. Sometimes note in the melody of the song is such an added note. Sometimes the added note is already imposed by the lead sheet. This will be shown in the court symbol, as you will learn also in the next lessons, and often you can come up with your own added notes to the basic courts. There are no strict rules of which notes to add to a given court. It depends on the note in the melody how dense you want to court to sound. And if the edit note sounds well in the harmony of the song and more in the next lessons, you will learn to possible notes that you can add to minor seventh dominant seventh and major seventh courts 5. Adding notes to 7th chords: adding notes to seventh courts introduction. Let's add some more colors to our records colors now What do you mean by colors? Well, by colors, I mean just some extra notes to make the courts sound a bit more interesting. For example, take a seat dominant seventh Court, which, as you know, sounds as follows. Now let me add a D to record now. Very important. I will not add the D between C and D E because C. D and E three notes in a row. The whole tone, apart from each other, is perhaps a bit too many notes near to each other. No, let's place the D on top like this. It sounds as follows compared this to the C seventh court that you were already used to. Did you hear the difference? Let me play it once more. First, this C seventh. You were already used to uh now the C seventh with the added D on top. You could see this seventh court without a D as thirds that are stapled on top of each other. So beginning with the route, see, the E is a major third higher, then the G a minor third above e. Then the beef let again a minor third above G. And finally the D a major third higher than be flit the sea. The route is the first note of the scale. So I will put a one here. The E is the third note of the scale, so I will put a three. Next to the the G is the fifth note. So I put a five at the B flat. I will put a seven. It is actually a minor seventh, but I will simply put a seven now what number should have put next to the D. The two, since it's the second note in the scale of C major. Well, I could do that, of course, but since we were sticking thirds on top of each other, going from the beef let which is the seventh, 1/3 up to the d means that D would rather be the ninth than the second. And that's exactly what we will do. We will call the deed in ninth for the court symbol. We could write c nine note that if the symbol is seen nine, the seventh is still present, even if it's not anymore in the court symbol if you don't want the seventh to be in the court. So if you want a major tried with ninth edit, you could write the court as C at nine. Now you can play this ninth not only on dominant seventh chords you could even play it on minor seventh chords or a major seventh chords. I will first let you hear a normal C minor seventh court. Uh, now is C minor. Seventh with an added ninth? No, the same thing with a major seventh court. So first C major seventh without edit ninth and now a C major seventh with the Edit ninth. 6. Adding notes to dominant 7th chords: adding notes to dominant seventh courts. In the previous lesson, we saw how toe added the ninth to seventh chords. Now is it possible? Toe adds even other colors. So other notes than the ninth to seventh chords. In this lesson we will start with dominant seventh chords, so we have already the ninth, which is in the key of C A. D. What other notes in the ninth could you add to a dominant seventh court? One possibility is to add the sharpened ninth. So in the key of C, this would be a d sharp. I will let you here to see seventh Court with an added sharpened ninth. That's a very nice sound. I actually like it when the fifth is not played. So in the key of C, that means that we would take away the G. The court sounds more open in this case. Uh, did you hear that the court sounds more open but still has the same characteristic seven sharp nine sound. This court is not only used in jest but also often in blues and in rock music. Have a look at the notation of the court is see with a seven sharp nine. By the way, did you notice that the D Sharp is actually the same note as the E Flett? So the minor third in the key of C well, that might seem very strange and minor third in a dominant court. But this D Sharp is really considered a sharpened ninth rather than a minor third. Anyway, you see clearly that the major third, the E, is played in the court, so it's definitely not a minor court. Important is that the D Sharp is placed on top of the otherwise it would sound to dissonant , which you can hear in the next example. Now what is to dissonant ingests? Almost everything is possible. It just depends on the context. But nevertheless, I think it's wise to place the sharpened ninth on top of the major third. In the large majority of the cases, let's add another note to a dominant seventh court, the flattened to ninth in the key of C. This is a dif Let I will play a C seven b nine so that you can hear how it sounds. By the way you see that I again left out of the fifth to have a more open sound. So let's see what we have till no to a dominant seventh court. You can add 1/9 fled int ninth or a sharpened ninth. Okay, let's add even more colors. Toe a dominant seventh court from the ninth. We will go up another third to arrive at the 11th. The 11th is actually the same as the fourth. Just like the ninth is the same note as the second in the key of C. This is an F Let's try to play an F on top of our C seven. Gord. Oh, now you've probably hurt that this doesn't sound too well, so we will not add the 11th to a dominant court. But what about the flattened 11th and the sharpened 11th to start with the 1st 1? The flattened 11th? Well, when you fled in an F, you get an E, and this is already the major third off the dominant court. So that's not an option either. So we're left with the sharpened 11th. So that's the F sharp in the key of C. Let's hear that. Oh, okay, that's an acceptable option. So the sharpened 11th is another color. We can add to a dominant seventh chord from the 11th. Going up another third. We arrive at the 13th which would be the equivalent of the sixth. So that's the A in the key of C. Okay, let's try that one out. So that's also in option. How would that be? With the flattened 13th and the sharpened 13th to start with a sharpened 13th? Well, that would be the a sharp, which is an harmonically equivalent to the beef. Let our seventh or actually minor seventh. But we often simply call it seventh, so that makes no sense. So we're left with only two fled int 13th. The Efe Let let's try that one. Oh, uh, okay, Nice. So that's another one We can add to a dominant seventh court note that the flattened 13th is also sometimes referred to as the sharpened or recommend it fifth. So the G sharp in the key of C, which is the same note as the A flit. So here's our a complete list off notes that we can add to a dominant seventh court 7. Adding notes to minor 7th chords: adding notes to minor seventh chords. You already know that you can add 1/9 toe old seven squirts. So also to a minor seventh court. But what about the flattened ninth? Well, the flattened ninth is normally not plate in the minor seventh chords and the sharpened ninth. Well, that's actually already the minor third. So that's also not an option. So let's move on to the 11th. The 11th in the key of C is like the fourth the F. And as you can hear, this sounds fine on a minor seventh chord. Now on minor seventh chords, The sharpened 11th is not called the sharpened 11th but rather the flattened fifth. Which is, of course, the same note. So in the key of C, this would be a G flat. Now a minor seventh court with a flattened fifth is, of course, nothing else than 1/2 diminished court. That's why the half diminished court is often notated as Meyer, seventh Flood and five. So in this case, C minor, seventh Floods and Fife, of course, the fifth. So the G in the case of the key off C is not played on 1/2 diminished court okay, after the 11th comes the 13th. Now in minor seventh courts, this is Roger called the sixth, then the 13th. So this six, the sixth in the key of C is the A Andi. As you can hear, this sounds fine on a minor seventh court, the flood and sixth. So the a flat in the key of C is, however, almost never played in minor seventh courts. So here's no are completed list of colors that we can add to minor seventh chords. 8. Adding notes to major 7th chords: adding notes to major seventh chords. What notes can be added to major seventh chords? Well, as we saw already, the ninth is already one possibility. The flooded ninth and the sharpened ninth are, as was the case with minor seventh courts. Also not an option. So let's move to the 11th which, by the way, for major seventh courts is usually called the fourth. So the F indicate of C. Now, this also doesn't sound soil, as you can hear, actually the fourth and also deflect Ninth, the sharpened ninth and D minor seventh all tends to destroy the tonal feeling off major. So what about the sharp and forth the F sharp in the key of C? Well, let's hear. Okay, that one sounds good, so we can add it to our list. The next note we can add to a major seventh court is the sharpened fifth or the augmented fifth. So the G sharp in the key of C that sounds as follows. After this, we arrive at this sixth, by the way, we call it rather six than 13th for major seventh chords. So the A in the key of C this one again sounds good on a major seventh court. So finally, years are completed list with old colors that you can add on a major seventh court. 9. Adding more than 1 note/The altered chord: adding more than one note altered cords. It is possible toe at more than only one note toe minor, seventh, dominant seventh or major seventh chords. I will list some often used combinations of added notes, and I will end the list with a special court with lots off, added notes. The altered chord notice that the examples that will follow now are not a complete list of all the possibilities. There just some examples on dominant seventh courts. Very often, the ninth and the 13th are added together like, for example, in this C seven chord voicing, You see that I didn't even mention the ninth and the 13th into court symbol. The D, The ninth and the A the 13th are just notes that are in to see major skill and are not really alterations. You could, however, put the court symbol C 13 on dominant seventh B nine courts. The 13th is often at it like here. You see that I didn't mention to 13th only to be nine into court symbol instead of the 13th . You could also add the B 13th together with the B nine. Let me now to change a bit, show you this time not accord with C in the route, but this time a D In the root, you see only the be ninth mentioned in the court symbol. This is simply because D seven b nine B 13 would be a too long court symbol, especially when you have to reach sheet music on the spot. On major seventh courts, the sixth and ninth are often added together. When this is done, the major seventh is not played. This is illustrated in the next figure with the A major seventh court at first sight. This might seem strange a major seventh court without the major seventh, but you can usually substitute the sixth and the ninth for the major seventh, the altered court. You might have noticed that on dominant seventh courts, you can make most alterations and with alterations, I mean added notes that are not in the scale. Here are all the alterations that you can make on a dominant seventh court, and that we saw before in the lesson about adding notes to dominant seventh courts. The alterations art B nine, sharp nine, sharp 11 and the B 13. So again, I'm talking here only about added notes that are not in the skill in the key of C. So on a C dominant seventh court, those are two notes deflect D sharp F sharp and a flit on a piano keyboard that looks like this when you consider that a dominant seventh court also has the minor seventh into court . So a B flat in the scale of C, you don't have all the black keys on a piano keyboard. There is a skill that has old those alterations as scale notes. That scale is called the Altered Skill, which will be discussed in melodic, minor scale theory just to give you an idea. This is the altered scale in the key of C various dominant seventh court that goes with that ultra school, which is called the altered chord beneath the root, the major, third and two minor seventh. You can add the alterations we mentioned before. Now it's perhaps a bit too much toe. Add all the alterations possible because the court would sound way to fool. Let me, for now, show you a court voicing for the sea altered court that is often used by piano players. You see that in this voicing only this sharp nine and the B 13 already alterations that are edit. You see that for the court symbol? We just add the letters A L. T. 10. Summary section 1: So you finish now the first section of this course about adding notes to courts, and after each section you have a summary in pdf form. UNT. Now, to have access to this summary, just open the resource files, a zip file, and there you see three folders examples of court progressions, Project MP three files and summaries just opened fuller summaries. And here you see the eight pdf files for each summary, which you can use to read at your east after each section. 11. Major scale theory I: major scale theory one. So we will start with our simplest major skill, that of C Major, consisting of the notes C, D, E, F, G, A, B and C. When we play this skill, you will certainly recognize the typical major scale sound that we already know Now. I could play this exact same scale, but now starting on D instead of on C So I take away the first see and on top. I place this starting note D again. But now one octave higher. This sounds as follows. This doesn't quite sound like the major scale were used to, even if this is directly derived from the C major scale, we only started it on the second note of the C major scale the D. The notes are exactly the same as that of the C major scale. In fact, it sounds more like a minor skill. And that's normal because the third note you here, which is the F, is a minor third away from our first note, the D. We could even start R C major scale on the third note the e and to go up to the next e an octave higher following all the notes of the C major skill that looks like this and sounds as follows. We could start to see major skill also on the F G, the A or the B. In this figure, you can see this. You can see that we created seven different modes of the C major scale, all starting on another note off the C major scale. We often refer to these different moats with Roman numerals 1 to 7. We also use Greek names for demotes. The first moat is called C Ionian. The second moat is called D Dorian, the third Moat E Fridge in the fourth moat F Lydian, the fifth vote G mixer, Lydian, the sixth Moat, a aeolian and the seventh smote be locally in Let's have a look at the mixer Lydian mode G mixer. Lydian consists of the notes G A, B, C, D E F G. So the notes from the C major scale. But then starting on G and going up to the next G an octave higher. Let's assume, you know wants to know seek, mix religion. How do you find that? Well, the mix of Lydian mode is a moat that starts on the fifth note off a major school. You can see that because G is the fifth note into C major scale. So if you want to know Seat Mixer Lydian, you will have to find out to which major skillet belongs or, in other words, off which major skill is. See the fifth note will. That's simple from sea Go 1/5 down. Now, As you know, the fifth down from seat takes us to F. So see mixed salad. Ian belongs to the F major skill as of major is F G a beef. Let C D E f. You can quickly see that see mixed Lydian is C D E f g a B flat C. See mixed salad. Ian looks very much as the C major skill, or you can also say See Ionian. The only difference is that see mixed salad. Ian has a minor seventh, where C Ionian or C Major has a major