The Color Survival Guide | Marco Bucci | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

17 Lessons (4h 18m)
    • 1. Class Intro

    • 2. The Power Of Grays

    • 3. Painting With A Complementary Palette

    • 4. Building Color And Finishing The Painting

    • 5. Color Temperature Theory - Warm vs. Cool

    • 6. Understanding And Painting Warm Light

    • 7. Understanding And Painting Cool Light

    • 8. Analyzing Color In Various Pieces Of Art

    • 9. How Nature Uses Warm vs. Cool Colors

    • 10. Inventing Believable Light And Color

    • 11. How Nature Treats Local Colors

    • 12. Common Color Palettes And Master Study

    • 13. Two Paintings, Two Moods, Same Palette

    • 14. Gamut Masking

    • 15. Painting With A Gamut Mask

    • 16. Color Integration - Study Advice

    • 17. Final Tips For Quick And Effective Study

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About This Class

'The Color Survival Guide' features a selection of color theories and color principles that I use almost every day as a commercial artist. I've selected the things that work and are useful and reliable, time and time again.

In six (6) chapters, distinct principles will be explained in depth. In each chapter you will get a presentation featuring the background color theory of the principle in question, as well as a painting demonstration of where & how I use it in my work and how you can apply it yourself!

Table of Contents:

Chapter 1: Complementary Palette:
Learn how color moves by reducing your palette to two simple complementary colors. You will learn invaluable lessons of how colors "cross" from one side of the color wheel to the other, and how important that transition is. These principles can be applied to more complex palettes.

Chapter 2: Color Temperature: Warm vs. Cool
The mother of all color theories! If you don't know how color temperature works, you likely won't get reliable or believable color in your art. This chapter breaks down the essentials of how warm moves to cool (and vice versa) through photo studies and painted studies.

Chapter 3: Color Temperature: Moving Across The Spectrum
With warm vs. cool under our belts, we now look at more ways that nature moves between the two extremes. At this point in the class we now have the tools to understand nature, paint it faithfully, as well as the tools to caricature it to meet our own aesthetics!

Chapter 4: Color Vibrations
Oftentimes we have to deal with elements that appear to have solid local colors. A red apple, for instance. But how does nature actually treat "flat" colors? This chapter will give you important models for understanding how to keep colors active and interesting, yet still reading as simple, singular colors.

Chapter 5: Color Palettes
Now that we have a command of color theory and practice, we can use it to apply all sorts of different palettes. We began this class with a simple complementary palette, but now we have access to much more! We'll look at how different palettes affect the mood of a piece, as well as how you might pair certain palettes with certain lighting conditions.

Chapter 6: Study Tips & Advice
Watching a painting class is one thing, but we need to instill good practice habits in order for you to take this information and allow it to flourish over time. This chapter will suggest simple ideas for daily practice. You will be able to use these methods to simplify the study of all the ideas and theories presented in the class. This chapter will be especially useful for those still getting their feet wet with these color theories, and need a way to practice without overcommitting to finished paintings right away.


This class is intended for intermediate artists. Specifically - those who have some experience with basic drawing and shading. That will provide an adequate basis for which to begin applying, learning, and testing these color theories and applications. Painting experience is great, though not necessarily required.

Note: There are no software requirements for this class, other than your digital painting app of choice. Adobe Photoshop will be used in the videos, but the lessons are applicable to every piece of digital painting software. The color theories themselves are fully applicable to traditional media too - though the demonstrations are more targeted to digital painters.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Marco Bucci

Professional illustrator & teacher


Hello, I'm Marco.

I'm a professional artist with 15 years' experience in the film, TV, game, and print industries - primarily as a concept artist and illustrator. I also happen to believe that it's the duty of experienced artists to pass on what they've learned, with no BS and for as low-cost as possible. It's for that reason that I'm a passionate teacher. I currently teach at CGMA, and have previously taught at Academy of Art University, Centennial College, and more. 


