The Complete History of Music, Part 3: The Early Baroque | Jason Allen | Skillshare

The Complete History of Music, Part 3: The Early Baroque

Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

The Complete History of Music, Part 3: The Early Baroque

Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

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42 Lessons (3h 32m)
    • 1. Welcome & Introduction

      4:58
    • 2. Musical Examples

      2:29
    • 3. Previously On The Complete History of Music...

      3:05
    • 4. What's In A Name

      3:40
    • 5. The Affections

      4:55
    • 6. The Baroque Musical Style

      5:56
    • 7. Harmony Notation Ornamentation

      4:01
    • 8. Monteverdi

      9:58
    • 9. A Lot Of Work

      5:05
    • 10. The First Opera

      7:34
    • 11. Monteverdi

      4:45
    • 12. Enter The Diva

      4:14
    • 13. Music In The Catholic Church

      5:38
    • 14. Carissimi Jephte

      9:12
    • 15. Music In The Lutheran Church

      7:52
    • 16. Jewish Music

      5:41
    • 17. Instrumental Types And Styles

      4:02
    • 18. The Toccata And Frescobaldi

      9:51
    • 19. The Sonata

      8:51
    • 20. The Dance Suites

      7:05
    • 21. Music Of The Court And King

      6:30
    • 22. French Opera

      5:36
    • 23. Lully Armide Overture

      4:14
    • 24. Other French Music

      5:22
    • 25. The English And The Opera

      4:40
    • 26. Purcell - Dido And Aeneas

      5:39
    • 27. Other English Music Of The 17th Century

      2:40
    • 28. The Zarzuela

      4:03
    • 29. Instrumental And Church Music

      2:01
    • 30. Araujo - Los Coflades De La Estleya

      4:19
    • 31. Developments In Opera

      5:19
    • 32. Da Capo Aria

      3:50
    • 33. Scarlatti

      4:33
    • 34. Sonatas

      5:32
    • 35. Corelli

      8:37
    • 36. The Concerto

      5:23
    • 37. The German Landscape

      4:42
    • 38. Opera In Germany

      2:16
    • 39. Organ Music

      4:18
    • 40. What Next?

      1:12
    • 41. Thanks for Watching!

      1:21
    • 42. Bonus Lecture

      0:36
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About This Class

Welcome to the COMPLETE HISTORY OF MUSIC, PART 3!

This class is for anyone who has wondered about the origins of music, how it came to be, and where it came from. 

In this course, we will look at the world during the start of the Baroque period (approximately 1600 - 1750), through the lens of music. This period brings us the beginnings of the Orchestra and Opera, as well as some names you might be familiar with: Bach, Vivaldi, and Handel.

Topics Covered: 

  • Politics of the world during the Baroque

  • The Affections

  • Harmony, Notation, and Ornamentation

  • Monteverdi

  • Early Opera

  • The Diva

  • Music in the Catholic Church

  • Carissimi

  • Music in the Lutheran Church

  • Schutz

  • Jewish Music

  • Instrumental Types of Music

  • The Toccata

  • Frescobalidi

  • The Sonata

  • The Dance Suite

  • French Opera

  • Lully

  • English Opera

  • Purcell

  • Baroque Music in Spain

  • The Zarzuela

  • Da Capo Aria

  • Scarlatti

  • Sonatas

  • Corelli

  • The Concerto

  • Organ Music

  • And much, much more!

Dr. Allen is a university music professor and is an award-winning instructor. In 2017 Star Tribune Business featured him as a "Mover and a Shaker," and he is recognized by the Grammy Foundation for his music education classes. 

While a lot of history courses focus on memorization, this is a course for those interested in immersing themselves in the music and culture. You won't find lists of dates to memorize here - this class is designed to be fun and enjoyable.

In this course, we will focus the entire course on the Baroque period. 

By the end of this course, if you follow along, you will be ready to win the dinner party with your knowledge of the Renaissance and the unique aspects of the music that was happening during this exciting period of history.

 

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Praise for Courses by Jason Allen:

⇢  "It seems like every little detail is being covered in an extremely simple fashion. The learning process becomes relaxed and allows complex concepts to get absorbed easily. My only regret is not taking this course earlier." - M. Shah

⇢  "Great for everyone without any knowledge so far. I bought all three parts... It's the best investment in leveling up my skills so far.." - Z. Palce

⇢  "Excellent explanations! No more or less than what is needed." - A. Tóth

⇢  "VERY COOL. I've waited for years to see a good video course, now I don't have to wait anymore. Thank You!" - Jeffrey Koury

  "I am learning LOTS! And I really like having the worksheets!" - A. Deichsel

⇢  "The basics explained very clearly - loads of really useful tips!" - J. Pook

⇢  "Jason is really quick and great with questions, always a great resource for an online class!" M. Smith