seventh into skill. Let me give you another example. We want to find f Dorian. The Dorian Scale is the second smote. So from F go a whole tone down to find two. Which major scale F Dorian belongs so this is E flett. So if Dorian belongs to the e flat major skill, you know, of course, the e flat major scale, which is if let f g a flat B flat, C, D and e flat. So if Dorian is f g a flat B flat C d e flat f Okay, One last example. Assume you want to know e a. Liam Aeolian is the sixth moat. So from E should go a major six down to see toe which major scale e alien belongs. Now you can of course, go a major six down. But perhaps you remember that the inversion of a major six interval is a minor third interval. So it's perhaps easier to go a minor third up, then going a major sixth dumb Now a minor third up from E takes us to G. Okay, of course, if you find it easier to go major six down, the result is of course, exactly the same. So you can do that too. Anyway, I e alien comes from the G major skill and so e alien is e f sharp. G A B C d. Okay, 12. Major scale theory II: major scale theory too. In this lesson, I'd like to let you hear the seven different motes of the major school. No, In order to be able to compare them better, I will start them all on C. So you will hear. See? Ionian Sea, Dorian, See fridge in C Lydian seek mix a Lydian See Alien and Cee Lo Creon. In order to find all these modes in C, we can use what we have learned in the last lesson. So see, Ionian is simple. It's just the C major scale starting on C so C D E f g a B c Dorian is the second moat, so to find See, Dorian, we have to go from C one whole tongue down Toby Flett. So see, Dorian has the notes from the B flat major skill. So C d e flit f g a beef. Let see Fridge in is the third moat to find. See fridge in. Go down a major third. This is a flat see fridge in has its notes from the A flat major skill which makes see fridge in the following skill. See deflect leaflet F g a flat beef. Let see Libyan is the fourth moat from See Go down 1/4 to G So C lydian is C d e f sharp g a B c In the last lesson we already solve. See mix of Lydian scale that comes from the F major skill. So see mixed religion is C d e f g a beef Let see Alien is the sixth mode The six down from C takes us to e flit So see alien is C d e flat f g a flett beef. Let see note that this is exactly the same scale as the seat Natural minor scale Lo green is the seventh mode go a major seventh down or a minor second So a semi tone up to deflect it Cee Lo Creon has the same notes as deflect Major. So see low Creon is see deflect if let f g flat a flat beef Let see Now let's finally listen toe all the moats starting on c 13. Major scale theory III: major skill theory. Three. In this lesson, you will discover the courts that go with the different major skill. Moz. For simplicity reasons, I will look to the motor of the C major skill. This is easier, and later, when you're more used to all this new information you condone, translate it to the other major skills. Let's first have a look to the first or Ionian mode, which is, of course, nothing else than are simple major skill. So for C, this is simply C d e f g a B c. No. Which court goes with this skill? To answer this, just have a look at the first, the third, the fifth and the seventh notes of the scale. Those are C, E, G and B, which are the root, the major third to perfect fifth and the major seventh. So those notes for him, the Court C major, seventh first moat or Ionian moat goes with a major seventh court. Let's have a look at the second or Dorian mode in the scale of C Major, this is D Dorian. As you know, the notes are D E f g a, B, C d. The 1st 3rd 5th and seventh note off D Dorian R D F A and C No. What is this court when the is the route than F is the minor? Third A is the perfect fifth and C is the minor seventh. So this is the D minor seventh court, the second moat or Dorian Moat Ghost with a minor seventh court. Let's go on with the third or fridge in mode. In the scale of C, this is E fridge in e f g a, B, C D e. The 1st 3rd 5th and seventh are E G B and D E is the root g, the minor Third be the perfect fifth and deep, the minor seventh. So if Rijn goes with the E minor seventh court, the fourth or Lydian mode is in the scale of C F Lydian. The notes aren't f g a b, c D E f. The 1st 3rd 5th and seventh notes are F A, C and E. When it is the root, A is the major third see the perfect fifth and E the major seventh. So this is the F major seventh Court, the fourth, or Lydian Moat Ghosts with a major sevenths court. The fifth or mix a Lydian moat, goes from G to G in the key of C major. So this is G mix. Early in the notes aren't g A, B, C D E f G. The 1st 3rd 5th and seventh R, D, G, B, D and F, and those are the root major, third, perfect fifth and minor seventh. So this is a G dominant seventh court. The fifth or mixer Lydian Moat goes with a dominant court. The sixth, or alien Moz, starts on a in the key of C and consists of the notes A, B, C, D E, F G A. The first, 3rd 5th and seventh notes are the A C E N g. When a is the root, C is the minor. Third e is the perfect fifth and G is the minor seventh. So this corresponds to the A minor seventh court. The sixth, or a Olean moat goes with a minor seventh court note that the A Aeolian moat is exactly the same scale as the a natural minor scale. So the alien scale is nothing else than the natural minor scale. The last mode is the low Crean moat in the key of C. It goes from B to B and consists of the notes. Beat C D E F G A B. The 1st 3rd 5th and seventh notes are B, D, F and A. When B is the root, the is the minor, third F is the diminished fifth and A is the minor seventh. Notice that this is the only moat where the distance from the route to the fifth is not a perfect fifth, but a diminished fifth anyway. A route minor, third diminished fifth and a minor seventh form together 1/2 diminished court. So in this case, in the key of C, the B have diminished court. This seventh or low Korean moat goes with 1/2 diminished court. 14. The 2 5 1 progression: the 251 progression. As you probably already know, a court progression is a sequence of different courts. Plate one after the other. The duration of each court can be everything. One measure to measures one B two beats, three beats. And so, um, there exist many different court progressions, but the court progression you will see most often in jazz is the so called 251 progression . The two stents for the second or Dorian mode, the five for the fifth, or mix a Lydian mode, and the one stands for the first or Ionian mode. As you know, the door in Moat goes with a minor seventh court, the mix of Lydian mode with a dominant seventh court, and the Ionian Moat with a major seventh court. That means that the to 51 progression in the key of C is D minor. Seven g seven c major. Seven. Let's try to find out a to 51 progression in another kid and see, for example, what is the 251 progression in the key of E. How can we find the to court? Well, the two court has a route that is the second note. Off the e major skill E major is e F Sharp, C. Sharp, ABC. Sharp Be Sharp e. The second note is F sharp, so the to court is an F sharp minor. Seventh, the five court has a route that is the fifth note of the e major scale. So that is the B. So the five court in the key of E is B seventh. The one court is, of course, simple. That is E major seventh. So the 251 progression in the key of E is F sharp minor. Seventh B seventh e major. Seventh. Let us now try to find all the 251 progressions in June Up and Miles Davis composition. Here's already the 1st 1 The 251 in the key of D. Here's the 2nd 1 a to 51 and see, And here is 1/3 1 this time in the key of beef. Let 15. Other common chord progressions: other common court progressions as I told you before, The 251 progression is the most occurring court progression in jazz, but it's of course, not the only one. Sometimes only a part of a 251 progression is played, for example, in a to five progression. So, for example, D minor, seventh G seventh or a minor, seventh D seventh or F sharp minor, seventh B, seventh etcetera. Also, you can see often a Fife one progression. So, for example, G seventh C major, seventh or B seventh e major, seventh or F sharp seventh be major seventh. The very common court progression in jazz is the 16 to 5 progression in the key of C. This would be C major seventh a minor seventh D minor, seventh G seventh. The thing is, however, that nowadays the A minor seventh in the 16 to 5 progression is mostly substituted by an 1/7 court. So a dominant seventh court instead of a minor seventh chord. Now, why is this done? This is done because the C sharp in the a dominant seventh court results very nicely to the D. The root of the D minor seventh court that follows so a 16 to 5 progression and see would then be played as C major 7th 1/7 d minor, seventh G seventh. Also, a common court progression is the 36 to 5 progression. Like the 16 to 5 progression, the six court is normally not played as a minor seventh court, but as a dominant seventh court in the key of C, the 36 to 5 progression would be E minor 7th 1/7 d minor, seventh G, seventh other court progressions that we confined our, for example, the 1234 court progression in the key of C. This would be C major seventh D minor, seventh e minor, seventh F major seventh. We also see sometimes that 14 progression in the key of C. This would be C major seventh F major seventh, sometimes in the 14 progression, The four chord is played as a dominant seventh chord, so this would result in the key of C in the progression. C major, seventh F seventh. One last important court progression is the five off five progression. A five of five progression is a dominant court resolving down of fifth to another dominant court. Like, for example, C seventh F seventh or 1/7 D seventh or F sharp, seventh B seventh. You can see sometimes several five courts in a row, like, for example, in this progression E 7th 1/7 D, seventh G seventh. You see that they follow each other counter clockwise around the circle of fifth, so each next court is 1/5 down from its preceding dominant chord. 16. Examples of chord progressions: examples off court progressions. In this lecture, I will show you examples off most of the progressions that you saw in the last lectures. Since we have seen already a few to 51 progressions in tune Up, I will now concentrate more on other progressions than the 251 progression. We will start with the piece set in Dole. In setting Dole, you can find a lot of 25 progressions. So let's have a look here. You see already the 1st 2 to 5 progressions both d minor, seventh G seventh, where d minor seventh is the to court and G seventh is the five court, so the one court would be the C major seventh, even if it's not present. Here are 22 next to five progressions, both e minor 7th 1/7 This time, the one court would be the de major seventh. Also hear the D major seventh is not present, and this one is also a to five progression. A flat minor seventh deflects seventh. Can you see what the one court would be? It's G flat, major seventh. Of course, there are many more to five progressions in San Tindall can you find them all. By the way, there's also a to 51 progression. You can check your answer with the pdf file In The resource is in polka dots and moonbeams , we confined a 14 progression and a 36 to 5 progression. The 14 progression is here. You see that in this case, the forecourt is a dominant seventh chord. The 36 to 5 court progression is here. Can you see in which key this 36 to 5 progression is? Well, when a is the three court, the one court is the F. So this 36 to 5 progression is in the key of F. In take the eight ring, you can see a 16 to 5 progression. It's here, and you can clearly see the dis progression is in the key off. See in the piece yesterday's there is a nice sequence off Fife off five progressions. As you can see here from E seven toe a 72 d seven g seven to see seven. You see that they follow each other up when you go counterclockwise in the circle off fifth 17. Playing over the 2 5 1 progression Avoid notes: Playing over the 2-5-1 progression. Avoid notes. Let's start to have a look at which notes you can use to improvise over a 2-5-1 progression. Again, for simplicity reasons, I will do this on a 2-5-1 progression in the key of C. As you know, the 2-5-1 in C is D minor seventh, G7, C Major seventh. So what notes Could you play on this? 2-5-1 in C? Well, on the D minor seventh blade, D Dorian, on the G7 blade, G Mixolydian, and on the C Major seventh play, C, Ionian. Now, I already here you say, hey, but D Dorian, G, Mixolydian, and C. Ionian have all exactly the same notes. They're all just notes from the C-major scale. So why not say on a 2-5-1 and see, just play the notes from the C major scale. Indeed, that would be much easier, but unfortunately, it's not as simple as that, because not all the notes from the C Major Scale will sound good on all three courts of the 2-5-1 progression. Let's listen how the notes of the C-Major scale sounds over the one chord, the C Major seventh. Now, I don't know if you heard it well, but most notes sounded okay over the C Major seventh chord. But there was one note that sounded more dissonance. That was the F. I will play again the f over the C Major seventh chord so that you can hear it better. If you follow the lectures about adding notes to courts, you'll remember it is probably because there we came to the same conclusion. The fourth on a major seventh chord sounds dissonant. Therefore, we call the fourth on a major seventh chord an avoid note. Now, avoid note doesn't mean that you may never play that note over a major seventh chord. When you play the f as a passing note in your solo, you will hardly noticed a dissonance. Also when playing an F over a C major seventh chords, which then results to the e, you can create a very nice sounding tension and release effect. So you hear the dissonance isn't always bad. Sometimes dissonance is even wanted. So avoid note is perhaps not the best description. Perhaps a better description would be, be careful note, but most people call it an avoid note. So I will also call it like that. Often, the fourth on a major seventh chord is raised by a semitone to the sharpened forth. In that case, you would play the following scale over C Major seventh chord. Can you see which mode this is? As you can see, the scale plate here contains one sharp, F sharp. So this comes from the G major scale. This is the G major scale going from C to C, as C is the fourth note in the scale of G. This is the C Lydian mode. The difference between the C Ionian mode at the C Lydian mode is the sharpened fourth. So the court symbol that goes with C Lydian could be C Major seventh sharpened forth. But even if the sharpened forth is not mentioned in the chord symbol, you can still play it. Let's move to the Mixolydian mode. So G Mixolydian In the key of C. Since we're still talking about the 2.5.1. And see, I will play the G Mixolydian mode over a G7 chord. Listen well, if you hear any avoid notes. I don't know if you noticed, but also here, the fourth, or rather the 11 sounded dissonant on dominant seventh chords. We call the fourth Robert 11th, none a fourth. I will play again the C, which is the 11th in a G7 of court over the G7 chord. So the 11th is an avoid note on dominant seventh chords. But also here, it doesn't mean that you may not play it over a dominant chord. You can use it as a passing notes or when you want at Purpose to play a dissonant note, for example, to resolve it later to the major third. So the b in a G7 chord. And also here, the 11th is often raised by a semitone to the sharpened 11th over the G7. The court, this would result in the following scale. The court symbol that you could use with this Q is G7, sharpens 11th. Note that this scale doesn't occur in any of the modes of the major scale, since the scale contains one sharp, which is the C sharp. This skill is however, found in melodic minor harmony, which you will discover in the lessons about the melodic minor scale. Now, there is a five courts on which the 11th doesn't sound as an avoid note. And that's the SAS court. In the scale of C major, the five courts would then be Jesus over a Je sus chords. That G Mixolydian mode doesn't contain any avoid notes. I didn't talk about Sus chords before, so you might not know what they are. They will be discussed a bit later, but for now, I will just give you a possible voicing for the Je sus chords. And I will play the notes of the G Mixolydian scale over it. And he'll again Jesus, with only the 11th. So to see, you hear that the 11th is not an avoid note on Sus chords. So assess CT is a five courts in which the forth Doesn't sound as an avoid note. We haven't talked yet about the two courts in a 2-5-1 progression. So the D minor seventh chord in the key of C. Well on the Dorian mode, there are no avoid notes, as you can hear. Okay, to resume what we have learned in this lesson, have a look again at the most of the major scale. The first thing you might notice is that the fifth Mixolydian mode recurse twice. The first one is for the G Dominant Seventh Chord. So let me put the court's symbol G seventh here. As you know, when we played the G7, the 11th. So to see in this case is an avoid note. The second Mixolydian scale is for Jesus court. So I will put the Je sus chord symbol here. In this case, there's no avoid note. So what have we learned? We've learned that in the first or Ionian mode, the fourth note is an avoid note. Let me also put a court symbol, C Major seventh. We've also learned that on a major seventh SKU, the fourth is often augmented, sharpened fourth. And that scale is actually the Lydian scale. So the fourth mode, that means that I can put at the fourth or Lydian scale, the chord symbol, F major seventh sharpened fourth. And finally, we've learned that on the second or Dorian scale, there are no avoid notes. For the court symbol that goes with the Dorian scale. I can simply put D minor seventh. In the next lecture, we will look at the other modes. 