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1. Class Intro: Hey everyone, Marco Gucci here, you know, as a professional artist and illustrator, you want to be able to handle a wide variety of assignments. Now when it comes to color, that means knowing your fundamentals both in theory as well as the myriad of ways those theories can be applied as an illustrator. Now for more than 15 years, I find that time and time again. I go back to a core set of fundamentals, fundamentals that allow me to survive in color. So welcome to my color Survival Guide where I want to share these fundamentals with you. There are six chapters. Each chapter contains a presentation of a particular color theory and then moves into its practical use. You know, how I apply it, but also ideas for how you can apply it. Concepts that will fuel your day-to-day work. My goal with this class is simply to make you more confident in being able to handle a wide variety of color tasks. Now a quick note, I'll be using Adobe Photoshop in this presentation as my software of choice. But the concepts and demonstrations are applicable to any digital painting app. In fact, the theories presented or even applicable to traditional media. So I'm confident you'll enjoy this class. We've got about four hours of learning ahead of us. So let's dive into Chapter 1. 2. The Power Of Grays: Let's begin this class with what I consider to be the most fundamental aspect of color, and that is how color moves in a painting. After this chapter is through, we'll have an overall understanding of the mechanics of color movement. And with that and understanding of gray colors versus their saturated counterparts, we'll develop a simple system for categorizing and organizing colors in a painting will learn how powerful simple decisions can be. We'll talk about how color relates to value and shape. And lastly, we'll learn the color terminology that we'll be using throughout this class. All right, here is our friend, the color wheel. And if you're not friends with it yet, you will be by the end of this class. Okay, so here in Chapter 1, we're going to begin our understanding of color through the lens of complimentary colors. And complimentary colors, as you probably already know, are simply two colors or hues located at opposite sides of the color wheel. Every color has a compliment, of course, basic color theory. We'll say that complimentary colors generally look good together. Again, that's general advice which we're about to dig into more thoroughly. However, before we do, I want to make sure we're all on the same page and understand what the color wheel is showing us. The outermost ring of the color wheel, this color here, for instance, that's the most saturated or intense or colorful version of that color. If we move that selection toward the middle of the color wheel, it's losing saturation. In other words, it's getting grayer. I'll bring up a color picker here. It's basically like we're doing this, moving toward the gray and losing saturation. All right, next thing that's very important to understand, the color wheel is only showing us color. For example, it is not showing us value. Value being the light and dark of a color. For instance, I have two colors here. One light, one dark, but they're both at the exact same level of saturation. So even though these two swatches are technically two different colors due to their identical hue and saturation, they would be located at the same spot on a color wheel. Now, value, again, light and dark is integral to the success of a painting, but it's also not what this class is about. This class is about color. So I'm gonna do my best to stay focused on color, but I will have to talk about values occasionally because it's literally unavoidable. So here's a painting, not the best painting in the world. In fact, I did this painting like 15 years ago, right around the time I was starting to feel familiar with color. One exercise that really helped me was to make my palette as complimentary as possible. In this case, if I were to sample some colors here, it's essentially yellows versus purples. I mean, it's not a perfectly straight line, but you get the idea. Now while a complementary palette is not the most creative way to use color, it does offer valuable insight as to how color moves to intro that. And while we still have this graphic onscreen, take a look at the range of yellows versus the range of purples. There's a significant difference there. There are fewer varieties of the yellow as opposed to the purple. However, the yellows that do exist are all very saturated. While the purple is kinda span the gamut from very desaturated or gray to very saturated. Here in Photoshop, let's do a little color exercise that I swear anyone can do regardless of your experience, Let's bring in those two very saturated colors that we just looked at. In this case, yellow, just painting a little swatch. And on a new layer, I will grab the purples which are here. It's in Photoshop is a little harder to tell what's complimentary because you have a hue strip instead of a hue wheel. But I mean that's okay as long as it's close to the opposite. So somewhere around here. I mean, I don't know if that's perfect, but it's close enough. I'll paint that in. Now. These are very far apart. They are complimentary colors. So I'm going to put this purple way over here, and I'll put this yellow way over here. And the exercise we want to do now is span the gamut, fill in this range in the middle. This will kind of simulate how we use colors in a real painting. Don't worry about value. Again, value being lightened arc, just don't worry about that for this exercise, we're not trying to produce a readable picture here. We're just playing around with color. So right in the middle is this gray. I'll try and put this gray right here. And while I'm on the purple hue, I'll just kind of branch out towards saturation and just put a little swatch right about there. Now ask yourself, where would this purple go? Well, it's kinda right in the middle between that one and that one. So let's put it about there. I'll go into the yellows now. I could always sample my yellow here if I want it to be exact. I'll bring this down closer to the gray and put that there. So what we're essentially saying here is that this color is the same level of saturation toward the yellow as this color is toward the purple. But again, we're doing this visually. See I don't care that I'm actually probably a few pixels off. If I looked at that color, it exists right there in saturation versus the purple, which is a little bit closer to gray. So I'm not perfect. I mean, I'm not a robot. I can't do it exactly, but it's okay. Visually is what matters. So let's keep progressing. I've got this purple here sampled. I'll branch out a little more and just put that about there. I'll go into the yellow sample where I'm at. And just go out a bit more and put that there. How about I pick a color about there and say that's about here. And again, just continuing to kind of plot these colors, you know, roughly where they go in this spectrum here, I'm reducing the amount of space. This one has took up too much space in my little chart here, so I'm kinda working at it. So it's like this. This may sound a little counter-intuitive, but resist the urge to make this pretty, I mean, you can if you want, but it doesn't matter. So what we're doing here is we're getting used to tracking saturation or an opposite terms, tracking grays go a little bit more saturated and refill in that guy. And there we go. Something like this. You don't have to fill it all up perfectly. Something like this is totally fine. Like I said, very easy, very basic exercise. But I'm being totally honest when I say that evaluating and choosing colors in your painting can be as straightforward as this. And this is also why the complementary palette is so good to work with that first, because you only have two colors, it takes out almost all of the guesswork. Okay. Now, there's this color term that I'm sure you've heard called color harmony. What is color harmony? Well, I think color harmony is when there is a noticeable visual trace or link between colors. Now what is that link? Well, the link is the gray. The gray of course, being the middle swatch between two colors. When I sample it here, it doesn't matter whether I'm in the purple or whether I'm in the yellow, it's the same color both times. So gray is the literal connection between any two colors, in this case the yellow and purple. But let me just undo those marks for a second. Where color harmony happens is in this very delicate neutral range. Neutral colors are the colors close to gray. I would say maybe this range here, these are the neutral colors in this palette. If I were to do this on the Color Picker itself, I'm in the purples here. I would say the neutrals are somewhere in this range. If I draw like an invisible wall right here, It's sort of in that range. And remember, it can be any value, darks, lights, whatever these are all neutral purples and vice versa. If I went to the yellows, same sort of thing, drawing that invisible wall about there. These are all neutral yellows. When colors are neutralized, they're close together. As we see in our study here, the distance between this gray and this yellow is not very far, and the distance between this gray and this purple is not very far. Therefore, the distance between that purple and that yellow is also not very far. There's a link there. We can trace the movement of the color. The color is moving from this desaturated or grade down purple. And it's very easy to visually link or visually trace how it can get here. You see it's much more difficult to start here and then go boom to there. It's too abrupt of a change. There's no visual link between the two. They're both very saturated. These are incredibly different colors. The only way you can get these colors to harmonize is to show how they move from one to the other. And moving through neutrals little by little is what gives the viewer that easily traceable action. 3. Painting With A Complementary Palette: All right, so let's go ahead and put this to use and do a painting. I've got a quick line drawing, which was just a quick tracing of my painting here I've provided this line art with the class so you guys can follow along with me if you like. I'm going to try my best to use brushes that I've also provided with the class. I do have more brushes then I provide because sometimes I buy brushes from other artists and of course I can't sell. Those are the ones that come with the class or the brushes that I've made myself. But I will try my best to stick to those. Okay. So let's see, let's grab a brush. This is my chalky brush and I should probably quickly show you my layers. I've got the line layer here set to multiply mode. And then on the layer beneath, I'm only going to use one layer. Although if it changes, I'll let you know, but I'm gonna put my layers off-screen because right now I'm only going to use one layer. And here we go on that layer, I'll just kinda block in just a neutral spine, neutral warm. Now I'm going to obviously stick two yellows because I'm using a complementary palette. So I'm going to stick to yellows and purples. So as I block in my neutrals, I'll just kinda mix between the two. Again, these are neutrals, which means they're close to gray. Remember that invisible wall thing? Notice I'm going to try and stick within it. Now. I'm just sort of haphazardly sampling yellow, purple, I may be a hair off and get this blue by accident. I'm trying my best to stick to this. As long as you're thinking complimentary and jumping back and forth like this, you're, in my opinion, you're going to be fine. Again, it takes out the guesswork, right? And we'll get to expanding on that color palette in the coming chapters, of course as well. Okay, Good. I like to start here because it gives me the opportunity to build both darker and lighter. You don't have to do this, but this is what I like to do. Let me just switch over to a different brush. This is also provided with my brush set. I'm going to block in some shadow tones. Now, let me stop for a second. I'm going to decide something right now. And that is anything that's in light is going to be hit by a warmer sunlight and therefore is going to receive the yellows, and therefore anything in shadow is gonna receive the purples. Chapter 2 is going to be more about that. I decided to start here though to kinda dive into the fun stuff quickly. And then in Chapter 2 we'll back up and do some more theoretical stuff. Anyway. So anything in light, I got my yellow and I'm going to branch out not It's crazy far like if you look at my painting and I sample this, that's pretty saturated and that's no longer a neutral color. However, in my painting here, I need to establish that movement, that link between purple and yellow, right? I'm not going to go right in and paint that. That's too, it's too quick to premature. I'm going to start here in neutrals. Now, my value is going to be light because it's sunlight. But I'm just gonna kinda block in and look how quickly I'm doing this. This is, this is like how you'd paint a little quick study a color key, something like that. It's also how I would go about painting, a perfectly finished painting. I would start very loose like this and then just tighten up as I go. But right now I'm just trying to find the light. By the way, the light's coming in from the top right. So that's why the shadow here is being cast by this wall, casting a shadow here. So the light's coming in this way. And therefore it's going to be hitting a lot of these trees, these stairs. Oh, sorry, I was accidentally sampled the wrong yellows. Keep it neutral. Keep it neutral because then we can build from it. I'll sample my neutral purple here and just build in. Obviously these trees are casting shadows. So I'm just going to paint back in some of these shadows. And let's now just quickly switch gears to this purple. I'm going to give it a bit more saturation, but still in the neutral range. Just to establish a little bit more, again, a little bit more color as we go. I'm, as long as I'm in the neutrals, I almost can do no wrong guys because it there, the link is there, the link is built in. I can even put some of these purples in the trees. Now, be careful though that your value is correct. This is where I have to talk about values a bit. My trees are, if you look at light versus dark, my trees are about here. The sunlight is hitting those trees. If I put this purple here, that's the wrong value. If you have the wrong value, it's also the wrong color. Value trumps color. However, if I have this purple, which should be up here, and I get the right value, which is very similar toward the yellows was I can put this purple in and value wise, It'll look OK. And because it's neutral, chances are it will look okay, colorized too. And then you can kind of sample the results like I just mixed that purple in with the yellow and you can kinda sample the result here and paint with that. That's totally valid. Mixing colors on the canvas like this actually is how I get most of my color. I start by picking colors, but then I usually am sampling what's on the canvas. Much like how an oil painter would pick colors off their palate. They mix the colors, work with the colors on your palette. And all of a sudden their palate is this smorgasbord of colors they can dip into whenever they want. I feel like digital painting is like an interactive palette. All right, I'm going to work to expand my values more. Jump into those purples. And let's go to a deeper value. This, let me just grab an air brush, which I have up here. This background is obviously quite dark. I kinda thinking about sort of 3 over all values. You've got this dark value in the background to this shadow value for the trees and stairs and temple as well. So that's two values and then light value for the tree. So three overall groups, obviously there will be little changes within those groups, but those are my overall groups that I want to stay separated that will help this painting read. So something in here is my overall value scheme. Let's just grab a marker brush, which again comes with my class. And let's branch a little bit out on these purples. Let's get this roof top in. And I'm gonna get some definition here with the shadow underneath the roof. This is a actually this is not a shadow. This is ambient occlusion, this dark right here. That's not a shadow, that's simply the darkest part of a shadow. This whole thing is in shadow. The ambient occlusion is where the ambient light is blocked or occluded. Therefore, it gets even darker. Okay. Let's continue on here. Okay, a few more purples just working in there. This may be a good time to grab my layers and just decrease the opacity a little bit on my lines. I don't need to see them. See when you have a 100 percent opacity on your lines. The lines dominate the painting. If you take the lines away, suddenly like I can really start seeing the painterly form coming through. The painting is what's communicating to me here. When I have the lines on, it's the lines that are communicating the most, like the lines of the loudest. So I'm just going to decrease the saturation. I'm not quite ready to completely turn off the lines. Yet. Another way to do it is to make a layer over your lines and just paint over your lines. But in this case, I will decrease opacity. Throw the Layers window off screen because you don't really need to see it right now. One thing I do generally in painting is I pick an area. Usually it's the focal point in this case, that's the temple. And I bring it to a higher degree of finish. Maybe not fully finished, but just a higher degree of finish. So that it's kind of like provides a bit of inspiration to me as the painter to kind of see what's working and then that let that inspire the rest of the piece. So that's what I'm doing here. Even though the temple is shrouded in shadow, I think it's somewhat of a focal point. After all, you're, the painting kind of leads your eye directionally right up to it. You know what I'm gonna do here? I'm going to take my line drawing and just erase the temple. Again, getting rid of the lines. Because I want the painting to do all the talking here. I don't need these lines, especially I don't have the reference to if I wanted to refer to the shape of it, I can just look at the reference. It's beneficial to get rid of those lines as soon as possible. And that's assuming, of course you want a painterly finished look to your stuff. Okay. Let's get a grayer, purple. And what that gray will do is it will start almost looking like yellow. And I can, because these are very neutral colors, I can bounce back and forth from purples to yellows and just kind of build the illusion of, you know, this corrugated or textured roof material. And it's, it doesn't look purple or yellow is kind of a mix and that's the, that's the other beautiful thing about neutrals. They don't really hold their identity as hues like when you're working with a neutral purple, it doesn't really look purple because it's so grade. It, it kind of is a chameleon. It adopts the other colors that are next to it. And again, it harmonizes. You get to see that link. I'm just building a few different values of that purple right here. Getting a little, you know, little highlights, little glimpse of the light. And let's go back into the yellows. Okay, let me speed up a little bit here. Let's get the doors kinda roughed in. And let's start working on some of these trees as well. You can see what I mean when I say a higher level of finish that I'm looking for around the focal point. This temple region is now looking like something. Maybe. I mean, it's finished enough for a color key, although I do want to add more color to it, which is the whole point of this exercise right now, things are still existing in the neutral range, which is a great start. That's where you want to be because it makes your color palette immediately start working. But then what I haven't said yet is from there you can build saturation. And again, that's how you can link between intense colors that are completely different, in this case, completely complimentary. So let's just keep working around here. I've got my texture, oily brush. I can't remember what this brush is called cuz I only see the thumbnail graphics and my brush box here. Brush box, by the way, is a third party plugin for Photoshop. I believe it's like $7. It's very cheap and it's great. I prefer brush box to photoshops, native brush browser. Let's keep working here and get a deeper, slightly more colorful purple. And let's start working out the the cast shadow that's coming down the stairs. I'm gonna get my good old round brush for this. This is the round brush with wet edges, which I paint with a lot. 60% of the time. I'm painting with this brush. I loved the round brush and I'd like to turn on the wet edges option, which again is included in my brush pack. If you have a piece of software that doesn't support my brush pack, like say you're working in, I don't know, Krita or something which can't import Photoshop brushes as far as I know. Don't worry about it. You can find brushes that are very similar. None of my brushes are special. I don't have crazy oh, I do have crazy textured brushes, but I almost never use them like I have a brush like this, which doesn't come with my pack because I downloaded this from other artists, like look at that craziness. I almost never use that. It might be good for little shingles or something up here, you know, getting little hints of texture, but it's not what you should be worried about most of the time, I use very straightforward brushes, like the round brush, because it gives me the ability to control my drawing. Drawing meaning the shapes and of course, the values that plug into those shapes. And then by extension, the colors that plug into those values and shaves, which is what this class is all about, those colors. I'm going to go into my yellows now, increase the saturation. Look where I'm beyond the neutrals now. Also I'm going to completely kill my line drawing. So there's my line drawing, boom, dead. And I'm just back on one layer. And look at this. The painting is instantly coming to life as a painting. This is what I mean when I say that the lines actually work against you. Given enough time, the painting should be doing the talking. Now, that's assuming you want the painting to be doing the talking and the final. If you're looking for a hybrid style of linear versus paying a painterly, then obviously you want to handle this differently. But as a painterly sort of artists myself, this is how I approach it. Going to break into some more saturated purples here. Look at that and look at that is a quality that happens when you start adding saturation to your neutrals. I don't know how to describe it. It's a feeling to me. It's, I've heard artists call it like the colors feel like they're singing. I don't know, to me that makes sense, although I don't quite understand why it makes sense, but it does feel like those colors, they have a home or something. The saturated colors have more of a home when you build up to them. And again, when we're talking about color movement, building up to those moving from desaturated colors, too saturated colors will really, really make those colors vibrant and harmonize. And all these parties, some artsy terms that really just mean aesthetically pleasing results. 4. Building Color And Finishing The Painting: Speaking of aesthetically pleasing results, let me show you a bit of a layers tip here. Bring it up and new layer, set it to linear dodge mode, which any painting app will have. Sometimes it might be called glow, but Linear Dodge, I think it's called in most cases, just grab an airbrush. This is just a basic default airbrush, soft airbrush. Pick my yellow color somewhere in here in Photoshop with linear dodge mode, you have to pick a dark colors, but it's basically, you can paint light, let's saturate that a bit more and raise the value of bit. Say there we go, something like that. If I want a quick way to increase saturation, I will hit the scene with this linear dodge layer. And let's go a bit. There we go, Something like that. Now I don't want to fully saturated like that although I could. But let's just add it a little bit and see how it's bleeding into the shadow here. Like in this area right here as I add it in the light, It's kind of bleeding into the shadow. That's a pleasing look. And we'll probably talk about something similar to that in future chapters in this class. But let's bring this in to hit the wall. I could even make a selection here, selecting the side face of the wall. And we'll just chop out the stairs which don't need to be too precise. And I'll push Control H to hide that selection so I can kinda see what's going on here. Maybe just hit it. Oops. Hit it a little bit more randomly. You hear my pen darting around, right? De-select that and keep working at it. Puts some more of those yellows in here. And then I could do the same thing with the purples, by the way, even though there's a shadow, I don't want to completely make this light, but I can just hit a little bit. In this case, I might select the upper plane of the wall, which would be exposed to more reflected light. We're going to talk more about that in Chapter 2. Reflected light, direct light, things like that. So look forward to Chapter two. I like when I have the marching ants selection here in Photoshop, I like to hide them with just Control H. And then I can evaluate what my actual painting is looking like. That selection he often gets in the way visually. And there's sort of before and after. And that's cool. Merge them down in Photoshop. That's Control E to merge down. And you see I have some transparent areas of my painting. I'm just going to duplicate the layer and merge it back in. That kind of makes it so the paint is covering up the canvas a 100 percent. Let's go to my yellows, going to deeply saturated dark yellow. Let's go back to my oily brush here and just continue sort of working out these trees shadows. You noticed that my actual painting here does have a few more colors in it than just the complementary palette. As I sampled it a few minutes ago, you saw it's complimentary ish, in my study here, I'm making it fully complimentary, at least to the best of my ability. I'm only picking yellows and purples. But this is a great way, simple way, taking out all the guesswork of your color choices and making sure you understand how these colors move. Remember, in the background, which is basically all purple right now these trees look what happens when you build in a little bit of this yellow. It starts, it starts harmonizing, lives together. Well, now part of that is my value is correct. It's a dark value, so I'm making sure likewise, my yellow is also dark. But that's how these colors can work. They're built on neutrals and I can go full, almost full saturation, although I'm pressing lightly on the tablet, because I'm building it into the neutrals. Here. I'm doing it on the roof top a little bit. Let me zoom in a little bit on this painting. Just like that. I'm keeping it full size like this on purpose, partly because that's actually how I paint. I almost never do this. I'm almost never in there doing this with my painting. By the way, if I'm working on a hyper detailed painting, maybe I'll do that at the end. But if I'm doing a little color study like this, I never ever zoom in. That's almost a rule I have for myself. As close as I've come to a rule is that I never zoom in on things. It fits the art style. Obviously, if you're painting something again hyper-realistic, then you probably will want to zoom in. But as far as this class goes, There's probably never going to be a good reason to zoom in. Keep things readable at a distance. That's a skill. That's a part of a painterly skill is keeping things readable at distance. If it's readable at a distance, you can zoom in all day and sweeten it up. But if you zoom in and start painting right away, it's actually going to be very difficult for you to keep things readable at a distance. The smudge tool here is a tool I use a lot. I'd like to turn the finger-painting mode on up here and my strength is set to 95. Sometimes it's a bit lower, 92 maybe. Just use this flat brush. Now this brush I unfortunately cannot share because I purchased it from Kyle brush. Again, if you have an Adobe subscription, you can just log in and download Kyle Webster's brushes. And I believe this brushes in his impasto kit is just a flat brush though. It's just a, it's nothing crazy special. It just seems to work well as a smudge tool. But you know, you can use any brush in your collection as a smudge tool. And I encourage you to play around with it. This is just a brush that I find. I come back to a lot. So we're working at this. It's not going to, I'm not going to finish this painting to the same level as this one in this demonstration, because after all, we're talking about color here. But I have not, I have not yet gotten to the point where I feel it's fully communicating. The point. Although I'm sure the point is emerging here about how color moves in my bright yellows. Now, look at how saturated that is. These are not neutral anymore. Just building up these saturated colors switched back to a brush here. Actually, let's go back to this brush. So I'm only using brushes. Sharing in my brush kit. This plane of the wall should be in shadow, so I'll sample a shadow and bring it back. I'll also get some deep shadows here to start popping out some of these trees. This is where I will get a multiply brush, which is that one. Again, I shared this with the class. This is the round brush, sorry for that one, the round brush set to multiply mode. So multiply mode of the darkening mode. You can see the brush up here, it's set to multiply mode. And with that brush, I will throw in some of these front planes of the stairs, which will separate in value from the top planes. I'll do the top planes in a moment. That top plane should be getting a bit more reflected light. But in this case, I'll switch to the yellow too, just to show you that color really doesn't matter at this point, we've built the palate enough to communicate to the audience how that color is moving in and out of each other. You know how the colors in this palette are communicating how they're moving. At this point, it's almost a free for all color will be the least of your problems now. And that's how powerful this is. That's why at the beginning of this chapter, I said that it's the most fundamental thing you need to understand about colors, how it moves. Later in, late, in later chapters in this class, we'll get into more expanded pallets, of course, but spoiler alert, the principles are the same. The only thing that gets more difficult with dealing with more colors is you just have to apply that much more oversight when it comes to including more colors in your painting. As we'll find out, you can't just stick a color somewhere and have it exists nowhere else. It'll look weird. And then to place the complementary palette is nice because you only have two colors, so it almost by default you will be including them in your painting enough because you only have to write, just switch back and forth between the two and you're going to be fine when you have more colors, that becomes more difficult, but I don't wanna get ahead of myself. We'll get there. Sorry, Photoshop sometimes like when I sample things, it gives me this weird red. I'm doing my best to remember to switch back down to purple. Photoshop doesn't know that I'm using a complementary palette. So sometimes I got a gently reminded. So here we go. Let's switch back to the yellows and build in some just augment that purple by scribbling in or scumbling in some of that different color, the purple, sorry, the yellow. And you see these little splotches of light hitting it. Why not do that with Linear Dodge? So I've got some brushes here. This one is set to Linear Dodge up here. Again, this is the same as just making a layer and setting it to Linear Dodge. But I want to get some of these little slices of light in there coming through the trees. This always helps make things look believable, like you're in a foliage filled environment. You can use any brush with linear dodge. Just for fun, I will switch to this brush and I've got to go up here, switch it to Linear Dodge. And let's see if we can continue building this patchwork of light. Yeah, just while I do this. When I was first learning about color, this is an exercise I devised for myself a lot working in very limited palettes like this complementary palette to start with. And the other thing I would do is I would kind of orchestrate the light source to be very art directed. Let's say like this is a very convenient light source. It's only shining in this area of the painting. And conversely, all of this is in shadow. That's a very conscious choice because not only am I now simplifying color, I'm also simplifying the pattern of light and shadow is just two shapes, like the painting is like split almost in half. Maybe not the best compositional choice, but from a learning perspective, very, very handy. Okay, let me get out of linear dodge mode and actually know what. Let me go back to Linear Dodge mode, to overlay mode. And Get this. Yeah, I want a bit of that light to spill into the shadows. We're going to talk about that in a future chapter in this class. Chapter one has some important stuff of course, but I'm also using things that I'm going to explain later. Painting is I do my best to separate it into digestible chapters, but like you can't strip everything away all at once. Like I have to do things that I haven't talked about yet, but I promise I will talk about them. But I'm doing my very best to stick to the focus of Chapter 1. I'm going to switch this brush now to multiply mode, which again is a darkening mode. And just in a, use it to pull out some of the shadows that I've been losing in the process. I want to zoom out more now. Another thing that helps us to flip the canvas in Photoshop, you can flip it with Image, Image Rotation, Flip Horizontal. And now we can see little unfortunate shapes like just, just the nature of how switch back to normal mode, just the nature of how the temporal lobes just want to redesign some of those shapes, which has nothing to do with color. I'm talking about shapes now. The colors are fine. Colors are good to go. Which is good news. Notice how the trees almost look green in shadow, but I haven't used green. I've used this grade down yellow and it looks green. That's a sort of a magical thing about color. That's still amazes me all these years later, since I first started studying. It's amazing to me how color in context can look greater than the colors you actually used. This picture doesn't necessarily look like only yellow and purple, although you can definitely sniff out the complimentary palette here, complementary palettes are very basic, but the colors still is starting to have identities. Beyond that, I might poke out some little sky holes here. The sky will be like this purply tone. This is not in the original painting really. I'm going to poke out some of these little sky holes and then what that might allow me to do, try and keep them varied for interest. And that might allow me, that might justify some of these little rim lights and glands on the temple. This might even be a slight improvement over the original. I've got a very light purple here. This is the wrong value for this area. See it's way too light, but if I just press lightly on my tablet, photoshop will mix it for me and then I can sample the result and paint that in the general hotkey for sampling is ALT. And that's true in most painting apps. Your app may differ, but try Alt for those of