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Meet Your Teacher

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Jason Allen

PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

Teacher

J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Welcome & Introduction: Hey, everyone! And welcome to the complete history of music Part three, the early Baroque Period. Now, in this class, we are going to be talking about the 17th century and everything happening in 17th century in Western music. We're going to talk about the philosophy that's happening in Europe on other parts of the world and this idea of the affections there was this prevailing idea that the affections were the emotions of humans and they needed to be, uh, taking care of. And one of the ways that way nurtured the affections was through music. So music is written and really in a way that, uh, evokes the affections for the first time. So where were these? We really see composers trying Teoh stir up emotions happy, sad and everything in between. In this period, we're gonna talk a lot about opera. This is the era where opera is having its its first kind of big moment. We're gonna talk about sacred music instrumental music, and then we're gonna go through the music's happening in all the different main parts of the world. France, England, Spain, the Americas, Italy, Germany, Austria, On. That will kind of tell us everything that's happening. The world here in the 17th century on prepare us to launch into the 18th century where we get Bach, Vivaldi, Handel in some other familiar names. So it's an action packed class of 17th century music, so I hope you decide to join us. It was a lot of fun to make. Um, I will see you inside in the first lecture. - Now the word baroque itself has ah lot of different possible origins. We don't really know. There's a, you know, it could be from a French word. It could be from a Portuguese word, but the overall meaning of it is not far away from okay. I've been doing a lot of talking about what this music is all about, but, uh, really ought to hear something right. So let's listen. Teoh Monteverdi, so early Baroque composer. And this is an excerpt from opera earliest known opera that we have that still exists. We have scores for it, and it's still performed rarely but on occasion by Jacopo Peri. And it's a setting of Orpheus. So the story of Orpheus and specifically it's about famous oratorios was this one Jeff at its based on judges 11 29 to 40 from the Bible. There's some paraphrasing. There's a little bit of added material not uncommon to kind of bend the story to make. Next. Let's talk about this Sonata. The Sonata was a term use early in the 17th century just to mean any kind of. 2. Musical Examples: Hey, everyone, before we get started A quick note about the musical examples in this class. If you took the previous class, the part two of this class, uh, you'll know what I did there. And I'm gonna do the same thing here in this class. It works out. It's okay to make a long story short. Uh, I can't use someone else's copy written material in my class. That is against the rules of this website, and it's also kind of a jerk move, so I'm not gonna do it. Um, So I can't just put their content in this class and by their content, I mean recordings of people playing this music and videos of people playing the music. However, I still want Teoh. I still want you to hear this music. I can't just talk about music the whole time without you hearing it. That's crazy. So the way this works is in the next segment, I'm gonna give you a list of all the musical examples K. This will be a pdf that you can download. Keep handy. You're gonna need it. Um, and it will be clickable. You can click on these links. So then throughout. The course is going to say when we get to a certain musical example, it's going to say Go to this YouTube link. Ah, and you can go back to that. Pdf and you can click on it or you can just type it in based on the the link that shows up on the screen in the video. But basically, I'm going to tell you I'm gonna give you a YouTube links, but you have to go and watch them. I can't embed those into the class because it breaks the rules. Um, which is totally okay, uh, this is good, though, because once you go there to YouTube, you might explore more music from that era. You might see more stuff recommended, and you might find more music to listen to. Okay, so it all works out just great. I did this in the last class. It's one little extra step. But don't worry. You'll get used to it, and ah, we'll still have a great experience in this class. Okay, so, uh, the next video air, the next lecture is going to have that. Pdf and I'm also probably gonna put it in the class, so you can see the list of all the examples that we're going to use. Hold on to that and wait for me to prompt you to go look up each one. Okay. Ah, cool. What's president? 3. Previously On The Complete History of Music...: all right? Just to do a quick recap of where we are in the history of music. Um, let's dio kind of, ah, quick greatest hits rial to bring us up to speed on some of the music that we've studied so far. Just in case you're jumping into this one for the first time and haven't taken part one or two. So without further ado previously on the complete history of Music we first get the term renaissance in 18 55. So that came. You know, uh, after the Renaissance period, as most names of periods dio we got the name later. But in 18. 55 Jules Michelet I think we pronounce his name in his book History of France. When the term renaissance for this period again meaning rebirth. Beginning of the 16th century, nearly all religious people in Europe followed either, uh, the Church of Rome, which is what we would now call Catholic or Roman Catholic or were Jewish, but the dominant force in Europe Waas the Roman Catholic Church. It was centered in Rome. It was backed by political leaders. It was the big dog of all big dogs. When it comes to what people worshipped at the time. So near the end of the Reformation, we start to see songs emerge, and each country has kind of their different way of doing it. And they're different styles. They have different names. They have a lot of things different. But they also have a lot of things that same. No, I think this idea of the song and I'm really talking about the secular song here, so this is kind of happening at the same time as the Reformation. But that is really focused on sacred music, right? Church music or music in the church. Ah, but the secular song is kind of living its own life a the same time. So when the run, it sounds a lot of people. Ah, danced, uh, dancing was nothing new. Um, and dancing doesn't go away. The human body wants to dance. Um, as long as human bodies have existed. The music for dancing back in the Renaissance was largely improvised, as I've already talked about. Um, but that improvisation could have been down a couple of different ways. Um, it could have been completely improvised where the musicians were just making something apposite. Go along or there could have been a rough structure for the music. Usually this would be a baseline, Um, and then the upper instruments would improvise over top of a baseline. 4. What's In A Name: All right. So what are we talking about when we talk about the Baroque? So the term Baroque shows up in the 19th century, so it's not a term that's used at the time. It's not like the composer's walk around saying We are the Baroque. That's not it. Um, and that's typical for most of these periods. We didn't see that in the Renaissance either, Um, quite common to not have the term that we use to define it now as a term that was used to define it in the moment. So around the 19th century, uh, historians start to use the term baroque, and what we're really talking about with the Baroque is the period of about 1600 to about 17 50. Now, the word baroque itself has ah lot of different possible origins. We don't really know. There's a you know, it could be from a French word. It could be from a Portuguese word, but the overall meaning of it is not far away from a literal translation of broke as in like broken. Um, that's not exactly what it means, but that makes some sense. It could come to us from, ah, a term meaning irregular, bizarre, unequal. Um, what it's intended to reflect is the composer's and all artists producing art in this style , their tendency to abandon Renaissance work and a disregard for tradition. So the tradition here meeting a lot of the work from the Renaissance, it also has to do with this idea of, uh, an abuse of detail is one thing. I've I I read about it this morning, meeting that there's a lot of detail, a lot of ornamentation. Ah, well, see that as we go through it a little bit more So the time period. We're primarily talking about 1600 to 17. 50 and we see a lot of different musical things developing this time. Probably the biggest is opera. Now, to put this kind of in perspective of what's happening in the world at the time, that's talk about a couple things. Um, just a kind of nonmusical things to serve as kind of, ah pillars toe orient yourself and where we are in history. So we're talking about 1600 to 17 50 and 16. 16. So right at the beginning of the Baroque, uh, is when Shakespeare dies. Okay, so we're right at the end of the term. The reign of Shakespeare shortly after that, 16. 32 is when Galileo, um, gets charged for heresy for claiming the Earth revolves around the sun. And then right near the end of the baroque, Isaac Newton publishes his principal Mathematica. So, um, if you're familiar with any of those things, that kind of gives you an idea of where we are in history, so hopefully that kind of helps you orient yourself. 5. The Affections: So about 16 45 Renada carts. Philosopher publishes his treaty called The Passions of the Soul. And this influenced many, many artists, not just musical artists, but all artists, um, are artists of all kinds in the Baroque period by its discussion of the affections. So the idea here waas that the affections which are just emotions but like a range of emotions like happiness, sadness, joy, anger, love, fear, excitement, wonder A lot of these different emotions were actually, uh, medicinal e important to the human body. So each one were caused by combinations called humors. And the humors were what make us, uh, you know, feel good or feel bad or feel sick. So this was a very prevailing theory at the time. Now, if if you think about this the if the humors and the affections are what make us feel good and bad and music has the ability to make us happy and sad, then the music, the people who make the music are suddenly quite important people because they are the doctors right there. They're gonna prescribe to you what feels good in what feels bad. Not in such a literal way, but ah that is what was happening. Composers and all artists of the time. We're really focused on this, and they were focused on creating music that balanced, ah, the humors that would promote a physical and psychological good health. And it's important to note that the composer's we're not trying to bye bye adapting this affection idea into their music. It's not that they were trying to let their own passion through their music. That doesn't really come toe later. What we get, like the that idea of the tortured artist and letting their there, uh, pain come through their music and their love come through their music. That's not really happening yet. What we get, though, is composers trying to make very emotional music, but in a way that they're trying to portray, um, the different affections in a generic sense, using techniques on in vocal music, using text, using characters, using drama in a way that, ah, the listener could adopt their own. And it could strike the listener. It wasn't that we heard ah, piece about anger, for example, and assumes that the composer was going through this anger thing. Um, it was a little different than that and another unique characteristic about this idea of the affections and writing from this perspective of trying to influence the humors of the body is that they seem to have superpowers when combined with other art forms. So, um, we start to get artists doing multiple art forms, creating multiple works and even collaborating with other artists in bigger projects. And this ultimately leads us to upright because an opera we have music, poetry, theater, stage design, costumes, um, acting. We have all of these different elements in in opera, and it really makes it, um, this kind of super charged way to effect the affections effect the affections, as we say. So keep in mind that that's Ah, one of the prevailing ways that composers are writing during this period and what's really kind of driving a lot of what they do 6. The Baroque Musical Style: in these next two or three videos. I want to talk about some of the actual musical practices that were happening in the Baroque. What distinguishes Baroque music from Renaissance music or anything that came before it, or even after it? Frankly. So if you remember from the previous class, one of the things that we saw in the Renaissance when it comes to vocal music was kind of, ah, kind of leaning on the tenor right. Like we have the tenor mass. We have the Contras firm IHS Melody Idea that is usually in the tenor until the end. It starts to pop up in the soprano and even an instrumental music. We have more of, ah, reliance on three part ensembles with the middle part, the tenor part more or less being the kind of main thing in the Baroque that changes. What we really get here is the dominating factor is two lines, and it's a base in a trouble line. So we have a trouble line the main melody, if you will um and a baseline. And those are the main two pieces of the puzzle. And there's all these inner lines, but their secondary and they're usually improvised. Actually, we'll talk more about that in just seconds. So related to this, there was this notation system, um called basso continuo, and in this system, the composer would write out the melody. Ah, and they would write out a baseline. But then the cords were to be played by