18. Playing over the other modes: playing over the other modes. In the last lecture, we saw that on a major sevenths court, you can play the Ionian mode. There is, however, an avoid note. The fourth. In order to not have an avoid note, you could play the Lydian or fourth moat over a major seventh chord. On the to court, you can play the Dorian Skill. There are no avoid notes on a dominant seventh court. You can use the notes off the mixer Lydian scale, but there isn't avoid note the 11th So be careful. The mix of Lydian mode can, however, be used without restriction on a cess court. So we have three. Moz left the third or fridge in moat, that six or alien moat and the seventh or locally and moat in the key of C. The third, or fridge in moat runs from E two e. As we saw before. The E minor seventh chords goes with the fridge in mode. So when a minor seventh court appears as a three court like for example, in a 36 to 5 progression, you could play the fridge in scale. There are, however, to avoid notes in E Fridge in plate over an e minor seventh court. This is the sea and the F. These are the flood and six and the flood int ninth in the scale of E. If you fall of the lessons of adding notes, two chords you remember, perhaps that on minor seventh chords, the flood and six and deflect ninth don't sound well. So when a minor seventh court appears as a three court played a flattened sixth and flood int ninth off the fridge in skill only as a passing note, you could raise the flood in sixth and flooded ninth by a semi tone. This results in the Dorian Scale. So also on a 36 to 5 progression, you can play the door in scale over the three chord. The fridge, in skill is usually played over Suspect nine Court, also called Fridge in court. The Suspect nine Court is a bit of strange court, since it isn't formed in the traditional way. With the 1st 3rd 5th and seventh, the Suspect nine court is mostly made up off the first flattened 9th 4th 5th and seventh. So in an e suss be nine court, those are the E. F. A B and D when the notes of the E Fridge in Mohtar Plate on e susp e nine court only the flood and six sounds as an avoid note. The sixth or a Olean moat is the same as the natural minor scale. The alien skill is rarely played. You could play it over a 16 to 5 or a 36 to 5 progression when the six court is a minor seventh court. But as we saw before in 16 to 5 and in 36 to 5 progressions, the six court is almost always played as a dominant seventh chord. The seventh or local remote runs from B to be in the scale of C. It goes with 1/2 diminished court. On 1/2 diminished court, you would play the local remote. There is, however, and avoid note. The flattened ninth on B have diminished visits to see there is a moat that can be played on half diminished courts. That's a moat that is derived from melodic minor harmony. So this will be discussed in the lessons about melodic minor harmony. In the next overview, you confined again the most with court symbols and avoid notes 19. Phrygian and sus chords: fridge in and saw escorts in the previous lectures, We already shortly met the Fridge in and the Sasquatch. We know that although the 1st 3rd 5th and seventh off the fridge in mode suggests a minor seventh court, the fridge in moat is mostly not plate over minor seventh chords. Even when the minor seventh court is a three court. For example, in a 36 to 5 progression, you don't have to play the notes from the fridge in mode. You can also play the notes from the Dorian Moat. The notes from the fridge in moat are mostly plate over fridge in courts, as we saw already before. A fridge in are also called Suss Be nine. Court is mostly made by the Route B 9/4 5th and minor seventh off a scale for the East US Be nine court. This would be E, F, A, B and D. Another way to look at Suss Be nine or fridge in courts is to say that it is a dominant seventh court, with 1/13 instead, off the route in the base. Let me explain that again with the e suss be nine court, the E says B nine court can be formed by taking the G dominant seventh court with the E, which is the 13th in the scale of G in the base. An often used voicing for a G seven court is F A B E place, the 13th of the scale of G. So the E in the bass and you get E f A B and e You see that these are almost the same notes as the E says B nine, voicing. We found in the last lecture. Only the D is missing, but the D is the fifth in the G major scale, so I could have put the D Also in. By the way, both voicings are good voicings for Isa's Be nine. I'm not obliged to have a d the minor seventh in my suspect nine court. Okay, two more examples of Suspect E nine courts. First a self be nine. Take the Route B 9/4 5th and minor seventh. Those are a B flat, D E and G. Second example. E flat says B nine. The Route B 9/4 fifth and minor seventh are e flett f flit a flett beef. Let and deflect note that F. Flett is the n harmonic equivalent off E. Let's have a closer look at Cesc Corts. The easiest way to look at Cesc warts is to see them as a root played together with a major . Try it Ah, whole tone below the route. So a voicing for Jesus in this way result in the root G plate as bass note with an F major trait, as shown in this example. By the way, you see that I didn't put the F off the F major tried at the bottom of to try it. We call this the F major trite in second inversion. This sounds stronger than the F major. Try it with the F at the bottom. The suss comes from the word suspended and refers to the suspended fourth because traditionally the fourth resolved to the third as shown in the next figure. Very often, however, the fourth doesn't resolve to the third. No, you might think that a Sussex court cannot contain the third, but this is not true. You can make a voicing for a sussed court that has the fourth and also the third, like in this example when voicing a Cesc ORT with 1/4 and 1/3. It's important to voice the third above the fourth. Otherwise it will sound dissonant. Okay, let me end by showing two more examples offs. Escorts. A C C. Escort can be made by a Sikh in the root with a B flat, dry it and an a flat suss court with an A flat in the root and a G flat dry it. 20. Tritone substitution: dry tone substitution. Just musicians like to re harmonize courts in a just June. Often they substitute courts in June by other courts. Even if re harmonizing courts will be discussed in the lessons about re harmonization, I want to quickly show one of the most common ways of substituting courts, and just already now it's called dry tone substitution. The two most important notes in minor, seventh dominant seventh and major seventh courts are the third and the seventh since those two court does define whether the court is minor seventh, dominant, seventh or major seventh. Remember that minor seventh courts have a minor third at a minor seventh dominant seventh courts have a major third and a minor, seventh and major seventh. Courts have a major third and a major seventh look at the intervals between the third and the seventh in each court type in minor seventh courts. The interval between the minor, third and a minor seventh is a perfect fifth. If you don't see this directly, look at the C minor seventh court. The distance between E flat and B flat is a perfect fifth, since B Flat is the fifth in the scale of E flat in major seventh courts. The distance between the major, third and a major seventh is also a perfect fifth. Again, you can see this directly in C major seventh. The distance between E and B is a perfect fifth. So for minor seventh chords and for major seventh chords, the distance between the third and the seventh is a perfect fifth. This is not the case for dominant seventh chords. The distance between the major, third and minor seventh is a tryto so, for example, in C dominant seventh, the distance between E and beef. Let is exactly a trite um, or three whole tones, because this trite on only occurs in dominant seventh chords. This is a special characteristic of dominant seventh courts that the other court types don't have. In other words, if in 1/7 court dry tone occurs, you know that it must be a dominant seventh court. The sound off two notes, a try turn away from each other plates simultaneously like is the case in a dominant seventh court creates attention and attention needs to be resolved. That's why a five court results very nicely toe a one court, the five court Greats Tension, The one court release. Let's take two notes that are dry tone away from each other. For example, A and E Flat, which dominant seventh court, belongs to those two notes. Or, in other words, the A and the E Flett are the third and seventh off, which dominant seventh court. Well, they are the third and the seventh off the F seventh chords, but no comes to special part. The A and E Flat are not only the third and seventh of the F dominant seventh court, but also off another dominant seventh chord toe. Better see this. I should write E flett as it's an harmonic equivalent d sharp. And then ask the question Off which dominant seventh court R D Sharp and a the third and seventh. Well, they are the third and seventh off the B seventh chord. In fact, the third off the Seventh Court is the seventh off the B seventh court and the seventh off . The F seventh Court is the third off the B seventh court because the third and seventh off F sevenths and B seventh are both the same F seventh and B seventh can substitute for one another note that F and B are also both tried to run away from each other. So it's possible to substitute a dominant seventh court by another dominant seventh court. A dry tone away. This process is called dry tone substitution. Let me give you an example. The 251 progression in the key of C is, as you know, D minor, seventh G seventh C major seventh when you would apply right on substitution to the G seventh Court. Then you can substitute it for the DIF. Let's seventh court deflect being a tri tone away from G. The court progression would then become D minor. Seventh deflects seventh C major seventh notice the chromatic baseline that arises in our new court progression from D to deflect to see. For this reason, Bass players like very much trite on substitution dry tones. Substitution shouldn't be overdone and shouldn't be used when it doesn't work with the melody. More on Triton's substitution will be discussed in the lessons about re harmonization 21. Summary section 2: you're just finished. Section two about major scale harmony and you can download the summary in the pdf file that you find in the resource file that goes with this course. In this summary, you can read the theory discussed in this section at your ease. 22. Natural minor Harmonic minor Melodic minor: there exists only one major skill, but there are three different minor scales. First, the natural minor scale, which is the same as the sixth or a Olean Modoff major scale harmony. Second, the harmonic minor scale, and third, the mellow dick. Minor skill. In this lesson, I will briefly discuss the three different minor scales and I will start with the natural minor scale. The easiest natural minor scale is a natural minor since it is the sixth or a Orien mode of the C major skill. It contains the same notes as the C major school. It only starts on A and continues to the A and octave higher. We also see a minor is the relative minor of C major or C major is the relative major off a minor. If I want to find the sea natural, minor scale, I have to find the relative major of C minor to see toe which major scale see natural minor belongs. Since the natural minor scale is the same as the sixth or a Olean scale, I have to go down 1/6 to find toe which major scale it belongs. Instead of going down a major six I can also go up a minor third since a minor third is the inverse of a major six. A minor third up from C takes us to E flett, so seek Natural Minor has the same notes as e flat. Major C Minor is the relative minor off e flat major, so see natural minor consists of the notes C D E flat, F G, a flat, B flat and C. Now why only just the natural minor scale is not enough. Why do we need the harmonic and the melodic minor scales? To understand this, you have to look at the leading tone are also called leading note. They're leading tone is a note that results to another note a semi tone up or down. In our case, the leading tone results to the root of the scale we're in. Let me illustrate this with the C major skill, I will play the C major scale, starting on C and go up until I reach the seventh. Note. The B. Now, when you end your line on the B, it sounds as if something is missing, as if it's not finished. You can solve this problem by playing the next note a Senate on higher than the B, which is the See the root off R C. Major scale. What you did is resolving the B by playing the next note a semi tone higher The sea the B is called a leading tone. It's a semi tone away from a resolution the see the root off our skill in all major skills . The seventh note is a semi tone away from the root, so in a major skill, the seventh note is a leading tone. No, the natural minor scale doesn't have a leading tone since this seventh note of a natural minor scale is a whole tone away from the root. See, for example, to see natural minor scale. The seventh note is a beef Let ah whole tone away from route See. Since the natural minor scale has no leading tone, the harmonic minor skill was introduced. The harmonic minor skill is almost equal to the natural minor school. The only difference is the seventh note, which is raised by 1/2 tone. In that way, the leading term problem is solved. Let me illustrate this again with a C minor scale, as we saw Sea Natural minor is C D E flat F g a flat B flat c No just raised the seventh Note the beef let by a semi tone to obtain. See harmonic minor C d If let f g a flit B C. It's as easy as that when you want to know a harmonic minor scale. Just take the natural minor scale and raised the seventh note by 1/2 term and you're done. Notice this special interval between the