you new to digital painting. Okay, at this point I feel like it's about time to start speeding up the video because I want to make the painting a little bit more complete than it is. But at the same time I feel like I've already explained the point of Chapter one. So there's no need to see me paint in real time anymore. However, before I do, I just want to point out what we've done here as kind of a recap. If I sampled watch the color picker here, I'll resize it so you can really see it. If I start sampling the colors, look how neutral they are, right there, mostly in the neutrals. Again, that is how colors get linked. It's very easy this purple, because it's so close to gray. That also means it's so close to this yellow, so that's how you link them, right? And then once you have that foundation, you can start branching out like here I am. I've got various degrees of non-neutral. Again, that neutral wall sort of ends here. And anything outside of that is I would consider way more saturated. So I've, I haven't really roof the saturation ever, but at this point in the painting I could, I'm free to do that. I can get these really saturated yellows. Now be careful when you do this though. Think of it like money you can spend. You only have a finite amount of it. You don't want those saturated. Yellow is everywhere because then it's going to start fighting against your neutrals too many saturated yellow is we'll kinda bankrupt your painting, spent too many of them. But the neutrals think of that as like unlimited money. You can never use too many neutrals. Now, the flip side of that is, if you do use a lot of neutrals, your painting will look fairly gray, but it will still work. If you use tons of saturation, your painting will start not working anymore because it's, there's no link anymore. That link between colors is destroyed, the movements gone. So with that recap in mind, let's speed up the video and finish this thing off. Now as you watch me work here, I want to tie this back to something I explained earlier in this chapter. Remember how the yellows occupied a smaller range than the purples. That's something you can build towards as you go. Even though I started with pretty neutral, well, very neutral yellows. As I add light and add that effect of that strong sun, I'm going to purposely try and push the saturation on the yellows more than I'm pushing the saturation on the purples. So the purples will retain more of the range and the yellows will have a narrower range, and that narrower range will be more saturated. This kind of relates to what I said it again a few minutes ago about having your whole painting remain neutral. If you do that, it'll work. It'll read, but it'll be a little too gray, a little too drab, which obviously sometimes you want in this painting, I don't want it to be drab. I want that sun to be very warm and inviting. So oftentimes that does ask for more saturation. But to balance that, your opposite color, in this case, the purple, your counterpoints needs to be brought in, reigned in more. So you have this sort of range that we're looking at on the screen right now in the corner there. Now, that's not a rule or anything. You could invert that and favor of the saturation to be in the shadows like in the purple range. In this case, I could have done that. It would have just produced a different field, but it would've worked it depending on what field you want is where you go. Also, you could equally favor them, like have your saturation equally exist in the purples and the yellows. That'll work too again so long as you have the neutrals there to produce that color movement, to give the viewer that, that link between how the two colors communicate and how they merge from one to the other. You could absolutely push the purple saturation equally as hard as the yellow. I tend not to do that though in not only in this case, but in most cases I tend not to go that way because it's a little harsh word. But if something desperate about that, there's something that looks like you're really trying for color and it's, doesn't always come off well. I do try and favor of saturation in one color or the other. And I'm pretty clear about that in at least in my own mind, kinda from the start. Sometimes you explore that in the painting itself, like you make a new layer and try it. Obviously with digital, it's non-destructive, right? Just make a new layer and try it. There's no risk and then see if it works or not. So I do that sometimes, but in other times like this one, I usually ask myself, where is the light in the image? And that will usually get the most saturation. Especially if it's like a late afternoon sun like this, which is by nature, very saturated even in real life. So the answer was there for me in this one. But again, there's no right or wrong there. It's up to you to experiment. The principle I want you to adhere to though, is this idea of building color movement through neutrals first and then adding saturation. It's a color principle that will work no matter what your subject matter is, no matter what your lighting is. But it's also not a formula either because you can produce infinite varieties of results with it. All right, there's my final successful painting, I think, based on simple yet effective color foundations. Let's now dig into some warm and cool talk in Chapter two. 5. Color Temperature Theory - Warm vs. Cool: Okay, welcome to Chapter 2, where we are going to get into the trenches with color temperature. This is the mother of all color theories. You have to understand this. If you understand this, you can paint with color. We're gonna gain a lot of seminal things in this chapter, we'll get a deeper understanding of how color moves. That's taking off from Chapter 1, we'll further explore the idea of color movement, an understanding of how light influences even bullies color. Strong reasons for our color choices and appreciation for nature is color theory. How color works in real life, a system of color we can exaggerate for artistic purposes. And because value is always part of the conversation, will develop an important link between color and light and shadow. All right, So something everybody, even my 18 month old daughter knows about color is color names. Red, yellow, green, orange, blue. These are also called hughes. It's fine to know these names of course, but they're not very useful. The reason they're not very useful is they don't tell us anything about that color's temperature. When I say temperature, I'm talking about whether a color is warmer or cooler in context. So here's an example of a context to read swatches. Those are both red, but they're not the same red. So the usefulness of the word red is immediately hitting its limit. It can't differentiate between these two swatches, but our eyes can. I would suggest to you that this red is the warmer of the two. So here's a different color wheel. Well, it's the same color wheel except this one only shows us Hughes and not different levels of grays and saturation. And if color is always moving, I like to think of there being two train stops on this color wheel, the warm stop, which is this range in here, and the cool stop, which is this range on the opposite side. Anything in-between those colors I just think of as train tracks between those two stops. So color is moving around this color wheel. And as painters, we need to track which way it's going. Here's a list of some basic hues. Again, red, yellow, green, blue. On the left side, I'm going to show those colors in transition toward the warmer color temperatures. And on the right side I'm going to show those colors and transition to the cooler temperatures. So starting with the warms, as each color travels toward the warm part of the color wheel. Let's look at how, as each color gets warmer, how it's being pulled toward the warm part of the color wheel, starting with red. Red is going to travel through the oranges to be in the warm part of the color wheel. So you can see in the red section at the top, you can see how red is slowly sliding into orange. Okay, so when we say a warmer red, it's somewhere in that range. Okay, So look at yellow. In order for yellow to stay warm, it's also gotta go toward the oranges. So you can see that yellow slowly isn't a process of sliding toward orange, which of course then slides toward read. And that's the warmer end of the yellow spectrum. Now look at green. Now we're moving away from the warms a bit. Green is somewhere in the middle, right? So for green to go towards the warms, it's going to pass through yellow and then orange, right? It's going to go in that direction. So greens are warmer as they get yellower. Now with blue, blue is interesting because it's on the opposite side. For blue to get warm, it's got to travel through the whole color wheel, right? But which way is it going to go? I would say it's going to go into the area that takes it into reds the quickest. So it's not going to go through greens. I would say it's going to go through purples. It's going to go that direction because purples are influenced by red and red is a stereotypically warm colors we've established. So for me, a blue can get warmer by traveling through purples, then magentas, and then of course it's into the reds. Okay, now let's look at the cooler temperatures. And of course, just the opposite direction happens. Red is sliding away from oranges and therefore it's getting into the purple end of red. So when I say cooler red, I'm generally going to be talking about reds that are on the purple side of red, yellows. Same thing's going to go the opposite way. It's going to travel toward the greens, which travels into the blues, right? So a yellow can actually start getting greener as it becomes cooler. And a green is going to get bluer. And a blue is going to probably go, well, if I said a blues gonna get warmer by traveling into the purple families, it's gonna get cooler by going the opposite way. So it's going to go into the turquoise and cyan families. So the takeaway here is whenever you're using a color name, its hue, red, yellow, green, blue, you have to precede it with a modifier. Is it a warm red or a cool red? You need to know as the painter, which direction it's traveling. So now that we have the beginning of an understanding of what I mean by color temperature, we can ask the question, what drives color temperature? What tells one color which way to move cooler or warmer? The answer to that is it's dictated by the light. Now, don't worry, I'm gonna do a demo for you in just a second. But for now, just as colors can go warmer and cooler, light sources are also going to be either warmer or cooler by nature. So the first step of any study in color. It's to determine what temperature, the light sources. And here's a few common ones. Of course, sunlight is probably the most common light source you'll ever paint. That color swatch, by the way, is just there to show you the general color and temperature of the light, kinda this warm as yellow and Sunlight's case, then you have a tungsten bulb, which is kinda a little more orangey. Tungsten bulbs are the common light bulb we probably have around your house. Firelight, which is more red, and a candlelight which is sort of in-between orange and red. Then on the cool side, a very common one would be overcast or cloudy day. If you just think of a cloudy day, the clouds are like this steely cold gray. You have fluorescent bulbs, which is kind of a green that's airing on blue. And then of course moonlight, which is a pretty bluish light. Now of course this is not an exhaustive list. There are way more light sources than that, but these are just some very common ones that you'll find yourself painting over and over. The next logical question to ask from here is, okay, so I know what my light source is. What information does that tell me? It tells you which direction, as in warmer or cooler, which direction the colors are going to travel in, in the light and shadow families, the color of the light opens the floodgates for you to determine what other colors are plausibly going to occur in your painting. Let's take a look at this in practice. This photograph is no work of art, but it does show a basic truth about how color temperatures work in sunlight and in shadow. And I want to show you a very effective, quick and easy method of studying color from photographs that will help give you some first-hand information on how color works. So I've got the image in Photoshop and the reason I'm using this picture is because it's very clear what's in light and what's in shadow, right? The shadows is bisecting the picture right in half. So I make a little chart at the bottom and I simply begin sampling and with the brush I paint what I sample from the light. In this case, I just paint it as a abstract palette underneath the light. Very simple. There's no thought involved is just whatever the light is hitting, which is very obvious in this case, sample it and paint it under the light category. And then in just a second we're going to switch to shadows and do the exact same exercise. Make sure you sample over a variety of materials. So the rock, the trees, the scaffolding, the bridge, the masonry, like whatever is in your photo, make sure you get a good sampling of all the materials that are in there. Then when you're ready, you can go ahead and switch to the shadow side. And just like in the light, makes sure you accurately sample everything you can find that in the shadow and place it under the category. This is not any. We're not doing any analyzing or thinking yet. We are just sampling colors and putting them down. And this is gonna give us a basis from which to observe potential patterns. And I will show you from here how you can actually glean a whole lot of valuable information. So right now I'm just busy. There's a few more things in the shadow here, so I'm just busy sampling from different trees. You know, the cars, the road, the rocks and the religions growing on the rocks and all these little interesting materials that exist in shadow. Now I'm fully aware that this photo is overexposed. It doesn't matter. We're still going to be able to glean useful information from it. Now that that stage is done, open up a color window like this and you can spread it right over the photo. I don't care about the photo anymore. I'm just going to start sampling from what I've selected light and shadow families. So here's some greens that I sampled from the light. And now I want to start thinking, okay, I want to start noticing where these greens are. Have a few different apps like five or six different swatches of green. And as I sampled them, you'll notice that the color wheel is stuck in this area. Okay, look again, I'm sampling greens right now. Look at, look at the color box here. I'm sampling greens, and look at where the color wheel is. It's in here, right? Okay. I'm going to start sampling some oranges, like some of the dirt or sticks and twigs and stuff sampling. And you can see that the color wheels kind of stuck in here, okay, and the Greens were just up here, is very close to the color wheel so far been stuck in here. And I've sampled like two or three different materials. Now I'm going to just sample everything in the light. Okay, Look at, look at my color box and look specifically at the color wheel. Don't even look so much in here. Look at the color wheel. And while in Photoshop It's a color strip. But look at the, I'll call it a color. We'll look at the color wheel as I sample in light. Look at that color. We'll note how it's stuck. It's like pinned to one small area of the wheel. And not coincidentally, that area of the wheel happens to be the same area that I said earlier was responsible for the warmer part of the color wheel. It's all in this part. Right? Now. That brings up a principle of light that I want to direct your attention to. The light source in this photograph is clearly the sudden. Now one of the properties of a light source, especially one as strong as the sun, is. I actually like to call it, it's like a bully. The sun or the main light source wants to take every color that it hits and it wants those colors to conform to it. It wants to pull colors in towards its influence. That's why when I'm sampling all these colors that are in the light, therefore colors that are being affected by the sun. They are all hovering around where I said the Sun's color was, which is around here. They're all hovering here. The sun has taken all of these colors from all disparate materials, right? And has bullied them to be like it, it wants it to be like itself. So let's call that the bully principle, the light source, once every color it hits to be more like itself. And this is actually a principle that you can apply to any light source. And of course, we're going to do more studies after this. But in this case, the sun is such a strong bully that it's taking plants, leaves, rooftops, asphalt, and it's conforming everything to its general realm of influence. So if we're painting this picture, every color of the sun hits, we know which direction on the color wheel it will be traveling. Okay, so let's start sampling and the shadow family. And just like before, I'd like you to take a look at the hue wheel more than anything. The color wheel, as I sample in shadow, I'm kind of picking materials that were like the row to the asphalt, the stone, the cliff in the background. Here's some greenery from the trees actually, back to the road and stuff like that. And you'll notice predictably maybe that these colors actually are on the opposite end of the color wheel. In other words, we're the cooler family of color's lived. This illustrates a very simple truth about how light interacts with color temperature. And that is, warm light will produce cooler shadows. And as we'll see very soon, the opposite is true. Cool light produces warmer shadows. Now why is that? The reason why in this case, warmer light is producing cooler shadows. It's simple. It's because the light and shadow are receiving light from two completely different sources. The light is receiving light from the sun. And as I've said, the bully principle, bullies every color to be more in the warmer temperatures. The shadows are receiving light from everywhere else. Remember back in values we talked about reflected light. Now, what was reflected light, if you remember, reflected light was when light came in from the sun in this case, and bounced off of an object and bounced into the shadow. The shadows are getting secondhand light from everywhere. And if you remember from our value lesson, that secondhand light could also come from the environment or in this case the sky. Actually in this case, that would be first and foremost the skies of 360 degree bowl. The sky is shining blue light down on everything. Now you might wonder then why isn't it blew in the sun? And that's because the sun is more powerful. The main light source is the most powerful source in the picture. Okay, so you can't have the blue of the sky compete with the sun. The main light source is the bully. Nothing else competes with it. Remember, there is no reflected light in the light family in the shadows though. The shadows are free of the bully. Therefore, many more colors may occur there. So you might have the light from the sky, like I said, coming down and making the road bluish, making the ash fall here blueish. Also, what happens is that blue light coming down from the sky. If you take a look at the greens, take a look at these greens here. You notice how when I sample these greens, they're subtly different. They are moving toward blue. Remember if I go back to the light, here's the green in light. Okay, Here's green in light. Notice it's moving toward the warms. Remember our diagram from earlier, that green is moving toward the yellow, so it's a warmer green looking shadow. In shadow it's moving toward the blues. They're going in two different directions. It's the same green, it's the same tree. But the color temperatures are moving in two different directions because one is being bullied by a warm light and the other is being influenced by a softer, cooler skylight. Okay? So it only stands to reason that the light family is going to be in a completely different realm of color temperature than the shadow family. Another way of saying it would be the cooler shadows are cooler because they do not contain the influence of the sun's warmth. The sun is not bullying them. So how could they possibly be as warm as anything that is bullied by the sun, the shadows are going to appear cooler just by default. 6. Understanding And Painting Warm Light: Another one of my favorite painting lessons involves me drawing like a kindergarten kid, I'm going to draw some grass. Okay, this is some nice grass. Oh, here's the sun up here with some nice radiating sun rays with a Somali can't forget the smile. And then there's going to be a tree in this scene. In a tree has a trunk that looks like this. Of course, let's erase out the grass behind the trunk. And then the tree has some nice foliage that looks like this, with some nice swirls in there. Okay, There's my beautiful drawing. Now what I'm gonna do is I'm going to show you how the principles of color apply and how you can turn even this piece of garbage into something that actually has viable color information. And of course, this is a springboard off the study we just did. I'm going to be applying some of that theory to this. Now the first thing we do when we're painting our own picture is to consider the, what's called local color. And just to provide you a quick definition, local color is the inherent color of an object. So like how a red apple is red, it's using that useless color term, like I said before, red, orange, blue, whatever it is, right? Like the local color of the sky. Blue. So let's pick a blue and I don't even care which blue again, I'm in kindergarten right now. I only have Crayola crayons in front of me. So I picked my Crayola crayon blue mindlessly. And I am painting in the sky. I'm actually not even painting. I'm coloring. Make sure I get this side in as well. Okay, good. And now what color is the sun while the sun we've already talked about is kinda like this yellow. So I'm going to paint right over my Smiley face. I'm going to paint my yellow sun. These are local colors. These are what we know are meaningless. But when you start a painting on your own, sometimes you do have to start from this kind of very prosaic sense of color, just local colors, you know, brown, red, green, whatever it is. But you'll see how soon we stray from this. But for now, let me stay in kindergarten because being in kindergarten is fun because you have no responsibilities. So I'm going to just paint my nice colors. Okay. What color is a what color is the grass? Green. I'm going to pick my crayola green and paint my color in my nice grass. And of course, let's color in the lines because we're in kindergarten and that's important when you're in kindergarten. And we make some nice grassy strokes. And we have our graphs. Oh, guess what? This green can also be used up here for the foliage because trees are green too, right? And one more thing to fill in the tree trunk, and everyone knows that tree trunks are brown. So we get a brown crayon and we color in our tree. Okay, the picture I've made looks exactly like something drawn by a four-year-old. Believe it or not, we're actually on our way to a good painting where it, we're nowhere mirror there yet. But this actually is a viable first stage, so we're ready for the next step. And this is where we part ways from our kindergarten child selves and actually put on a painter's cap. We have to start thinking about values and light. But I'm also going to now think about the lesson I just did with color. And think about which direction on the color wheel are my colors going to travel? First question, what is the light source? It's the sun. The sun is shining in this way. Okay, We're painting sunlight again. That means that in light, the Sun is the bully. So in light, all of these local colors, the green, the brown Bob is only two, green and brown. The sun is the bullies, so the sun is going to take the local color and there's only two, in this case, the brown and the green. And it's going to bully it to be more like it, both in terms of its hue, the direction it's traveling on the color wheel, and also the saturation up here. Let's start with the tree foliage. Here's my local color. Okay? Now if you notice it's kind of mirroring the middle of green. I would call this a cooler green because I see some influence of blue and this green, if I just keep going up, you'll notice that this green is kinda on the tipping point to kind of a turquoise blue. So I would call this green that we have down here, a cool green. The sun, being a warmer, warm color, is going to warm up this green. So this green is going to travel on the color wheel down this way, just like we saw in our previous study of color, right? And the value is going to be light. So i'll, I'll make the value like this, maybe a little lighter. And I'm going to paint this green. I'm going to apply this green into whatever the sun hits in my, my, my fence line of light and shadow which I have in my head will just make it simple and just make it like this. Make it very simple. And I'm just going to apply that green, Okay, now I'm not done with this yet. I need to think of the shadow family now. While the shadow family. Is going to travel in the opposite direction because it's influenced by a cooler light rights influenced by the skies, influenced by bounced light coming off of the ground, for example. It's also going to be darker in value. So I'm going to get the value down, which would be first and foremost, I don't care about color gets just going to put my value down here somewhere. So I'm gonna go dark. And I'm also just going to go a little up toward the cooler side. And I'm going to apply that. And let's just see what that does. Let's see what that gives us. Going to paint right up to my fence line. You notice I'm using a little bit of the way com, transparency. I'm not trying to create interesting blending or anything. I'm just, I just have a basic brush out. Okay, so now we have, we've split our local color, we, we've deviated from our local color. We're no longer in local color now. Now we're in terms of light. We're thinking about values, and we're thinking about applying warm temperatures and cool temperatures to the light and shadow family. This is kind of step one. Now, Let's think about halftone in this tree. Halftone is right here where the form is turning away from the light, but it's still in light. Now, if a form is turning away from the bully, the bullies not going to be able to bully it as much, but because halftone is still in the light, the bullies still influences it. So I'm still going to be in the warm greens, but I'm allowed may be to sneak back my local color just a little bit. Get a little more green in there rather than my yellowy green. And that half tone is going to help me transition, of course, into shadow. That's the value part of it, right? I am purposely drawing terribly here because I want you to focus on the color application. Now, I can further separate my light from my average light from my half tone and color by even making my average light even warmer, maybe even yellower. Maybe that sun is bullying it so much that it's actually making the greens fairly yellow. And you'll notice that my tree still looks green, even though I'm painting yellow here because the reason it's still looks green and can identify as green leaves is because I have enough varieties of green from warm and the light. And then in the shadow I have a cooler green. I have enough of a span of green that our brains still understands. This is a green object. Okay? Like I haven't, I haven't strayed too far. Like, Hey, would be a mistake. I would have gone too far if I did this. Like if I painted red, That's just doesn't make sense because the sun would not bully the colors to read. The sun is not red, the sun is B, yellowy orange in this case. So the sun is simply going to take those greens and pullets to that. Okay, So we're going to have a, a very orangey or a very yellowy looking green. And you see like I can put different kinds of temperatures in my green. Some of it might be more yellow, some of it might be more in the greens and the orangey greens, yellowy greens. You know, I can play in this area. And you'll see this is how we get an interesting kind of tapestry, or we begin to get an interesting tapestry of color. Because I'm thinking in terms of temperature. I don't care exactly which green I'm in as long as I'm in the warmer greens, I'm okay, I'm appropriately in the warm family of green. Now let's think about, oh, actually know what, let's do the same calculation to the trunk. So let's start with the shadows this time, because actually often I do start with shadows. So the shadow is going to be a cooler shadow, right? So we sample our local color. And to make it cooler, I can either go this way, but that's no good because that is going toward the bully. I want to go away from the bully. So let's go away and then let's go darker for our value. And let's paint that in. There's going to be a cast shadow from the tree. It's going to make this cool pattern, but I'm not going to, I'm not trying to make a nice drawing here, guys. So I'm going to ignore any kind of subtle drawing. I'm going to make it more Something we can all achieve. It doesn't matter how good a 10-year-old could draw this. That's my point. Okay. And actually I have taught 10-year-olds art and color and done exactly this and they all get it. This is the magic of this kind of demo, is I've stripped away good drawing from the process and left us just with basic raw information. Okay, so we now have our cooler shadow. Now let's take our trunk color and do the light. So the, the bully, the sun is going to influence it to go this way. And of course they're gonna get lighter because it's in sunlight. And it's going to have this warmer brown. And I'm just going to paint that and you know, maybe I'll leave behind our local color is a bit of halftone. I'll leave that behind. So it's a slightly darker value now. And it's also slightly more in the local color. Well, it is the local color, so it kinda leave that behind. So again, halftone is where local color reveals itself a little more readily. And again, let's just play around with these families because I'm in warm light here. Let's see what happens if I'm a little more saturated orange. Can mix these, right? You can, you can play a little bit. Maybe I'm an average light now let's go a little more yellow. Using the smudge tool to help me with some edges. Again, I'm not really thinking edges in this demo, but just for fun, I'm using the Smudge Tool. Let's work this halftone, maybe even a little more orange, a little more brown, as it works its way into the shadow. You'll notice I'm working on halftone into shadow. Okay? And let's do one last thing. Let's take our grass. We can just sample, let's just sample the tree and put the light of the grass here. Same calculation, right? I don't have to explain it again. Cooler shadow, right? A cooler green. And we're just going to paint in the shadow cast by this tree. And I'm just going to make a very rough shape here. I'm not again, I'm not trying to draw well, so we are definitely far away from a kit from what a kindergarten kid could do. A kindergarten kid cannot do this. There's too much thought now, but we're still not done. We haven't considered our shadows anywhere further than average shadow. I've only got average shadow in here in my life. I've got some nice values. In fact, if I wanted to highlight, maybe I could even find a highlight which is a direct reflection of the light source, right? So I'm gonna get like the exact sun color almost. And you know, this is not quite how a bark wood work in light, but let's just make a highlight just to show you guys how I can put my values there. And I can even take my tree. This is going to make my tree look more like Chrome, but that's okay. Now in shadow we want to think about reflected light and shadow. Now we know from our previous experience here that the sky is largely going to be responsible for reflected light. And the sky is going to influence anything that's open to it. And when I say open to it, I mean like what forms face the sky and it's like this area in here, kinda all faces the sky, right? It's, it's pointing up basically. So the sky is going to hit it now, where the sky wouldn't hit this area in here, Not so much right? Because this area is tucking under the tree. There's no It's not open to the sky, this area. So here's where we might get a dark accent and I'll talk about that a bit later. But maybe this area might get light from the sky because it's open to it. Certainly this area here is open to the sky, the shadow. So what's going to get some skylight? So let, let's deal with the sky fill first. Now this is all termed reflected light. I like to call this reflected light. So what I do is I get my average shadow, which is already a cooler green, put myself in the ballpark. And if you remember from values, reflected light lightens or values just a bit. And also because it's coming from the sky, I'm allowed to go really into the blues. Think of our, Think of the demonstration or the study we just did with the from the photograph thick of how blue that road was. Okay. If you think of concrete, you don't necessarily think it's blue, but in shadow it certainly was blue. We saw it in a photograph. So I'm painting this blue reflected light from the sky into my tree. Okay. And again, I'm just kind of putting it in the areas that I think are most open to receiving light from the sky. And I'll do the same thing with my trunk here. Now my trunk is or look as cooler version of brown, right? So I don't want to go blue, it's too much of a jump. But maybe I'll go towards blue, I'll continue towards blue and I'll go up a little bit. And maybe the blue of the sky mixed with the temperature of my trunk shadow gives me more of a purply thing. Maybe I'll, maybe let's see if I can sneak in even more toward blue and see, see what that does. I'm playing around, there's no right and wrong guys. And this brings up that question, what color should I choose? There is no one color you should choose. There is no rights color for the shadow here, for the reflected light. It's simply a calculation of that blue sky entering into this temperature that we've established for our average shadow, we've established that it's a cooler brown. And now that cooler brown is going to get even cooler as the sky comes into play, right? So what color should I choose? Well, it's a calculation. It's that sky entering into a realm of cooler brown. How is that Sky going to influence this temperature? How is that blue of the sky going to look against this green? Well, it's probably going to be a lot more blue because green is closer to blue. So when that is that green slides into blue, there's no, there's less of a barrier for it to enter into blue. So there's going to be more blue. You can see on my kindergarten example is starting to get layered and complex, right? Whereas in the trunk maybe that blue produces more of a purple or maybe let's try getting it to some actual blues and see if we can sneak, sneak some of them in. That's fun. It's fun when you can do that. Let's do the cast shadow very quickly. Same calculation, the blue of the sky. Let's talk dark accent. Dark accents going to go where one form and another form meets kind of forming a crevice. And here's a color rule. Dark accents are always warm. So when I do a dark accent, I've got my multiply airbrushed out. I'm going to pick a warm color like that. And with my multiply brush, I'm just going to just spill that dark accent kinda over both of these forms. And I'll do the same where