what's called the continuo. The continuo is usually an instrument, a single instrument, although it could be more than one. But I think in almost all cases it's It was most typical that it was a singular instrument , and it continue, and continuo instrument would be an instrument that can play the chords. So the continuo was the courts, the cord accompanying the end, the middle stuff, you know, the stuff in between the base and the trouble part continuo instruments would be things like the harpsichord, the organ, the loot. There was something called the Thera Bo that was popular at the time was also called a shift our own, which is kind of like a supersized loot, handsome bass strings in it, and so they would use this system called figured bass. And what figured bass is is it has the baseline with a bunch of symbols on it. And the symbols tell the continuo player what to play, what chords to play right. And, like I said before, the continual player would have to would be expected to know how to read this and just kind of improvise the middle parts. Ah, they would add all kinds of notes based entirely on the's court. No, um, if you've ever taken a college music theory class, uh, other than one of mine, um, this idea of figured bass might even hearing the words figured bass might stress you out a little bit, because in music theory, we, ah, used to less so now. But it used to be. And when I was in college music theory, I had to learn how to read, figured bass, and I had to learn how to improvise with it a little bit. And it is hard. It is so hard. Ah, and it's probably one of the things that everyone struggles with in basic music. Theory is how to read figured bass. Oh, it is hard. Ah, but hearing people, you can hear recordings of modern people playing it and just understanding what was done with it at the time. It's phenomenal to hear what these people can just improvise based on these weird symbols and just they just know. Anyway, it's amazing. We'll talk more about figure based in the future. So another thing that, uh, came about was another stylistic thing was a combination of voices and instruments. We saw this a tiny bit. Ah, in the Renaissance, not too much a little bit in the song settings. We started to see it the end, but we get it much more in the Baroque period and ultimately this idea of combining things and kind of opposition. So there's the chorus and the instruments. Um, this ultimately leads us to the concerto, which is an invention of the Baroque concerto. What we think about now as a concerto is slightly different than the way they thought about it. At least that's the beginning. But the concerto is, ah, piece for soloist with orchestra, usually so you might have a violin concerto where there's a violinist who is the soloist and is the main, uh, performer, and the orchestra is also working with them. But really, what a concerto means is it's a dialogue between the two. It's a dialogue between the soloist and the orchestra. It's a dialogue between the chorus and the orchestra. Whatever the two entities happen to be, the word concerto, uh, literally comes from the Italian. That means to reach agreement, which is such a lovely idea. So Concerto means there's these two forces that are kind of working in agreement with each other. 7. Harmony Notation Ornamentation: So we think about harmony in the broke period. We have much freer use of dissidents. At least the beginning. Um, composer started using dissidents a lot more. Ah, and there weren't really kind of any rules around it at first. And then by the end of the century, there had developed kind of norms for how to incorporate these other dissonances. So kind of like a set of rules kind of creeps up, but there's also a lot of just straight up chromatic passages that composers air using where they just run up a chromatic scale that would be using, like, all the notes. Ah, without a key completely out of key. Um, you can hear this in Bach often, actually, and in many composers of the day and this idea of of chromatis ISMs getting rid of the key entirely and using all of the notes, um, to us now to think about something completely chromatic, we think of something kind of kind of crazy sounding. But to them it was a way to make this a really intense emotional quality. Ah, and really kind of move the affections rhythmically. Most music of this area is either really free or super rigid. So it might be really free if it's like an aria from the opera, where the tempo kind of goes all over the place and it's just very free form and flowing. Or it might be, Ah, piece from a dance sweet or something where it's very metric and you can really kind of feel this pulse going because people will probably be dancing to it. And because of that, we finally get the invention of bar lines and measures come come to us in this period. So in traditional notation, up till now we haven't really had bar lines. We had him a little bit in tablature, but we didn't really have him in standard notation. And they start to show up and kind of, ah, loose way Ah, in the early part of Baroque. But by the end of the Baroque, they're pretty much working the way that they work now. And one of the last things that I want to point out that's such an important aspect of Baroque music is the idea of ornamentation. So you'll hear this all over the place in or in baroque music, and we heard it and run It sounds. Music, too. The idea is that, ah, if you're given and if you're a performer and you're given a note to play, you can play that note. Uh, or you might play that note plus the note above it and below it and around it, and do a quick little trill on it and do some other stuff. So it's that's called ornamentation, and there's a lot of it, um, in the Baroque period. And there's actually great examples of this. If you look at architecture ah, in the Baroque period, you see every like pole and everything has a little curly thing on it or a little golden thing. And there's all of this this really beautiful, intricate work. That's the same thing that's ornamentation. And musically, it's all these quick little notes that we add to and otherwise normal, just fine melody. We add all these other notes to just give it some extra Pa's, as I guess, and that leads us also to things like cadenza as where we have these long passages of completely improvised music that just get added to the music. If the performer so feels like it, so more about cadenza as on arias, actually, in the next chunk, when we get into opera, 8. Monteverdi: Okay, I've been doing a lot of talking about what this music is all about, but we really ought to hear something, right. So let's listen. Teoh Monteverdi, so early Baroque composer. And this is an excerpt from in opera called Let or Fio. This is from Act three. You're going to hear a tenor and a continuo playing. Remember, that's a cord instrument. You'll also hear some other instruments playing violin, and I want you to listen for this idea of ornamentation. Now you don't know what's notated and what's not notated. But just imagine every time you hear a trill or a little quick note, even in all the other instruments and in the voice. Ah, that's probably an ornament, you know. So it's probably an added little thing that they through in there just to make it a little extra special. That's that's how you perform this kind of music. So let's hear some 9. A Lot Of Work: Okay, let's talk about opera now. You might be thinking, Oh, upper is so boring. Um, you know, And if you've sat through operas, you might imagine, you know, there are certain connotations we have with operas being the Italian, hard to understand very long. All of this is, you know, kind of historically true of opera. However, I would encourage you to check out some modern opera. There's some modern stuff that's really cool, actually. And you might really enjoy it. Um, but in the Baroque sense, operable A was the the kind of biggest thing at the time. It was an invention that really kind of came out of some say out of the kind of philosophy of the time. There was an interest in the humanities at the time. You know, poets, scholars, people really believing in the Greek tragedy and trying to bring that back and also kind of what we've already talked about about combining the arts and the affections and all of this stuff all kind of came together to create opera. So the word opera itself is Italian word, and it means will work. And the joke that my teachers always used to say, and I've lashed onto and I don't know if that's true. I think it's true. I'm nearly positive. It's true is that the word opus means work, so a composer might right? Um, you know Sonata Number five, Opus 10. That means it's their 10th work. Ready means work Opus. The plural of Opus is opera, so opera means, like many things coming together or the way we think about it as composers. And this is the joke is that opera means a lot of work because to write an opera is a lot of work. Another kind of keywords running opera that you'll see a lot is libretto. Now. Libretto is a term we use for the lyrics of an opera. Ah, it's another Italian word. It literally translates as a little book. But, um, we use it to mean the text of an opera. Or sometimes we even say the book of the opera, Um, but more commonly it's libretto that we use when we're talking about the text of in opera. So it was. Opera was the leading genre of the 17th century, and like I said, it was a lot of things come together stage worked drama music, obviously. And when we think about opera, what were really thinking about is is a story of some sort sung throughout. So nearly all lyrics are sung. Nothing is really just spoken or in very rare cases, things are spoken, but it's a drama that sung throughout convey and the music helps convey, like the kind of emotional effects is the general idea. Um, and most of them, in the early days of opera, did centered around Greek tragedy. Another invention that kind of comes out of opera will see a few things kind of spin out of opera. That kind of originate in upper and come out of it later. But one of the big ones is the area, so in our area is kind of you can think of it as a vocal solo in and opera. You might have, ah, one character who needs to convey some passionate thing all by themselves, and they might perform in our area. It might be accompanied. It might be totally solo. So the singer will just have this Ah, this moment all to themselves to sing and we've Ah, since then, you know, we pull arias out of operas and people just sing the aria from operas because they were really kind of virtuosic thing. And you see composers writing arias for specific singers. One time, um so they might say, there's this one particular singer that I want to play this part. I'm going to write this aria for them that will really that will really showcase what they can do. Ah, and then they'll want to be in my opera in the performance. Ah, and that will make it popular and make a lot of people want to watch it. So that's kind of the nutshell version of what opera is and where it comes from. Let's move on and start talking about some of the first operas that we know about, Um, some that have survived some that have not. But we still know about them. And then we'll talk a little bit about some early operas, composers and here. Some examples 10. The First Opera: So the earliest known opera that we have, um, that still exists. We have scores for it, and it's still performed rarely but on occasion by Jacopo Peri. And it's a setting of Orpheus. So the story of Orpheus and specifically it's about paradise. Who was the wife of Orpheus? And it's called Paradise. It was performed first in Florence on October at the wedding of the niece of the Grand Duke of Florence, King Henry, the Fourth of France. Um, Perry, the composer, saying the role of Orpheus or Fio. And in it he he uses something that was really new, and that was the recitative style. We're going to see more of this inoperable. The rest of Steve style. You've probably heard this before. This is like like we hear it a lot in churches now, even if you have. If you've ever been to a church that has like a cantor, sometimes this is what they do. But it's kind of like, um, somewhere between singing and talking. It's like kind of halfway between, and what happens is you you can get through a lot of text using the rest it to t of style. So what you do is you have a long stretch of text and maybe only one or two changes of pitch, so it might be like the died. It added that, you know, and then it does like little changes like that. But you can get through a lot of text using arrested two TV's style. And he introduces that here, and it sticks around for opera for quite a while so you can find some performances of this . Um, and I thought it would be nice to stay here. One. This is the oldest existing opera that we know about. Um, what we're going to hear in this recording is you'll hear a singer, ah, soprano singer singing one of the lead rules, and you'll hear the ensemble now. It's not an orchestra ensemble. It's not what we expect in a operas. Now what they have here is a cello doing some kind of, um, basso continuo kind of thing. And then the continuo instrument, in this case is, ah, loot. The kind of the big loot college shift our own that we talked about a minute ago. So we have a shift, our own playing the chords, and then we have some percussion and that's it. So the basso continuo is played by a cello and in the shit, our own and then percussion. 