sixth and seventh note of the harmonic minor school free semi tones, which you probably recognized as a minor third interval. This is quite special because still no, we've seen only half tone and hold on intervals between two con secured of notes of the scale. By the way, the three semi tone interval is in this case technically spoken, not a minor third interval, but an augmented second interval since we're going from a flat to be in C harmonic minor and not from G sharp. To be this interval off, three semi tones gives the harmonic minor scale of very nice sounding effect. I would even say an exotic effect. Listen to the sea harmonic minor scale to hear this effect. The exotic sounding are commended. Second interval in the harmonic minor scale is, however, not always the one to defect, and this is where the melodic minor scale comes into play in order to have a minor skill with the leading tone but without undocumented. Second interval between to consecrate of scale notes, just take the harmonic minor scale and raise this sixth note off the harmonic minor scale by a semi tone. The skill obtained in this way is called the Melody Minor Scale. Let me illustrate this again with C minor. Take the sea Harmonic minor scales O C D E Foot F g A flat B C. Now raise the six note So the eif let by 1/2 term to obtain the sea melodic minor scale C d E flat f g a B C. You see that the melodic minor scale has a leading tone but doesn't have a commended second interval between to consecrate of notes of the scale. To find a melodic minor scale, you have three options. First, take the harmonic minor school and raised the sixth note by 1/2 step. Second, take the natural minor scale and raise this sixth and seventh note both by 1/2 step and third take the major scale and replace the major third by a minor third. Note that in classical theory the descending melodic minor skill is not the same as the ascending, melodic minor skill. The ascending scale is the one you just learned. The descending skill is simply the natural minor scale ingest. The ascending and descending melodic minor scale are the same now. When are the harmonic and melodic minor scales used? Let me first show you how to harmonic. Minor scale could be used in a melody or in a solo. Imagine playing a piece in the key of C minor. No, let's assume that piece contains a G seven court. The G seven court consists of the notes G, B, D and F. When you would play in C Natural Minor over the G seventh chord, the beef let in C Natural Minor could conflict with the B in the G seven, so that's where you could play. See Harmonic Minor instead of C natural minor. There are plenty of similar cases off when to use the harmonic minor skill. This is just one example. So what about the melodic minor skill? The melodic minor scale firms, the basis off melodic minor harmony on which are based a lot off scales often used in jazz like, for example, the altered skill, half diminished skill and more so When a just musician improvises over a scale derived from melodic minor harmony, he will play notes from the melodic minor scale. 23. Melodic minor theory Introduction: in the same way as with major scale theory. You can take the scale in this case, the melodic Meyer scale instead of the major skill and create seven different modes, each one beginning on another note off the melodic minor skill for simplicity reasons. I will do this with the Sikh melodic minor skill, but you could, of course, use the melodic minor scale off any other note. So the first moat starts on C and ends on C and is just to see melodic minor scale as we know it. The Second Moat runs from D two D. The third motor runs from E fled to If Let Fourth Motrin after F the fifth from J two G, the sixth from A to A and the seventh from B to B. We use, like was the case with major scale Harmony Roman numerals from 1 to 7 to indicate the seven modes off melodic minor harmony in melodic minor harmony. We don't use Greek names for the moats, as is the case in major scale harmony 24. Melodic minor harmony 1st mode: to see which court goes with the first moat. In melodic minor harmony, we will look at the 1st 3rd 5th and seventh note in the first moat. The 1st 3rd 5th and seventh are See e Flett, G and B. Those notes for him to court C minor major seventh. This court is called Minor Major. Seventh since the third is a minor third and the seventh is a major seventh. It has the following court symbol, and it sounds, as the minor major seventh court can often be used to substitute a minor seventh court. This can be done when the minor seventh court is not the to court in a to five progression and when the minor seventh is not the melody. Note. When improvising over a minor major sevenths court, you can use the first mote of the melodic minor scale 25. Melodic minor harmony 2nd mode: The Second Moat runs from D. Two D. The 1st 3rd 5th and seventh are D. F, A and C. This is the D minor seventh court. However, if you play the second mode of melodic minor harmony over the D minor seventh court, you will hear that the E flat, which is the flood int ninth in the scale of D, sounds very dissonant. The second mode of Melodic Minor is therefore not plate over minor seventh chords. The court that is used with this moat is a suspect nine or fridge in court. Let me hear you the notes off the second moat of melodic minor over a D fridge in court for the D Fridge in court, I used the route Fred in 9th 4th and fifth So D E, flett G and A. When improvising over a suss be nine court, you can use the second moat of the melodic minor scale 26. Melodic minor harmony 3rd mode: the third moat runs from E flat to E. Flett, since it has a major third in a major seventh, you would think often e flat major seventh as the court that goes with this moat but have a look at the fifth. The fifth in the scale of E Flat is a beef let. But in this motor, the fifth is a B. That means that this moat and also the court that goes with this mode, has an augmented fifth. Therefore, the court symbol that goes with this moat is written as e flat major seventh Sharp Fife. When you compare the e flat major skill with the third moat off See melodic minor. Not only the fifth is a semi tone higher, but also the fourth. The major seventh Sharp five Court, as well as the third mode of the melodic minor harmony, is called Libyan augmented. Lydian refers to the sharp fourth since the Lydian scale in major scale Harmony also has a sharp for and augment. It refers to the augmented fifth when improvising over a major seventh sharp five court, you can use the third mote of the melodic minor scale 27. Melodic minor harmony 4th mode: The fourth boat runs from F two F, since it has a major third in a minor seventh. A dominant seventh court goes with the fourth mode of melodic minor. So in this case, F seventh, if you would see an F seven in a lead sheet, you would normally think off the mixer Lydian mode of major scale harmony. So what's the difference? Let me put F Mix civilian and the fourth mode of C melodic minor, one above the other to see the difference. As you can see, the only difference is the sharpened 11th. Therefore, the court symbol that goes with the fourth mode of Melodic Minor is seven sharp 11. So in this case, F seven Sharp 11 the seven Sharp 11 court, as well as the fourth moat off melodic minor harmony, is called Lydian Dominant. Lydian refers to sharpen the 11th dominant to the fact that it has a major third and a minor seventh. When improvising over a seven sharp 11 court, you can use the fourth mote of the melodic minor scale 28. Melodic minor harmony 5th mode: The Fifth Moat runs from G to G, since it has a major third in a minor seventh. This would suggest a dominant seventh chords to be used with the fifth mote of melodic minor. Let's compare GM excellent in from major scale harmony with the fifth mode from C melodic minor. The difference is here. The mix a Lydian Scale has 1/13. The fifth mode from Melodic Minor has a flood in 13. However, most just musicians play the older, too, or the whole tone skill when they see the seventh be 13th Court. And to be honest, the fifth mode of melodic minor harmony is actually almost never played. 29. Melodic minor harmony 6th mode: the sixth moat runs from A to A since it has a minor third, a diminished fifth and a minor seventh. It goes with 1/2 diminished court. The court, as well as the scale are difficult, have diminished. Let's compare this moat with the seventh or locally and moat from major scale harmony, the moat that also goes with 1/2 diminished court. What's the difference? The difference is the second note. The locally and moat has a flattened ninth. The sixth moat off Melodic Minor has a natural ninth, therefore another name for the court. And skill is low Crean sharp too, since compared with the local and scale from major scale harmony. The second note is raised by a semi tone in the lessons about major scale theory. I already showed you that the second note off the Lokeren skill is an avoid note. The diminished scale off melodic minor has no avoid note, since the second has been raised by a semi tone. When improvising over have diminished courts, you can use this six mote of the melodic minor scale 30. Melodic minor harmony 7th mode: the seventh moat runs from B to B. When you look at the 1st 3rd 5th and seventh note, which are B, D, F and A, you would again think off 1/2 diminished court. But when you look a bit closer, you see the E flat, which is the and harmonic equivalent off the D sharp. And the D Sharp is the major third in the key of B. How is that possible? It has a minor third, the D and the major third, the EEF let or d sharp if you prefer. Well, a court cannot have a minor third and a major third. The real third is the leaflet. The D is a sharpened ninth. So the court has a major third, the EEF let and minor seventh the A and therefore this moat goes with a dominant seventh court. Now have a look at the fifth, the F This is a diminished fifth, but as this is a dominant seventh court, we rather call it the sharpened 11th. So that means that this dominant seventh court has no fifth. And there is more special about this strange dominant seventh chord. Let us compare this dominant seventh skill. With the mixer Lydian mode of major scale harmony, there are a lot of differences. The Mixer, Lydian Mode, has 1/9 where the seventh mode of Melodic Minor has both a flattened ninth and a sharpened ninth. The mixer, Lydian Mode has an 11th. The seventh mode of Melodic Minor has a sharpened 11th. The mixer, Lydian Mode, has 1/5. The seventh mode of Melodic Minor has no fifth and the last difference. The mix of Indian Moat has is 13th where the seventh mode of Melodic Minor has a flattened 13th. Since this moat has so many alterations compared with the normal mixer Lydia Moat, we call this motor the altered school and in fact, all the alterations possible are made. The ninth has been both lowered and raised. The 11th has been raised. It's gonna be lowered because that would result in the major third and the 13th has been lowered. It cannot be raised because that's already D minor. Seventh, if you have followed the lessons about adding notes to court, you've already met the altered court. The ultimate court is the court that goes with this moat. Let me play the be altered school. So the seventh moat off see melodic minor over a B seventh altered chord. When improvising over an altered court, you can use the seventh mote of the melodic minor scale. 31. Characteristics of melodic minor chords: when discussing the seven motes of melodic minor harmony, I haven't really mentioned avoid notes that might occur. Well, it's simple. If we don't consider the fifth mode of melodic minor, which, as you have seen, is rarely plate. There are no avoid notes in melodic minor harmony. The total absence of avoid notes in melodic minor harmony makes that within a melodic minor key. Almost everything is interchangeable. Let me illustrate what I mean by that. Let me play a C minor major seventh court with a C the root of the court in the base. So what you just heard was it C minor major seventh chord. Let me now play the same court. But now not with the sea in the base but with a D in the base. What you just hurt was a. D. C s B nine court. The court that belongs to the second mode of melodic minor in the key of C. Well, this means is that you can play exactly the same voicing so the same notes for a seat minor major seventh court, The court that belongs to the first moat. As for the D. C s B nine court the court that belongs to the second mode. The only difference is that I played another note in the base. But if you play courts without the root, which is very usual in jazz, there is no difference at all. I can even play all the other courts belonging to the moats off melodic minor harmony in the same key, with same voicing. So put an E flat in the bass and you have e flat major seventh sharp five brilliant F in the base and you haven't F seven Sharp 11 Play in a in the base and you have 1/2 diminished court forcing or play a B in the bass and you have a B seventh altered court, so the melodic minor courts are interchangeable. When you have a voicing for a court, you can use it for all the other courts belonging to the same melodic minor scale. In the same key, let me take some examples from another kid and see melodic minor. For example, take a d half diminished court to what melodic minor key belongs. D have diminished. The half diminished scale is the six mote of melodic minor harmony, so I have to go. A major six done or a minor third up so I d have diminished belongs to F melodic minor. A possible voicing for a court off the F melodic minor scale is this one, so you can use this voicing for all the course that belong to F melodic minor. So for F minor major seventh Jesus Be nine, a flat major seventh Sharp Life beef, let's seven, Sharp 11 and E seven altered only changed the route in the base, and you have another courts that belongs to F melodic minor. And if you play ruthless courts, there is no difference. It'll another example. Let me take the voicing for the C seventh altered court that are introduced into lessons about adding notes. Two chords which other courts of the same melodic minor scale can use? That same voicing to know that we must first know from which melodic, minor scale C seventh altered is derived. The older scale is the seventh mote of melodic minor. So to Noto, which melodic minor scale it belongs, I can just go up a semi tone from C. That means that C Seventh Alter to derive from the Deep Flett melodic minor scale. So let's start by writing down the deflect melodic minor scale. Remember, you can find a melodic minor scale by first taking the major skill and then replace the major third by a minor third. Here are all the seven Moz found in Deflect melodic Minor. When not considering the fifth moat, you see that the C seventh altered voicing that I showed you before can be used on the courts. Deflects minor major. Seventh If lets us be, nine f Flint Major, seventh Sharp, Fife G. Flat seven, Sharp 11 Beef Let's Have Diminished and C Seventh Coltart, By the way, since we started talking about to see seventh altered court here, you see the sea altered skill. This interchangeability in melodic minor harmony means that not only quartz within the same melodic minor key are interchangeable but also melodic phrases or licks in a solo, for example. So when I have a lick on a court that belongs to a melodic minor skill, I can use that same lick on another court out of the same melodic minor key. I will give you an example of this in the next lesson about the minor to 51 progression 32. The minor 2 5 1 progression: the following progression is a minor to 51 progression a minor to 51 progression usually consists off 1/2 diminished court for the to court on altered chord for the five court and a minor major sevenths court for the one court. Let's compare a minor to 51 with a to 51 derived from major harmony. You see that in major harmony to D minor seventh, the G seventh and deceit major seventh Court