the tree trunk meets the ground. Getting a nice, warm dark accent. I don't know why dark accents are always warm, but in nature they pretty much are. In fact high kinda call it a painting rule. Keep your dark accents warm. Now look at this. I've got it. I've got, I mean, there's not much in the way of good drawing here, but I've got some decent colors here. The only other thing I want to show you is how you can actually have some green bounced light coming into the trunk. So if like sun is coming in this way as we know, it's going to hit that grass and actually bounce up into this part of the trunk. And I've neglected to do that so far so I can sample where I'm at and maybe go into the greens and just subtly paint in some of this green. Okay, You get the idea. See how, I see how it's really evolved into a tapestry of color. Now, really interesting, fun stuff you get to do as a painter. I love doing this. And just like that we have our final, we took a simplified kindergarten level drawing like this and actually added some sophistication to it. So I'd like to now tie in that demonstration back in with our swatch study and show you how I study from photographs using this information. So this is just a quick color study. And what I love about these color studies is first of all, the canvas is very small. That's probably about as 600 pixel canvas. And you do not really need to draw well. You can just do the very basic amount of drawing and you can still do a very convincing replication of the color. Now I'm not sampling from the photograph. I'm trying to remember what I've learned from sampling that photograph. So you can see, as you remember, there are warm lights and the light and cooler color temperatures in the shadow. So I'm kind of putting myself in that ballpark of hopefully you can get a sense of that how I begin is giving myself kind of a quick comparison of warm temperatures versus cool. So you can see I've blocked in the kind of a big shadow area. And now I'm working a little more in depth into the light and expanding my context of color temperatures that are in this painting. Again, it doesn't matter what the exact color as I don't need to sample from the photo, all I need to do is get the relationships right, getting myself in the appropriate category of either warmth or coolness. And we're going to keep dialing into that so we can further understanding of it. But this is a good photo to study from because it's a very generic separation of warm and cool. So I'm just blocking in some big shapes. That's the other thing I like about this photo. It's got a lot of big shapes, not a whole lot of small things that can trip you up. So just blocking in some, of course, the shadow on the cliff in light, that's still going to be a cooler temperature, right? And just blocking in, there's a lot of greenery, which means I can play a lot with different kinds of green, of course, when it's in the light, they're all going to be greens that veer towards the warm side, the yellow side, and in shadows you can see I've actually already really pushed those greens to be closer to blue. I like to push the difference. That's another thing you can do when you're studying from a photo to really understand it. Try and push it, push it even further than the photo actually is. And but but push it in the direction that the photo is already going. You know, that's something that you can actually observe better from life year your eyes register this a little more truly than photos do. But of course, we can't paint from life. This is online, so I have to use photos. I have a few different texture brushes that I keep going to probably the same three or four brushes I'll use all the time. And they just give me some unpredictable patterns, different edges and just helps me create quicker. If I just use like a round brush, I'd have to do too much editing, but a lot of different brushes give me different shapes and different kind of edge and just keep the interest going. So this is all, this shouldn't be. Anything I'm doing here should not come as any shock to anyone. It's like right now I'm in half tone. That's shadow actually right there. So this is, this is still a bit of halftone bit of shadow. Here are some average light coming in for the trees. This is some red rooftops. And just to improvising a little bit here, there's a little red and the photo, but I wanted to just bring it out a little more in my study. Just for fun. Again, this is not a quote unquote. Good drawing is just very basic blocks of shape. But in the end, that's actually what a painting is. Of course, you can refine from here, but this is just a quick study. This is not meant for refined refinement, is just meant to test, test what I think I've learned. Here's some just a little bit lighter bit of leaves coming in. I don't know. I don't I wouldn't call that a highlight and call it just to emphasis of the average light value. Getting in some yellower green just to really push the influence of the Sun there. And just a few tree branches picking a warm light. Now I'm back in shadow. This is reflected light. Reflected light is a little lighter and because it's coming from the sky a lot, in this case it's very blue. You can see a lot of I'm really in the blues, I'm in the purples now, or this is dark accent, dark accent here with the airbrush just helping route one surface to another. Just getting those crevices wherever there's a crevice underneath the trees are underneath where the wall, the wall hits the street, just like that and back into, you know, average light here, just refining shapes because you're always dealing with shapes, right? Even though my shapes are blobby and just blocked in, I still want to make an attempt at good shapes even though it might not have time to do total refinement. Here's a little cars coming in. Reflected light makes their tops bluer. I'm just selecting out the shadow and I'm just gonna do a quick brightness contrast just to darken the shadow just a bit, just to separate my values. It helps, punch it out, see that it really helped. And just like that we have our finish. It really doesn't take much to quickly grab a photo and do a quick study from it. And just for the occasion, I wanted to show you how I actually took this very photo and arrived at something more finished from it. This is a painting I did back in, I think 2010 or 2009. It was quite a few years ago now, but you can see how the lighting and the information are very closely aligned with what we saw in that photo. And this photo was actually the inspiration for this painting. As far as I'm concerned, there's really no difference between this painting in my study except for that this painting is just more finished in terms of shape refinement and edge refinement. But in terms of color, all the information in this painting is still contained in my little study. 7. Understanding And Painting Cool Light: So let's take a look at a cool light. This is an overcast day as we can see by the sky, or a very cloudy day, a day where there's no sunlight. This is what I would call a cooler light because the light is only coming from the sky and it's coming from all 360 degrees. And as we sample the sky, we can see it's this kind of grayish blue. It's definitely completely opposite of the sun, which was like over here, right? This time we're dealing with a bluish light, which was called a cooler light. So let's do our study. And the other thing interesting about this photo is as I sample and everything in the light, It's a little harder to determine what's in light and the way you do it when the light is so soft like this, like overcast light makes it very diffuse, kinda like very soft light. The way to determine what's enlight is anything that's clearly facing up. So the sand, I'm not going to just pick any sand because these footsteps are going to actually create some shadows. But in this area, I can get things at face up. But when I sample the grass here, the weeds, whatever those are, anything that's clearly going to get light directly from the sky. I'm going to sample that. And this is interesting because the reads is actually a warm local color. It's kind of an orangey kind of vegetation, right? So this is going to be an interesting task. How does, how does a orange become cooler? And what we'll find out in a second. But first I'm like I did before shutting off my brain. And I'm just sampling colors that I think are in the light. And now let's get into shadow and the shadow again, it's a little harder to ascertain what's in shadow and just look at the form. It's whatever turns under right. So any part of that grass that's facing the planes that are facing away, it's going to be in shadow. Even the sand will have shadow like where the footprints are. So now that we have our sampling part done, we can go to the analytics phase. Let's bring up our color picker. And I like to hide the photograph just so we don't we're not focused on it. We're looking at are what we sampled. And I'll start with the light just like I did before. Now let's look at first of all, let's take the sand colors. These are the sand colors that I sampled. And look at that. When you think sand, you probably think brown, right? You probably think it's got a brown local color. But look at how wrong that assumption would be in this light. This is a cooler light we are, did we determined that the light temperature from the skies around here, I just sampled the sky to get this. So if this is like the color of our bully, well, it's taking what is brownish sand and pulling it. So let's say, let's say the local color of sand, you might say, is like this. Our sky, the bully is pulling that so strongly up into the blues. And we can see how much influence that cool light has had. Now let's look at the grass, that orange grass stuff. Okay, Now this is a little different because this is, like I said, a local color that is warm already. It's kind of warm by default. And you look at that, you're kinda like, Oh, but that's kinda of a warm color as this is going to break your roles. Well, no, because look at this now as I sample a shadow, watch what happens. We'll get that, see how much warmer the shadows got again and go back to light. Here was light and here's shadow. You can see a clear difference. Light, shadow, you can see the light. Two things happen in the light. One is the color wheel goes ever so subtly toward or away from the warms. It's traveling up, it's traveling this way. Now it's not getting very far because that grass is so orange is local colors. So orange the light, because the light is kind of weaker, the bullies a little weaker in this case. It's fighting that grass, but it's, you know, it's not carrying it all the way to blue. The sand has no local color of its own. I mean, it's very grayish already, so the bully is going to be able to pull it towards blue is a lot more successfully. But because that grass is so orange, the blue light is going to pull it towards blue, but only a little bit. Okay, but the trend is definitely clear when you sample the lightened shadow, that, that light. Look at the, look at the color strip here. Look at the color wheel. This is shadow. And this is like see how it's going toward the blues. And as it goes towards those blues, it's also getting grayer. This is very similar to the color movement we explored in Chapter 1. And in fact, Chapter 3 is going to drive us into grays even more. For now though, let's continue on with cool light and do a little demonstration. As you can see, this photograph is lit with the same overcast bluish, grayish sky, same as our swatch study previously. Which means that the grass, the greens and the oranges in that grass are going to be cooler up top and warmer as they turn under. And this has water as well, which I'll show you a basic principle for water. So again, I'm just doing my basic line drawing blocking in the composition. I'm going to work with values and color at the same time. This time, just to show you a more representative process of how I actually work. So it's blocking in the elements of the composition. I like to work in red just to preferred color mixes with paints easily. And as usual, I'll start with the sky, kinda this grayish, cool gray up, they're mixing a few different temperatures of that sky, maybe a little warmer and the horizon, it's kind of a classic thing, but again, very subtle grades, right? Work into the distance. My goal is not to copy color for color. I'm just trying to understand the relationships and then I'll actually start pushing them even further. So painting water like this is easy. The water is just a reflection of the sky, so it's a very light value. Here are some warm shadows coming in. So this is what I usually do. Actually, I work with the shadows first a lot. So some warm shadows coming in. These are these are warm greens. I would turn those warm greens, greens that air on yellow and red like the side of grain. And then of course what that does is it leaves me room to both gray off the color for the cool top you can see right now. And also shift it towards the blues on the hue strip. It's subtle, It's a subtle shift, but it's a shift nonetheless. Okay, And the thing I like about this photo is there are a few different colors in the grass. It's not just green grass. There's like dead grass that's orange and different kinds of reads that make all different kinds of temperatures like I'm laying in right now. Notice I'm relatively in the grays still. I'm just playing with the and of course my way com tablet is adding opacity to it. Sometimes I will pick a more saturated color than I intend. And then with my tablets pressure sensitivity, I can mix it accordingly, kinda mixing colors on the canvas. So you can see how in the grass I've established a basic relationship of cooler lights that is grayer and colder greens and grade down oranges and then warmer shadows which are more saturated orange greens. Trying to get the relationships correct. And this point I'm blocking in just some dark values in the background where the trees just catch the least amount of light. It's because they're perpendicular to the light. You know, if the sky is like a plane that's going horizontally through, through space, the trees are perpendicular to that. They're standing up and down. So they get the least amount of light, no matter if it's from the sun or from the cool light sky, whatever it is. The other thing about cool light in this case is, at least in a overcast day scenario is cooler light is very soft and very soft light. So you don't have to worry about hard edge shapes that hadn't actually makes it harder, more difficult, I should say, because the transitions have softer edges and it's always harder to control softer edges. A hard edge is at least it's a very identifiable edge. But in a cool light situation like this, you dealing with soft edges. So I'll scribble the brush around. I'll make varieties of shapes. And I'll just try and get those colors to merge with softer edges. That's all. Sam doing that right now, I'm playing with the green moving into the warmer oranges. But it's still a colder orange, right? It's not a very saturated, hot orange. It's kind of a grade down one subdued. The cooler light is making the orange grass grayer. Okay. It's not making it blue because the cool blue light is not strong enough that blue light, It's a bully, but it's not such a strong bully that it's going to bully it all the way to blue, it's not that strong. So it's going to bully it toward blue by means of going into the grays. So I am just laying in just some, you know, just darker values back there. Just lightened shadow. I'm only using average light, average shadow in this whole painting. Notice the trees in the background have a basic, an average light and an average shadow shape. Notice the grass in the foreground has just average light up top and then the average shadow that it transitions to when it meets the water. And of course, evaluating what the correct edge is to merge those two shapes appropriately. And suddenly you're compounding your fundamentals. You've got good values and good color temperatures. And suddenly now you're a painter. This is what painting is it any good painter? I'm just adjusting levels here, getting some help a little bit. I felt I was a little too light overall. And any good painter is just doing this, okay brushwork and all that stuff is secondary. This is what's really going on in their heads. And then of course, your personal style overlays on top of this, like how you choose to move the brush, that, that's totally up to you. At this point, all the color temperatures are in place and I'm just doing some ancillary stuff, might call it detail, just little very small shapes, right? In terms of big shape, medium small shape, I'm just doing some small shapes right now to get the illusion of detail in there. And just like that, we have a cool light study to complement our warm light study. 8. Analyzing Color In Various Pieces Of Art: Alright, let's go through a little slideshow of paintings and just talk about what's going on. Otherwise, this is a painting by Paul Felix. This is a cold light painting. And what I love about this is it's so exaggerated. He's pushed the temperatures into like a caricatured realm. And the other thing I love as he's also using basically just two values per object, either its average light or average shadow. And of course, the average light is going to get a cooler color temperature than the average shadow because it's a cold light painting. For example, look at the straw, hit's the rooftops, where the light is, it's this purply color and then where the shadow is, it's this more warm, orangey color. Okay. It's the same kind of local color, but two completely different temperatures of it. Look at the wall. The top face of the wall is this clearly blue color fairly saturated even then by contrast, the shadow is this warmer purple color that's still in the blue family, but it's closer to the red side of blue. A textbook, textbooks stuff. Look at the grass, the top where the grass is getting the most light is this cold bluish grass. And then on the bottom where the grass more in shadow, it's getting a warmer green. And of course, Paul Felix has added his own personal magic by pushing these colors to their extremes in order to get a nice, fun, cartoony, caricatured look, perfect for a Disney show. And on the subject of Disney, here's a concept color key by Ian Gooding for Tarzan. This one features of warm spotlight kind of bathing Tarzan and his immediate area. But everything else is lit by a cool light. You can see those three swatches at the top are all a variety of those blue graze. Now the waters of different local color, it's kinda this greenish water. So in shadow that water is going to air on the bluer side of green. And of course he's kept it gray as well, kinda like doubly cool. Not only is it bluish green, It's also grade down. Of course, this leaves tons of room for warms in the light. Look at Tarzan skin. It's this really hot, orange in comparison to those blue graze in green blues. And then the water enlight is simply a warmer green, a green that air is more on the yellow side of green. Now I'm zooming in on this to see a little bit of fancy reflected light. Look at Tarzan in shadow. You see where the colors turn very red. That's just a nice bit of reflected light that works off the otherwise kinda cooler green shadows that you can see there and just gives it this flare of red. But you'll notice though, that that red is still on the kind of cooler side of red. It's not the same yellow as the light skin. It's kind of dipping toward the cools, yet it's still admittedly a very hot red to be seen in that cool shadow. Now E and Gooding has certainly done this for effect. You'll notice he's only done this on Tarzan. He hasn't done any of the background that way. And that's just simply to highlight the character. It's an artistic choice. Manipulating colors in the shadows is actually a very common technique. Here's a great figure painting by zooming Wu and look at those shadows, they radiate with tons of different colors, right? And by comparison, the light family is kind of plane. It does not have that same kind of play. Zooming Wu has an interesting theory behind his color use. He says that light is where the drawing is and shadow is where the color is. Now let me explain what he means by that. If you recall back to this demonstration, remember high was talking about reflected light as getting colors from all different kinds of objects. Well, that's what zooming was referring to. In the shadows you have reflected light and you can get colors from anywhere. You can get colors from the floor, the ceiling, the sky, other objects are so many areas for color to come from in shadow because of bounced and reflected light. Whereas in light, the light color only comes from one source, the bully, That's it. In light, you can actually keep your thinking very simple. It's like that bully colors influencing everything in light, which means there aren't many opportunities for diversity than in shadow, you have the opportunity to open up and let so many colors come into your objects via reflected light. Here's one of my own paintings and you'll see I use exactly that kind of thinking. Look at where the light is. These areas are in light and it's a warm, orangey, almost reddish light. So the colors and light actually become very predictable. They're all being pulled towards that. Read the bully and you can clearly see it. Look at the green for on the monster. It's like yellowish, orangeish because that red is pulling that green so strongly towards the red girl's dress and hair are being brought together in light by that warm red as well. Can you see that they're very close in color, but then in shadows is where this picture really opens up and the color becomes very unpredictable. I'm getting reflected light from the water and it's ranging from blues to purples to cooler greens. His cooler pinkish red cheeks help to offset that area of cool for what I think adds a little bit of balance. There is blue reflected light coming from the sky hitting the left side of the girl's face and hair. You see there's so many options in shadow for colored generation. You can really just have fun. And again, this is where there's no right and wrong color. You, you do whatever you feel you need to do for variety. And it doesn't even really have to be believable like the light in this painting is otherworldly because I've pushed it there. I've taken what is in the real-world and just kind of caricature at it. So in this case, in my cooler shadows, I know that I should be within a realm of cool color like I can't just go adding warm oranges and reds in the shadow because it would compete with the warmth and the light. So as long as I'm in the relative area of cool color temperatures, I'll be okay. Now by comparison, this painting by Scott Christensen is more indicative of how color actually looks in real life. The sun is lighting the scene and the sun is still a bully. But you'll notice it's not the caricatured orangey whimsical sunlight that I painted in my painting. This slide is much more subdued. The sun is still bullying the colors in light to be warm. But you'll notice there are a lot more grays being used and this is typical of nature. Nature works on gray. I mean, step outside right now, take a look at what's in light and let me know if you see any super saturated colors, you probably won't. What you will see though, is a strong comparison of warm versus cool. And that's what this painting has. If we compare this now to the shadow colors, how clearly they separate themselves in terms of color temperature. The left swatch of shadow is clearly cooler than the right swatch of lights. Now look at the bottom of that shadow swatch. Those are getting into warm or cool. They're used as reflected light. That is light bouncing from the rock or bouncing from the grass and bouncing up into the rocks that are in shadow. They add just a little bit of relief to otherwise a very blue area. Here's another Paul Felix painting and I want to specifically address snow. Snow was very telling because it has no local color of its own, it's just white. And you can actually apply what I'm about to say to any white object. When an object has no local color, it gets all of its color from either the light or the shadow. So if you look at the snow, in this case, any snow in light is tinted yellow because it's bullied by the sun. And the snow and shadow gets so much blue from the environment. Here's a similar painting by a Dutch painter named Peter more command. Instead, look at the snow. In this one, the snow is not only getting blue light from the sky, but it's getting reflected light from the trees. And you'll notice that the snow is not just cooler, blue like it wasn't the poll Felix painting. It has intricate touches of warmer blues, grade down oranges grade down greens. It's a symphony of grays in there that really helps this painting pop and be very realistic. And to offset that complexity, look at the snow in light. It's very simple. It's essentially one color, one value in light, very predictable. So this ties back to zooming Wu's theory of how in the light you play with just drawing and in the shadows, That's where the color is. Alright, let's now move into Chapter 3, where we're going to continue building our foundations, especially in connecting grays to Hue Shift. 9. How Nature Uses Warm vs. Cool Colors: Okay, so in Chapter 2 we got our feet wet with color temperature. Here in Chapter 3, we're going to really elevate our understanding of it will gain several more dimensions of how color temperature can move or change, will dig further into how colors are relative to one another. This will provide the foundation for more complex color palettes, much like Chapter 2, this will all tie into an appreciation for nature's color theory, but also give us tools for evaluating our personal color use and personal aesthetics. Alright, so back in Chapter 1, we did a chart where we transitioned between two colors, the two complimentary colors. I want to expand on that here, because in chapters 12, we've been talking about similar themes in Chapter 3 here I want to kind of bring it all together and again, expand on it. In Chapter 1, we talked about moving through gray. So I want to move from this yellow. Here's the color picker here, of course, to this blue. And I'm going to do this on chart three because that's where it goes in this example, you've already seen me do this in Chapter 1, so I am going to speed through it right now, you know, with the gray swatch in the middle and then various saturations of both those colors on either side. It's also important to see how this works on a color wheel. We plot our warm color here, and then it's a straight line to the cool color here. Once again, that's the chart and color movement we used in Chapter 1. Now, I'm going to present to you three other ways to do this. And I should point out before I start here that these two colors, the yellow and the blue, those are very extreme examples of warm versus cool, right? It's hard to get more warm or more cool than that. These are just placeholders. These two colors could be anything. They simply represents the two extremes of the color palette you're working with. And of course, when you see things in extremes like this, it's easier to understand and then we can pair it back from there. All right, so let's go to this first chart. I'll sample the yellow this time. I'm not going to adjust saturation. I'm simply going to adjust the hue, that is the hue strip here or the hue wheel. So I'll start with my yellow and I'm just gonna go incrementally down the hue wheel, moving away from that yellow. And really what I'm doing here is I'm getting colder as we remember from Chapter 2, right? I'm getting colder here because I'm moving away from this, like the heart of the warm part of the color wheel. I'm slowly moving away from that. So here I am, here it, Let's keep going. I'm in the middle of the chart, which should be somewhere around here. Let's doesn't have to be perfect. And we are slowly but surely progressing our way to that blue. So here would be our chart. Maybe there's a little gap there, just fill that in. So here's our color movement now using only the hue wheel. Just going to number these very quickly for easy reference. And let's bring up the color wheel again. Chart number one on a color wheel, looks like this. Now, charts 13 accomplish the same thing in theory, but it's especially clear on the color wheel diagram that the movements are completely different. And it's very clear here on the charts that they yield two completely different looks. But okay, let's do chart number two. And this is the same thing is truck number one, except that we're just going to go this way. We're going to go up the color wheel like this. In fact, let me speed through the rest of this process because it's the same thing we just did in chart number one. And there we go on a color wheel. Of course, that movement looks like this. So again, charts 123 all accomplishing the same thing in theory, but they look different. So what's left to do and chart number 4? Well, chart number 4 may actually be the most important chart because it's what nature kind of does. And what I'm going to do here is combined the other charts. Actually I'm going to combine charts 13. So let me sample my starting point here. I'll grab that color gray it off a little bit and dip the color down this way. So gray it off, dip it down. This becomes a little bit more subjective as not a computer, I don't know exactly how much I'm dipping it down each time, but that doesn't matter as long as you are progressing in this path. This is what the eye detects. It's the path you're taking. It's not the exact color I'm choosing. The eye will detect the trend of the colors. So let me pop out here out of the gray, gaining saturation as we move out. I'm also not too worried about value. I'm trying to keep my value along this sort of path, but the value is not really important here. We're just talking about the color theory. Sorry, I feel like that one should be a little bit more purple. And there's the finish chart number for the combination. In this case of charts one and three, we'll bring up our color wheel once more. And to chart number 4, looks like this. A little bit more complex. Now I could make a fifth chart where I combine charts 23, but you get the idea. So the nice thing about these charts is they work on a grand scale from that yellow to that blue, which is pretty extreme as I mentioned before, but they also work just as well on smaller scales. You can start with this color transition to that color and follow this more limited palette by going this way. And that's not just with chart number four. You know, you could do the same thing with truck number three if these are the two extremes in your painting and you're using chart number three as a model. You can follow it this way. But this is all meaningless until we see it in practice. Here's a painting by John Singer Sargent had just a fun little side note, my first-ever art director when I worked as a background painter in the animation industry, showed me this painting and told me that this painting holds the secret of color. Those are her words. This painting holds the secret of color. And in a way, I think she's right. There's a lot of things happening here that again, along with the theme of chapter three here, kind of combine almost everything we've been talking about into one painting. First, let's talk about what's going on with the light, because color is always driven by light, as we talked about in Chapter 2, sergeant has intentionally overexposed the light family of this painting. There aren't a whole lot of interesting colors going on there. If I sample these lights, you notice they're kind of all stuck in this area. Again, this is much like when a photographer overexposed as a picture. Most of the detail in the picture comes through then in the shadow, not the light. So in this picture it's mostly the shadows were interested in because that's where we get all the juicy colors and stuff like that. Now when you look at shadows, remember a couple of things. One, they are free of that bully light, so there's way more opportunity for colors to show up and shadow. Also remember the kindergarten painting example I did in Chapter 2, specifically the part where I talked about the reflected light occurring in the shadows. Remember the skylight coming down from above which made the greens of the tree kinda bluish. Well, that's what's happening in this area here. It's the skylight illuminating this face of the facade, making it appear bluish. Same with the wings in here. This part of the structure down here, it's got that bluish tinge simply because it's open to the skylight. And remember the sky is huge. So whatever the sky can hit, it'll probably dominate. Of course, we can't see the sky in this painting, but we do see it thanks to the influence it has on the shadows. This, by the way, is how you give your paintings a greater sense of environment by having things that aren't actually on screen influence what is on screen. It adds a tremendous amount of believability, okay, but we also have these warm tones like look at this part of the shadow here underneath the, I guess those are eagles underneath the Eagles heads here, this part of the wall, some of the relief sculpture details down in here. Those are much warmer. Now, why are those warmer? Well, they're simply getting their bounced light from other areas, not the sky. Light coming up from the ground might be illuminating this part. This part here could be sunlight coming down, striking this surface and bouncing up, giving it a warm effect. It's especially warm there because that's the underside of the ego's heads. The skylight can't hit that because the skylight comes down from above. The reason why I think my old art director said this houses the secrets of color is because Sargent has done such a deft job of transitioning between the two. But with the color charts we just did, we can easily understand what sergeant is doing here. Alright, so I'm gonna go ahead and suggest that sergeant is using chart number three and number four in this painting, although mostly he's using chart number three, which is the same chart we used in Chapter 1. So on the Sargent painting, I've got this little space underneath it where I can map out some colors. And the first thing I kinda wanna do is established the range of color that he's using back here on our color charts. I need to know like where he's bracketing these colors, what the two extremes are in this case. And not very extreme. He's definitely using colors on both sides of the wheel. There are colors here and there are colors here. But how saturated are they? They're certainly not as saturated as these charts. Again, they're bracketed somewhere in the middle. So what I'm gonna do is just eyeball what I think is the most saturated warm something in here, which actually is fairly warm up. That's a pretty warm color. There's a lot of saturation there. So I'm going to put that at this side of the color picker and I can sample other colors that I think are around there, these colors here and just put them there. And because I'm improvising this chart, these might be out-of-order. These swatches, for example, this orange here I'd say is a bit warmer than this color here. I can, I can change that now just for ease of understanding something like this. Okay. Now, I want to go to the other extreme and see what his coldest color is. And I think along this facade is where we can find some of the colder blues. Now I say blue, but that's actually not accurate because watch this. If I sample this which looks pretty blue, but let me sample that. It's a lot grayer than I thought. It's also not blue at all. It's more on the purple side. In fact, if I sample another area that looks bluish like this area here, if I sample that, it's not blue at all. It's like pink or something that he was objectively not blue. So this is where color names really fall short, right? So what I'm trying to do is establish the range between warm and cool in this painting. So let's go over here back to where things are on the purpley side. Something like that I think is the coldest. Let's just sample around us to make sure I have it. Yeah, all these colors that look bluish or not blue at all. Something around here is where I'll put that other extreme. So I'll put that over here. So if I were to just bring back my chart here, looking at chart number three, I would say that the warmest color is probably somewhere around here and the coldest color is probably somewhere around there. So sergeant is playing within this range of color. So what I'm gonna do now is just start filling out this chart. I'll sample something here which is on the cooler side. So it'll go on this part of the chart, maybe somewhere around here would be where that color is. And then I'll just start sampling around and filling in where I think these are. It's okay if I overlap things like this. It's a free handed exercise, right? So I may put a color down and then upon further colors, I may have to move that color. So I'm just speeding through this and completing the chart. This is a bit more tricky because I'm also dealing with different values, but that's all part of the training that we do as painters. And just another word of advice here. Don't worry about getting it pixel perfect. Just try and use your eyes. The goal here is simply to establish the overall range that we're working in. Okay, so let's review the overall trend of these colors that we've just sampled in this swatch study here. And I do recommend you do these studies yourself, by the way, don't just watch me do it, Try it Yourself. Sorting through these colors is a critical part of training your eye. I used to do this a lot back in my earlier days. I would kind of do this with a cup of coffee in the morning, you know, take a few pictures that I liked and try and sort this out. But okay, let's take our sample tool and we'll start at the beginning. Now what I want you to watch as I sample these colors, first of all, I want you to stay honed in on the color picker. Okay, Don't look at my sample to all look at the color picker. So here we go, look at the saturation generally getting grayer. And here we are in the middle of the chart now and watch, It's going to pop out into the cools and get slightly more saturated toward the cools. So that's chart number three. Remember, chart number 3 being here as we went through the grays and then pop back out into saturated cools. This is why I say that the Sargent painting mostly uses chart number 3. Number 3 is important because it helps keep colors in control. If you look at charts number 12 here, yes, they go from warm to cool, but it feels like some kind of candy coated nightmare. Nature doesn't do that. The only exception I can really think of in nature is like a rainbow or something, but nature does use different hues. And that's where chart number four comes in, which as you remember, is a combination of chart number 3 with charts number 1 or 2. So when we look at the Sargent painting here, you know, it's not just taking this color and perfectly desaturating it and then perfectly popping out toward the purples and blues or whatever. We did that in Chapter 1 as part of our complimentary color exercise. But nature is not so perfect and sergeant is imitating nature's color here. So what we have along the way are different hues. But in general, if you look at this chart, in general, he's starting with this as what I've called his warmest color in the painting. And in general, as he goes grayer, he is going away from the warms and toward the cools. This time as I sample through the color picker, only watched the hue wheel. Okay, so here's the warmest color. And here we go. You can see it's not perfect, but the general trend is that, and this is where you can start mixing up hues. For example, look at these four colors right in here. Let me go ahead and sample them. They are all different hues, but they're all very close together. Hughes, as I sample these, I basically went from here to about there. That's not a whole lot of distance. So what drives these temperatures is the saturation more than the hue. Again, these are more or less all in the red family to some degree. So I mostly looking at the saturation to help me make a decision there. Whereas if I took this color here and made it more blue, well now, now it doesn't fit there. Now that blue should go somewhere over here. You know, the hue is different enough now that it carries a lot more weights in my decision. But because these are all more or less in the yellow slash red family, I'm mostly looking at saturation to help me determine the temperature. And this is where color is very, very subjective. Sometimes it's the level of gray or level of saturation that helps you determine whether something's warmer or cooler like we just saw. Whereas other times if the he was different enough, maybe the hue has more weight in that conversation. 