11. Monteverdi: now a few videos ago, we talked about Monteverdi a little bit and we listen to some work by Monteverdi. He was a popular composer at the time. Um, he deserves a mention here in terms of opera. He didn't write an amazing number of operas, actually, only three, and only two of which survive. But he was extremely influential in the field of opera, and he wrote an amazing number of works. And he has kind of an interesting background story that I thought would be fun to talk about, because it gives you a glimpse of kind of what a composer went through, uh, in this period. So Monteverdi was born in northern Italy. Ah, he was trained in the church in the Catholic Church and was a prodigy as a composer. Early on, people recognized his ability to write music very early. By the age of 16 he had written two volumes of sacred music and three books of magic ALS by his early twenties. So even But you know, around the age of 20 he had a significant catalog of work. More than a lot of composers had in their entire life is also viola player He eventually married a court singer named Claudia Cattaneo and was appointed to a position, uh, at the Ducal Chapel. So shortly after that, he wrote to Operas, uh, the 1st 1 or feo, which we heard an example of earlier. And the 2nd 1 Arianna, which, um, there's only one vocal solo piece, kind of an aria that survives from that. Nobody has a score to it anymore. It is gone. So shortly after that, uh, Claudia died, so his wife dies, and he's got three kids to take care of. And even though he was a very celebrated composer, still is a very celebrated composer. They still have real world problems, and I think that's interesting to keep in mind. So he was trying to write all this music work for the church, Um, and take care of these three kids. So, as you might expect, he had a nervous breakdown. Ah, he recovered from that but complained that he was being mistreated in his job. He was not respected in his job, and he wanted out. He eventually wrote a bunch of music that was very virtuosic. Andi served as kind of a resume, if you will for other people to try to hire him out of his current job, which worked, Uh, he was essentially fired, um, from his position in 16 12 and became, and he picked up a job as the maestro di cappella at ST Mark's in Venice. This was considered to be the most prestigious gig you could get in Italy at the time, and he stayed in that gig for 30 years. And in that time he wrote, uh, around 250 magic als, um, nine collections of works. He lived to be 76 which, if you can think about, you know, the mid 17 hundreds. Life expectancy was not very long, and to be 76 was I put the old guy, and by the end of his life he was celebrated as a pioneer in both poetry and music. Um, and his operas went on to He did write another opera in that time, as well called translated as the Coronation of Poppaea, and he was very influential to the next generation of opera composers as well. So we think about Monteverdi as really kind of a pinnacle of the early Baroque period, and it just goes to show you that even geniuses ah, go through some tough periods in their life, and that's okay. All right. Uh, consider this a public service announcement moving on. 12. Enter The Diva: so putting on opera was a very expensive ordeal, not unlike making a film today. There was a lot of people involved through a lot of personalities involved. There's a lot of money involved. It was expensive. Their sets had to be built. Rehearsals had to be paid for. Musicians had to be paid. Most of this was run by someone called the Empresario, who we kind of think of as that term kind of basically means producer now someone who produces an event or a show or something like that. But because of all of this money and all these people fighting for re sources and trying to make it happen, this ultimately leads to the invention of the diva. These empresarios who are putting on the show in charge of the whole production managing all of these people, eventually realized that if they got a really powerful singer with some real star power, that could be the thing that put the show over the top even more so than what the actual operas awas more so than who the composer was and who were. The other people involved in the opera were who was the lead vocalist, particularly the female lead. The soprano was the thing that could make or break in opera, and it's really kind of the first time that we have what we now would consider sort of a rock star. It was also the first time that the idea of the character versus the individual playing the character was really kind of separated in some way so people would go to see an opera for the intention of seeing a specific singer sing the part, and they would follow that specific singer, um and want Teoh hear them as often as they could. One of the earliest divas that we know about is the singer Anna Renzi. She's about 20. When she got started singing opera professionally and right away, roles were being tailored specifically to her. Composers were adjusting the music to really take advantage of the way she sang, the way she acted particular skills. She had her range and things like that, and she, like many divas at the time, had this really kind of larger than life persona. There was a good amount of singer worship involved, where people just really worshipped these singers and follow them around, and it gave these singers very lucrative international careers. They would tour, um, sometimes with specific operas, sometimes to go to new cities to do new operas. And they really helped shape what opera became because composers were so involved in catering works to specific singers that it really kind of shaped how opera was made. It made the area one of the most important elements of the opera, and it made it really kind of virtuosic technique in these female leads and sometimes male leads to their. This happened with Mitt male singers as well. Not as often, but a little bit. And you can really make a direct correlation between uh, the modern rock star and even the modern film star and the opera diva. The opera diva is really the ancestor Teoh, the superstar, actress or actor in the modern world. 13. Music In The Catholic Church: All right, let's talk about what's happening in sacred music. And let's start by talking about the Catholic Church. So we have kind of two different kinds of things. Uh, kind of trending, you could say in the Catholic Church. One is go big and another is go small. So let's talk about the go big first. A lot of what we see in the Catholic Church at the time is where resource is allowed. There was a heavy influence of opera. The music in the church got quite a bit more theatrical. Incorporated into it would have been, ah, elements derived from opera like recitative and aria. And it makes consents because the opera was kind of the most powerful art medium at the time, and the church saw it as a good way to convey their message in most powerful way. But that's not to say that they abandon all tradition. There was still a lot of good old, prolific me that we came to know and love from before this got called style. Antico or the old style on it, got used kind of in a similar way that we use that kind of prolific me counterpoint music now actually, like when we use that music, it's to give this sense of this connection to the past this history, this, um, some kind of other worldliness and that that was really used a lot in this time. There was also ah, modern style that developed, and composers would go back and forth between the two, and that's still kind of happens. You still here? I do it myself as a composer, incorporating, um, it's kind of old counterpoint style into modern techniques. Um, but this is where we really kind of saw it for the first time, so some composers would go back and forth. Some would just use this old style and became known for that some just modern style. But at the same time, this is when we get, um, Johann Joseph folks, he wrote the book on counterpoint on This is about when it comes out, Um, you can still get the folks counterpoint manual. Um, it's still being used today to teach counterpoint in many ways. So in the church, when there were kind of major events or kind of feast days that we say composers would write vespers, psalms, mass movements and they would use a lot of voices in a lot of instruments, and things started to get really quite big. You might have multiple choirs, multiple organs, multiple soloists. Ah, and a big instrumental ensemble, not particularly uncommon would have double triple or even quadruple choirs in Ah, one of these pieces. But that assumes that you're in ah, big church with a lot of resources that can pull four requires together Right? There were still a lot of small churches, too. And this kind of where this small comes in, something develops called the Small Sacred Concerto, where you've got a few soloists and Oregon doing some kind of continuo, maybe a few instrumental players like a couple of islands, And that worked really well for these smaller churches. Now, another thing developed out of the Catholic music tradition and its influence from opera. And that is the oratorio. You can think of an oratorio kind of like an opera without the staging, although sometimes there was some staging in oratorios, but not very much, much more scaled down, Um, oratorios had rusted TV's arias. Ah, instrumental prelude. The main way that they're different than opera is that the subject matter was almost always religious. There was very little staging, if any. Ah, they might have a narrator to describe what's happening and that kind of a smaller chorus as well. So if you imagine in opera what you what you think you know of opera? Take away the costumes, the staging. Imagine an ensemble just on stage playing a piece, but they're playing the music of an opera. That's kind of what an oratorio was, except oratorio was specifically written for this format. So the oratorio became very popular, especially in and around the church and in and around Italy. And one of the leading composers of oratorio was Geico Mo Curry. See me? So let's take a listen to one of his most famous works in the next video, Off we go. 14. Carissimi Jephte: so one of car seem use most famous oratorios. Was this one Jeff at? Ah, it's based on judges 11 29 through 40 from the Bible. Ah, there's some paraphrasing. There's a little bit added material. Um, not uncommon. Teoh kind of bend the story to make it work as an oratorio. Just a little bit. You'll hear a narrator in kind of this russet titty of style that we talked about earlier, and the narrator kind of introduces. The story tells us what's happening. Um, there's a smaller ensemble, only six singers and a relatively small instrumental ensemble. So let's hear just a little bit of it just to give you a taste for oratorio. 15. Music In The Lutheran Church: Okay, let's check in on what's happening over in the Lutheran church and the Protestants in general. Now, if you remember, the Lutherans preferred a bit more of a scaled down style and presentation. So the most popular thing to them was this small, sacred concerto idea. They did have other things happening. Um, polyphonic corrals on mo tests were still quite popular, so they were still using polygamy, just like the Catholics were, Um, but the most popular thing seems to have been the small Sacred Concerto. Now, one of the most popular composers in this vein was Heinrich shoots and Shoots was, um, honestly, one of my absolute favorite composers from this era. I love listening to his music. There's just and this is kind of going not historical for just a second. But just a matter of opinion. There's just something really different about the way he treats harmony to me. And, um, you can you can usually kind of here a piece and think, Oh, I think that should because of the way um, the way it takes some twists and turns that you that you wouldn't expect for this period. Um, that's just my opinion. Ah, shits was well known as applying this kind of new Italian style to church music. Ah, he wrote Tech. He wrote music that really captured the text. Um, and he became someone really well known for using this technique called text painting. Now, I think I mentioned text painting earlier. Ah, but we haven't talked about it yet. What text painting is or word painting? Same thing is when someone writes music using text, they might make the music do something that reflects the text. For example, here is like a really cheap example. If I said ah, if the lyrics to a piece were he fell down, right? If the lyrics where he fell down than the notes that I sing might be he fell down, you know, like the lyrics, the music would go down on the word down, right, And it would depict the idea of going down and falling down, right? That's a really basic one. Um, but something like talking about angels and when angels are mentioned doing it really high , Um, and just having the music really take on the meaning of the words was kind of the main thing about text painting and it became, for the first time, kind of popular to do it this time because of this idea of drama. You know, that's really kind of happening in this period. So we hear that a lot in the music of shuts. So I just wanted to play us one shorter piece by shoots. This is one of my favorite pieces. I heard this in a concert. Just, um oh, I don't know. A month or so ago, I was at a Baroque music concert and they played this piece and I just had to come home and listen to it all night long because it's just beautiful. So Hinrich shits the pieces dime. It's training, sanding. 16. Jewish Music: we saw back in the Renaissance that Jewish music had been picking up just a little bit of the influence of the music more popular in the day than the traditional Jewish music. And that continued and became even much more pronounced in the Baroque period in the 17th century. We start to see polygamy introduced into, uh, synagogue services, just primarily championed. Ah, by a rabbi named Leon Medina. He was a humanist scholar rabbi, also a canter, which is like this singer for the church. I think we've talked about that. And he wrote a number of things on music, including the profess for the first published book of polyphonic Jewish liturgical music, Um, which he didn't write the music, but he was just an advocate for it. The music was actually written by Salamone. Rosie and Rosie used influences from Ma Monteverdi, other Italian composers, Um, some Italian Jewish chant. There is a connection to tradition in this. It's not all new, but if you listen to it without knowing anything about it, it would be you would be hard pressed to tell if it's ah, Jewish music or not Jewish music, because the influence of other European music's was is so heavy in it. Um, the only real tell is that Ah, the text is in Hebrew. Um, otherwise, it's very hard to distinguish it. So let's listen to just a little bit of, ah, some of Rossi's music, and this came from that first book, The Song of Solomon and let's just take a little Let's just take a listen. 