are old, derived from the same major school that of C Major. This is not the case with the minor to 51 The D half Diminish Court comes from the F melodic minor scale. The G seven altered court comes from a flat, melodic minor, and the C minor major seventh Court is from seed melodic minor. So all three courts, from a minor to 51 come from different melodic minor skills, and you can therefore not play the same scale on all three chords. If you have a court voicing and a musical phrase or a lake for the D have diminished court , you can use that voicing and that phrase on all the courts derived from F melodic minor, so you can use the voicing and to phrase or lick on F minor major seventh court A Jesus benign, an A fled major seventh sharp Fife a beef let seventh sharp 11 a. D have diminished and an e seven alter court, but not for the G seventh older court that follows the D have diminished court in the minor to 51 progression. But notice that F and a flit are a minor third separated from each other. That means that you can use the court voicing and the musical phrase or lick on the D half diminish court, a minor third up on the G seventh older court. So let me give you an example of a chord voicing and a lick on the deep half diminish court . Like, for example, this you see that this lick consists of notes that come from the F melodic minor scale. Let me put the notes from F melodic minor here so that you can see that notes in the lick are just notes from F melodic minor. So that's the to court. What about the five court that G seventh altered? Well, as I told you before, you can use the court voicing and the lake from the D have diminished court transposed and minor third up that results in this court voicing and lick. No, Let me put the a flat, melodic minor scale up here so that you can see that the lake on the G seventh altered court which is the same like as the lick on the D half diminished courts, but transposed a minor third up consists of notes from the A flat, melodic minor scale notice only that the sea flett in the a flat melodic minor scale is written in the score as a B. But they are, of course, the same note. No, let me toe end to the 251 progression. Just put a G the fifth note off. See melodic minor over to see minor major seventh court, the whole 251 progression No sounds as follows. Okay, Normally, when improvising, you would not always transpose the lick from the to court and minor third up to get a lick for 25 court, you would drive a say, played the F melodic minor key over to D half the Minutes court and a flat melodic minor over the G seventh older court. But it's always good to know that once you have a nice lick, you can just transpose it a minor third up to go from the to do the five chord. Let me to finish this lesson about two minor to 51 progression. Give you one more example of a to 51 progression, this time with a one court that doesn't have see as a route. Also here, the lick on the E have diminished. Court is transposed by minor thirds to get the lick on the 1/7 altered court. This time, the court voicings are really different. They're not transposed from the two to the five court. Here is how it sounds. 33. Think key not chord: have a look at the d have diminished voicing that I used in the to 51 progression in the last lecture. It consists of the route the fourth, the flattened fifth and the seventh. And you might know, say, hey, but ah, half diminished Court also needs a minor third, Where's the minor? Third and discord voicing. Well, there is no minor third in this court voicing, but can you then call this court a D have diminished court? Well, yes. Remember that you can use the same voicing on all the courts that belonged to the same melodic minor key de have diminished comes from the F melodic minor key. As you know, the other course that belonged to F melodic minor are F minor major, seventh G, says B nine a flats major seventh sharp Fife beef. Let's seventh sharp 11 de have diminished and e seventh altered so I can use the same voicing for all those courts. No, have a closer look at the individual notes in the court voicings, which are indicated in red. You can see that only three off the six cords have the third and the seventh invoicing. That's the case for a flat major seventh. Sharp Fife, B, seventh, Sharp 11 and E seventh altered the D half diminished Lex the third and, for example, the voicing for F minor major seventh, Lex the seventh. This means that you have to see the individual courts as voicings for the entire melodic minor key, not just one court. This is all possible because of the lack off Avoid notes, which makes all the courts off one melodic minor key interchangeable. So when you play a court from a melodic minor key, you're actually playing the entire key. Not only the single court. So seeing in this light, it doesn't really matter if a court Alexa third or seventh or even when it Lex both the third and the seventh since you're playing the entire melodic minor key. That's why I would say, Think key, no court 34. Summary section 3: you just finished Section three about melodic minor scale harmony. And you can download the summary in the pdf file that you confined into resource file that goes with this course. In this summary, you can read the theory discussed in this section at your ease. 35. Diminished scales: diminished scale. Harmony is based on the diminished skill. There are two types off diminished skills. One alternates, half steps and whole steps. The other one alternates whole steps and half steps. Let me start by showing you the half step whole step diminished scale starting on C So starting on C, I go 1/2 step up to deflect than, ah, whole step up to d sharp 1/2 step up to e a whole step up to f Sharp Have step up to G A whole step up to a 1/2 step to a sharp and finally a whole step up to see Let's now look at the whole step half step skill this time Starting on beef Let ah hotel on lower than see So starting on beef Let I go A whole town up to see Then 1/2 tone up to deflect again the whole tone up to d sharp half turn up to e whole tone to f sharp half down to g the whole tone to a and finally have to own up to B flat. Now I don't know if you noticed, but if you look well at both scales, you will see that the sea half step whole step diminished scale and the beef let whole step have stepped. Diminished scale are exactly the same scale. A sharp and B flat are the same notes. Of course, the scales only start on another note every half step. Whole step Skill is the same scale as the whole step. Have step scale starting a whole tome lower The diminished skill has other characteristics . It has eight different notes in the school. The major skill and the three different minor scales Natural, minor, harmonic, minor and melodic minor all have seven different notes for the other characteristics of the diminished scale. Have a look at the following diagram. Each division stands for 1/2 step and each red dot stands for a note in the scale. So from the first red dots to the 2nd 1 is 1/2 step from the second dragged us to the 3rd 1 is to have steps or ah, whole step. Then again, 1/2 step, the whole stat and so one. So in this diagram you see the half step whole step scale displayed as intervals between the con secured of notes. I will put a second diagram exactly the same as the 1st 1 Just under it. And I will transpose this second diagram 1/2 step up, Another half step up and 1/3 half step up. And what do you see? The notes. So the red dots off both diagrams are again on exactly the same places. That means that when I transposed the diminished scale, 3/2 steps were a minor third up. We get exactly the same diminished scale back. Let's see how this works. In practice, I will take again the sea half step, whole step diminished skill and transpose it a minor third up, 1/2 step, 2/2 steps and 3/2 steps. We have no here. The e flat, half step, whole step diminished skill. Now, you see, in this case, not e flett, but the sharp. But they are, of course, exactly the same notes. You see that the e flat, half step, whole step diminished scale consists off exactly the same notes as the sea half step, whole step diminished girl. They're one and the same scale. I can go again. A minor third up 1/2 step to have steps and 3/2 steps. This takes me toe f sharp. The f sharp, half step, whole step diminished scale has also exactly the same notes. So the half step whole step diminished skills off, see, leaflet and f sharp are exactly the same from F sharp. I can again go a minor third up. Which brings me to a so also the 1/2 step whole step diminished skill is exactly the same when I go again a minor third up I'm back on C So see if let f sharp and a share exactly the same half step Whole step diminished school Let's now start with 1/2 step Whole step diminished scale on C sharp When you transpose it a minor third up you get the half step whole step diminished scale Starting on e again a minor third up and you get the half step whole step diminished scale Starting on G And again a minor third up gets you to the half step whole step diminished scale Starting on a sharp. Of course, when I go again a minor third up I'm back on C sharp C sharp e g and a sharp share Exactly the same half step whole step diminished school. I can do the same thing for the half step. Whole step diminishes. Go starting on the when going up every time A minor third, You see that d f a. Flett and be shared the same half step, whole step diminished school. So no, we have covered all the 12 notes. And what do you see? There are only three different diminished skills that is far less than the 12 different major skills or the 12 different natural minor scales or to 12 different harmonic minor scales or 12 different melodic minor skills. The next stable shows which half step, whole step skills and which hold step, half step skills aren't the same. 36. Half step whole step V7b9 chord: in the last lecture. We've been talking about diminished skills, but what about the courts? Have a look at the G half step, whole step, diminished skill. Which court goes with this skill? What are the third and the seventh? When G is the route than the A sharp or a B flat? It's the same note looks as a minor third, but there's also a B, and that's the major third in the key of G. The court cannot have a minor third and a major third at the same time. The real third is the be the major. Third, The A Sharp is a sharp ninth rather than a minor third, so the court has a major third. What kind of seventh doesn't have the F is the minor? Seventh in the key of G, The course that goes with Visco has a major third and a minor seventh, so it's a dominant seventh chord. Let's look at the alterations that occur in the skill those already a flett, which is the flood in ninth, the a sharp, which is the sharpened ninth, and the C Sharp, which is this sharpened 11th. So the court that goes with the half step whole step diminished scale would be G seventh flooded. Ninth Sharpened, ninth sharpened 11th. Now this is a very long court symbol and very difficult to read in sheet music. So the court symbol is mostly notated as G seventh B nine, voicing often used by piano players for a G seven. B nine court is this one. As you learned in the last lecture, the diminished skill is the same when you transpose it by minor thirds. So the half step, whole step diminished scale starting on G will be the same one as the half step whole step diminished skill Starting on beef, let on deflect and on E. This means that also, the court voicing that I used for G 79 can be used for beef. Let 79 deflect seven benign and E seven b nine. Play the court with a G in the base and you have a G seven B nine court. Now put a B flat in the bass and you have a beef. Let seven B nine court with a deflect into base. It's a deflect 79 court, and with an E in the bass, you haven't e seven b nine court. But of course, when you play ruthless court voicings, you can play exactly the same voicing for all the four chords you see that like was the case in melodic minor harmony. The courts within one family are interchangeable in melodic minor harmony. This family is all the courts that belonged to the same melodic minor key in diminished scale harmony. This family are 24 courts that share the same half step whole step diminished school and the four courts that we will see in the next lecture. And that belonged to the whole step half step diminished scale that has the same notes. This interchangeability makes that not only courts within one family are interchangeable, but also licks in a solo, since in diminished scale harmony, there are no avoid notes. A lake that you play on a G seven B nine court can also be used on a B flat, 79 a d flat 79 or an e 79 chord. And because in diminished scale harmony, everything repeats at the interval of a minor third. If you have a diminished like on a 79 court, you can repeat the same lake, for example, a minor third up or down? Let me go back to the court voicing for the four courts of the same family. Notice that for the Deflect 79 this voicing likes the flattened ninth for E 79. This voicing has no seventh and for Beef, let's 79. This voicing has no third. Now How is all that possible? A 79 court without seventh or flooded ninth or the major third? Well, it's a bit the same thing as with melodic minor harmony. When you're playing courts and scales in diminished scale harmony, you're actually rather playing the key than the single court. And the key in this case means the family off the four courts that belong together to the same half step. Whole step diminished skill again. As I said in the lessons about melodic minor harmony. Think g, not court, since in diminished scale harmony, everything repeats itself at the interval of a minor third. You can also transpose this voicing up or down in minor thirds. So transposing this voicing up a minor third gives you again. Accorded voicing for G seven b nine b flat 79 deflects 79 E 79 and you can again transpose it minor third up to have a court voicing for those four records, and you can transpose even one more time to give you 1/4 different voicing for the same courts. 37. Whole step half step diminished chord: as you sow before the half step. Whole step diminished skill has exactly the same notes as the whole step has stepped. Diminished scale starting a whole note below. So the G half step, whole step diminished skill has exactly the same notes as the F. Holst. 1/2 step diminished skill. The court that goes with the whole step half step diminished scale consists of every other note of the scale starting on the route. So for the F Holst up half step scale displayed here, those are f they flit be and D f is the root. A flit is the minor. Third B is the diminished Fifth and D is the sixth. Those four core tones are old. A minor third interval, separated from each other from F to a flat, is a minor third from a flood to be is a minor third and from B 30 is also a minor third. The de is actually not 1/6 even if it's the sixth note in the scale of F but a diminished seventh. A court that consists of a route a minor third, a diminished fifth and a diminished seventh is the diminished court, so in this case, f diminished. The court symbol is an F with a little circle or also sometimes written as an F with a little circle and seven to make the court sound a little bit more interesting. The highest note. The D is often raised by a whole tone. This makes the following court voicing for the F diminished court. No, Haven't you seen this court voicing before? Yes, you have. This was the court voicing for the G seven B nine court that you saw in the previous lesson . So a chord voicing for a G seven B nine court can also be used for F diminished court. And actually, you could already expect this since the G half step whole step diminished skill has the same notes as the F hole step have stepped diminished skill, so I can't even say more Generally. A court voicing for a seven B nine court can also be used for the diminished court with the route a whole tone below And since a chord voicing for a 79 court can be used for four different 79 courts, all separated a minor third from each other. This same voicing can also be used for four diminished scales, also separated a minor third from each other. This is all summarized in this stable, where you see again the three families off diminished scale harmony, each family consisting off eight different courts, four diminished courts and 47 b nine courts. All the eight courts within the same family share the same scale and can have the same court. Voicing s was the case with 79 courts, you can transpose a chord voicing for a diminished court up or down in intervals over minor . Third, and you still have the same court. And, of course, not only courts can be transposed in minor thirds, but also licks and melodic patterns. 