10. Inventing Believable Light And Color: So here's one of my paintings. It's a classic sunlit scene. And even though the scene itself is cartoony, the light is actually fairly realistic or, or at least it's based in reality, much like the Sargent painting was. So what I wanna do now is recreate part of this painting and kind of narrate what's going on in my brain as I choose all these colors. So here we are in Photoshop and I just want to quickly turn this into a line drawing. Of course, I could put a layer over top and just trace back a line drawing to work from. But here's just a quick tip for those of you who are looking to do studies from existing paintings and you don't want to waste time doing a line drawing first, just grab the part that you want to turn into a line drawing and just go up to filter in Photoshop anyway, go up to Filter, Stylize, find edges. And it'll kinda create this haphazard line drawing for you. I am going to just grab an airbrush here with a white color and just kind of brush out some of these dots and textural things that it picked up on that I really don't need to see. And then if I want, I can just grab just any kind of line brush and just sort of define this case where this monster goes. Okay? And I'll take away this line here which delineated some of the lightened shadow. But I want to talk you guys through all that as I paint. So there we go. Now at least I can stay faithful to the design of the monster. And you can see what we're doing here. All right, The first thing I'm gonna do is just crop into the area that I'm actually painting. And then on my layers here, I'll just set that layer to multiply mode, throw a layer underneath it, and then I'll just paint on this layer. So I'm only going to use one layer, which means you don't need to see the Layers window. If I ever do make a layer for some reason, I'll definitely let you know. So you know what for this, Let's, let's approach this in a different way than we did the painting in Chapter 1. I'm going to approach this like I did the painting in Chapter 2 where I did the kindergarten art kind of thing. We start with local colors while we had the Green Tree in Chapter 2, here we have a green monster. Let's make him green. I do not care right now about the color, temperature. I don't care about these charts. I will in a second, but not yet. All I care about is the most basic consideration that my 19 month old daughter could do. He's a green monster. Let's make them green. So let's just pick, I just picked that green. Basically at random. There was no thought process behind why this green, I mean, look at it could be this green to it doesn't matter. Let's make them this green. Have different greens in there if you want, it doesn't matter right now. Also, he is standing on some sand which is orangey like this maybe. So we get this. He is standing in front of a cave which is what maybe a little darker, a little bit grayer. I don't know. Is is this the color of a cave wall? Maybe a bit darker. I'm now thinking about light and shadow, by the way, I'm simply just guessing at local color. This is intended to look bad right now. This fosters the idea of finding your painting as you work rather than thinking you need something finished at every step. In fact, that's one of the things I really rebelled against in my art for many years now. And I, but I used to think the opposite way. I used to think that every step of the way should look like it's done. You could work like that, but I find it better for your sanity really. If you allow yourself a process that allows you to find it as you work. So okay, there's my monster. Let's just get a little color here for the eyes. And while we're at the whites, he has some white shiny teeth, which look like this, and he has some reddish lips. So let's just sprinkle in some of this red for the lips. I'm just, I just, again, I just chose a random red color and I'm not thinking about light and shadow yet. I will obviously narrate the thoughts in my head when I start doing that, which is right now because we are finished with our rough N. Okay? So our painting now looks terrible and it looks just like our kindergarten tree did in the last chapter. Okay, great. The first consideration that you always need to make doesn't matter what your painting is, where's the light coming from and what is the light source? Well, in this case the answer is, the Sun is the light source and it's going to be coming in from here. It's going to be in front of the monster. So let me just draw like a 3D arrow. It's going to be like coming in like that, right? The sun direction is there. So I'm imagining that the monster is kind of inside a half cave. Here I have my painting here. There will be a shadow thrown over the top of the monster. And as if the cave continued above his head, right? And the sun just kinda slices in there. So sometimes what I like to do right at the outset is just grab an airbrush or brushes as my marker brush that comes with the class. I'll set it to say multiply mode, which is a darkening mode, and just go, okay, the light's coming in here. Let's just throw all of this in shadow. The nice thing about this process right now is I'm again not thinking about color. Like I'll just throw it into a purple color just to prove, I'll just pick any color. It doesn't matter. I'm just thinking about value. I'm thinking that the sun is going to come in and slice this bit of light like this. So all of this is shadow, and underneath him is shadow. And the cave is going to be in shadow here. Change colors just to show you that I'm not really caring about color. This already now gives me a bit of a lighting effect because its value that affects the appearance of form and light, not color, color only piggybacks on accurate lighting and values. And even though these values are kind of a mess like look at all that scribbly nonsense on the monster. At least it's still a overall darker passage and an overall lighter passage here for the light. It's very clear to say like this is light l for light and shadow. Okay, So that's a good first step. I'm going to get out of multiply mode now we'll just get a regular brush like this. So this is my dry brush by the way, that also comes with this class and all my classes. And now, Okay, let's start thinking about actual color choices. I'm going to start thinking about chart number two here, because the monsters green. So we're going to go from warm to cool through the greens because monsters green, we're going to be dealing with greens. Let's get a warmer green, which is pretty easy. It's on the warmer side of green. Anything in here, it will work. It doesn't matter if it's that green or that green or that green, it'll all work because it's on the warmer side. I said there was no rhyme or reason to the green I put down, which is true. But what's actually kinda nice about what I did here, and I should point it out. I did it by accident. But what's kinda nice is it's sort of in the middle, like I could go cooler green or I could go warmer green. This is not something you have to do, but maybe sometimes it is nice if you're going to lay down local colors first to kind of put your color in the middle, the temperature spectrum. So you can go either way. For example, if you're putting a purple local color, it might be helpful to pick your purple about there because then you can go warmer purple by going sliding up toward the red or colder purple by sliding down toward the blue. And that's, that holds true for any color on the spectrum. So I'm going to pick my green in light's, warm it up by sliding it down there because the, you know, the bully, sunlight is going to be hitting the sky. The sun is on the warmer side. And let's just raise the value because after all it's enlight and let's put it in now already. This is different from how I approached my painting in Chapter 1 where I started with grays. And I'm kinda going against my own advice. There are no rules to any of this stuff. Like when I tell you a piece of advice, It's only advice, It's not a rule. Right now I'm doing something different than I did in Chapter one and Chapter 1. I said start grayer and add color branch off with saturation from there. Here I'm saying, okay, I know that this is going to be like one end of my, if I'm looking at number two, I'm kind of picking my one side of the chart. I know that my green is going to be warmed somewhere around here. That's actually kinda close to what I had. I'm going to put it down there because I have good reason to believe that this will be one end of my chart. And also what I'm going to do is just with my layers, I'm just going to reduce the opacity on this line layer. And, and then I'm going to merge it down. So I'm only working on that one layer right now. Okay, so the sun is coming in, hitting the sky. You don't just need one color. Choose, choose different colors. I like to use the smudge tool a lot. My settings are in Photoshop anyway, a strength of 93% and I have the finger-painting option turned on. The finger-painting option, by the way, just means that I can paint with the color I have selected. So like if I select this blue, you see the blue goes down and then it smudges. If finger-painting is off, it only smudges, which is also useful. But most of the time I have figure painting turned on. And this is how I can create, in this case, edges that are appropriate for like a free character like this guy is. All right, Now, I want to get a few different kinds of colors in there. And while we're in the light, Let's start thinking about the halftone value. Remember halftone is where the form is turning away from the light. So if I just if he's got like a round belly, like if his belly is like a sphere that is round. As that sphere starts turning away from the light, in other words, turning under, but it's still in the light. It hasn't turned under enough to be in shadow yet. And what I'm gonna do is I'm just going to warm up that green even more. These colors that I'm putting down here are decidedly not green at all. I'm, I'm venturing like, you know, truly away from the greens. This is not green. This is what orange or yellow or whatever color you think that is. It's still is okay because it's in the context of temperature. That is, it's a warm light warming up this green. As long as I have some actual greens in here, I could offset that with other warm colors and it's just fine. And by the way, if you just want to see my original again, you can see like look how I've pushed it even more. Look how reddish orange that is. I'd still call this like my block in stage by no means is it final? Not that I'm going to tighten this up with fine detail or anything, but I do kind of arrive at my finished strokes as I go. So I think some nice bright, these are like yellows now, which is just adjacent to green, right? It's like right next to green on the color wheel. And that's very common for a bully. Sunlight to push a green to yellow. That's kinda the magic part. This monster will read as green because it's going to span the gamut of greens. You don't need the whole thing just to be green, for it to look green. I'm going to do another chapter on this class. In fact, it'll be the next chapter, Chapter 4 on flat colors and how you can augment them. Okay, now I want to think about what's going on in the shadows of this guy. So I'll go, I'll stay on the smudge tool just for fun. And I want to be in the cooler range. It may help by the way, just a sample where you're at in photoshop when you have the smudge tool active, I can't push Alt and get my eye dropper. It's really annoying. So I got to click that sample, my green and this is where I'm at. And okay, that's good. This is already now a colder green than what I have in the light. And that's an important place for me to pause here and mention that because I just put in this warmer stuff for the sunlight, this would these warmer greens are these warmer colors? I now have a comparison. My kindergarten block in that green monster, green color is now actually divided into warm family and cooler family. This is good. This is what painters do. So the green I put down is now reading is cool. It didn't read as cool until I had the warmer light. You need something to compare it to remember colors always moving into Chapter 1 stuff, right? So I'm gonna put in some this reflected light. Now on a form level, again, I mentioned that his belly is like a ball, go round ball. Well, if this part of the belly turned under, this part is turning up and when it turns up, it's going to be exposed to that skylight. So going back to our color chart, looking at chart number 2, I'm moving this way in the hue wheel, going toward blue. I'm in Photoshop here. I'm going up this way. But I don't necessarily want to keep the same saturation I could. But again, it starts looking a bit candy coated, just not so subtle when you keep the same level of saturation. So that's where chart number three comes in, combining charts number 23. So as I move this way toward blues, I will also incorporate these little graze in the middle. So let's decrease that saturation, like I said, and go up towards the blue and put these in. This will. I'm basically going the opposite way that I did in Chapter 1 where I started with grays and building out. I've started here with saturated colors and I'm building into war Graham, I gotta build my grays into this. But here's the thing. I don't just have to stay here. I'm going to bounce up to these purples. Why? Well, it's still a colder color. Remember my warms on the monster or here, right? Like deeply rooted in the warm area of the color wheel. I could go cooler by going up here, which I was just doing. I could also go cooler by going here. But combining chart one in width chart to in with chart three, I want to quickly pause the demonstration and show you on a color wheel what I'm doing. Because it's important that we see at both on these charts as well as on the color wheel. I blocked in my overall local color green somewhere in here. And remember I said that was in the middle of the warm greens and the cool greens. That's nice because it gives me the ability to go either way. Now when I did this sunlight area here, the sun being a warm bully light starting from this green, I obviously want to go warmer. I used chart number 2 to do that. So if we look at chart number two, my block in green might've been around there. I simply went that way, which is the same thing I just drew on the color wheel. So let's chart number 2. A quick point on moving through hues like that. It can sometimes be dangerous to keep the same saturation. So again, I started with that green and I ended up around here keeping the same saturation as I went. That can be dangerous because like I said earlier, it can be a bit gaudy or just overly desperately colorful, which is something you generally don't want in your paintings. Now in my opinion, where you can get away with that is when the hues are close together, these two hues, not a whole lot of distance between them, their neighbors in color theory speak, you would say these are analogous colors. When colors are side-by-side, generally speaking, you can get away with using the same level of high saturation. Now, if you wanted to go, say from this color to this color and you went like this, you know, the complete chart number 2, that would likely be too much color. It would look to candy coated, again, something you don't want unless you're literally painting candy, I suppose. Okay, so that's how I managing the transition into the light side. So now that I'm in my light side, I'm over here. And in my demonstration, you see this area right in there. I'm kind of here on the color wheel. Notice how those cool colors are much closer to gray than the warm colors. I'm using chart number fours path, which as you remember from earlier in this chapter is kinda like this S curvy thing. And because I'm aware of that curve, I can just plot colors along it. So for example, when you're painting, you don't have to literally put every single one of these colors. That's not a requirement. You should know about this path. But if you want, you can say put this color and then put this color in your paintings like I did. And then kinda say, okay, along the way now I'm kind of, Oh, my painting this color and maybe this color here to kind of give the viewer this path. But also remember, I'm combining charts. So I could also give the viewer a little bit of chart number two, like this. That's totally okay to combine charts like that. Obviously, when you are combining charts, it makes the calculation that much more complex. But as long as you're aware of what you're doing and you're applying your personal taste to it, which gets more sophisticated with practice and experience, you can do it. Okay, but back to following chart number fours path here. Let's go back to our two colors. Just these two colors alone is not enough to tell the viewer that it's chart number four. You have to fill in some of the blanks. And my point is you don't have to fill in all the blanks just enough to give the viewer a little visual nudge saying, Hey, I'm following this path. That's what will make your color movement identifiable to the viewer. So back to the demo, I'm putting in this crazy purplish color, which at first glance appears to make no sense. But I'm using chart number one in combination with chart number 3 to get the grade down purple. And then all that is in combination with chart number 23. So you folks probably know I use a lot of color in my paintings and I get a lot of questions like how do you do it? Well, this is how I do it. I'm not afraid to combine these charts often. I'll stick with chart number 13 here and try some purply blues, keeping it relatively on the gray side. And by the way, as I put this blue and I'm pressing softly on my tablet. So if I sample that result, well, it's a different color, right? It's mixing the green with that blue I had selected. And, you know, it's going to, Photoshop tends to gray off colors to a certain degree when you do that. So I'm letting Photoshop do some mixing for me. And I'm saying Photoshop here because that's what I'm using, but any app of your choice, we'll kinda do the same thing. So at the beginning I told you I was kind of finding my first extreme points of a chart. Well, I may want to go the opposite way and find my other extreme point of the chart. I may want to take some of these grayish colors that I have here and say, you know what, eventually I kinda wanna be about there as my final resting point here in the chart. If you look back at my original piece right here, you can kinda see some of those blues in there, right? You see those blues and some of those saturated purples in there. This is my end point of the chart. So I'll be like, Okay, let's grab a brush and just scribble in. Scumbling is the official art term for that. It makes scribbling sound official when you call it scumbling and put that in. And I'm mixing it right into my other colors, right? This is all possible because I'm in the right context. These are all conforming to the same kind of movement of the color. These charts indicating the directions my colors are moving in, right? As long as I'm within the context of those charts, it's fine. Here. I'll show you how I can break that in a bad way. If I were working in the light and I wanted to put this blue and the light. Well now I'm breaking away from my chart too much. That blue looks wrong because even though it's kinda the correct value, it just doesn't feel right. There's nothing to motivate that particular temperature change, that extreme temperature change in the light. The light should be bullying these colors to be there in the light. The same is true for shadow, by the way, if I like, got a red color and started putting it in, It's too big of a jump that transition. They'd be like taking this color here and putting it over here, it doesn't work. You absolutely have to maintain your context. Which is why doing those pilot studies like we did with the Sargent painting earlier is quite a good visual exercise. All right, so let's get back to painting here. I feel like I need some form happening under the mouth. The mouth needs to dip down darker because it's not going to be receiving nearly the same amount of light as the belly. So I've picked a warmer color, but I want to cool it off by going grayer and cool it off also by going down this way. Just because I don't want to compete with my bully light colors. So I'm doing that. And there's no, there's no real reason to use any blues here because like we saw with the sergeant piece, there was no sky being reflected into the bottom of his chin. You might think, oh, skylight might come down and bounce up, but no, skylight is too weak to do that. Once the skylight hits, directly hits, that's about it. It's not going to bounce anywhere. Sunlight will balance. So the sun, for instance, will come down, bounce off the ground, and come up to his underbelly there. In fact, why don't we put some of that in right now. I'll just switch gears here. I'll take the color here. I'm going to get a warmish, something, something in like this range of the chart. Warmish. And also that lighter than what's there. And kinda start putting that in because the sun is, you know, being a warmer color that it is is going to warm up these greens just a little bit. And I'm just using the smudge tool to put these in and I can play with some different warms. See this color was cooler in this context. If I put this color here, it's cooler. But if I put the color there, it's warmer because that green was somewhere much cooler. Always context. Always context. Which color or which colors are beside what you're painting. That's the question you have to ask yourself. So the decisions you make about color are always based on what's around it. So this represents sun coming in and, you know, what I probably should do here is look at the ground, that sun is really going to brighten up both in value and in saturation. This ground, these standing on. So let's put in, it's got to come up right up here. There's a shadow that he's casting, so I'll paint around the shadow. The sun is going to be illuminating the sand here, something like this. So now with that information in play, now it really looks like that sun is bouncing up into his underbelly, but it's not finished yet again and just blocking all this stuff in, I'm getting it in the ballpark. Let's say that sun balance that I'm painting here is not going to extend up here. That's where the sky starts to take over. So there is going to be a transition area in here. In that transition area, well, I'll just keep it in the greens because that is kind of a middle ground between these warms and the cooler sky. So I'll just keep it somewhere in here. Scumbling in these shapes of color and value. Maybe go a bit grayer and parts to help these transitions. Like if this red warms want to transition to green, like maybe I can grade them off. Bringing the slide of the bid up to green, but gray it off. The right value, those is again where the smudge tool helps because the smudge tool can create soft edges as well very easily. That's looking good. Go back into the lights and just bouncing around, just playing around with different color varieties in here. Working this edge where lightning its shadow, making sure though that the shadow is still sufficiently dark enough to be shadow on a value level, right? It still has to be darker than the light. Makes sure that, make sure that when you're putting in these reflected lights, you're not overly lightening the shadow value. That would be bad, then it will start looking like light and it will confuse your drawing entirely. You're painting, you're drawing whatever. When I say painting, I mean drawing. And when I say drawing, I'm painting. They are the same thing. They act based on the same principles. I suppose painting adds color to the equation, but everything else is based on the same philosophy and principles. Playing with these blues here, just continuing the tapestry of color is this arm here. His arm is going to be really hit by a lot of the skylights. I'll even go bluer. I might increase the saturation. So again, working at the edge of one of my color charts here, the extreme other side, as opposed to the yellows over here in the light. I don't want to use this color too much. See you like if I have the light, I have these very saturated warms. If I have equally saturated, Cole's, it kinda starts feeling not subtle enough for lack of better terminology. Just like I showed you guys in Chapter 1, I tend to keep one of my charts for looking at the color charts, I kinda keep one side extreme, but the other side of my cutoff there. Or it could be the opposite. I'll keep the cool side there but cut the warms off there. It's very rare that I completely span the gamut from one to the other in this extreme form like this. So even though these look cold, they're not that cold, at least not as cold as the warms, our warm. Yeah. That makes sense. So let's continue back to where I was here. Putting in these transitions. That color I had was to warms grade off. I want to create some form of transition here between the, between these darks under the chin, you might call it, and the belly that is getting more reflected light. So I'm just going back to my greens. That's kind of an in-between zone for looking at chart number two, write passing through the greens to get from cool to warm. And while we're here, let's throw in some of these sort of greens in the middle between warm and cool in some of these shadows again, to help with the transition a little bit. At this point, this is probably the first in this demo painting here, folks, where I'm like, okay, this is starting to work. This is where the color Tapestry is starting to look like it is working. Which is a great point to be in your painting because now it's like, okay, I'm gonna just the edge. He doesn't look very furry everywhere, so I can adjust some of these edges, but I wouldn't do this finer work until I feel like my colors are starting to communicate the feeling I want them to. I could, by the way, just fast-forward some of this and get a Linear Dodge Brush and just put in a little bit more into that light, which I think is nice. I remember doing this exact procedure in the original painting as well. Just increasing the dramatic flair, if you will, on some of these areas can even paint light with this like this. Let's continue on. Let's look at the side of the cave. There will be some light hitting the cave. Like if you look at my original again, light comes in slicing through the creature and then, you know, the creature cast the shadow. But some of that cave is still in light. So we can just get some of that. And again, this is pretty easy in terms of ball parking, my color. I know it's a warmer son. I've told the viewer it's warmer by my comparison between warm and cool greens and the monster. So all I gotta do now is pick my base color here. Let's warm it up a little bit, warm it up a little bit saturation to, and obviously raise the value for light and just end up somewhere around there. And i'll, I'll paint that in. And that's a great starting point. I know it's not the final color. I know it's at least accurate in context in terms of the direction the colors moving. I know it's going to be correct and then I can just work from there. That's the thing we're, color becomes kind of fun. A lot of people are scared of color at first. But once you get this whole context thing and the direction of color thing, and you divorce yourself from thinking that there is a quote, unquote, right? Color for things. There isn't, it's only the right context. Color becomes very freeing. Anyway, what I'm doing now is I'm just painting some ambient occlusion behind the character. So he got back to the light side of the cave here. And again, just speaking of context, I could warm it up a little bit more if I wanted stumble some of that in. But I guess what I can cool it down. Why don't I cool it down by going up this way chart number 2 and gray this way, chart number 3, combining 23, right? And it just put some of that in keeping the correct value, of course, so that I kind of can put these colors in with impunity. I don't have to worry about repercussions of the wrong color because I have the right value and I have the right context of color. I don't want to go too cold, like I don't wanna do this. That breaks context. That's too cold, that color might look good and shadow, which is supposed to be colder. I can put in some of these colors and shadow and start building the reflected light coming from the sky, which is off-screen. Of course, in the original painting, the sky was onscreen and you can see it really informing the blues in the cave that's facing the sky there. So that's what all I'm thinking about. The light won't have those blues because those blues are part of the shadow that the skylight is not strong enough to influence the sunlight. The sun is the strongest bully that there is. The sun will completely eradicate any trace of skylight. Leaving it only in the realm of shadow. Just playing with the edge where the cliff meets the sand here. And then you can do any kind of detail on this cliff or this rock face that you want. But that's not really part of this demo. I may put a little bit in at the end, but, um, you know, in terms of painting detail, you can go wild with that. Let's get back to the topic at hand here, which is colors. Let's go to the eyeballs. I feel like the eyeballs that haven't been touched at all. There is also going to be ambient occlusion there. So I'll pick a saint overlay airbrush and let's get a darker color and just darken down this eye socket. I would consider this ambient occlusion as well. Ambien inclusion being the darkest part of the shadow, the part where the ambient light cannot get to. Okay. The eyeball will get some light from the sky. It's very gray. I'm kind of like here on my color chart, so I can easily just kind of pop out into the blues here and just get some reflected light from the sky. And those eyeballs. And might as well throw in just a little highlighted thing while we're here. In this case, it just reflections of the sky. All right, Let's continue painting. This is kind of a warmish screen, not as warm as it is in the light though, still in the realm of shadow. I'm going to define some of the form of the head here using this sort of, again, this middle temperature green. It's neither warm nor cool based on the two extremes that I have it somewhere in the middle. And that's the nice thing. When you establish your extremes a bit early on, you then can play and flesh out that middle area. Whereas in Chapter 1 again, we went the opposite way. We started with the, if you look at these charts in Chapter 1, we would have started with the middle of the chart and expanded outward. Here, I've established my two extremes and I'm working inward. I don't use one approach over the other. I use I use them both interchangeably. It really depends on the project and also what you're comfortable with. Another nice thing about the smudge tool in this case, and other softwares have their own version of the smudge tool. I can pick a pretty extreme blue like this. But when I paint it, photoshop will mix it in, right? So I'm painting that extreme blue, but when I sample the result, it's like they're, so sometimes it's helpful to know what the software is gonna do, what when it mixes colors. And that just comes with experience. And that way you can kinda overshoot your color, temperature and let your software mix it for you. The nice thing about Photoshop smudge tool and I think other softwares are like this. You put down one stroke and it's pretty pure. Whereas if you put that one stroke in and keep your style is held down at all, kinda smudge it and mix it into what's already there and kind of bring it closer to what's already there as well. So in that way, the smudge tool is great for these little mini transitions. All right, so I'm going to speed up the video for the rest of this demonstration. This is only sped up three times. The reason I'm doing this, as I've already explained, everything I'm doing as far as Chapter 3 is concerned, all that remains to be done is give the painting a little bit more refinement in terms of its brushwork and stuff, and maybe a few more little color patches here and there to ease over transitions. Maybe paint away stuff that I feel is too garish or too exaggerated. And, you know, just bring this painting to something a little bit more complete for this demonstration. Here, for example, I'm adding some of the ambient occlusion that would shroud the top of his head, also the eye sockets, ambient occlusion there as well. Refining some of the irises, just little things here in the shadows underneath the monster. That's a pretty warmish gray that I use. So now I can use chart number 4 to jump me into more of the blues. Again, not plotting every color along the way, but plotting just enough colors that there is some color movement there. One thought I just had, well, literally watching this demonstration being played back in front of me, is that the more major the area, maybe the more colors you want to plot along a certain path in a given chart. Whereas minor areas like the little shadow under the monster, for instance, maybe you only need to plot two or three colors for it to be sufficient. You can see that exact thing happening on the monsters belly, for example. That's a pretty major area of this painting. And look at all the colors I'm plotting there to show various movements along the color wheel. I feel like I'm kind of zooming into one of the color charts and really showing the viewer what I'm doing in the belly area versus the cache shadow under the monster and maybe in the cave itself like I'm painting now, I'm kinda zooming out a little bit of those color charts and just plotting the bare essentials. Color is the most subjective part of painting. It's not like perspective where there's a textbook, literal textbooks on how to draw a proper perspective that doesn't exist with color. I mean, there are textbooks on color too. Don't get me wrong, but everything to do with color is mere suggestion. General principles that tend to yield pleasing results. What you owe to yourself as a painter is to know those general suggestions such as these charts I'm showing you here enough to be able to make use of them in a cohesive manner. The successful application of that is basically up to your judgment. And you know, that's where taste comes in. I mean, I've had people, only few people thankfully, but people tell me that I use too much color in my painting. And I'm like, Okay, I can see why you're saying that. I don't always use this much color like this painting I'm doing here is fairly colorful. I chose this subject because I feel it's a good example of how to use these charts. But you can also use these charts in a minimal way and keep your color very subdued. And of course, I've done that in my paintings too. It's really up to your personality and your aesthetics. And all right, so here's where I ended up with this demo. Again, I chose this subject matter because I think it's a good example of how you can combine different charts and a very obvious way because this is a pretty colorful painting. Let's now move on to Chapter 4 and talk about a different aspect of color that you have to deal with quite often. 