17. Instrumental Types And Styles: so earlier in the Renaissance, we started to see how instrumental music was starting to differentiate itself from vocal music. It was starting to be taking seriously on its own. And we Seymour of that obviously in the 17th century, in the early broke. So much so that you could say that instrumental music was considering equal in many ways to vocal music. It began to de emphasize reliance on vocal music, whereas we saw before Ah, lot of instrumental music was arrangements of vocal music, and we see less and less of that here. But there was a lot of similar ideas that we find in vocal music happening in instrumental music like Ah, the basso continuo interest in ah, moving the affections and everything around in the affections surrounding the affections. Embellishment, virtuosic embellishment, if you will. And in a interesting way you can kind of chart the development of the violin, which we kind of see in this period is becoming, ah, one of the most dominant instruments. You can kind of make that a parallel to the solo voice. In many ways, the violin kind of really functioned like, Ah, an instrumental version of the voice Ah, lot of the techniques we asked it to do was similar. You can think of something a simple as vibrato and how AH singers started Teoh use vibrato in the same way that violence that as well. There was a lot of different types of instrumental music when it comes to solo works. We had works for keyboard, lute, terrible guitar and harp. As the main types of solo works chamber works were coming around. That would be anything that required more than one player, and those would usually be a solo or a few soloists with a continual. And then we had a few occasions where we saw larger ensemble works, and in that we would see multiple people playing a single part in the same way that when you go to your local orchestra now, um, you might have a violin one part and there might be 20 different violins playing that part , so that would be multiple people to one part. We started to see some of that in this era to, or we might have two or more players to a single part, to thicken up, to sound and make it one of these larger ensembles. So that started to happen. We saw instrumental music continue to happen in ah variety of different venues, including the church in people's houses for private entertainment. Ah, and even the theater as interludes during ballets and operas. Now the types of music people were writing here were, um there was a lot of sweets and dance suites, which we're going to talk more about in a minute and the later half of the 17th century. We really see the prelude. Takata fugue, um variation, theme and variation come about as part of a suite and those are all dance form. So we've talked about dance forms a little bit. We're going talk more about them in just a minute. Um, so this idea of the sweet or a collection of short pieces starts to come into its own as well 18. The Toccata And Frescobaldi: So one of the most important forms that developed at the time was the Takata. And I want to talk about the Takata a little bit, uh, in terms of one particular composer best known for it, and we'll hear something by him. So the Takata was one of these very improvisatory type of peace. Is there primarily written for the harps? 1/4 of the organ, usually when they were for harpsichord. Ah, they were for more chamber music. And when they were for Oregon, they were more, Ah, intended for a church service. The idea of a Takata is that it has a lot of brief sections and each one focus on a short little figure. And there's a lot of variation of that figure. So each time you'll hear ah, bit more variation of the figure. There are little virtuosic passages. There are a lot of small things put together to make one larger thing, and just to kind of show that the improvisatory nature Ah, in these Takata's in the ones by this composer that we're gonna look at in a second fresco polity, uh, he would write that you could kind of end the peace kind of anywhere that felt natural on any cadence, which is to say any natural stopping point. So when we look at the music of Fresca polity, he was, um, one of the most influential composer's to focus primarily on instrumental music. And he wrote a lot of Takata's, and I thought we would take a listen to one. Now this particular one is a prelude. And Takata, So you're going to hear a prelude. And this is for Organ. So it starts with a prelude, and it'll lead into the Takata. No, you might be able to tell the difference, like when it kind of switches. But both of them are very free rhythmically, you're not going to hear a huge difference between the Prelude and the Takata. If you are looking at the score, it would be pretty obvious. But without the score, it can be a little tricky to tell, actually, especially in Oregon music when there's so much sustaining. But let's take a listen. Ah, this is a prelude. And Takato for organ by fresco Baldy. - All right. Okay. Yeah. - Uh , all right, 19. The Sonata: All right. Next, let's talk about this Sonata. The Sonata was a term use early in the 17th century just to mean any kind of instrumental music. But, uh, it started to kind of codify itself into its own kind of thing about midway through the 17th century. And a sonata became something that was scored for usually a single instrument and a continuo instrument. Although we do have a lot that our for two instruments and a continuo instrument, but usually one instrument and something else and that was usually a violent, so usually violent and continual. But it could have been other things as well. They were written very expressive vocal style, and we do actually have record of what is considered to be the first actual violin and continuo sonata. It's by Biaggio Marini, and he's also the one, Ah, fun fact who coined the term opus? So I mean, Opus is a word that means work, but he's the 1st 1 that started calling things Opus one opus to Opus three. Ah, and numbering his works in that way, we remember earlier when we're talking about opera, my old teachers joke about Opus is a work and opera is a lot of work, but, uh, opus means work. So work number one, etcetera. So, uh, this piece, Sonata number four Ah, this is Opus Eight. So his eighth published work, it uses contrast ing sections, Um, very idiomatic violin gestures. That means the writing for the violin is very natural. On the violin, there's a lot of large leaps, double stops. That means playing more than one noted a time on a violin, trills and, of course, embellishments. And all in all, very expressive melodies. So this is an early example of a sonata, and it's a just beautiful piece, so I really wanted to play it for you, so let's listen. 20. The Dance Suites: So we've talked about the dance pieces before and dance suites a little bit earlier as well . So let's focus in on those just a little bit in here. An example. So dances were primarily a social thing, as they are now. Um, they were also used in theater, and the chamber music from them was performed by itself was written primarily for loot, keyboard or ah, ensemble. Combining Ah loot and the keyboard with some other instruments like strings. And the dance rhythms that people used were really kind of made their way into, ah, lot of people's lives at the time. These dances might sound like silly names to you that you've never heard of. Um, but they're not all that different than you know, Someone calling out the Macarena as a dance form. You know, that's more indicative to our time. Well, like 15 years ago. But whatever unique to this period was to put a bunch of dance movements together into a sweet. So we have the dance suites so we might have a piece that has a pavane gal yard current Al Ammand Ah, and maybe even some of the other ones I'll put together Those are all typical dance suites at the time. So one of the composer's known for this at the time was Johann Hermann Shine. And he has. He wrote this piece called Bon Cetto Musical, which is 20 suites for five instruments with continuo. Um, they all had the same sequence Pavane, Gal, Yard, Current, Alleman and Triple O, which is a type of Al Lamont. They share melodic ideas between the sweet, so you might have different dance suites, but use a very similar melody or something like that. And they're really quite enjoyable. Listen to. So let's listen to some of them. Uh, probably not. This whole thing, the whole suite. This is three suites. Ah, and it is 22 minutes long. So let's listen to the first couple minutes of it, though. 21. Music Of The Court And King: okay for these next few sections, we're gonna bounce around, um, Europe and other parts of the world a little bit and just kind of check in on what's happening and how this Baroque tradition influenced these different areas. So we begin in France now, at the time on, we're talking early, Broke here. Ah, 17th century were France's under the rule of Louis the 14. And Louis the 14th was, uh, in many ways, good for music. He was a king who is known for being very focused on supreme control. He wanted control over every element of everything. Ah, there were prior to him taking the throne, there were riots, and some people didn't like the things that, uh, his mother was doing when she was leading. So to make a long story short, he liked structure on everything to be in its right place, and that had an influence on the arts and the way he looked to the arts to augments certain daily activities. So one of the things he did is he built the loof. So if you've ever been to Paris, you know about the luv. It's a museum. It's a giant giant giant Museum in Paris. Like most of the world, um, or most of Europe, I should say, both social and for theater purposes. Dance was super popular at the time, and one of the things that comes out of France is this thing called the Court Ballet. So we have ballet, really kind of rising at this point related to opera but rising as a very popular medium. And what a court ballet is is. It's a staged and costumed ballet to their staging. There's costumes is designed for members of the court, um, alongside professional dancers. So there's professional dancers. There's also members of the court. It has solo songs, choruses, instrumental dances, um, whatever the different characters need. And supposedly, Louis, the 14th himself took part in some of these and was by all accounts a rather stunning dancer. So he has that going for him. So in addition to the court ballets, there was also ah, lot of music in court. Remember, when we talk about court here, what we're really talking about is not what we think of his court. Now we're talking about the court of the King. Ah, those employed by the king and the people who worked at the will of the king. So working under or, I should say, working. Four. King Louis. The 14th was somewhere between 152 100 musicians. That's crazy. That's a lot of musicians to be working for. One king, Um, but he kind of three different groups that he organized everybody into. Ah, there was the music of the Royal Chapel, which had singers, organists, other instrumentals, and they performed for religious services. There was also the music of the chamber, which was strings, lute, harpsichord and flute players, and they played for indoor concerts. And then there was the music of the great Stable They that was winds, brass and timpani players. And they played military and, um, military ceremonies, outdoor ceremonies and actually, really interestingly, let's think about that last one for just a second. Music of the great Stable Winds Brass and timpani players. That's not unlike the concert band that we have today, the ensemble that we call the concert band. We also have wind and brass ensembles and this idea of ah putting together this group for military and outdoor purposes, really. Um, kind of led the way for those modern ensembles, we can really kind of trace their lineage back to of our current like drum and bugle corps , um, wind ensembles, concert bands, all of those ensembles. We can really kind of trace back to this era. And but, ah, Louis, the 14th had done here. Speaking of tracing something back to a certain area era, this is also where the Modern Orchestra really starts to appear in its in something similar , the most similar to how it looks now. So, actually, Louis the 13th the Father Louis the 14th established this group, Uh, that translates to it was called 24 violins for the King. So is a violin ensemble. Ah, and that group kept going. But in addition to it, there was established this group of 18 strings four Louis, the 14th personal use. And on occasion, these two groups combined to poor performance ballets and fancy dinners and things like that. And when that happened, we see the term orchestra being used for that ensemble 22. French Opera: and we know that opera is really thriving at the time, and it's also really heavily associated with Italy, right? Italian opera is the flavor of the century. Here, however, there was French opera, and it was uniquely French. Um, it was really developed by this composer John Baptiste Lully, who was a favorite composer of King Louis. The 14th and the French Opera style was eventually developed by Lily, and and it did stick around for a while after he was gone. So it was a a genre of music in its own right. So to take Italian opera and adapt it to French music took a couple of leaps of faith, if you will, to make this happen that Louis had to figure out. So at first he experimented with some comedy ballets and, um, kind of pulled in elements from opera into those, almost as though he was testing the water on it. And eventually he fully dives into making a dramatic stage work, Our work of French opera that we later called, uh, lyric tragedy, which is another term for French opera. And the main thing that's different here is obviously, first of all, it's in French, right? It's