38. Summary section 4: you just finished section for about diminished scale harmony, and you can download the summary in the pdf file that you can find in the resourceful that goes with this course. In this summary, you can read the theory discussed in this section at your ease. 39. The whole tone scale: the whole tone scale is not very often used. The whole tone scale is, as its name already suggests, a scale consisting of con secu tive notes that have all the whole tone interval between them. It can quickly sound quite boring and therefore the whole tone skill should be used sparingly. Starting on C. The halt on skill has the following notes. You see that the whole tone scale consists of only six different notes, in contrast to the major and minor skills, with seven different notes and the diminished scale with eight different notes. Since the intervals between constitutive notes of the scale is always, ah, whole term, everything in whole tone harmony can be repeated at the interval of a whole step or at the interval off a multiple whole steps. This means that everything can be repeated at the interval of two whole Steps, which is a major third three whole steps, which is a dry tone. Four whole steps, which is an augmented fifth or five whole steps, which is a minor seventh. There are only two different whole tone scales, the whole tone scale starting on C or the whole tone scale starting on any other note of that scale. So starting on D e f sharp g sharp or a sharp, the other whole tone skill is the one starting a semi tone lower DNC or on any of the other notes that are in that skill. So be dif Let e flett f G or A. Which court goes with the whole tone scale. Let's have a look at the Sea Holt on skill. It has a route, the major third and the minor seventh. So it goes with some kind of C seventh chord. What are the alterations? Well, it has a sharpened 11th and the sharp and fifth or a flood in 13th. So the court symbol would be C seventh Sharp 11 sharp Fife, but is normally written as simply C seventh Sharp Fife. Other often used court symbols are C plus seven, which is a bit confusing, since the plus sign refers to the fifth, not to the seventh or C seventh be 13th. The problem with his lost notation. So C seventh Be 13th is that the B 13th means for a lot of musicians that the B nine and the Schardt nine are also present, so that would mean an altered court, a possible chord voicing for To see seven Chart five court would be this one in jazz. Very often, the seven sharp five court is substituted by an older court in whole tone harmony. There are no avoid notes. 40. Summary section 5: you just finished section five about hold on scale harmony, which was not a very long section since it consisted of only one lecture. But you can still down about the summary in this pdf file that you can find in the resource felt that goes with this course. In this summary, you can read the theory discussed in this section at your ease. 41. The pentatonic scale: a pentatonic scale, has only five notes and consists of the 1st 2nd 3rd 5th and sixth note of a normal major scoop. So in the key of C, the 1st 2nd 3rd 5th and sixth note are C, D, E, g and A. This is the sea pentatonic scale. There are three pentatonic scales that contain only notes from the C major scale, so notes with no sharps or flats, those are see pentatonic f pentatonic and G pentatonic. You see that all the three pentatonic scales see pentatonic f pentatonic and G pentatonic contain only notes from the C major scale. The route off the seat pentatonic is the first note of the C major scale. The root off F pentatonic is the fourth note off the C major scale, and the root of G pentatonic is the fifth note of the C major skill. In general, you can say the pentatonic scales based on the root. The first note and the fifth note off a major skill contained only notes off that major skill. This means that those three pentatonic scales could be potentially played over the seven Moz off that major skill. But let's have a look at the avoid notes to do that. Let's play those three pentatonic scales over each court in a to 51 progression. I will do this in Dickie of C major over the D minor seventh court, the to court in the key of C None of the three pentatonic scales has an avoid note. So over D minor seventh, you can play the sea pentatonic scale, the F pentatonic scale and the Jeep Pentatonic Scale. So Maurin General, you could say over the to court, you can play the pentatonic scales based on the route. The fourth and the fifth note of the major scale. The to court belongs to over to G seventh court. This see pentatonic scale contains an avoid note. The sea the F pentatonic scale also contains an avoid note. When plate over a G seventh court again, this see the Jeep Pentatonic scale when plate over a G seventh court has no avoid notes so more in general. Over 25 court, you can play the pentatonic scale. Based on the fifth note, the five court belongs to over to C major seventh court. The sea pentatonic scale has no avoid notes. The F pentatonic scale has an avoid note. The F and the G pentatonic skill has no avoid notes when Blake over a C major seventh court . So in general, you can say over the one court you can play the pentatonic scales based on the route and the fifth note of the major scale belonging to the one court, you see that the only pentatonic scale that can be played over all the three courts of the 251 progression is the pentatonic scale. Based on the fifth note of the major scale, the 251 progression belongs to or translated to the key of C G pentatonic can be played over all the three courts of 2 to 51 progression in C so over D minor, seventh G seventh and C major seventh. Let me illustrate all of this. On another scale. DNC, for example, on a to 51 in the scale off e flat. The 251 progression in the key of E flat is F minor. Seventh beef Let seventh e flat major seventh the pentatonic scales based on the route. The fourth and the fifth note off the e flat. Major scale are E flat pentatonic, a flat pentatonic and B flat pentatonic over the to court the F minor seventh, you can play all the three pentatonic scales, so e flat pentatonic, a flat pentatonic and B flat pentatonic over the five Court. The beef. Let's seventh court. You can play beef, let pentatonic and over to one court, the E flat major seventh court. You can play the E flat pentatonic scale and the B flat pentatonic scale, or you can simply play the beef. Let pentatonic scale over the whole 251 progression in the Flint. Here's an example. Off playing the B flat pentatonic scale over the 251 progression in E flat and because of the lack off, avoid notes off the pentatonic scale. Based on the fifth note, you can even play it on every court belonging to the seven Moz off major harmony so you could play the G pentatonic scale over C major seventh D minor seventh, he says, be nine F major seventh sharp for G seventh geese us and be half diminished. Now look at the following court progression. C minor, seventh B flat minor, seventh c minor, seventh B flat minor, seventh, the Seat Minor, seventh and B flat Minor seventh are both two courts but belonging to another key C minor. Seventh is the to court in the key of beef Let and B flat Minor. Seventh is the to court in the key of a flit. But you can play one and the same pentatonic scale over both courts. How is that possible? Well, let me first tell you which pentatonic scale it is. You can play the E flat pentatonic scale over both courts. Why? Because E flex pentatonic is the court built on the fourth note in the key of B flat and C minor. Seventh is the to court in the key of B flat, So e flat pentatonic works on C minor, seventh and E flat pentatonic works also over B flat minor seventh because it's the pentatonic scale built on the fifth note in the key off a flit and B flat minor. Seventh is the to court in the key of a flat. So let me hear you how that sounds over major seventh court, you can play instead of the pentatonic scale based on the route or the fifth note also played a pentatonic scale based on the second note. So, for example, on the C major seventh court, you can play the deep pentatonic scale. The F sharp in the School of Deep Pentatonic changes the C major seventh court into a lid in court, So C major seventh Sharp four. If you follow through the lessons about major scale harmony, you know that you can, without any problem, at the sharpened fourth toe, a major seventh court. Until now, we've been only talking about using the pentatonic scale in major scale harmony. Is it possible to use the pentatonic scale over melodic minor harmony? A melodic minor harmony? There's only one pentatonic scale that can be used, and that's the pentatonic scale built on the fourth note of the melodic minor scale. You can see that on the sea. Melodic minor scale. Only the F pentatonic scale words. Let me give you an example of how to use the pentatonic scale in melodic minor harmony. Which pentatonic scale could you use on a G seventh altered chord? G seven Altered is the seventh mote of the a flat melodic minor key. The fourth note off the A flat melodic minor key is the flat so you can play deflects pentatonic over a G seventh altered court. The pentatonic scale we're talking about the whole time is actually the major pentatonic scale. There is also a minor pentatonic scale. This works in the same way as with relative minor major. As you know, a minor is the relative minor off C major. The notes in the eight natural minor scale are exactly the same notes as the notes in to see major skill. The same can be said for dependent on IQ scales. The A minor pentatonic scale has the same notes as to see major pentatonic scale. As you know, see major pentatonic Carter notes C d okay, g and A. The A minor pentatonic scale has the same notes, but starting on A A, C, D, E and G, the seed minor pentatonic scale, for example, can be found by going up a minor third to find a relative major off C minor. This brings us to E flat, so the C minor pentatonic scale has the same notes as e flat major pentatonic. It only starts on C instead of on e flett. Here is the C minor pentatonic scale. The minor pentatonic scale looks very much like the blue skill, which we will discover in the next lesson. 42. The blues scale: the blue scale looks very much like the minor pentatonic scale. Actually, the blue skill is the minor pentatonic scale with one passing note at it. Let me explain you this with the sea blue skill. Here you see the seat minor pentatonic scale by adding the F sharp between the third and fourth note of the C minor pentatonic scale. You get the sea blue skill so you can get the blue scale by adding the sharp and forth or flood. And fifth, if you prefer to the minor pentatonic scale Let me give you one more example What is the f blue skill? First start with the F minor pentatonic scale and simply at the sharp and forth and you have the f blue skill. Now, how can the blue scale be used in jazz? You could first look toe which pentatonic scale can be used. For example, you could play G pentatonic on a C major seventh court. As you know, the minor pentatonic scale with the same notes as G pentatonic is the e minor pentatonic scale because he is a minor third lower Dungy Or you can also say e minor is the relative minor of G major. So on the C major seventh court, you can play e minor pentatonic since those are the same notes as G major pentatonic. This means that you can also play the E blues scale over C Major seventh. Another example. Which blue Scale can be played over a to 51 in E flat? The 251 in E Flat is F minor, seventh B flat, seventh e flat, major seventh. The pentatonic skill that works on all three course is the pentatonic scale, based on the fifth note off the E flat major skill. So this is beef. Let's pentatonic a minor third down from beef. Let takes you to G So the G blue skill Wilbert fine on a to 51 in E flat. In general, you can say the blue scale to be used on a court or court progression is a minor third down from the major pentatonic scale that you could use on that court or court progression 43. The bebop scales: look at the descending See Mixer Lydian Scale plate over a C seventh court. Now listen well, toe this descending Cemex a Lydian scale and listen which notes are exactly on the beat. I will also put a metro mom so that you can hear the beat. The notes see A F and D are exactly at beat 123 and four. The notes on the beat are accentuated more than the notes that are in between the beats, so the notes C A, F and D are accentuated. A, F and D are not quarter tones. If he wants to accentuate the harmony of the C seventh Court, you would rather want to court stones to be exactly on the beat. Now have a look and listen to the next descending line over the sea. Seventh Court No. C B, flat G and E Old Court stones are accentuated because they are exactly on the beat. This line accentuates much more to see seventh harmony than the descending Cemex a Lydian scale. What's the difference? The difference is this. Extract dramatic passing note The B. This skill is called the C bebop Dominant skill, a dominant be bumps girl is a mix of Lillian Moat with an added chromatic passing note between the seventh and the route. Bebop skills don't only exist on dominant seventh chords. There are also bebop scales for minor seventh chords, major seventh courts. And there is also a bebop skill for the melodic minor skill. A Bebo minor skill is the bebop Dorian School. The bebop Dorian Skill is a Dorian Moat with an added chromatic passing note between the third and fourth notes of the Dorian School. So, for example, the CB Bob Dorine skill looks as follows. The Beeb upscale, played over major seventh courts, is the bebop major skill. The B both major skill is the major skill, with an added chromatic passing note between the fifth and sixth notes off the major skill , The C B boat major scale looks as follows. The B book melodic minor scale is a melodic minor scale, with an added chromatic passing note between the fifth and sixth notes of the melodic minor skill. The C B book from melodic minor scale looks as follows in a to five progression in major scale harmony, the bebop Dorian scale for the to court and the Bebo mixed Lydian scale for 25 court are exactly the same. Have a look to a to five progression indicate of See, which are the courts D Minor. Seventh G seventh. The Bebop Dorian Scale to play over the D minor. Seventh Court is the D Dorian Scale with an ad It f sharp. The bebop mix O Lydian Scale. To play over the G seventh court is the mix religion skill with an ad It f sharp. You see that both skills consists off exactly the same notes To give you an idea of how to use bebop scales ingest. Here are a few examples. The first example is the use of a bebop skill over a to 51 progression in F over the G minor seventh seat seventh courts In the first measure, the G B book door in skill or see bebop, dominant scale is plate. Remember, they have both exactly the same notes over the F major seventh court. We are Padgett, the F major seventh Court and add an extra ninth. Here is how it sounds. No, what does this a flat do in the scale? It doesn't belong to the bebop skill that we use. Well, what I do here is approaching the A in the next measure by playing first half step above the A, then 1/2 step below the A And finally I lend in the beginning of measure to on the A. The note that I was approaching this approaching technique is very often used in just solos . Other ways of approaching a note are also possible. But this falls outside the scope of this course, so I will not discuss them here. Another example. Listen and look at the following 251 In the key of C, we start by our Pai Jiating, the D Minor seventh court. Then, over the G seventh court, we use the G bebop dominant skill. The only note that doesn't belong to the G bebop dominant skill is the A flat. Well, you could look at it in two different ways. One way to look at it is that the A flat is just an added be ninth. In the scale of G over dominant courts, the be ninth is often added a musical phrases and licks. It can sound very nice for the other way. You have to look at the G in the second measure. The sequence a flett F f sharp is then an approach so that G so the approaches, then half step above holster below, have step below. 