11. How Nature Treats Local Colors: All right, Welcome to Chapter four, color vibration. This is one of my personal favorite topics in this chapter, will gain more insight into how the eye detects color movement throughout the color wheel, an understanding of how nature treats flat colors, a system for keeping our colors interesting and alive in our paintings, will build further in our understanding of nature's color theory. And we'll develop some simple color models that we can choose from or combined when assigning these color ideas. So here we go. In Chapter 2, I talked about the inherent limitations of identifying colors by their names, and how we need temperature modifiers like warmer or cooler to help us figure out which colors to paint. Armed with that knowledge, a student of mine painted this study of an apple, and it's good, it works. I think what's working here, as we discussed in Chapters 2 and 3, we're able to say that the reds of this apple are generally on the cooler side by moving around the wheel this way, as well as in toward the gray this way. That was all stuff from Chapters 2 and 3. And this is a functional painting as a result. And yet I would suggest that it's still possible to squeeze more. Let's call it energy out of the colors, maybe something like this. Now there's a bit of intentional caricature here, but knowing how to do this will stretch your color capabilities just that extra little bit. So here in Chapter 4, Let's discuss what that color tweak is all about. First, a pop quiz, color recognition. I'm about to flash three colors on the screen and you have to identify them or you're ready. Yellow, blue, and red, right? Well, you're right, but let's look a bit closer. This here would be a flat yellow, blue, and red. What you saw was this, which reads as those colors, but it's clearly not the same. There's more going on with them. They have color variety within a color. Now, I would propose that nature works more on this model than it does the top one. The color of objects and materials in real life is very rarely without movement. Quite often things do have a local color identity. These examples may average out to colors like this. But as you can see with these swatches, the variety within that can be surprising. This Apple, for instance, reads as read at a glance, but there's lots of movement within that red. Again, I've exaggerated this just to show you what's possible. For example, I don't think this color is actually in the photograph, but because of the trajectory I'm assigning these colors, you know, the way I'm moving them, I do think that color is appropriate. So let's look at some quick theory as to how you can move local colors around. First, we'll just pick an arbitrary color, this blue here. And for this first model, we just want to wiggle that color picker between hues. And if I were to actually paint that, it would look something like this. Notice I'm keeping my edges pretty soft with all these different strokes. All right, so that's one model. Another model would be instead of wiggling between Hughes vary the saturation of the swatch painting, this model of color movement would look something like this. We end up with the same overall effect, but it looks different than the last 1 third model would be to combine those two, which looks like this on the color wheel. And it looks something like this in practice. Now I'm really starting to feel like we're having some fun. But there's a fourth model. This one creates a little more tension, kinda like that blue swatch and the apple, I'm going to start with what we just did, but because we're already moving toward gray, thinking about Chapter 1's complimentary palette. What I'm doing here is essentially flirting with going to that complement. So what I'm gonna do is consummate that by adding this secondary note here, There's a tension because those two colors don't ever actually touch. So you really want to use discretion and pick your spots where you use this. But if you find the right place for it, it can really create something memorable. Alright, so here's an illustration of mine that I'd like to break down. It has lots of different local colors and I feel like I was testing the limit of these color vibrations. So the furthest background element should read as blue. Here's a close-up of one of those sections. It's overall blue, but all of these colors are in there causing that vibration, which I feel helps it stay alive. In fact, I was using modal number three for that, which as you remember, it looked like this. But there's also this little tension color, something that's definitely not blue. And I didn't put that color there to describe anything physical. It's just there as a peppering of something unexpected. Back to the illustration. This area here uses the same idea, but it's a little different because this time the base color is already gray. These are the stones of a bridge. They don't really have a strong local color. If I had to pick a local color, I'd put it around here, something very neutral gray. But the same principle applies. I'll wiggle this around and this time it's just wiggling throughout the grays. So what that leaves me with is different hues that are all close to gray, which is what you see throughout those stones. As a little extra twist, the stones on this side, I kept on the warmer side of neutral because I figured they're closer to the sunlight and the stones on this side, I kept more or less within the cool neutrals. I felt that wasn't appropriate choice here because that bridge takes up like two thirds of the picture. It needs to look interesting. I probably would have cut that color vibration in half if the bridge where say half the size. Okay, last thing on this illustration, look at this grassy part here. There's a lot of wild color in there. And some of it's quite illogical, like why are those orangey reds in the grass? Well, they're there for color vibration. But the reason I'm showing you this is I want to show you how I painted that section. It's kind of a quick and easy way of getting your colors moving. Okay, So I'll paint a green ball there. But instead of starting with green, I'll start with something near the opposite of green, which definitely seems counter-intuitive like I'm purposely putting the wrong color there, but now I'll build those greens into what is essentially a complimentary color. I'm using a brush that mixes paints as though this were wet oils or something. And then I'll just paint it as if it were a regular green ball. But because I'm mixing into that compliment or near complement, those color vibrations happen for free. And then now I'll just put in some, say bluer greens using modal number 1, again, combining models trying to push for interest. Okay, so here's an illustration where I'm much more subdued with these color vibrations. They're still there though, just like our apple here had subtle variations. Human skin does too. I had a base color in mind like this. Then I just wiggled around that color and found these variations. You know, they're doing something like this on the color wheel, essentially modal number three, right? The hair is also model number 1, but with an even tighter color wiggle. And I felt the hair was a good spot to put in a tension color. It's these turquoise color notes you see throughout. Now that color is pretty far away from the rest of the hair colors. And that's precisely why I kept to the rest of the hair colors so close together. So I had a little let's call it breathing room to zap in that cover vibration. Now, would the hare have worked without that? Sure. Is it better with it? Well, that's up to you. I think so. Also why that blue, why not any other color? Pretty simple reason I chose that blue because the throne She's sitting on looks blue. So I figured having little fragments of that show up in the hair might help to unify the piece or glue it together somehow. Just a quick reminder that color is the most subjective part of art. And this class is full of principles that work, but it's up to you to use them at your discretion. All right, so let's do a painting here, and I want to show you how I generally approach this stuff in a real life situation. This is actually based on a real piece of commercial illustration I did recently. It'll be a soldier riding on horseback. You'll be wearing a bright red uniform with some golden embroidery and a greenish chest plate too. So lots of local colors here. I'm going to start roughing in that red jacket. And I'm using this brush and Photoshop that has colored dynamics turned on, which makes the hue and saturation changed during the brushstroke. So I'll use that a little bit to get some preliminary color vibrations in there for free. And then here I've switched to a smudge tool. And as you can see, I've kinda gone wild here and I'm getting colors wrong. I mean, that doesn't look like a red jacket, does it. But I'm doing this on purpose to show you on a color wheel what I'm doing right now. I'm kind of playing around in this range here. Eventually, I want to get to about here with that red jacket. As I build from these block in colors to that, I'll be simultaneously managing these color vibrations that I leave behind. The other thing that can help just in terms of calibrating your mindset for this sort of color use is try starting without a line-drawing. Instead, figure out your drawing at the same time you're figuring out your color. Now that's definitely harder to do. So this might be a more advanced level tip, but from my overall experience, you'll find yourself much more free with color for some reason, when you're not restricted to a line drawing, line drawings can inspire a little bit of the color fill mentality, which is totally fine. But in this particular chapter, what we want to do is exercise kind of the opposite of that. Here I'm laying in some of the golden embroidery and frills along the coat. And you notice my color picker there is pretty much in the middle of the saturation spectrum. I find myself doing that often as kind of a tactical approach because if I'm in the middle, I have the choice of either going more saturated or less saturated. So if I'm thinking about model number 2 for generating these color vibrations starting in the middle as opposed to one extreme side of the spectrum can really help. So up to this point in the painting, I've been mainly looking at color. It's now time to get that essential value in there, light versus shadow. And along with that, making sure my shapes are okay. All the stuff that comprises the rest of the fundamentals of painting. That's why I've kind of slowed down just recently here to put in all the little bits of drawing that I can't really do quickly. Little details in the costume and checking proportions and perspective, knowing that I have the color in my back pocket, all of this more technical stuff can happen now. So if you look at what I'm doing in the light side right here, that jacket is slowly but surely moving out toward the more saturated reds that I want to end up with. But even here, I'm not just choosing one red. I'm playing around using modal number one with some warmer reds, some cooler reds, you know, Violet's, things like that. Now this brings up something pretty important. In Chapter 2, we talked all about how the light source influences color temperature, how it's the main driver of color temperature. In fact, the color shifts I'm doing here though, are only partially responding to the light. I'm allowing the light to dictate some overall direction. For example, this person's being hit by sunlight, which means that in general, the reds in the light will be overall warmer than the reds in the shadow. But even within those two categories, I'm still going to play with warm and cool reds in the light, and warm and cool reds in the shadow. It might look something like this on a color wheel. Those would be the reds and the light. And those would be the reds in the shadow. A little overlap is totally okay. But you can also see the general direction of the color inspired by the light source, as in chapter two. And when I describe those colors, I really shouldn't be saying read, Should I? Those are the color temperatures that contribute to something that reads as red. Alright, something interesting is about to happen here. I'm working on making that chest plate read as green and look at how quickly this is falling into place. I mean, the video is sped up, but it happens quickly in real life too. Anyway, the reason I think this is so cool is that it lends insight into how our eyes actually perceive color. You might think that for something to look green, it needs to be green, but that's not the case. Here are some swatches of what looked like green on the painting, looking at them isolated like that. You're probably thinking like That doesn't look green at all. But check this out, move them onto the painting and they magically become green. Okay, so what's the explanation for that? Well, my path from red to green looks something like this. Now, I don't actually have to get to the end of that path just for the color to look green. I could stop somewhere in the middle, like anywhere in here. And that's the thing. The eye reads the direction of the color. It's movement more so than it reads the color itself. So once you start plotting a few points along that path, the eye says, Hey, you started here, pretty sure you're going here, take a load off, let me do some of the work for you. Now based on my teaching experience and as a student myself, I know that this is counter-intuitive to what many people think when they get into painting. Most students are very rigid with color. So understanding and getting good at color usually requires a bit of a lateral shift in your thinking. And again, I designed this entire class to kind of hit the high points, those aha moments that I had along my journey with color. So this demo is looking good. It's not a completely finished illustration yet, but it does demonstrate a good workflow to use when you want to incorporate these color vibrations, right? Let's move on to Chapter 5, where we'll discuss how different palettes influence the mood of your work. 12. Common Color Palettes And Master Study: Okay, welcome to Chapter 5. So with all the information we've unlocked so far, we can now dip our toes into color pallets. Pallets can pave the way to a truly artistic expression of color in this chapter will gain insight into how color choices can affect the mood of your paintings. An understanding of common pallets, you can use time and time again, some guidance as to how to structure your colors within any given palette. You'd like to use a further understanding into how colors appear different within different contexts. And the all important link between choosing a pallet with setting the lighting of your environment or a painting. I think there's no better way of seeing the power of color palettes then by looking at color key art, color keys are very small paintings, often rendered without any detail. They simply exist to communicate the overall mood of the scene. And that's what a color palette does. It informs the mood. Now it does not fully dictate the mode. The mode is created by several factors. For example, the subject matter, the way you light it, the way you compose it, and of course, the color palette as well. All of those things contribute to the overall mood. The color palette is there to, let's say, enhance the mood when all your other elements are in place. For example, your value structure, your composition, the color palette can really be a powerful tool in suggesting to the viewer how they should feel when looking at a certain painting. These are two color keys by Paul, the same for the film Lord of the Rings. And they both use a very common palette called a monochromatic palette. A monochromatic palette is characterized simply by all the colors in the painting resulting from a single hue. And because it's just a single hue, it's always obvious which color a monochromatic palette is based on. Now, let me show you what a monochromatic palette is not if I took one of these paintings here, converted it to grayscale and then added a photo filter on top to bring back in some color. I mean, I suppose this technically is monochromatic, but this is not a good example of what a monochromatic palette can do. This to me is grayscale with a desperate attempt at color on top. And that's because when I sample the colors here, you notice that they all seem locked to the same level of saturation. It's like there's an invisible wall there. The color temperature isn't changing, which essentially means it's a glorified grayscale. If we bring back the original painting there at the top, we can really see those temperature changes. And what's really magic about a monochromatic palette is that it's easy to give the illusion that there are other colors in the painting. For example, the rocks in this area look very Earth, Tony, don't they? Almost like a raw umber or something, those colors really read as warm. But if I sample that area and remove that swatch from the painting, they are indeed blue, just a desaturated blue, which as you remember from a complimentary palette example in Chapter 1, means that that color is moving, in this case, against the more saturated blue here. That lesser saturated blue looks so much warmer, warmer because it's going toward gray, which effectively mean that's going toward the warm side of the color wheel. Our eye registers that movement and therefore reads it as warm in this context. And this is precisely how you can have warm and cool colors even if your entire palette is based on blue. I'll try this myself where I take the same scene, but instead of using a blue monochromatic palette, I'll use this red monochromatic palette. The first thing I'm doing is starting with a very intense red. And now as I adjust the color temperature, look what I'm doing with the saturation, decreasing it right, moving it toward gray, you can start augmenting that red, essentially the grayer you go, the more it'll start looking cooler. Now, the maximum coldness I can get with this palette is 100% gray. So what I like to do is reserve that for a little later in the painting when I know where I might want to use that, you know, it's kinda like I don't want to play my full hand just yet. Keep a few cards close to the chest, but a color key goes quick. I've established my overall gradient. The hottest red is in the background. Then as we go to the foreground, it's gonna get colder and colder red. So I'm confident now in decreasing that saturation like I'm doing here and blocking in some of these truly colder reds. And you can see where I'm at in the saturation spectrum, I'm near gray. I mean, right now I'm almost perfectly gray. And you can see that that red is looking bluish. It'll never look blue, just bluish. Or again, the best way of saying that is it will look like there are warms and cools. It doesn't matter what the colors are. The reason you'd use a monochromatic palette is if you want to use the emotional flavor of a color. Now, I don't adhere to any particular science behind this, but generally read is associated with fire or drama or danger. Key I'm doing right now is certainly does feel dramatic to me. Even though it's just a babbling brook. It feels like something's about to happen here. The color just seems to portend some kind of future event. So if you're telling a story where that fits the narrative, then maybe a monochromatic red color palette like this is exactly what you need. Maybe this pallet would not work so well for an opening of Anne of Green Gables. On a technical note, one thing I noticed with monochromatic palettes is that the most temperature change seems to happen in the darker values. Like if you look at the foreground, I really get a sense for warm and cool reds in those dark shadows in the foreground. Those are dark values there in the background where the values of the piece are much lighter. Going gray there with those light values definitely does add warm versus cool. Just according to me, it doesn't seem like it adds quite as much when the values are lighter, the cooler reds here seems to come out the most and the darker values. And likewise, if this were a blue monochromatic painting, the warmer blues would come out the most in the darker blues. Now, I'll be totally honest. I can't explain why that is, is just something I noticed visually. And I encourage you to conduct some experiments like this and see if you reach the same conclusions. The other piece of advice I have when painting in a monochromatic palette is makes sure you have some kind of temperature variation all over the picture. You can have an overall plan. For example, in this piece, there is more temperature variation in the foreground versus the background. However, if you look at the background, you can see I've still peppered in just a few of those cooler reds back there. This just ensures that the piece never get stagnant. That is, the color stops moving. You almost never want that. So here's my red monochromatic palette study. This canvas was kept very small by the way, which is par for the course with color keys. And it's something I really encouraged to let you focus on the literal broad strokes. Okay, the next pellet we want to talk about, if we just used one color there for a monochromatic palette, let's expand our horizons and use sewer three colors. Now in Chapter 1, we looked at a complementary palette which uses two colors opposite each other on the color wheel. This time, however, let's keep our colors next door to each other. This is called an analogous palette. Analogous palette simply means that the colors used are next to each other on the color wheel. Now the neighboring colors you pick can be anywhere on the color wheel. They can transition from blues, purples, or reds, two yellows. But I do recommend keeping it to a small slice of the color wheel. Here's Norman Rockwell using an analogous palette. What I love about this painting is Rockwell announces the two extremes of his palette. There's this saturated yellow for the sky and the saturated red for the bandana has every color in the painting fits within those extremes. Now, their clothing looks pretty green, which would be beyond the yellow. But upon sampling it, it's actually just a slightly lesser saturated orange. This is one of those things that's not at all intuitive. The perceived identity of a color can change depending on the context it's in. And the pallets we're talking about are that context, for instance, back here, that blue looked warm. Remember? But if I bring that blue into this painting, it's freezing cold. That's because I've removed it from its context. So on the topic of contexts, I want to show you something that happens specifically with high saturation. I've got this very high saturated, bright yellow. I'm just going to paint it in this canvas here, right? Something happens when you have a very bright saturated color on your canvas. To start with. I've kind of overloaded the yellow right away. I can't really get any more yellow than this, right? So the second I back this off, even slightly grayer and I put this in C, that color should look yellow because after all it is still quite yellow, but against what is completely loud yellow. This looks like something else. This almost looks greenish or maybe greater than it actually is, or more like an umber or earthy color, even though it's quite a saturated yellow. So it's like a bright saturated color skews the color conversations so much that it magnifies the changes of other colors. For example, if I move this color picker just slightly down towards the red and say grade off a little bit. That's a pretty bright orange. I put it down though it looks pinkish. If I move to something truly pink like this up here, maybe grade off even did more. Look at this, it looks purple. And the reason that happens is because we're comparing it against that super loud yellow. So again, this is to show you the impact of context with this in mind, let's start the next exercise. Because the goal of our study is to quickly capture color. I don't mind starting out by tracing the drawing and I just have Photoshop do this for me. I'll duplicate the layer, go up to Filter, Stylize, find edges, and Photoshop gives me a line drawing. And here what I'll do is control a, control C, open a new canvas, pasted in there and resize that canvas. This is way too big for a color key or a pilot study. It's bring it down to 700 pixels tall. It okay, and now what I can do is just D saturate those colors because I don't need them to be blue or anything, and switch the layer to multiply. And now on a layer underneath, I can just begin painting. And of course with the reference, I'll get rid of my line drawing and just place it beside my study. Okay, So my Layer window is off screen because I'm only going to be painting on one layer. The first thing I'm gonna do is block in that extremely saturated bright yellow, which will provide that context like we just saw for every other color to relate to. There's a bit of a bright orange transition here to now when colors are neighboring like this, you can really be generous with keeping saturation. There's no need to link them through gray. They're linked via them being neighbors on the color wheel. So I'll just not even think about saturation, just keep the same saturation and put this orangey thing here. Maybe a little bit redder as we go. I'm aware that I can go all the way down. So this red here, my ranges. Limited to about that in this analogous palette. By the way, when you do this Find Edges thing, Photoshop gives you this annoying sort of noise to the painting, to the line-drawing. So sometimes I'll just hop into the Layers window, push Control L for levels and just kinda get rid of some of this. You don't need fidelity in the line drawing, right? I can lose a lot of this information. It doesn't matter. I'll be painting over it anyway. So something like that then I'll get back to the background and continue working. Okay, so what do we wanna do here? But remembering that values are really a big part of painting. I need to get in some basic silhouette stuff. And I think an obvious one would be this giant rock. Now, looking at that and I'm being honest with you here, I don't know what color that is. I have to discover it. I'm pretty sure it's not going to be at the yellow extreme, probably going to be somewhere in the middle and probably, obviously darker and something maybe a bit more desaturated may be something there. And again, that color is pretty saturated that I'm painting with, but it looks fairly desaturated next to those very saturated yellows and reds. I need to start relating these colors together. Remember the whole thing about context. Right now, I barely have any context to work with. I'm building it as I go and then I can start evaluating. So for example, against this, now maybe I can try and get their skin tones, which to me look possibly a bit more on the orange side and obviously lighter, maybe a bit less saturated, maybe something like that. Note that's two pinkish. I should have expected that with a demonstration that I just showed you a minute ago. The more experience you get with color, the more you're able to predict how certain colors will look. But it's impossible to have a mental catalog of every color relationship. There's just millions of possibilities, right? The thing you want to be able to do is adjust to me that's two pinkish which is noted. I can maybe you that later, but I want to move away from pink. So I'll go back towards the yellow, maybe add some saturation and maybe something like this is better. I think this is closer and I can probably start here. And by the way, I do not feel the need to draw hands or draw correct arms or anything like that. It's a little bit darker with this. And get the silhouettes here. Now the flesh tone against the sky is looking way too gray, even though it's not gray at all. It's only there. Look how great it looks in the painting. So I'm going to make it a bit red arcs. I see it there. Rhetor in the painting saturated up of it, something like this. And then once I have that, I can maybe sprinkle that in to the existing flesh tones here and come a little bit closer to the Rockwell painting. But more importantly, I'm starting to harmonize these colors because I'm adding one color sort of show up in surrounding areas. Analogous palettes are limited palettes in general are very good for this because you only have a few colors to choose from. So inevitably you'll be sharing colours throughout the painting that creates color harmony. So the closer that lesser saturated orange, as I've established, that's a bit too light, so let's go a bit darker, even a bit darker than that. And it's amazing how that looks green. I can test this like what are the parameters of this green like how would if I made it more reddish? Does that still look green? Know that starts looking red. So undo that. Go back to where I was. How would if I push it more yellow, what does that look like? That looks even greener. Look at that. A slightly less saturated yellow looks green, which makes sense because yellow is closer to green than the oranges. I could also, you know, I've got my two different greens here. I can always sample this one. Press lightly on my tablet and sample the result. In that way I'm kind of mixing color on the canvas. Just like an oil painter might mix colors on your palette. I do use the undo button when I paint, but I very rarely am attached to it like I only undo if I don't like the shape I'm making. I rarely undo if I don't like a color choice. In fact, I almost encourage colors to be quote unquote wrong, because then you can just paint over them. And when you paint over colors, you create all these interesting and unexpected contexts with it. Alright, so I've sped up the video just a little bit here, and I'm filling in all the colors that go there. I'm not choosing really any new colors. I'm just sampling the clothing decisions I've already arrived at. Putting it there. If a value appears to need darkening, I'll just darken it down without really thinking about the color change too much. This value here on his, his clothes needed lightening a little bit. The silhouette from the rock. It reads lighter over the darker rock. So I raise the value a little bit. Their hair obviously gets darker, and I am adding a little red to the hair to make it appear more brownish. Knowing that I have a little bit more of an extreme read to get to for the bandana, which I'm doing right here. So I'm basically now I have laid in the two extremes, my analogous palette, which is something I do recommend when you have an analogous palette and you know what your two extremes are, which you should have an idea of going into it. Try and get those extremes on the canvas as soon as you can. In addition to the extremes, try and get a few intermediary colors like their clothing and the rock there. That way you start establishing a visual idea of what your