not in Italian. There were performances of Italian operas in France, but audiences didn't really seem to take to them. They thought that there were some political things that were done in the operas that the French didn't. Didn't Likas much eso cause of a controversy there. But also they just didn't really like being sung in Italian. They just want to hear, hear their opera in French. So, um so these were written obviously to be performed in French, and I'll talk more about that in just a second. But before we get there, one of the big biggest changes that leads into um, the language issue is this idea of adding divergence mints, which is Ah ah, word meaning diversions. Okay, so we have this roughly in place of arias. So Italian operas. We have these arias, right, a moment for the singer to just shine and be the ah, the soloist and show off what they could really do instead of that in these French operas, we have these divertissement. It's and these air long interludes, um, of dancing solo and choral singing. So they were kind of like up arias, but they had ensemble work in them. So there were coral singing's. They also had dancing. Um, and they tried to push the story along. But, um, whereas arias might just be a moment for the, um, singer to shine, the divergence mints were brief little interruptions that they would try to make connect different parts of the story. Now, another thing that was different was, ah, the overture in French opera, which is to say, the beginning. The opening music were much more grand because the overture served to, um, have the King enter the audience so the king would have their own, you know, balcony secluded spot to sit. But the king would want to make an entrance so that the audience knew that the king was there, and that was really the purpose of the overture. So in the front overture, um, it had two big sections that will be repeated twice, and they were kind of serve Teoh, usher in the king. So one of the trickiest parts of adapting the Italian operate into French form was the recitative right? We've already talked about Russell. T is a little bit. It's a lot of words. Um, it's supposed to emulate kind of the way the languages spoke in, um, kind of get us through a bunch of texts quite quickly. So in French, the rested titties had to be really redone because they're gonna have a much different feel because of the rhythms of the language. Right there really tied into how you naturally speak. That language and the natural rhythms of Italian are very different than the natural rhythms of French. So there the russet titties air still in there. They still use them in French opera, but they sound quite significantly different. Okay, so, uh, let's take a little listen to some work by Lulea in this French opera tradition. 23. Lully Armide Overture: okay, I want us to listen to, uh, the overture to a French opera. This is our meid by Jean Baptiste Lully, who were just talking about One thing that is worth pointing out here is that Lulea is really working in the tonal language. Now, if you know anything about music theory, tonal language basically means were using major scales and we using minor scales. That's primarily what we use now. Right prior to this, we were using motile systems motile systems. There were not necessarily major and minor scales, whether they're kind of work. But there was, ah, seven different scales. So there were some major. There were a couple of different variations of major in a couple different variations of minor, more or less. Um, but at this period, we kind of they start to kind of coalesced into two scales that people were using more than the rest. Um, and those are the ones that we now call major and minor scales. So, um, it might sound a little bit more like what we think of as classical music than some of the other music. We've heard some of the other stuff you've heard when you think, Oh, that's cool. It sounds really old, and I can't put my finger on why. That's probably why is this motile thing that's happening? So this might sound more like what you think of when you think about classical music, then some of the other stuff we've heard up to this point short. Little Overture From a French Opera by Jean Baptiste Lully. 24. Other French Music: Okay. So some other things happening in France around this time, Uh, lute music became quite popular, as did harpsichord music. And for a while it looked like Ah, the loot was the preferred instrument for solo court concerts. But it was later kind of overtaken by harpsichord. They were both very popular solo instruments and even in dance music. So getting back to dance music for a minute, um, composers really started arranging music, ballet, music for flute and harpsichord and composing original dance music. Four Luton Harpsichord. And this is a bit of a turning point because ah, lot of the music being written for flute and harpsichord in these dance styles was not intended for dance at all. But it was intended for, ah, small audiences. And it was dance music in so far as it was written, using the rhythms of the particular dance and the style of the particular dance. Um, but that was just the groundwork to build a more complex piece of music. Now, a lot of this music used something called binary form. Now, if you've taken away my theory classes, you know a little bit about musical form, and we just talked a little bit about music form, but form basically means like the repeating of sections three different kind of big picture , uh, ideas in music. So in binary form, we basically have to, uh, sections of music and equal length, and they both get repeated. So we tend to talk about form with letters. So we say, like the A section and the B section. So in binary form, we would have something like a B B that would be doing the A section two times and the B section two times. So they used this form to write different kinds of dance music that would be intended for a usually rather difficult performance. We're not quite talking about Bach yet, but when we get to the Bach Sweets, uh, I can tell you, from my experience that I am a classical guitarist and playing the Baca Lute Suites on guitar, which is very common to do now is some of the most challenging music I've ever played. It's very difficult, and they're designed to be dance sweets. Um, I can't imagine anyone dancing to them, but they're tricky. They are some seriously literature. They are hard to play But they're also so fun, so much fun to play well, I could play them all day if I had the finger strength to do it anyway. Speaking of the dance sweet Ah, the French dance suite had some of its own unique qualities to it. When we look at something like a German dance suite, there's a very regimented list of work that has to come into that, and we'll talk more about that in a minute. So the German suites have is a very specific order, whereas the French suites have a little more flexibility. Um, they can choose which dances to include in them, Um, and they can also give movements different titles. So in these suites, we have, uh, usually around six different dances put together to make one kind of bigger piece. Ah, and a lot of people are doing this At the time the Germans did it and they had very specific thing they had. It has to be alleman current Sarabyn jig, um, and have a prelude before it. But in French, they had, you know, you could put things in whatever order you wanted. You could add some things, take out some things, and you could give them fancy our titles like You don't need to call it a Lamond. You could call it something else. That's a bad example, because the French often left the all amount out. Um, because it means German. But for something like the jig you might call it, you might give it a more colorful name, whereas the Germans typically would call that movement geek and nothing fancy here. Okay, so that kind of rounds out the big picture of what's happening in France at the time. So let's jump over to England and look at how they are treating these. This new development in culture, philosophy, art and, of course, music. 25. The English And The Opera: all right over in England, music was being influenced by Italy and France, but also by England by the music that they already had and developing that further, It seems that the English were very keen on holding onto to their traditions of their own music while still incorporating music from around the world. And this is most evident in the struggles of opera and England. English opera isn't really a thing. There wasn't really a thing. It had a moment, though, and we'll talk about that in just a second. So let's talk about kind of what led up to that. So people really preferred English music. And when I say people, I'm talking about monarchs, um, aristocracy and just the general public. Um, the idea of the big dramatic musical work just didn't really latch on. However, there was this idea that came around called The Mask, and the mask is kind of like an opera. That's mask M A s Q U E. If you're curious. So it's kind of like an opera. Ah, it has instrumental music and as dancing songs, choruses, costumes and scenery. But it was largely a collaborative work, and not like one composer being the creator of the whole thing, as opera is. But this was there might be multiple composers. There might be multiple, um, costume designers, scenery makers, more of a big collaborative effort. Not to make things worse in a way, for opera at the time. The the government so remember that Ah, England has kind of a split government here, so they have what's called a limited monarchy. So there's a king. But there's also Parliament. Um, not unlike how it is now in England, except at this period, I believe, and I could be wrong here. But I believe it's more kind of a 50 50 relationship where the King has significant power. So the government was very puritanical, so they banned stage plays for a period, but not concerts and, um, private musical events. So this kind of led to some English opera happening. But this idea of the English Opera was really just, um, a little bit of influence from the Italian Opera and then a lot of influence from the English Mask, which included the dances and the songs and things from that genre. A little bit later, the puritanical restrictions were lifted. Um, and people wanted to go to the theater, right? So now you could again, Um And then the idea of the mask took off even more. And this new thing that is was kind of like many operas. So this is the closest that we really get to an English opera, and it is short. It's a shorter opera form. It's heavily influenced by the mask. And it brings us one of our first composers who whose name you might recognize. Now, as I've said before, as we get into later Baroque, you're gonna hear some names that you recognize like Bach, Vivaldi, these types of folks. But this is the first name that, um perhaps you might recognize maybe. Ah, and it is Henry Purcell. Henry Purcell was the leading English composer of his day. Um, he's best known for dramatic music as well. So, uh, his most famous work is called Dido and Aeneas, and it's this. It's one of these kind of mini operas, slash sort of mask things. So let's go to a new video and let's talk a little bit about it. And here's some excerpts 26. Purcell - Dido And Aeneas: Okay, Henry Purcell Daido in India's. So this is this type of miniature opera. As I was just saying in the previous video, there's only four main rules. There's only three acts, and it only is about an hour long. It has a lot of elements of the English mask and a touch of French and Italian opera mixed in Azaz. Well, there's a lot of dance involved in it. It does have recipe rested it eaves, which are done, of course, in English, which makes them a bit different than the Italian ones. Um, the pacing of the language is different, so let's listen to an excerpt. This is one of the most famous excerpts from this piece, says Dido's limit, Um, here we go. 27. Other English Music Of The 17th Century: So what else was happening in England at the time? Musically, that is to say, there was a lot more happening. Ah, the royal family was commissioning works. Ah, chorus soloist, even orchestra for ceremonies and larger occasions like royal Birthdays. Purcell was writing more music than just this kind of many operas. Slash mask Ah, he was writing, as were other composers at the time. Ah, vocal solos, duets, trios, Uh, and those were really intended for home performances. Now the home performance thing is one of the most important contributions of England at the time. So let's talk about that really quick here. So at the time, if you wanted to go to a concert of not dramatic music just ah, concert of what we would consider to be whole music performed in the home instrumental music, maybe even vocal music, but not dramatic works. Ah, those were really not public concerts. Those were kind of by invite only, but in England around this time Ah, there were a number of factors that started to make the public concert a thing where you could buy a ticket to go see non dramatic music. Ah, the main things that made this kind of come together. Where was there was a lot of musicians that worked for the court and the court paid really poorly. Ah, the king did not pay musicians very well at this time. So there was also London theatres looking for things to dio. Um, and that left the musicians with trying to find a clever way to make some more money. Um, and they found it by taking advantage of these theaters and putting on concerts. So for the first time, you could actually buy a ticket and go to a concert of non dramatic music. And that's something that obviously influenced the whole rest of the world for, uh, ever, because you can do that pretty much every day now. Okay, let's jump over to Spain and see what's happening there and make our way up into the new world. 