44. Playing outside: once you know well how to play the right scale or skills on the right court. Or, as just musicians say, once you know well how to play to changes or court changes, you can start to experiment with playing outside the court changes or simply called playing outside. Playing outside means that you can actually play the wrong notes. You can play the notes that are not in the skill that belongs to the court. And of course, now I hear you say, Hey, but wait a minute. Did I learn all this theory? And now you're telling me that I can just play the wrong notes? So all the time and energy I spent in learning the skills was for nothing, since I can just play wrong notes, Well, it's not that simple. It doesn't mean that you can now start to just play the wrong notes and expect that it will sound great. This playing the wrong notes is most often done in a structured way. It's not just playing randomly notes on your instrument. That would be a bit too easy, isn't it? No, As I said, playing outside is mostly done in a structured way for example, by playing another skill, so not a scale that belongs to the court or by playing sequences. And also it would not sound good if you would only play outside during the whole song. The normal procedure for playing outside is that your first play insight. So you play the changes, then you go outside for a while. This can be during a part of a measure or even some measures, and then come back and play again. Insight. This creates a very nice tension release effect Attention when you play outside and release when you finally come back and play again. Insight. This outside playing is mostly done by the one who placed the solo. The bass and the piano or guitar player play in the normal key, and the solo player goes outside and place in another key. Playing outside is a good way of creating interest in, for example, motile Jess, where sunken state, during a large number of measures in the same court when you would done play only the scales that go with that court, it can start to sound boring by adding some tension in the form of playing outside. You can create interest in an otherwise long session of the same harmony. Okay, so I will show you some methods to get outside and also show you two examples of playing outside on a D minor seventh court that lasts for several measures. As is the case in Motile Jess, The first way to go outside is by playing sequences. A sequence is a melodic patterns or line that you can repeat at, for example, another pitch. The trick is to play the pattern first inside the tonality and then repeat dependent. For example, 1/2 step up. You can even do this several times, and each time you repeat the pattern, you go again. 1/2 step up. In this way, you can build a lot of tension and tension, as you know, has to be released. You can do that by coming back insight after a few patrons outside in this example, where a D minor seventh chords is played over a number of measures, you can see how sequences can be used to go outside in the first to measure showed here, there's a solo going on indeed, Dorian Scale, that you can use to play insight on a D minor seventh court In the following two measures, there is a sequence of patrons going up every time, 1/2 step. You see that the pattern used for this sequence already occurred in the first measure. So in this sequence, the outside playing takes place over the last three patterns before everything is still insight. And finally, from Measure Five on the tension comes to a release and we're back Insight by playing again D Dorian notice that this little pattern is also borrowed from the first measure. So let me hear you how this sounds. So as you see, the structure is first playing insight, then taking it outside. And after that, bringing it again Insight. Another way to go outside is by playing 1/2 step away. You can play 1/2 step up or down from the original tonality. I will again use the same motile piece in D minor seventh to show you how to play 1/2 step away. In the 1st 2 measures, I'm playing the deep minor pentatonic scale. So playing insight then in Measure three and four, I'm still playing the pentatonic scale, but now the e flat minor pentatonic scale, so ah, half step up from D. So this is clearly outside. And then finally, just before the end of measure, for I take it back insight and to release the tension. Also here. First I play insight. Then I take it outside and finally bring it back. Insight. There are many other ways to play outside. For example, you can play a whole step away. Try it on the way. You can even play the chromatic skill when you play the chromatic scale. Don't let it last too long. You wouldn't go up or down the chromatic scale during several measures, as this would look as if you wouldn't be able to play the changes anyway. Be aware that playing outside is not an easy technique. Be sure to master first playing the changes, and after that, you can experiment with playing outside 45. Summary section 6: you just finished Section six about other scales and you can download the summary into pdf file that you can find in the resource felt that goes with this course. In this summary, you can read theory discussed in this section at your ease. 46. Slash chords: a slash court is most often a major. Try it over a bass note, but in some cases it can also be a minor. Try it or 1/7 court over a bass. Note. Slash courts are used for several reasons. They are often easier to reach than complex court notations. For example, an F major seventh Sharp nine Sharp 11 can be simply written in slash notation as e slash f . They're often used to indicate a baseline, which, by the way, is often a chromatic baseline. Let me illustrate how slash courts work with the before mentioned e slash f court. The first letter indicates the try it. So an e major tried in our example and the second letter the bass note. So NF play together This gifts let's analyze this slash cord in most cases, the bass note. So the F in our case is the route off the court. So this is an F court to see which f court we have. Look at the third and the seventh when looking at the seventh, which is the e you see that it is a major seventh, so the court could be an F major. Seventh or an F minor major seventh court. Normally, you would look at the third to see if it's a minor or a major court. But the problem here is that there is no third no minor third, which would be a flat and no major third, which would be a but have a look at attentions or alterations in this court. Those are the G Sharp and the B, which are, respectively, the sharpened ninth and the sharpened 11th. The sharpened 11th is attention that is not played on minor courts. Now you could see the sharpened 11th as it fled, and fifth, which has played on minor seventh, flattened fifth or have diminished courts. But we have in this case a major seventh the eat. So this cannot be 1/2 diminished court, since 1/2 diminished court has a minor seventh. That's why this goes with an F major seventh court, an F major, seventh sharp nine sharp 11 to be exact. Now, for those who say hey, but the G sharp in the e major try. It is the end harmonic equivalent of the AA Flett, the minor third in the key of F. So this must be a minor court and not a major court again, Look at the sharpened 11th. This is a tension that doesn't work for minor chords, so the G Sharp is in this case is sharpened ninth instead of a minor third. In some cases, however, it's not always directly clear if the court is a major minor or dominant court. Look at the example off c slash D. This is a D court, but what kind of a dick ord? The seventh is the sea. This is a minor seventh, so this court is either a D dominant seventh court or a D minor seventh court. As you see, there is no third, which would be an F for a D minor, seventh court or an F sharp for a D seventh court. Let's look at the other notes, the E and the G. The E is the ninth and can be played over minor as well as over major courts, and the G is the 11th and can also be played over minor as well as over major courts. So that means that this slash court c slash D can be either a D minor seventh court or a deep dominant seventh court in both cases with an added ninth and 11th. Now, perhaps you remember that the 11th sounds quite dissonance over a dominance court, but the slash court C slash d is accord forcing that is normally used for the deep Seven Suss court. And as you might know, the 11th sounds well over Suss courts. The seat slash D court is mostly used as a voicing for the D seven Suss court, and not often for a D minor seventh court. When you want to use a similar voicing for a D minor seventh chords, you could add the minor third the F as in this next example, the next figure shows all the 12 major try. It's that you can play over a seat as a base note. The major try it's can be played in any inversion but sounds strongest in second inversion . That's why you see in this examples all the major try. It's in second inversion. The first slash court C slash C is just a c. Try it over a sea bass note. This is, of course, simply a C major court. In this case, you would never use the slash notation, since it's much simpler to simply write the sea as a court symbol, so you will never see it. Written as c slash c deflects slash C can be interpreted as a cease escort with an added flood and ninth and flooded 13th but also as a deflect major seventh court, with the major seventh in the base de slash C can be interpreted in several ways. It's can be a seat dominant seventh court with 1/9 sharpened 11th and 13th. So with a court symbol c 13 sharp 11 it can also be a C major seventh court with the same alterations. So a C major 7th 13th sharp 11 and it could also be a D seventh court with the seventh in the base. E flett slash c is nothing else than a C minor seventh court, and you would normally use the court symbol C minor seven rather than e flat slash c. The only time you would see it in slash notation is when it's part of a Siri's off slash courts toe indicate that the sea is the notes to be played as the base note. As you can see in this example e slash c has a major third the e and a major seventh to be so. This is a C major seventh chord. The G sharp is a sharpened fifth, so the court symbol for e slash c is a c major seventh sharp five chord F slash C is nothing else than an F major. Try it with the sea as a base note. So this is actually an f major. Try it in second inversion. G flat slash C is a C seventh chord with an added flooded ninth and sharpened 11th. So as a court symbol, you would have C seventh B nine sharp 11 g slash C has a major seventh, which is the be and can be interpreted in two ways. As a C major seventh court with an added ninth or as a C minor major seventh court with an edit ninth. A flat slash C can be interpreted as a C dominant seventh court with an added sharpened ninth, the EEF let the harmonic equivalent off d sharp and the floods and 13th the a flat. Another way of looking at this slash court is to simply see it as an a flat major, try it with a C in the base, so this would be an a flat major. Try it in first inversion when a flat slash C and G flat slash C R played together as in the next example, they outlined very well the C seventh altered court, since it contains all the alterations of the C seventh altered court, the flippant ninth, the Sharp in ninth, the sharpened 11th and the flattened 13th. A slash C is a C seventh court with an added flattened ninth and the 13th and is often used as a substitute for its C seven B nine court beef. Let slash C is a slash court that is mostly used as a voicing for a C sevenths escort. The court symbol wouldn't simply be C seven suss or eventually seen nine suss. Since the D and the B flat major try, it is the ninth in the scale of C. Another way of looking at beef let slash c is by considering it a C minor seventh court with an added ninth and 11th usually written as C minor 11 our last slash court B slash C has a major seventh. The B a sharpened ninth, the D Sharp and the sharpened 11th the F sharp. The court symbol that goes with this slash court is C major seventh sharp nine, sharp 11 to finish, I will let you hear all the 12 slash courts that are displayed here. 47. Scales on slash chords: In the last lecture, you learned what kind of court you can make with slash courts consisting of a major. Try it over a bass note. We haven't been talking yet about what scales to play over those slash courts, so let's have a look at that. Our first slash court seat slash C is a normal see court. You see below the notes in a bit more than two octaves displayed grammatically as on a piano keyboard. The notes of the slash court C slash C are highlighted in red on a C court, you can simply play the C major skill. As you know, I will indicate the C major skill with green dots. You see that the C major skill fits with the notes off the C slash c court. You also know that on a C major court you can raise the 11th by a semi tone so f sharp instead of f You see that also in this case, the notes of this scale fit with the slash court C slash C. This is the C Lydian scale. Let me put this in the following table. So over seat slash C or C major, you can play the C major scale or C Lydian. Let's move to the next one de fled slash c. The court tones are again highlighted in red. There are two skills that fit with those score tones. Cee Lo Crean is the 1st 1 Cee Lo Creon has, of course, the same notes as the D flat Major skill. Since it's the seventh mote of Deflect Major See Fridge in is the other skill. See Fridge in is the third moat off a flat major. So the notes are the same as the notes of the A flat major skill. We can put both skills in our table. Um de slash c. There are two skills that fit with the court tones. The first school is C. Lydian C. Lydian works well when you play it over this slash court when a dis plate as a D seventh court or as it's C major 7th 13 Sharp 11 court, but not one of his plate as a C 13 sharp 11 court. Since this last court is a dominant court, and as such it has a minor seventh the beef. Let the C Lydian skill has a B and that will destroy the dominant sound of the court. When you use this slash court as a dominant seventh court, you could simply lower to be in the C Lydian scale by a semi tone. In that case, you obtain the C Lydian dominant scale. C. Lydian Dominant is the fourth moat off G. Melodic minor. Let's put this in the table when D slash C is played as a seat. 13th Sharp 11 court. You can play C Lydian dominant when played as a C major. 