color context is doing. You know, what reads his flesh in this context, what reads as dark green clothing, what reads his hair, etc. Now at this point of the painting, I'll just completely delete the line drawing, just get rid of it. You do not need to be literal with these, and I'll just keep working from here. For example, that rock needs to be darker. So instead of meat like fumbling around and picking a color and trying it, I'll just do something like this. I've got a brush here that's set to multiply mode. This brush comes with my brush pack included in this course, but it's just a regular default round brush with what edge is turned on, set to multiply mode. The rock looks redder, so drag it down to the red. And this is a multiply brush. I'll pick a lighter color. And I'll just put this brush to work. Maybe a little bit darker than that and darken down this rock toward read. I don't even really care what the resulting color is. I'm just evaluating it visually. That is to say, I don't care what pixel it is. I'm looking at it visually. It needs to be even darker here where the planes of the rock turn under. So I'll block that in. And I don't care about exact drawing anymore, but I'm certainly not going to try and copy all the little nooks and crannies of this rock face. It doesn't matter. That would matter if I were doing a actual final painting, but not in a color palette study, you notice I don't even have the dog blocked in yet, but he's going to be light over the dark stuff here. So establishing these darks will serve two purposes. I could also with my same multiply brush maybe go up to a yellow and glaze some of this color into the rock. I know it'll work in context because I'm within my analogous palette. Again, that's the nice part about limited palettes. It's less chance for you to screw up because you only have so many choices. Color harmony is generally established when you have similar hues that show up in different saturations throughout the painting. So working with a limited palette, like this analogous palette here, is going to be easier for you because the hues are already predetermined. It's much easier to have them harmonized when you're only dealing with a few. And this is all just with my multiply brush. I noticed the darker values there. I can experiment with darker reds. Maybe I'll even go all the way down to my extreme red here and start adding that as like a dark maybe like under his face is hat can go a bit darker. The nice thing about the multiply brush is it keeps the integrity of the color you already have there. So you know, I could pitch the whole painting a bit redder like that and look, it works. It's just a little bit redder, but within the same relationships I've already established. So I do like painting on multiply mode. That's no doubt influenced by my watercolor training. If any of you have ever used watercolor, you know, it's basically like painting on a multiply layer in digital. That is, the colors you put down make the paper constantly darker. And they tended toward a color. So by way of adding these different colors by multiply mode, I'm also expanding my palette kinda out to fill the extremes that I've already established, his armies to go darker here, I'll just stay on multiply mode and just sort of get this in little shadow under the hat. Maybe back-off the red, get a intermediary, orange. They're sort of in the middle of my two extremes and dark and down his chest under the sleeve. And what's so important here, the thing I want to stress is I'm not particular about which color I'm picking. Not nearly as much as I'm obsessing over just visually evaluating how it looks on the painting. I think too many digital painters get caught up in the fact that you can pick each individual color. And I know from my own teaching experience, I get a lot of questions from students saying like, how do you know what color to pick? And while that's a fair question, I'm encouraging you to reframe it here. You are always more interested in contexts. So learning about these pallets will give you a nice starting point as to which contexts you might be working in. Setting your two color extremes in this case, and working within them. We did the same thing with Chapter 1's complimentary palette. We had our extremes in mind. In that case, they were opposites on the color wheel and we worked within them filling in the blanks. This is no different. It just my extremes are different. So let me take a quick pause from the painting and expand on that. When we were working in our complementary palette, say this versus that, we had those two extremes and we fill in the blanks. But in that case, the blanks was not all these hues. The blank was going through gray and back out to purple, right? That was the filling of the blank in this painting. It's the, it's more of a hue thing filling in the Hughes from here to here. Now so far we haven't really been too adventurous with grays and indeed even the Rockwell painting, there aren't too many super graze in there, but watch what we can do. Let's say I'm looking at this rock and I'm like, yeah, it's, it's reading overall brown, I want that color to move more. Well, so long as I'm in my hues here, I can always gray this off and treat it like the monochromatic palette where I'll just grab a brush and I can put in this much cooler, orangey red, whatever color this is. And, you know, it starts looking bluish. Now, the Rockwell painting doesn't really have that. Well, it kinda does, but it just darker. It's kinda got these little almost cool or passages here. And then I can start finding now with using grays within my analogous colors. So this is like the monochromatic palette is just expanded because I have more hues to access. But within any of those hues, I have full rights to go into these grays and see what they can do for me that can do this with anything I can pick the clothing, right? Say okay, it's there. Let's see what happens if I really great us off and therefore coolant. And look at that. It looks like there's a blue sky light shining down. It's not really in the Rockwell painting. He has restrained himself from using that. But first of all, this works because it's in context. It's within my palette. And I might want to use it and feel free when you're doing these color key studies, by the way, to experiment beyond what the original was doing. Rockwell is a fantastic painter, but he's, this is just the choices he made in this painting. This is not to say that you can't experiment with other potential options. In fact, it's encouraged that you do because then you can understand not only what Rockwell is doing here or the artist you're studying, but also what else may have been possible for that piece. I really love digging into artist's sketchbooks, their studies for paintings, because often they do explore different options for color palettes. That's a big one artist like to explore is different options for color palettes. And yeah, quite often you see fully different treatments for paintings. So right here, like his brim of his head as this little rose, peachy tone on it and see if I can find that it's a cooler, red cooler because it's going toward gray. And you can just start hitting top planes, you know, maybe planes it face up with this cooler red while I'm here. I wonder how it even looks in the flesh that's too dark if I lighten it up. This is interesting. Starting to deviate a little bit from the original, which is okay again, but let's maybe keep it a bit more honest in this case just for demonstration purposes, but again, fully encouraged to go beyond for try something other than what the artist is doing, maybe inspired by the artists. You know, the plane of the hand turns there. You can really see that this painting is coming together. If I wanted to put in some texture on this rock, I can get like a little dotted brush and just sort of scatter in some texture and then have that inspire me to loops, can't get that color. I'm so used to painting with full ballots that I just automatically go to the opposite. But now let's restrain it back in here. That rock that was once maybe to Brown is now starting to have some nice variety to it. And of course, to prevent myself from doing too much variety, I can bring myself right back into those warmer red slash oranges and just build that color backends. So color you're always, it's always like a push and pull type of game. Push it around, pull around, you know, introduce some grays, bring back some warms, introduce some more cools it, and just keep pushing and pulling it until you have a nice statement. And by that I mean some nice variety to it, some maybe unexpected variety. Here's where the sky is coming down and just hitting these little top planes of the rock. And this is a nice little exercise in varieties of mark-making and shape and just trying to make non-repetitive marks here that good artists are so good at. That's a design thing though. This class is not really about design. It's about color design, I suppose, but not necessarily like compositional design. That's a whole other topic. Art has so many subtopics that they all connect via the same principles. But they do deserve to be studied separately. Which is why I try and isolate my classes and to kinda dealing with fundamental separately. The highlights can be just anything in the yellows really because it's a highlight is a reflection of the light source. So the little highlight on his knee is reflecting the light source, which is the yellow sky. I guess that's important to note here there's no direct light on these characters. In essence, there is no bully light here. There is only this soft ambient light coming down from the sky. And because that sky is so yellow and orange, that explains the utility of this palette. If the sky is the light source and this guy is brilliant yellow, orange, might as well make all the other colors in the painting neighbors of that. Now in terms of the mood that we're getting out of this, That's very abstract and I don't want to be here as saying like, Oh, yellows equals happiness and childhood and reds equals Fire and fury. Even though I suggested that before, red is a pretty common one too, that we associate with certain moods, but not every color has that, you know, when I'm painting kinda the last thing I'm thinking of is like, what mood a certain color is associated with. I just try and feel it myself. Like just feel it in your bones. It's one of those are artsy, foxy things that it's not really quantifiable. Like I once had a client, I was doing a background painting for or for some animated show. And I painted the walls like this muted lime green, which looked good to me. But the client came back and said the color was depressing. That was the word that he used was depressing. And it dawned on me then this is back in like 2004, One of my first ever jobs and dawned on me then like, oh, you know, people will have their own personal associations with color. That may not be the same ones that I have. And that's true with any color in the spectrum. So I think it's helpful when painting to give yourself as many options as you can as you're exploring these color keys. That is, do one like this with an analogous palette of yellows, two reds. Try the same thing where it's pitched, like maybe you're going to go from orange up to the intro of green here. Maybe try one over here where it's like blues to turquoise or something. And we'll definitely play with that upcoming in this chapter. The same scene in two different keys. We'll try that as another exercise. As for now though, this painting is looking good, we're almost done with the study. In fact, I might just speed it up, which I've just started to do. And I'll just talk about what's going on for the remaining four minutes of this. The first thing I want to point out is don't feel the need to render faces or anything like that. Anything detailed like hands or faces or dog hair. Ignore all that, just block it in as like big planes, big blocks. You notice the main character there. It looks like he's got like just a flat face. I'll put a suggestion of some planes of the head in there, but nothing much. You try and capture perspective, I guess here comes the dog, by the way, let's look how simply this is going to be painted. I'm mostly I'm just trying to capture the contrast of that dog. Light over dark. The dog is light over the dark rock. And the boy who's holding the dog has some light colored flesh over the dark rock. And if it looks anything remotely like a dog, that's fine. It doesn't have to be fully rendered. That's the reason the Canvas is so small. It doesn't really let me get in there and fully render things. Here. I'm just trying to find some maybe some other color accents. When I say accents, I mean, like what are the most saturated colors? We started with the yellow, and I've already talked about how the red is equally saturated. Those are your two extremes. But there are some other areas of the painting that have some, you know, some oranges look at the straps on their bags are some oranges that kinda pop out a bit and just little things here and there that if you give them that little push and saturation, they'll pop out just that little bit and you try and use that sparingly. But it is there. I'm just looking at the rock in the study here, and I'm just really enjoying how many tiny little shifts there are in there. And I never really felt like I was ever totally nailing that. I just pushed and pulled it, like I was mentioning before, over the course of several different passes. I didn't try and cover the rock all in one pass. At first it was just covered. It was covered with a generic color. But then over the course of the study, I would pick away at it. Adding some gray is bringing back some reds and oranges and darkening it down, whatever. And at this point, now that I've gone over, say that rock like four or five times, it actually hasn't nice little statement of variety to it. There's something about it that looks pleasing and honestly I chalk a lot of it up to happy accidents, things I've discovered while painting this scene. No matter how much about color, you know, you're always going to be able to surprise yourself with how one color looks in the context of your palette you're working in. I've been doing color since professionally, since 2 thousand for my very first job was a background painter in 2000 for almost 20 years later, I'm still surprised that how some colors look up against other colors that it never ends. Which is thrilling. It's proves to me that I chose the right career path because I'm always, I always feel like there's a surprise waiting to be had. Now, even though all this happy accident talk, you have to set yourself up within a framework for your happy accidents to make sense. And that's where pallets come in once you have the restraints, you know, the restrictions that palettes impose, that's what pallets do they limit you. Within that fenced in framework, you are more likely to stay within a structure and that's what makes things work, is the structure. That's why generally you never really see artistic breakthroughs in like a kid's drawing because there's just no structure. They're having a little girl myself. I think children's art is pretty for different reasons, but structure is definitely not one of them. And if your goal is to be a professional artist in the entertainment industry, you know, movies, books, games, et cetera. Really anything you do boils down to structure. It could be gesture drawing, anatomy, perspective, environment design, or color palettes like here, there's a structure behind every art discipline and all right, here's the result of our analogous palette. It's a nice picture. And just think you now have a palette that you can try out on any picture you do. All right, so now that we have an idea of how to operate within limited palettes, Let's take a look at some other common limited palettes and then look at paintings that use them very effectively. Of course, we'll start by looking at the full color wheel and each of the following palettes is going to limit this color wheel in different ways. You know, maybe we should start with some more examples of analogous palettes. Here's another analogous palette by Paula. Same. Now this one obviously uses a different set of colors. It goes from kinda warm as yellows to the medium cool greens. And what I like about this, it seems to have a hierarchy like the light is assigned to the warmer yellows and the shadows like what's up front is assigned to the colder greens. So Paula sane has achieved a very logical system of warm to cool. Another one here by Paul is saying which uses this range of the color wheel. And of course he's depicting a literally cold place. So it only makes sense to use colors that we consider to be actually cold, right? Very logical choice. Another one by dice to sue me. This one uses a larger range of the color wheel, but all the colors are still analogous. They're all still neighbors. Let's go back to the good old complimentary palette and take a look at some examples of that. Now the challenge with a complimentary palette is suddenly we're dealing with two opposite spectrum from the color wheel. So what that means is the danger is that we can get overly excited with both opposite ends and kind of push both to the extreme. Usually you don't wanna do this. Usually what you wanna do is pick a dominant color. Like for example, maybe it's the color of the light, allow that to get saturated. And then in the shadow you're using the complement, but you're using like a grayer version of it or just the opposite. You're using the saturated version of the color in the shadow and a more grade down version in the light. This color key by Bill cone is an excellent example. It's using the turquoise side of blue and then the direct opposite of that, which is the red that's on the warm end of the spectrum. And you'll notice the blue is the color that bill cone has allowed to become very saturated. And then by contrast, he doesn't need to use so much of his red. He can keep those reds fairly grade down, yet they still read as so warm because there is still an extreme gap between these two colors. This one by Paul the same uses a classic pairing of complementaries, which is the orangey yellows and the purply blues. This is kind of a classic because the morning sun is categorically that color and therefore shadows are kinda categorically this purply blue. So using this as almost a way to guarantee that your color temperatures are going to align with how real life looks. And in this one, similar to the bill cone one, It's the shadows that are being favored at the purples are getting more saturated than the oranges. And it achieves a kind of balanced that way. This one by Dominique Louis is the same palette is the bill cone painting pitting turquoise blues against grade down reds. And I'm showing you this to point out that the subject matter is completely different, but that doesn't even matter. You can apply these palettes to literally anything. Here's one with the exact same pellet again, this one by Nathan folks for Shrek. Of course, we're in nighttime here and nighttime and film is classically rendered with kind of this deep turquoise blue. And then you notice for light, It's the opposite side of the color wheel. He's using that red color and it really achieves the goal of making those warm colors actually feel quite warm and inviting and welcoming as they pop out against those colder blues. You'll notice on this one, both sides of the spectrum are equally saturated. But you'll also notice that to make up for that, Nathan folks has been very selective with where he puts that red. It's only a few spots in the painting. The split complementary palette is just like the complementary palette with one more layer. First, you pick your dominant color, but instead of taking the direct compliment as your secondary color, you split it and use the two neighbors instead. And the setup I'm showing you right here is ideal for rendering sunlit scenes. This is a split complementary palette. Notice that the sunlit colors are all homogenise to that warm color. And then by contrast, the shadows are split in two in the middle ground and some of the foreground we have a more purpley influence to the shadow, and then in the background we have a more turquoise influenced to the shadows. Now I mentioned this palette is useful because it mimics how real life works. You can see in this photo of the Grand Canyon, it's totally true that the shadows and the foreground are more influenced by the purpley side of blue. Then in the background it fades to more of the turquoise blue. This painting by Edgar pain is also a split complementary palette, but it's flipped. There are two colors in the light and only one in the shadow. He's got a yellowy warm for the brighter parts of the light. And then where that rock turns into half tone, He's darkening it and it gets a little redder. Shadows are interesting too. It's not just that one blue, where it goes blue, It's just that one blue. But you'll notice there's a whole lot of reflected light in those shadows and it's a very warm reflected light. And those reflected lights are derived from grays that could be achieved from those three. So there's a whole symphony of grays in here, which makes this a particularly beautiful painting in my eyes. The last palette I'd like to introduce you to is called the triadic palate. And again, very simple conceit behind this one, make a triangle and whatever three colors the points of the triangle indicate are the colors you use. So something like this, for example. Just like we've seen before, this pellet tends to work best when you have a hierarchy of dominance. So you pick your dominant color, then you're supporting color. And then the last one you can kind of use as an accent color. And again, the reason we do this kind of balancing is all in the name of structure. So all three colors in this case won't be fighting for equal attention. Rather, there is a clear hierarchy and play. One of the most popular characters in the world is based on a triadic palette. Superman's costume is primarily blue. Red would be a supporting color and then yellow would be the accent color. So you can see how there's a three tiered effect. And if you look at this poster artwork here, they keep the triadic palette and balanced. Blue is still the most dominant color, as it simply appears the most in the painting. And then red and yellow following in place. Speaking of movie characters, remember in the matrix when Morpheus tells Neo some rules can be bent, others can be broken. I think the danger when I'm explaining to you guys these palettes is that you might take them too literally and feel like you have to adhere to one of them every time. That's certainly not the case. These pallets are meant to be bent and broken and pushed around. There are great starting points and certainly you could adhere to them 100% like many of the examples I've shown you. But take a look at this color key by Dominic Louis from gratitude. When I tried to fit this palette into a template, I came up with this. I certainly think this painting is based off a three color system. But what's the relationship of those three colors? It's not really triadic, it's also not really split complimentary. 13. Two Paintings, Two Moods, Same Palette: The first thing I'm going to start doing is laying down those colors that I said I was going to use in this painting, kind of a hodgepodge, a big mess of them, keeping them fairly light. Because this painting, I want this painting to feel fairly light. So might as well start there. And then here I'm just roughing in a drawing. I could have done my Photoshop find edges thing, but just for the sake of change, here's a actual hand drawing and it's not pretty, but it'll do the job for a color key blocking in the background here. And as you can see, I'm already getting that color wiggling. We talked about still thinking value first and that background being slightly darker is going to help those characters read. Light on dark might actually change that later. I might bisect it by getting lighter lights than the background and then darker shadows, but we'll see where it goes. Blocking things in. I kinda pick the easy stuff first, select a dark tree. Dark accent for the tunnel is getting some values in that are going to help me gauge what's in the middle. You know, for example, what I'm gonna do now is blocking the light of the character, of the monster character. And this is the lightest light in the painting. So I know that as long as it's very light, I'm likely to get it right. Then from there I can gauge how dark I want the shadows. Now one of the ways to make a painting look very luminous and bright is to raise the value of your shadows. And there's actually a name for this. It's called high key. And the key doesn't refer to color, refers to value just like you can set a key and color. And in music you can set a key and value 2. So a high value key makes for lighter shadows and also lighter lights. So anyway, that you can see the monster character, even though he's mostly in shadow. That shadow is very, very bright and light in value. And then the lights or even later, of course, kind of approaching overexposure, just just still a little more controlled than that. I'm not blowing it out to white. I'm still keeping that lemon yellow there. And that lemon yellow is coming from the bully, which is the sun. And I've colored that sun lemony yellow. So anything that's sun hits, I don't care what the material is, is going to be that lemon yellow. That's why it's the dominant color in the scene or one of them, because it's from the main light source. So value wise, I'm using the background as kind of a medium dark value. So with the bridge and the monster there, lights will be lighter than the background and their darks will be darker than the background. It splits it. But getting back to the whole idea of color pallets, you can see I've got the dominant yellow lights that I've already talked about, and I've also got that blue background in there. Both of those colors are pretty equally saturated and yeah, they stick out as the two dominant colors in the scene. There are reds in there, as you can see, not talking about the line drawing red. I'm talking about the bridge being grayish red, but that's the point. They're kept in the grays. As far as purples go, there aren't many of those in there yet, although they'll probably come in as I start adding more color to the bridge as I'm starting to do now. We'll see how that shapes up. But if it's okay, if that purple ends up being really subdued gray, that's fine. I mean, I have three other colors already. That's more than enough. Now, there is a little sneaky extra color in this scene, of course, the green, that monster is bright green. So how am I treating that? What I don't want to do is introduce another dominant color, but thankfully I don't have to. Here's my little palette again. The color green, of course, sits right in the middle between the yellow and the blue. What that allows me to do is air on the yellow side of green for the lights. You can clearly see me doing that with those lemon yellows on the monsters light side and then air on the blue side of green for the shadows. And if I want to sneak in that intermediate green, that pure green that you see on my palette there. I can do that a little bit. There are a few of those greens on the monsters kinda bottom front parks and a little bit on the grass. But even that grass, if you look at the original painting there, the shadows of the grass or blueish greens and the lights of the grass or yellowish greens. So I still feel like the painting is guided by those four colors. For colors, however, is still quite a bit. I mean, there's kinda colors from all four corners of the color wheel. And what you have to do to manage that, of course, is make sure all of those colors show up, not only in their saturated points. So I've already talked about, you know, to various degrees of saturation, but they also need to show up in their gray forms. That's what harmonizes color, is the colors in your painting showing up in grays. And where I think all of those grays congregate in this painting is that bridge, which makes sense because the bridge takes up again like two-thirds of the picture. So to me, that is where the colors should all come together. You don't necessarily need graze of all the colors everywhere. That can start maybe looking a little desperate, but make sure that they do show up in large parts of the picture. That's my overall advice for achieving color harmony. Making sure that those grays do show up in parts of the picture that are, let's say, abundant enough to be noticeable, doesn't have to be everywhere, just enough places. So right now I'm putting in some slightly more saturated reds into the painting. Nothing too saturated though, nothing that distracts from the, those yellows and blues. But some reds I feel like could stand to be a bit more saturated, showing up against the grayer versions of red that already exist in the painting. There's a bunch of gray, grayish reds in that bridge, a fewer in the grass and the trees. So let's just play with that a little bit and have some notes of saturated red. But again, nothing that really distracts from the yellow and the blue hopefully. So just kinda dotting it around. And here I've just got a Linear Dodge Brush or a glow brush and putting in more light. And then just like I did with those red the second ago, I'm going to take those blueish greens and pepper them in slightly more saturated portions through the bridge as well. Just again, to help carry that color through. And there's our final key. All right, so let's move on with this exercise and relate the scene and recolor key it. I'm going to change this into a nighttime analogous palette. Blocking in some colors, of course, Knight is going to be darker. That's the main thing of night. And it's kind of a stereotype. But night tends to go into these cooler blues. And because we're painting a cartoony scene, let's exaggerate that with some real saturated blues. And, you know, I think real night would not be the saturated. It's very grade because color goes away at night for the most part. But in a, in a otherworldly kind of magical realism night, we're going to really push some of these cool colors. So this is going to be the moonlight coming from off frame. I'm going to hit it. I'm going to hit the characters from the same angle because I think that really works for the composition. But let's make everything just this cool life's let see is going to be bathed in cool light. So I'm already trying to determine the limits of my analogous palette here, currently staying within the blue family and just probing outward from there. So I will have some violet, as you can see, especially in the darker shadows because it was violence local, warmer compared to the turquoise is. But yeah, just to be clear, this is the palette I'm working with, the analogous palette, these general groups of color all neighboring attached to each other on the color wheel. I'm going to try and achieve all my warms and cools with blues. So you can see right now, I have relative degrees of warm and cool in the painting already, but it's all achieved in the blues. Okay, So one of the things that makes the shot look more magical is see how the horizon is not just dark. It goes from a dark blue up top to like a lighter purple as the horizon approaches. That's kind of a way of getting this otherworldly effect because I mean, that really doesn't happen in night, but I'm exaggerating. I'm inventing interesting color so that, that's something you can do is have this lighter horizon even at night. And I like going into the purples a lot, trying to find a local color for the grass. I'll change that as I go. It looks too blue right now. Change it. Getting in the water, just getting in that dark value, just, just to get my picture covered in values. And that helps me evaluate color from there, because value is always first right? Here's the, here's the right kind of color for the green is, as you can see, it was a kind of a grade down turquoise blue that looks green. And just like with the Rockwell study, That's something I had to discover. I didn't instinctively know that that would look green. I had an inkling but I had to test it and you saw me make a wrong turn and then correct for it. So on an art direction level because this is moonlight now I want to restrict the light just to the top corner of the characters there. Whereas in the other key, the light was more evenly dispersed. In this one, I want it really centralized on the characters. So you can see what I'm building now. I'm building that kind of lighting relationship. The light is mostly on the characters and everything else. Kind of phage darker and darker the further away you go from the characters. And the color strategy then is to concentrate the highest saturation near the light and have it gray off away from the light. So getting in some warm, warms by way of purples. Again, this purple would actually look called in the painting on the left. But in this painting, this purple is kinda the warmest thing I got. So getting purples in, in the dark accents and also the skin of the boy character is going to be purple and this kind of light that's against the closest thing to read and skin tones being that reddish hue is going to get that purple right? Painting is actually easier to do because I have fewer colors to choose from, so less opportunity to screw it up. That's just how I see it anyway. I love playing around with these palettes to see what kind of decisions they force you into. More dark accents, getting out a rake kinda brush to just make different kinds of marks. That's the other thing that keeps your painting alive. And we're going to talk about that in week number seven. But just different kinds of mark-making, not always using the same brush. And I'll do this in traditional media too. By the way, I'll have different brushes that make different marks. I have like air brushes and different kinds of hair brushes and soft brushes and hard brushes, bristles and use my fingers sometimes anything to anything to vary up that mark-making. So from here I'm working into the bridge just like I did last time, getting some more warms and cools and more variety in there. And I'm also very cognizant of the actual bricks that are in that bridge trying to get some of the like right now, those keystone shapes, I'm trying to get those to pop out just to imply that this bridge is made of stones. Again, without getting pedantic and showing the viewer each stone with hard lines, that's not a good way to paint, getting a bit of light on that grass and this is the closest I'll get to green. You see where my color wheel is still on the turquoise blues, but it looks very green in that context. And working back into the bridge and you kinda notice guys, that I jump all over the place. That's because I feel like painting is a big balancing act. So the second I'm working on the bottom of the painting. The next second I'm working way up at the top to achieve that kind of balance. I don't wanna get tunnel vision. Putting some stars in the background just to help the magical realism of the piece. There's no way those stars would be seen through all of that foliage. But, you know, I'm, I'm just trying to be inventive here. These colored keys or a place to play. There, they only take you 20 minutes. There's some glow brush. I have airbrushed set to Linear Dodge and I just brushed in some slight color glowing and that really helps. Any sense of magical realism, glowing colors is like the first thing you wanna do. Well, the first thing, but when you're ready for it, when the painting is ready for it, get some glow in there that really helps. Putting in