28. The Zarzuela: OK over to Spain and the New World. Now, why are we including the new world in the same concept of Spain? Now, the New World. We're talking about the Americas, um, Central America and even North America. The reason we're including it is because at the time, um, Spain waas a monster oven empire. Huge empire. Um, it owned a large part of the new World, including kind of all the way from in North America, from Florida over to California with Texas in between. And they're finding gold there. And a lot of that gold was getting back to Spain, which was making them very profitable. They also owned Portugal, a good chunk of Italy's some of the Netherlands, the Philippine islands, some settlements in India and Africa. A lot of Central and South America. Um, and of course, North America have already mentioned so they had a lot of real estate, including the New World. So what was going on? Um, in Spain and its territories. So there was an early attempt at Spanish opera, Uh, and it didn't really take It takes a little bit later, but in the early period, um, there was an attempt at just doing opera Italian Opera in Spanish, and it just didn't catch on. Ah, with the people. However, plays were much more popular in Spain and Spanish territories. Um, and there was a distinctly Spanish style, um, of play with music called the Zarzuela, and this was a form of musical theater. It was light. It had usually a subject of mythology at the core pastoral settings. Um, and the dialogue would alternated between sung and spoken. So it wasn't like an opera Where everything is sung was some spoken stuff Samsung stuff. Um, and there was an ensemble and also solo singing. In addition to this, there was also ah, Song became very popular, um, songs from theatre productions like the Zarzuela or other Theatre Productions. I would find their way into manuscript and throughout Spain and Spanish colonies, um, and even into, um, Italy as popular songs to be sung. So there was a tradition, So Spain was a little behind the curve in printed music. They didn't have a lot of printed music, but they did have some, and it made its way. Ah, in and it helped to get songs out. So the main three things we have in Spain and Spanish colonies in this period of the early Baroque is the zarzuela, a type of music theater, Spanish songs. And there was Spanish Baroque opera. It was not as popular as it was in as Italian Opera was in Italy, for example, but it did still exist near the later part of the 17th century. 29. Instrumental And Church Music: So as far as instrumental music in Spain and its colonies, there was a good deal of organ music. There was guitar music. There was a style of music called the T Anto, which was an improvisatory style piece that featured imitation in terms of chamber music. Popular instruments were the harp and the guitar. And like everywhere else or most other places, they were doing variations on dance rhythms, Um, and really similar dance tunes as well. Like the Sarah Bon she cone, Pascal Yah. Those were all dance forms that we've seen elsewhere that made their way to Spain. Now, another big thing happening at the time was church music. So in Spain and its colonies, they didn't forget about the Mass, and they there was still a lot of music. Polyphonic music being written for the Mass, the Catholic Mass. Um, most popular here were Walesa, coz, um, which were really popular for Christmas. I think we've talked about Walesa coz before, in this case, they were scored for one or more choirs. There will be a soloist, solo voice and a continuo, and they would be in Spanish rather than Latin. So this is after the reformation. So we moved on to where some of this music can be done in the vernacular, in other words, the music of the common people. So let's taken example. Let's listen to something from that. Let's jump to a new video and let's listen to a Christmas Walesa Co 30. Araujo - Los Coflades De La Estleya: So we're about to hear is a Christmas Walesa. Go. It's buy one day are Rojo. I think it's how you say it. Ah, he was the head maestro in Peru and Bolivia. This piece features to trouble choirs. Ah, that alternate with some kind of rapid text over the accompaniment. There's a lot of Syncopations, um, which is typical in Spanish dance and song. The text is about, ah, a young boy going to Bethlehem to find an infant. Jesus. So, uh, let's check it out. 31. Developments In Opera: Okay, now let's go over to Italy now. We've been talking about Italy a lot, right, because it's really kind of the home of the opera. But music was a standing still in Italy at the time the opera was being developed, and there were new ideas around it. There was also other non opera music happening in Italy at the time. Now, politically, Italy works a little bit different than some of the other places we've looked at. At the time. Italy as well as Germany, which we'll talk about next, was divided into a number of sovereign states. So this meant that there was no centralized, singular royal courts or capital city. Um, but many rulers of many cities and they competed for musicians. So all over Italy at the time, there were people that wanted the best musicians. And we see musicians traveling, looking for the best gig, not unlike what we do now, except it's not connected to cities really, although kind of so composers would often travel from one place to another looking for a better job, and in so doing, they stumbled across other composers ideas. They mixed with what other people were doing they met people from other countries in their travels. And this led to, um, more development of opera and other music. So the too big things in Italy at the time, our opera and the cantata Ah, the cantatas still hugely important in vocal chamber music. So I start off by talking about opera. So the epicenter of operas was really Venice. It had the most grand public opera houses, and it was well known for its opera tradition. Later in the 17th century, Uh huh. Pro became really well known in Naples and Florence as well, which is where we get one of the most celebrated composers Italian composers of the area era. And that is Scarlatti. Well, listen to some of Scarlatti is music in a minute. Remember that what was the most attractive thing to the public about opera seemed to be not so much the beautiful music that was being written by these composers but the star singers of the arias. So at this time, we really see the idea of the area kind of explode in many ways. At the beginning of the century. Ah, an opera might have two dozen or so arias in it, but by the end of the century, an area might have his money as her. An opera might have as many as 60 arias in it because arias are what brought the crowds. And in playing with those areas, we also see a development of different forms. We've talked about forms a few different times, Um, but the big thing that changes here is that we get arias that start to have a refrain to them. You can think of a refrain is like the chorus in a pop song, right? It's the part that keeps coming back. And the reason that the singer's really liked this is that whenever it came back, every time we got to the chorus again or the refrain, they could add a new level of ornamentation to it and really kind of, uh adds improvisation to it and let there let their vocal cords kind of kind of fly and do a little show off on it. We also saw in Arias Ah, them take on some of the popular dance forms like the gewgaws, Saraband and others. And again, this wasn't for the purpose of dancing in the opera, But it was to latch onto those popular styles and rhythms that were happening in that music . So, like I said, the opera wasn't standing still. There was a lot of development in it. Let's talk a little bit about vocal chamber music and that will lead us into the DA Capo aria, which is a kind of A, which is a kind of area that we see in both opera and vocal chamber music. And then we'll listen to some Scarlatti. Let's go to a new video and talk about what's happening in vocal music. 32. Da Capo Aria: okay and vocal chamber music. We're talking about the Cantata Cantata, still the most popular form of local chamber music, and its primary home was Rome. Cantatas were meant for performance in smaller, uh, audiences. Remember, they used smaller forces? Um, they weren't extremely long. They were not staged. There was no scenery or costumes. So they were seen as something that could be done in someone's ah, house. Or even in or especially, I should say, in in a court or its or in some kind of more elegant, um, setting. It was what the fancy people did. They commissioned cantatas and they listened to live performances of cantatas at their parties. Now, cantatas at the time had ah lot of short contrast ing sections, and they largely alternated between Recipe TV's and arias. Ah, normally having two or three of each and being about 15 minutes long. Most of them were for solo voice with continuo on. Some of them had two voices, though, and the text was usually love songs. Um, so good old fashioned Ah ah, good old fashioned love song. So that brings us back to Scarlatti. Scarlatti was a composer who wrote operas and cantatas and some other stuff. But when it comes to cantatas, he wrote, uh, over 600 cantata does. That's a lot of internal cantatas. Now one of the things he uses in his cantatas and the one that we're about to listen to is this idea of the duck capo aria. So dick Apo means from the head. We see that in music notation We see, um, da capo meeting go to the head or the top like the beginning of the peace. Um, so you might be playing a piece of music and you might see the words to capo written. Still, to this day, we still use this notation. It still says the capo, and that and that means go back to the beginning and play from the beginning up until some symbol, there'll be another symbol telling you where to stop or jump to the end. Um, so a de capo aria wasn't area that would where there was a similar instruction to begin to return to the beginning of the area and repeat the first section, so this would make it in a be a kind of form. That means the a section is repeated and we know that the reason we like repeats in arias is because, ah, what I just said a minute ago is because it gives the singer and opportunity Teoh add ornamentation. Embellishment really flex some vocal virtuosity when there's a repeated section. So the Da Capo aria becomes very popular form to use in our area, both in opera and cantata. So let's take a listen to an example of a cantata from Scarlatti and let's go to a new video and jump into that. 33. Scarlatti: So this is a piece by Scarlatti, says Chlor e Xhosa e Bela. This is his solo cantata. Um, it has to recitative aria pairs. Ah, and the basic story is of the first rested to TV is basically there's a shepherd expressing his passionate love for a NIF. So let's listen to just the beginning of this. Just the first part. Um, just to give us an idea of Scarlatti is music and the cantata. 34. Sonatas: when it came to instrumental music. The Italians were also Ah, winning the game here in terms of popularity of their masters and their teachers. This is the period in which the violin really kind of becomes the great standout, virtuosic instrument. And we've talked about that a little bit of its connection to the vocal world. This is also where we start to see Ah, these kind of mysterious and amazing violin makers emerge. This is the era of Stradivarius. So you've heard of a Stradivarius violin? Perhaps these are some of the best violins to have been made at the time and debated Lee ever since. Ah, if you find yourself in possession of a Stradivarius, you will be a very wealthy person. They are considered to be the most perfect instruments ever made, and they are generally priceless. So that brings us to the Sonata. So for the first half of the 17th century, composers were writing instrumental Sonatas with kind of two main sections, so there would be ah and A and A B section, and they would be different in terms of texture, mood, character, um, tempo. But as this idea developed more into the later parts of the 17th century, the two sections became, um, separate, separated into two different movements. So now we have a sonata that is in multiple movements on. The idea here was that you should really have music that has these stark contrast ing styles. Because remember all the way back to the beginning of this class when we talked about the theory of the affections and that music stimulated the bodily humors and could help keep them balanced by offering a diversity of moods. So the idea was that music should have a number of different moods and emotions that came out of it in order to help balance to humor's. So these multi movement Sonatas that had maybe the first movement is a very uplifting one, and a second movement is a very sad one. This was in accordance with this idea of balancing the humors that was going on at the time . Later, yet in the century, kind of to in types of Sonatas emerged, there's the Chamber Sonata and the Church Sonata. The chamber Sonata primarily uses those dance rhythms that we've talked about or a binary form, um, and often started with a prelude that church Sonatas were more abstract. They sometimes used those dance rhythms, but they didn't, um, usually label them as such. Both of these, both the Church Sonata and the Chamber Sonata were used for entertainment and private concerts, But the church Sonatas were also sometimes used to replace different sections of the mass or and for other purposes in a church service. So the instrumentation for the Sonata could be a number of different things. But one thing that comes about in this period is the trio Sonata, and this is one of the most popular forms of instrumentation for the Sonata. And as you can probably guess from the name Trio, Sonata includes three different instruments to trouble instruments, usually violins and then the basso continuo So you might have a work that is, for example, two violins and organ or two violins and cello. If the cello is going to be playing the basso continuo, it is even possible that a trio sonata would have more than three people if the continuo is being performed by more than one person. So, for example, a cello and a harpsichord or something like that could be the continuo part Uh, and then it might be four people, but we would still call it a Trio Sonata. So that brings us to Carelli. Ah, one of the best known Italian chamber music composers of this era. So let's go to a new video. Let's talk a little bit about him and listen to a sonata. 