7th 13 Sharp 11 court. You can play C lydian when plate as a d seven court, you can also play C lydian e flett slash c is just a c minor seventh court. So you would usually play see Dorian over this court and here the result filled in in the table e slash C goes as you can see together with the C Lydian amended scale, the third moat off a melodic minor. And here is the result in the table f slash c is simply f major in second inversion. So the scale to play is the F major skill. And again, here you see the results into table for G flits slash c There are again two skills that fit well with the notes off the court. The first skill is the sea altered skill, the seventh moat off deflect melodic minor. The other skill is the sea half step, whole step diminished skill. As you can see, the notes of the court fit very well with the scale, so on G flat slash see you can play either to see older skill or the sea half whole diminished scale. When G slash C is played as a C major ninth court, you can play the C major scale when plate as a C minor major ninth court, you can play the sea melodic minor skill. Let's fill this also in in our table on a flat slash See you can play the sea altered skill when plate as a C seventh sharp nine B 13 court. When a flat slash C is played as an a flat major in first inversion, you can simply play the A flat major skill. So see old dirt over to see Dominance Court and the A flat major skill went plate as a flat major in first inversion for a slash C. The notes of the sea Half step, Whole step diminished scale work well, so on a slash C court played as a C 13 to be nine court, you can play see half whole diminished when beef let slash C is played as a seat. Seven. Suss court. You can play the sea Mix a Lydian skill when, however, beef. Let's slash c is plate as a C minor 11th court. You cannot use the Cemex illion scale since it has a major third the eat, which you cannot play on a minor court. Of course, when beef let slash C is played as a C minor 11th court, you can play see Dorian See Dorian cannot be played when beef Let's slash c is played as a C seven c escort since a suscribir doesn't have a minor third, but a cess court can very well be voiced with a major third. So in our table, we can feel in Cemex solution for C seven suss and see Dorian for C minor 11th Okay, the last one b slash c. In this case, the only fit is the sea whole step, half step diminished skill And here is finally are completed table with all the skills that can be played over two slash courts that consists of a major. Try it over a bass note. 48. Some more on slash chords: to finish the slash courts. I'd like to quickly show you other ways to firm slash courts than only a major. Try it over a bass note, and I'd like to give you some examples of Jess songs where slash courts are used. In the first lecture about slash courts, I already told you that slash courts can be made not only by a major tried over a bass note , but also by taking a minor Try it, or even 1/7 court over a bass note. You could even take a diminished or on augmented dry it over a bass note. I will give some examples. A minor slash g is an a minor seventh court with seventh the G in the base. An A minor seventh with the G in the base is an a minor seventh in third inversion e minor slash c is nothing else than a C major seventh court in route position. An example of 1/7 court over a bass note is D minor seventh slash g. This is just a G seven Cesc ORT. The only difference with the more common F slash g notation for a G seven cess court is the Note D the fifth in the scale of G. Let's move to some examples of the use of slash courts and just Joon's. The 1st June we will look at is the June how insensitive of which you see the 1st 12 measures displayed here. You can see two slash courts. The 1st 1 a seven slash c sharp, which is 1/7 courts over. A bass note is just a a seventh court in first inversion. The second slash court G seven slash b again. 1/7 court over a bass note is a G seventh court also in first inversion. When you have a closer look at those 10 measures, you can see a crow medically descending bassline. The D minor, seventh in first measure, has just the Route D in the base. The second court, the slash court a seven slash c sharp, has its C sharp in the base, then C minor. Sixth. This court has a C in the base, then g seven slash b B in the bass and finally be flipped major seventh with B flat as a base Note. The whole sequence D C. Sharp C B B flat is a descending chromatic baseline. Our next example is that you, my one and only love The 1st 3 measures of this June contain already a lot of slash courts . They form a descending bassline from C to B two a to G to F sharp toe f and finally to e note that not all the steps are chromatic On another place in this same June, there's a chromatic baseline in measures five and six. The sequence G seven e seven slash g sharp a Meyer Seventh forms a chromatic baseline this time a baseline that goes up the last example I wanted to show you. Is it June Green Dolphin Street, From which you see here the 1st 8 measures displayed The 1st 2 measures are a normal e flett major seventh court, then two measures off G flat major, seventh over. An E flat bass note one measure off F major, seventh over. E flat in the bass, one measure off E major, seventh over E flat in the bass. And finally, 1.5 measure off E flat, major, seventh. You see that during this whole time? So from the first measure till the first half off measure eight. The bass note stays e flit when a bass note stays the same during several court changes, like the E flat in this example, we call it E flat pedal, so a pedal tone is a bass note that stays the same during a series of court changes. And this is another use of slash courts beside baselines that descend or go up and, besides court inversions. 49. Summary section 7: you just finished Section seven about slash courts and you can download the summary in the pdf file that you can find in the resource filed of goes with this course. In this summary, you can read the theory discussed in this section factories. 50. Reharmonization Introduction: re harmonization. Is the process off changing courts in a tomb in order to make it more interesting or to give a June your own personal touch? It's not needed to change every single chord in a June. It's mostly enough to just change some chords, and it's even possible to change only one single court of a June to make the June some differently. You can re harmonized June ahead of time, but you can also, while soloing re harmonize on the spot when you follow the lessons about major scale harmony you already met. Dry tone substitution in short, right on substitution is substituting a dominant seventh court by the dominant seventh court, a tri tone away. So, for example, a G seventh can be substituted by a deflect seventh. Since D Flat is a trite on away from G white, that's his work. This works because the third of G seventh, the B, is the seventh off the flat seventh only that it's written as C flit in the scale of deflect. But it's of course, the same note as B and the seventh off G seventh. The F is the third off the flat. Seventh, the third and the seventh actually defined the court quality. So in the case, off dry tone substitution, only the route is different. Of course, when we don't look at the other alterations in the lessons about major scale harmony, you can find some more information about dry tone substitution. When trite on substitution is applied to the five court in a to 51 progression, the route motion becomes chromatic look, for example, at the 251 progression B minor, seventh e flat Seventh a flett major, seventh in measures 23 and four of the June All the things you are the five court is the e flat. Seventh. The note a trite on away from the flett is a so you could substitute an A seven for the E flat seven in this 251 progression. So the re harmonized progression becomes B flat minor Seventh, 1/7 a flett major seventh with the chromatic route motion beef Let a a threat. Another form of re harmonization is substituting a to five progression for a five chord look again at the 1st 4 measures off, all the things you are where we apply to try to a substitution. The substitute at five court a seven foot again be re harmonized by a to five progression a seven then becomes E minor, seventh 1/7. So this whole process of changing the original E flat seven court first into an a seven court and then into E minor 7th 1/7 is actually a form off extended trite on substitution. When applying trite on substitution to re harmonize June, be aware not to overdo it. Some handy guidelines off when to use right on substitution are use trite on substitution to make a chromatic route motion used right on substitution to make the melody note more interesting. Let me illustrate this second point again with the June older things you are you see here measures 31 to 33 of this June displayed. The first melody note on the F seventh Court is G the ninth in the key of F When applying right on substitution for the F seven court, it becomes a B seventh court be being trite on away from F the melody note. The G is the sharp and fifth in Dickie Off B, which is a more interesting note than the ninth to finish this introduction, I'd like to emphasize that dese lessons are about re harmonization are just some basic re harm immunizations. This is more an introduction to re harmonization and in no way, a complete overview off all rehear organizations that exist. If you want to know more about re harmonization, have a look at the Jets theory book by Mark Levin on which discourse is based For an important part, you can, of course, find a lot on re harmonization via Google or on YouTube. 51. Reharmonizing minor 7th chords: when you want to re harmonize and minor seventh Quirt, it is important to realize whether the minor court is part of a 25 progression or not. When the minor seventh court is part of a 25 progression, you could substitute 1/2 diminished chord for the minor seventh court. The Court Progression D minor, seventh G, seventh C major seventh, then becomes DE have diminished. G seventh C major seventh the flattened fifth off D have diminished, so the a flat is the flat ninth off the G seventh court. So G seventh is often plate as a G seventh B nine or as a G seventh altered court, in this case, so you could re harmonize the simple to 51 progression D minor, seventh G seventh C major seventh as, for example, de have diminished G altered C major seventh, This re harmonized progression almost looks as a minor to 51 The difference is the C major , seventh instead of C minor major seventh. So this is definitely not a minor to 51 but just a re harmonized major to 51 progression, and you can also see that an altered court doesn't always have to resolve to a minor, major seventh court. It can also result toe a major seventh chord. There's also another way to re harmonize a minor seventh court that this part of a 25 progression you could simply play the five court with the same route as the to court. This means that you could re harmonize d minor, seventh g seventh as d seventh G. Seventh D. Seventh G seventh is called five off five since D is the fifth of G, which is a five court if the minor seventh chords is not part of a 25 progression. So if, for example, a deep minor seventh chords is not followed by a G seventh court or it's trite on substitution deflects seventh, then the minor court is considered to be a tonic minor court. A tonic court is a court used as a final resolution in a to 51 progression, For example, the one court is the tonic court. Since it is the final resolution of the 251 progression, a tonic court doesn't always have to be a major seventh court. It can also be, for example, a minor court this is the case when the minor court is not part of a 25 progression. Now, when a minor seventh is a tonic minor court, you can substitute it with a minor sixth or also with a minor major sevenths court Notice that this is only possible when the melody note is not a minor seventh. When the melody note is a minor seventh, you cannot substitute a minor seventh court with the minor sixth court or a minor major seventh court. For example, in the 1st 2 measures off, I Hear a Rhapsody, the first court in the first measure, the C Minor Seventh, is a tonic minor court, since with the next court the F minor seventh, it doesn't form a to five progression. This means that for the C minor seventh, you could play a C minor sixth or a C minor major seventh. When a tonic minor court lasts for at least two measures, you can create more interest by making a chromatic descending line as, for example, in the well known June summertime. The 1st 4 measures consists of an F minor seventh court. You could substitute a descending line by playing instead of four measures f minor seventh The following quartz f minor if minor major seventh if minor seventh f minor sixth As you can see, the descending line consists of the notes f e if let d Another way to re harmonize those exact same four measures in summertime is by creating an ascending line by playing instead of four measures off F minor. Seventh the following courts f minor f minor fled and sixth if minor sixth If minor seventh The ascending line is see deflect de e flit. 52. Reharmonizing V chords: the most common alterations played on five courts are flattened. Ninth Sharpened Elevens and Coltart. When you want to know what the possibilities are for altering of five court, look at which court comes next, for example, of 5/7 B nine court results often, but not always down 1/5. So when you see, for example, the court progression 1/7 D major seventh, you could re harmonize the 1/7 by playing in 1/7 B nine chord instead. Since the 1/7 results of Fifth Down to D or when you see the Progression B flat, seventh E flat, minor seventh, you can alter the beef. Let seventh court to be flat. Seventh B ninth. The strongest resolutions for 57 Sharp 11 courts are down 1/2 step down the fourth up a whole step. So, for example, when you see the progression e flat seventh B flat major seventh, you could re harmonize the E flat seventh as e flat. Seventh sharp. 11. Since beef let is 1/4 down from E flett, the strongest resolutions for altered courts are down 1/5 up 1/2 step down, a major third. So, for example, when you see the progression e seventh C major seventh, you could re harmonize the east seventh as E seventh altered since C is a major third down from me, note that in the previous examples, we resolved every time to major seventh chords. It is, however, very well possible to resolve to a minor seventh or a dominant seventh court. So the motion of the route is important, not the fact that it results to a major seventh, minor, seventh or dominant seventh court. 53. Reharmonizing I chords: when in a lead sheet, a court is written as major seventh. This doesn't mean that the court that the piano player or guitar player will play necessarily has to contain the major seventh. Very often, the guitar or piano player will play instead of the major seventh, the six off the court or a combination off the sixth and the ninth. So in the case of a C major seventh court, you could play the following voicing for a C six or played a C 69 court voicing shown here . A major seventh court can almost always be substituted by a major seventh sharp four or Lydian cord. So a major seventh court could, for example, be voiced as follows. No, watch out if the solo player wants to add some dissonance and plays. The fourth, which isn't avoid note on major seventh courts, then don't play the living court since the fourth and the sharp and forth plates together will sound very bad. So that would be the only exception for substituting a major seventh sharp four for a major seventh court when the melody note, on a major seventh chord, is the third or to seventh you can substitute a major seventh sharp Fife, which is a Lillian recommended court for the major seventh. For example, look at the 1st 4 measures off older things. You are in measure for the melody over T. A flat major seventh court contains the third and the seventh so you could hear substitute a flat Major seventh sharp five for the a flat major seventh chord. 54. Summary section 8: you're just finished. Section eight about re harmonization, and you can download the summary in the pdf file that you confined into resource file that goes with this course. In this summary, you can read the theory discussed in this section at your ease.