35. Corelli: another very popular name that you might recognize. Um, is Carelli. Carelli was a composer. Ah, a teacher and a violinist of the 17th century. He wrote no vocal music that we know of. Almost all the music that he wrote was in the trio Sonata or Solo Violin Sonata Yeah Concerto, which we'll talk a little bit more about. In the next video. He helped start and lead some of the very first orchestras in Italy, which became, Ah, I precedent setting job for many people in the future. And his writing for the violin is really considered to be some of the best at taking advantage of that parallel between the soprano aria and the violin. It's very vocalist IQ, we might say, Um, so I'll let you be the judge of that. Let's hear, uh, Corelli's This is a church sonata, Opus three. Number two. Enjoy 36. The Concerto: Okay. Another important aspect of what's happening at the time is the concerto. We've talked about concertos before, but we've talked about vocal concertos. This is an instrumental concerto, and it gets developed based off of the Vocal Concerto, but it's a little bit different. So remember that were right at the beginning of the orchestra, turning itself into a known quantity, right? We're assembling players to the orchestra and what were kind of defining that, as is multiple players to a single part. So we have things like the Trio Sonata, where there's one person per part. But if we put five people for to pick a random number on each part of a trio Sonata, then we might call it an orchestra because there are multiple people playing each part. Okay, so that's kind of where the the That's kind of how we distinguish between the two at this point. Now there's a lot of music that that wouldn't work for at all. So this piece we just heard if there were five people playing each part, it would probably be kind of a mess because because it would be so dense. Um, but a lot of music at the time could be done this way, so it could have been done as something like a trio sonata or as a concerto. So near the end of the 17th century, this really kind of gets codified into, um, a specific thing. The concerto becomes one of the most prestigious types of Baroque instrumental music, and because of it, the orchestra becomes what it is today, which is really probably for most people. The symbol for classical music tradition is the orchestra, and that will happen because of the concerto so similar to a vocal concerto. It has several elements combined into a whole combines multiple textures, florid melody over kind of, ah, big bass sound. But here we have in the Instrumental Concerto, we have multiple movements. Contrast in tempo figuration, um, closely related to the Sonata. Um, and it serves many of the same roles of the Sonata could be used at, um, to entertain private friends at intimate gatherings. It could also be at public ceremonies and used as portions of the mass in a secular setting . So we get three different kinds of concertos that emerged. There's what's called the Orchestra Concerto, which is a multi movement work that centers around a first violin part and a bass part. Another kind of concerto, called the Concerto Grosso, centers around a small group within the larger orchestra. So you can imagine a concerto. Grosso is kind of like there's a trio Sonata, And then there's a full orchestra, literally two different groups, and they you could say alternate sections. Although it's not really like this one place. And then that one plays in this one place in that one place. It's more blended than that, but they do. Some sections of the peace are just the trio Sonata or something like a trio. Sonata and other sections of the peace are a full orchestra. The third kind of concerto, uh, which doesn't get a fancy name. We just call it Concerto is more like what we think of the word Concerto meeting today. It means a soloist, Ah, against the full orchestra so kind of like a Concerto Grosso. But instead of the Trio Sonata alternating with the orchestra, it's soloist alternating with an orchestra. At this time, it was really usually a solo violin, But in modern times today, when you see if you go to your local orchestra and you see a concerto on the program. What you can expect is that there's going to be a soloist, and it's going to be probably a pretty virtuosic peace. I mean, it's gonna be very difficult for the soloist. Um, and the soloist will be accompanied by the orchestra. That's typically what a concerto means today. It's very similar to, um, what we have in the Concerto of the 17th century. 37. The German Landscape: OK over to Germany, so Germany is a complicated place at this period in time. At the end of the 30 years war, Germany was pretty devastated, uh, and was fractionalized into hundreds and hundreds of small territories. Some were self governing free cities. Some were ruled by princes. Dukes counts all kinds of different things. Um, bishops. But the country was largely decentralized, and no particular city was extremely big, at least as compared to France or Britain. Now, to make matters worse, when it comes to musicians, there was still a system of professional guilds left over from the Middle Ages so that if you were ah, an ironworker, you're well, that's probably bad example. Ah, if you did a certain had a certain career your kids had, um, had that same career. Your parents had that same career. It was a class system, but there was a good side. So the bad side being that there's no major cities, there's many different rulers making their there be no major hub for orchestras and things like that, too. Cole esque into. However, all of these little leaders of the different territories really wanted, ah to use arts as a way to show their power and their status. So they were hiring singers and instrumentalists and composers for their court. Cities themselves also hired musicians called town Pipers or the German word for town pipers, and those musicians would perform at public ceremonies, parades, weddings and other festivities. These town pipers turned into a guild system all by herself all by themselves, so that if, ah, eventually it turned out that if you were one of the musician families, so was your Children and their Children and etcetera. And already in the 17th century, we're getting to know the Bach family for this very reason. They were, ah, well known in the town Piper World and were employed by a few different cities. Now they would obviously become much, much more well known in the 18th century. Um, but even the 17th century, we're already getting to know them. Like other places we've seen, musicians did move around from save the city, looking for the best opportunities in the best court positions. There was amateur music making. There were a lot of cities that had kind of, ah, association of amateur musicians, which would be educated middle class folks getting together to play and sing and private and sometimes professional performances of the music being composed. At the time, they were using a lot of different genres from all over the world. Composers drew on Italian music, French music and, historically, German music that had already existed. When we think about this period of German music, we primarily think about instrumental music as the main thing. Choral music, not so much instrumental music was the primary driving force and, um, even more so. North German organ music, organ music huge as we'll see more of in the 18th century. 38. Opera In Germany: It's one of the biggest differences in opera in Germany, then in some of the other countries is that the Germans, by and large, were accepting of operas in Italian. And in fact, a lot of Italian composers made very good careers in Germany, writing Italian opera in Germany. So Italian opera was a thing in Germany that people enjoyed so much so that composers in the later in the 18th century we'll see a lot of composers writing Italian opera that are actually German because they were inspired by all of this. There was later some German language operas, and this kind of coincided with the first German opera houses. Ah, in 16 78. They were designed to appeal to the middle class. So composers did adopt adopt Italian operas to be used there in German, developing sort of an Italian style. But this kind of sort of German style opera was really this kind of cosmopolitan mesh of different styles. It had Italian arias. It also had French airs in it, French dances in it. The only kind of quintessential e German thing that it really had in it was for some of the lower class characters in the opera. They might sing strove, thick songs, um, of the kind of popular North German style. So opera in Germany was a thing. People enjoyed operas in Germany, but they enjoyed Italian opera in Germany and to some extent, this kind of German hybrid opera, which was really a variation of Italian opera, with some elements of other operas involved as well. 39. Organ Music: Now. A few minutes ago, I mentioned organ music, specifically organ music in the North. So let's talk a little bit more about that because of the prominence of the Lutheran Church , the and its adaptation of the organ organ music in Germany. Waas Ah, the kind of height of organ music. Really. There were a lot of composers writing for the organ, including, um, Johann Christoph Bach, who was the first cousin of Johann Sebastian Bach's father. So the Bach family is already trying to make its way up to the surface. It's also, uh, where we get Pocket Bell Pocket. Bella's probably another name that you might recognize. Parker Bell was a German composer who wrote the famous Canon in D. If you've ever gone to a wedding, you've heard pocket bells, cannon A through organ music. We get one of, ah, the great kind of modern adaptations for its day of an existing style, and that is the fugue. So the fugue comes to us. Um, kind of from the rice a car. We've talked about that in ah, little while ago. Maybe it was the previous class even, but the rights car was a form of imitative counterpoint. And at this period of time, we really get the fugue developing into its own thing from some of the ideas from the race a car In the early days of the few, any kind of imitative counterpoint was called a fugue, but a few came to be known as a very specific thing. Now, without going into massive amounts of music theory, it's hard to explain exactly what a few is. But in a simplified way, a fugue has a subject, which is a short little melody and that it has an answer, which is kind of a secondary melody. And the subject keeps going throughout the peace in various ways. And the idea is that it kind of becomes this complicated puzzle to keep the subject going. Um, and the answer going without breaking any rules of counterpoint, it's very difficult to write a few. Even now, it's still difficult to write a few, and it becomes a very popular idiom for composers to kind of show what they've got when it comes to writing fugues. So the fugue will become a very popular, an important tool of the 18th century, and not just for organ music. Although we have it here in northern Germany as a tool for organ music, the fuel will make its way outside of organ music. But it does still stay there for quite a while. Um, once box starts writing fugues, they're going to be in the Oregon. But then they're gonna work their way out into some other instruments with some other composers as well. And this will all be waiting for us in the 18th century. So let's wrap this up. Um, let's wrap up this class and then we're going to do a couple more things, and then we're gonna talk about moving on to the later Baroque and the 18th century. 40. What Next?: All right, everyone, that brings us to the end of this class. So in this class, we covered everything in the early Baroque that leads up to, uh, what's going to be the 18th century and in the 18th century is when we really start to get some of those names that you're really familiar with, like Bach, Vivaldi, Handel, Some of these other people who whose music you might not know. If you're not a classical music aficionado, you probably don't know their music. But, ah, you probably recognize their names at least a little bit. And if nothing else, maybe Bach. So I'm really looking forward to getting us into that class. Some of my favorite music in the history of classical music. It's my favorite music to play its some beautiful music to listen, Teoh. It's going to be a lot of fun. I'm really excited about getting that class. So stay tuned, Um, and eventually there will be a part for where we get into the late Baroque. So I have two more things for you yet in this class, so stick around. We're not quite done yet. 41. Thanks for Watching!: as I've said before, and I say at the end of every class, I just want to thank you for being a part of this class. It's a great honor for me to be able Teoh, Um, give bring these classes to you and have you take these classes. It really means a lot to me. So thanks for being a part of this class. Thanks for being a part of the student community. There's some other stuff that I'd love for you to be a part of. A swell. I have many other classes here, and also there is a Facebook page just for students of mine. There's some other goodies and, like discounts to other classes of mine and things like that, that's all in the next lecture. So after this one, please click through that next one. Um, there's info on how to get in touch with me, how to become part of our student groups, how to get discounts in the other classes. So please stick around for that download that pdf it's going to get you access to all of that stuff. Now. Last thing, Um, thanks for being a part of this class. That's all I wanted to say last, Um, I just like to end that way. So thanks for spending this time with me. It's been a lot of fun. I look forward to it. Um, it's not a bad gig, I'll tell you that. So I hope to see you in the next class. Thanks a bunch. 42. Bonus Lecture: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.