the monster's teeth, which I totally forgot to do in the first one. Getting the eyes in there. And that's all I wanna do for character indication is basic. I align the boy, you notice the boy character doesn't even get eyes because his face is too small. It's, it's such a small shape, it doesn't need it, but the monster has these giant eyes, so I guess they're large enough shapes that I shouldn't leave them blank. That would look kind of weird. But at this point I'm just, I feel like I've arrived at a nice magical looking night shot. It's really evocative, just increasing those dark accents even more. Got the airbrush set to multiply mode vignetting the piece. That's another thing you can do. And by vignetting, I mean, getting darker around the edges of the canvas. And I did that, did that again with a multiply airbrush. Whenever I use an airbrush, it's always for big changes like that, not small shapes. Hair brushes are not good for small shapes. Putting in some of those purples on the left side of the bridge may be getting some reflected light from the magical night sky, which is very purply. So getting some purple reflected light there. Again, everything has kind of a logic behind it, even, even magical realism. You can't just willy nilly make it up. You have to have a logic behind your lighting still. Again, big brushes, big brushes. There's a big airbrush. And before that I had a big dry brush out, just, just overall swipes of color on that bridge. Some slight dark accents under the characters. And just like that, we have our magical night shot and a complete reversal of mood from the opening color key we did. And what I find interesting about this exercise is that both of these are inviting to me, but in completely different ways. They use completely different palettes, different times of day. Yet both of them, I feel like me as the viewer is being welcomed into this scene, like I want to be there, you know? And that's again that this is the magic of color keys. You're experimenting with your own emotions and marrying them with the skills that you've been learning through your diligence studies and on the topic of diligent studies. Let's do another one, actually another two. I'm gonna do the same scene twice again, though this time I'm going to use the same palette on both of them, but I will change the lighting on both of them and we'll see how that affects the mood. As for the drawing, I'm just going to make this up as I go. It's going to be some kind of imaginary medieval village. Alright, so let me show you the palette I'm using. Here is a color wheel. I'm going to restrict it to these three hues, which is essentially a split complementary palette. Now, I just want to reinforce that I can use all the derivations of gray from those three colors, which of course means different levels of saturation within those three colors. So how I'm treating that technically here in Photoshop is when I pick my colors on the color picker there, I'm just making sure that when I select a hue, I'm in one of those three hughes. It's as simple as that. If I'm a pixel or two off, I don't really care. But limiting your palette, in this case, a split complementary gives me a structure or a framework to work within. And if you're new to color, I really recommend trying this because suddenly I only have like three choices. Of course I have many more choices than three because within those three hues, I can be at any level of gray. I think picking hues really be funnels a lot of beginner painters. So hey, I only have three choices here. And because you're going to be distributing those three hues throughout the painting, you're more likely to achieve color harmony as a result. So as you can see, my strategy here was to bathe the sky and the warm two colors I have, and then block in the entire foreground with the cool color. This is pretty suitable for a morning light scene where the sun is behind the subject. Therefore, the entire subject matter is basically in shadow, making for a pretty obvious separation of warm light and cool shadow, the foregrounds going to be water. So I have some reflection of the sky in that water. And now I have a problem because I don't want my painting to be like the sky is warm on top, then a strip of cool in the middle and then a strip of warm again in the water. Don't want that. So my solution is to bring some of that warm light into the village itself as if the sun is just maybe glinting off some of the side facing walls. Although as I painted this color key, I hadn't quite thought about just yet. So what I'm thinking here is that some of them muted blues in that sky. You can see the very top of the sky there is a very grayish blue would be shining. It's cool light down on the landscape. And that's justifying those cooler, lighter blues in the village. Now just in case anyone's wondering here in Photoshop, when I put a mixture of subtle blue into a mixture of yellow, Photoshop will mix that and probably come up with some grayish green pixel. That's okay. If Photoshop comes up with that, I'll use it. I'm not going to specifically select green though, any accidental greens that show up from mixtures, That's fine. Okay, So at this point in the painting, it has occurred to me to bring some of that morning light into the village itself. So I made some selections, sampled my red sky and I'm bringing that in. Morning light is very reddish. Now I don't quite know the science behind that, but has something to do with the yellow is being filtered out, the more the light has to travel through our atmosphere. But anyway, let's get back to the artistic side of things now, which is more in my wheelhouse. Let's talk about how I'm structuring this palette. We already know all about the three hues I'm using. That's part of the structure. But how am I using the grays? Well, for this one, in the two warm colors I have. I'm going to allow those to be the most saturated elements of the painting. The blues, on the other hand, are going to be subdued more in the greys. This is not to say that I can never have saturated blues. In fact, you can see a few of them in there. As far as the reddish warms go pretty obvious that they're saturated, hints of that at the horizon as well as big saturated hits a VAT on the buildings that I just put in a minute ago. Maybe not so obvious though that there are also grayish versions of that red in the shadows of the buildings. As far as those reds go, we're looking at this kind of thing. Those grayish reds are subtle to be sure, but they help tie together and harmonize the more saturated reds and keep them in context. Now with the blues, I don't have that saturation yet. I'll be sure to pick and choose my spots with the saturated blue because that's really the only shot I have an accent color because my warms are both pretty saturated. It kinda torpedoes any chance I have at accenting with that, you know, they're pretty loud already. But with the blues, if I can keep them in the relative grays, I have some cards close to the vest that I can play in the form of pops of saturation. If you're ever unsure, you can even make a little palette like here at the bottom and essentially plot out little swatches of the main colors you want to use. So we can see the saturated yellows and orangey reds. And here are those little zaps of saturated blue. You can do that study in ten seconds. All right, So at this point in the key, the color palette is pretty clearly established. I'm just kind of filling out the elements, just did a quick levels adjustment there. And here I've set my brush to lighter color mode and I'm glazing in some lighter blues into the darks. Lighter color mode is nice because it takes the pixel you have and only affects darker pixels in the painting with that color. Constantly flipping the canvas around, which helps me see the distribution of color, especially because I'm coming up with this scene on the fly, both palette and drawing. Adding in some god rays here, which subtly warm up some of the blues closest to the sun, mostly did that with just a normal airbrush. Although sometimes I like setting an airbrush to overlay mode. This canvas, by the way, is only 600 pixels long, which is usually my resolution when doing color keys or color studies like this. The nice thing about color studies is your drawing level doesn't have to be super refined. You can apply a pallet with a very rudimentary drawing. This is not to encourage you to get lazy withdrawing, of course, because after all, if you ever want to do a fully finished illustration, then all your drawing chops have to come back. But there we go. There's our color key number one. Let's now paint the same scene, same palette, but structure at differently based on a different lighting setup. This time, in stark contrast to the key we just did, I'm going to go pretty medium saturated with those blues right away. It's kinda funny because I think in Gray's most of the time, even a medium saturated color to me feels very saturated. And from my experience studying and painting from real life, nature rarely ever gives you full bright saturated color. What feels very saturated in nature is often maybe like 70 percent saturated on a digital color picker. Anyway, let me outline for you my overall color plan for this painting. The first change is obvious. The light is still the sunlight, but the sun has swung around the sky and it's now lighting the buildings from the front. This is not quite sunset, but just before sunset. So for the sun colors naturally, I'll be using a combination of my two warm colors. However, this time I'm going to keep them grayer. You can clearly see that on the painting right now as well as looking at the color picker and seeing what degree of gray I'm at with that. But let's bring up that color wheel again and I can show you what I'm thinking for the rest of this picture. First, we isolate our three colors. The buildings are mostly in the yellows and they're around here. Now, I'm going to choose to keep the shadows of the building's pretty close to that, but still on the blue side of gray. That gives me allowance now to make the background more saturated blue as well as the water. And then we're left with the reds, which also do into the grays pretty heavily and make that my least dominant color. And that's my simple plan for this thing. As with many things in art, simple is what makes things beautiful. Because simple as readable. If I had all those colors clashing with heavy saturation all over the board, the I would struggle as to what to look at first, saturated colors tend to draw our eye, and Greys tend to subdue our eye and relax it. Now, one of my weaknesses is I tend to paint two gray. So check this out. I'll go up to Image, Auto Contrast and Photoshop really roofs the contrast. But then I can push Control Shift F, which brings up this handy fade dialogue. And then I'll just find a halfway ish value there or whatever looks good Really. And Photoshop will apply it accordingly. If you've seen my work online, you might think it's odd that one of my weaknesses as I paint to gray, you might think it was the opposite. But actually I build to color over time. Usually, sometimes my paintings need that little Auto Contrast boost and sometimes not. So that strip of warm color at the docks there, that doesn't make sense. The sun is not hitting there, so it should not be that warm. And here as I lay in the water, I'll start realizing that, remember, I'm just inventing this color key on the fly. I have a plan for it like I already explained, but other than that, I'm going by the seat of my pants here. So these boats need to come in and we're going to get an airbrush with a grayish red and kind of start harmonizing this whole bottom area. I just did it there. Sometimes I do that. I'll get a large airbrushed out just on normal mode, very large brush size, but pressing very lightly on the tablet. It just helps mix one color into all the colors it hits and brings them a little bit closer together. Now for those newer to painting, you might be asking, should I paint on one layer or should I paint on multiple layers? The answer is whatever you feel most comfortable with, I like painting on one layer because it allows me to make creative decisions without being worried about the technical aspect of things. Find that for me when I use layers, at least part of my brain is focused on the technical, creating and managing layers part, which takes away from the artistic decisions. I feel more bold and brave when I'm just working on one layer. It might work for you, but it also might not work for you. So use whatever method is comfortable, remember to flip that canvas around. That's the number one defense system you have for retaining objectivity on your work. When you flip the painting, it kind of tricks your brain for a split second into thinking it's seeing it for the first time. And any undesirable repetitions you might be making, which can happen in color and shape and composition in so many areas of art will really grab your attention and you can take the opportunity then to fix it. I'm almost done the painting here, but I just want to say, if I wanted to add another color to this, say another type of cool blue in the shadow, like a purply blue. You can see how much room there is for it. And that's the nice thing about limiting your palate. It prevents you from overloading your image with color. And therefore, you have a path to become more confident with color because you always feel like you can add a little thing here or there if you wanted to. So there's the finished color key and there's our first one. And look at that, those are painted with the same palette. It's almost hard to believe. They look so different, they feel so different. And I guess that's the point I'd like to circle back to, to close out Chapter 5. Color palettes are certainly fun, but remember, they don't dictate the mood, they merely enhance mood. As I said before, the mood is dictated by many other things. In this case, it's the same subject, but the lighting has changed dramatically. And because the lighting changes the shapes of lightened shadow, my composition has also changed. So it's just a little food for thought as you're working with color and studying color, don't let it come at the expense of the other painting fundamentals. All right, let's now move into the sixth and final chapter. And I want to give you some studying tips, little things that can help you create your own Focused Lessons for all the things we've gone over in this class. I'll see you there. 14. Gamut Masking: Well, here we are in Chapter 6, the final chapter of this class. What I'm gonna do here is kinda go back through the key lessons and takeaways from this class and give you advice for how to look at them and study them as simply as you can. The idea is that you don't need to do finished paintings all the time just to study, especially when it comes to color, you can reduce your process quite dramatically and still get good study out of it. So we're going to look at methods for quickly studying the concepts presented in the class will gain yet another method of understanding palettes and limiting your color. We'll learn an easy exercise that tests your understanding of how light influences color. And finally, will garner the courage to continue forging ahead after this class has ended. So let's dive in here. The first thing I'd like to show you is something called gamut masking. Gamut masking relates to Chapter 5's palette discussions, as well as Chapter 1's complimentary palette. So whenever we talk about limiting your palette, we are of course, talking about eliminating sections of the color wheel. For example, what we looked at in Chapter one with the limited palette, it was like we were using all the colors in this range, which meant that we were eliminating all of these colors. Now, the fancy term that artists used for this is dammit mask. It's a word you don't hear often, but gamma, it just means the complete range or scope of something. So again. 15. Painting With A Gamut Mask: All right, So I'd like to show you a quick way of testing or auditioning a palette before committing to an entire painting. Now on the note of study advice, I want to say that the painting we did here in Chapter one for example, this is great practice, you should do this. However, we all have daily lives and commitments and schedules. There's not always time to do a finished painting every day. And if you want to improve with color and painting or whatever you're interested in, there is a lot of science to say that practicing every single day is the best way to improve. But real life may not always allow for a finished painting every day. So how can we take the complexities of this practice and apply it to something quickly? You know, something you can do over a cup of coffee. Alright, so I've got my Photoshop interface set up here with my gamut masked complimentary palette. And what I wanna do is just start sampling colors from it and block in a little quick environment. It's just going to be a ball sitting on a table. Of course, I'm sampling colors that I have access to with my complementary palette here. Now I could change the values. Of course, if I need a darker blue up top here for the upper area, I could do that. The ball itself. Let's make it the yellow color. Let's just put it right here. Okay, so there's a ball sitting in our environment. We need to give it some lightened shadow. Of course, I'll pretend light is coming down directly from above. So what I might do here is maybe sample one of these colors, dip with a value, maybe gray it off a little bit, just to link it with that yellow. And do this, maybe I will actually get the yellow and mix that in. Sample the result, paint in to get this ball there. That's going to shadow, a deep sort of soft shadow. And you can see I'm not really caring about line quality or shaped quality as much as I would be in a, even in a casual color key study. I care more about those things. And this one I'm just carrying about using these colors in the simplest object possible. And for my money, that's a ball. The reason it's a ball and not a cube or, or anything else is because a ball goes full, fully around. Therefore, it has all the problems of a painting. Meaning you're going to have to deal with different values, different edges, you know, things like that as this ball needs to turn forms bit of a highlight there. And okay, this is a basic study. Let's see what we can do. Let's see if we can maybe put some of these yellows into the environment. So I'll sample something here, maybe gray it off, and maybe there's a way to put these yellows in. So again, this is a complementary palette study. You can use any palette of course. But the idea is to keep that subject matter so dead simple that it frees up your creativity space to explore color. Let's see, maybe I wanna take those yellows. What's the maximum saturation I can get okay, about there. So let's go to this, dip the value a little bit and get maybe a little bit of a halftone Going in this sphere as it turns. That's interesting. And maybe let's get a very great OFF purple and see if we get the value right. Maybe that can be snuck into this part of the ball. And look at this, though, that ball was starting to shimmer a little bit in this palette. Of course, a big part of what makes it shimmering is, is the light that I'm doing here. This relates back to Chapter two, is less than on moving across the color palette, sorry, moving across the color wheel, that is, and let's see, maybe you see how this shadow is kind of on the warm side. What happens if I get the purple and put in just a touch of this purplish reflected light that is bouncing light bouncing up from the floor, coming into the shadows of this bulb. And yeah, that's working then maybe I can get a smudge tool and just smudge the whole affair and let some colors mix, kind of just telling their own courtesy of the smudge tool. And then maybe I'll go deeper and get just some ambient occlusion here in the shadow, which is a deepening of the shadow, is where all the light is occluded or the ambient light cannot enter. Then maybe here if I lighten the purple a little bit. All right, so obviously the idea is that this painting took me five or six minutes, took me longer than I'm speaking while I'm doing it, I could do this in probably two minutes if I weren't speaking. But now we have this cohesive palette study and this sphere can become anything. It can become a human being or a landscape or a mountain or boats more to a dock or something. All right, let's try another one here. Let's switch up the Canvas. Start on black this time for no other reason than just variety, not getting locked into one particular method of working. Okay, so same thing though, same environment with a dark top. And let's get our circular brush. And let's see, let's just pick this color. I've no idea. Block in this purplish sphere, maybe the ground in this environment gets greener. Oh, I should probably mentioned I'm using a split complementary palette now, as you probably already noticed, actually that let's just use the lasso tool here to draw a rectangle and lock in a floor. Messily painting right over the ball, but that's okay, get it right back. If Photoshop mixes colors and it comes up with this sort of muted orange, that's part of our palette, right? It's somewhere in there, so that's okay. So, so long as your sampling within this range, whatever mixture Photoshop gives you is totally fine. Let's see what happens if we make the shadow really read and test the idea that harmony will happen. Just by nature of this limited palette. So something way there and will make the shadows softer. And this one also soften up this sort of transition from table 2 background here to what happens if we even use like grayish greens in the lightest part? This is off the beaten path here. And I still want the ball to look purple. So I got to make sure that I don't just go green with the light and purple with the shadow. It's got to remain somewhat consistent. So the key there is keep things in the grays. It is a purple ball. I just want hints of that cooler green up top. So let's keep the purple intact as we go down and maybe as the shadow deepens, it gets redder. So I'm selecting my red, which is around here. It's legal in this palette. And see now I have kind of two halves. Let's see if I can work this. Let's bring some of this green into the ball in shadow, and also some of the purples into the ball in light. And we'll kinda like we've this, weave these colors together, if that makes sense. This kind of painting and sampling and picking the results in painting with that, I want to see if I can make this ball feel like it's a purple ball, but with these just these notes of the green in it. And if it doesn't work like it's not that all of this stuff will work. If it doesn't work, you've quickly discovered one of the limits of the palette. Maybe if it does work, great, You've, you've learned a new application for it. Let's see, I wanted to go redder as the shadow deepens did nice. So let's do that. And a couple of these purples in the background here. Maybe as the ground ascends in distance. As the distance increases, some of those purples start coming into play to see the thing that you want to try and avoid is having the picture just made of one color in a section like this is all red right now. And while that's okay, I like it worked okay, and are complementary palette in the last study. But in this one, because I have more colors, I feel the need to have those colors embed themselves in more areas of the painting. So maybe the reds start to take over as we get up here to the top of the picture and becomes slightly more purpley as we go down just trying to build in some kind of structure for myself, they're just a logic like as the color flows this way it gets more purple, you know, seals, greens, those greens need to come back. I've lost them. Let's see if I can do this. I wonder if some of the ground and start receiving a few of those greens and maybe into the shadows as well. And that's a bit interesting. And then that ball just needs to feel more like one cohesive surface. I'm kinda splitting the light and shadows too much. The colors are changing too much between light and shadow. The ball has to feel, still feel purplish. So I'm trying to get some of those back. It's going to highlight in which always counts for something. If the light's coming from above and might be hitting it there. And get in some of our ambient occlusion, that deep dark shadow there. And I'm struggling more with this one as you can probably tell. There are hints of green in the ball echoed by hints of green in, on this floor here. And I'll push this a bit, amplify the greens a little bit just to visually tip off the viewer like Hey, there, there are greens in here, but they're, they're kept very subtle there. Third in the hierarchy, reds might be number 1, purples would be number two in terms of saturation from the greens are number three. But they are there and I might even put them. Now, bring them back in the light. So you can see that I've wrestled with this palette a little bit, but like I feel like I'm exploring its potential and just trying to hand pick those greens. Again, if I'm a little off, I really don't care. As long as you're exploring the spirit of these pallets. So obviously I've done a complimentary here and now split complementary, but you can do any palette and it doesn't have to be any palette that I've suggested. You can make up your own pick some hues that you want to use, picks some saturations that you want to limit yourself to, which is always a good idea. And explore that palette and make up your own palette. Pick three colors that don't fall in a nice split complimentary like this, kinda like the Dominique Louis write a 2 E cover key we looked at in the previous section. So something like this is now starting to speak to me here. I like this a little bit of reflected light bouncing up into the ball. Maybe there'd be intense bright red might spill. Just like a lens effect. It might wrap itself into the ball a little bit, spill into it. Like if you take a photograph of a very bright light, it kind of bleeds into other things. It's kinda what I'm seeing here. This environment doesn't need much, but just finish it off with some little vignette here. Maybe take that same color and vignette the bottom. This year we go. And now we have our second study. Feel like I haven't spent too much time on this. I'm still not done my coffee, my hypothetical coffee that I'm not actually drinking right now because audio wise that would annoy everyone. But there we go, Look at that. That's a cohesive little palette study. I can throw these back to back, which I recommend you do after collecting a few of these and evaluate the mood. How did these colors make you feel? Would they fit well with a certain light scenario you have in mind or a certain subject matter, or do they match a certain emotion? Those questions are up to you to decide. But as far as study goes, this is a very useful quick way to get your feet wet. And more than that, to truly explore the intricacies of how colors can link together as part of a palette. 16. Color Integration - Study Advice: All right, The next study application I want to show you is something I call light and color integration. We are going to integrate a sphere, surprise, surprise into an existing picture. Alright, so I've loaded up this picture we remember from Chapter 2. And I'm going to paint two spheres. One is going to be in the light, and one is going to be in the shadow. This exercise is intended to test the knowledge we learned in Chapter 2. Now I'll just make a quick circular selection here. Let's put the ball like hovering on top of these bushes and trees in the midground. And I'm going to start painting this. I'll just block in a quick value. Now this is going to be a white ball, as we learned from Chapter 2, the sunlight is a bully. And the nice thing about painting white is white has no local color of its own. It gets all of its color from its influencers. In this case, the sunlight getting its color to the light side and the shadow is getting their color from the ambient light bouncing around. Probably there's going to be a lot of greens in the shadows, for example. So I started with this mid value here because it allows me to get both lighter and darker right now that doesn't look like a white ball. So let's fix that. Obviously, I'll go lighter in value and the sunlight is a mid afternoon sun. It's gonna be kinda desaturated somewhere in the warms here. Pretty neutral characteristic of a mid afternoon sun. And I'll just put this in maybe a touch warmer. I'm seeing a few more warms in the surrounding, so this looks pretty good as a sun color. Now the nice thing about sunlight is, like I said, it's a bully. It, it doesn't take much thought that sun is going to be so strongly influencing these colors that this almost is enough. If I want a little bit of a halftone, I'll just go ahead and grab an airbrush here, dip the value a little bit, maybe increase the saturation a bit. And let's, let's use a bit from Chapter 4 and just offset that hue a little bit, wiggle it around, you know, even a bit darker, get this halftone in here. I have tone is where the form is turning away from the light but not enough to be in shadow. So you get this gradual darkening. And on a sphere it's very soft. So there we go. That looks like our spheres hit by sunlight, a white ball hit by Sun. Now the shadow doesn't look right. The nice thing about blocking in that mid value that I started with though, is it does give me a lightened shadow separation, but now let's work into the shadows and decide on its color. Well, with any painting, the first thing you want to observe our ask yourself is what colors are in the environment? And I would submit to you that in this case there are basically two. We will have green colors coming in from below as those trees bounced light as well. We will have blue sky coming down. We can't see the sky in this photo, but we know it's up there. And when you're outdoors, a blue sky is a huge influencer on the shadow colors. Now when it comes to deciding the colors of your shadows, I recommend simplifying. For example, there are red rooftops around here, but they're so far away. I'm not going to try and like put red also in the shadow that starts getting a little desperate color wise, you want to simplify that? I try and ask myself, what are the one or two primary drivers of color in this case, it's the green and the blue. So okay, sometimes I even like to just select the shadow there with the magic one tool. Then I'll push Control H to hide that selection. And then just with a soft brush, I'll sample where I'm at and just dial myself into the greens here and maybe increase the saturation a bit so that the identity of that green becomes a little more apparent. But still in the neutral grays though, nothing too saturated. And I'll start putting that in. And you should already be able to see this sphere starting to fit with its environment thanks to the bounce light. Now immediately I want to switch gears and put in this blue. So I'll slide myself away up to blue, again, keeping myself in the grace to start as a good method of ensuring that your colors harmonize. Because again, grays are linked together. That is, colors linked together via graze. Now if I'm in the blues, I can really pick any blue. I can experiment. How about more of an ultra marine blue? Just make sure you get your value right. For example, this is the wrong value that blue needs to be lighter because it's reflected light. It's light from the sky coming into the shadow. This looks like some kind of double shadow. So don't do that. Make sure you get your value right. And now this ball is starting to look like it's sitting in this environment, maybe a little less of the blue. Sometimes the shadow right here can get a bit darker because it gets a bit less reflected light. You know, those greens are really pumping into the bottom of the sphere and the blues are pumping into the top of the sphere. In this middle section, we may have less of each of those. So sometimes I'll get a multiply brush, which I have a preset for here, airbrushed set to multiply mode, and I'll just dark and just barely darken this area. And while I'm here, I may switch back to normal mode and just further refine this edge between light and shadow, it needs to be a bit softer than this two represents a round form of a sphere. Here we go. And if there is a highlight, which there would be if this is a reflective sphere, that highlight would go right in here, reflecting that sunlight that's shining right on it. Now let's also not forget a key piece of integration that is a cache shadow. See right now we really don't know where that sphere is in space. We need to ground it with a cache shadow. So I'm going to say that that sphere is kinda sitting right in here. So what I'll do is I'll pick the green of the trees. Now this needs to be a cooler shadow. And I don't just want to sample the shadows in the picture itself. I wanted to do my own work, right? So, but I could sample the lights and say, okay, that's where the greens are bullied by the sunlight. Let's cool them off by going this way up the color wheel, dropped the value for shadow, and let's start there. That satisfies the requirement of being a cooler shadow. Maybe I'll get a different brush for this, something with a bit more texture. Be fitting the foliage is falling on. And let's just paint this in. It looks like it should be a bit darker, so I'll just go and you notice instinctively I'm changing the hues. Chapter 4. I've committed that to muscle memory now a high do it instinctively. Maybe, maybe even cooler and dip it a bit more. The trees will have little pieces of dark accent, that is pieces where the trees are, little holes that you can see through in those holes get way less ambient lights, a little dark accents they're called or another word for that is ambient occlusion, put those in and just overall work, this shadow, you notice it's a spherical shadow or a circular shadow because that ball is projecting the shadows. In fact, this shadow should creep over the rock here and it should be bluer there because the rock, you see the shadows there on the rock. The rock is a white logo color just like the sphere. So just like that sphere is getting blue here, the rock shadow is going to get bluish influence on it, way less green. And then as that shadow continues to creep over the trees here, we'll go back to that green. So there we go. Something in this range and I could, I could, of course we're fine. This shadow, all I want. But this is a great way to practice the things we learned in Chapter 2 and also in Chapter 4, you know, changing Hughes and stuff like that. If I had to project our rough estimate of the time, it should take you to do a study like this. Let's ballpark it at 10 minutes per sphere. All right, so let's move on and put another sphere into the shadow. Put it down here, just make a selection. We'll put that sphere like on the road or something. Maybe make it a bit bigger so we can see it better. And I'll do the same thing. Go ahead and block in an overall value. Now this year is in shadow, so let's block that value and even a bit darker, I do like to block my values in almost in a medium dark range. I don't always do that, but it is a good idea because now when I go to add something lighter, like the reflected light in this case, you already have a darker value to compare that light with. Now if you choose to start light, that's fine too. You just have to add shadows first. But sometimes I find that adding light helps the modelling more. That's just my own opinion, my own experience. So I like to start dark and add lights. Now, let's think about this sphere for a second because we're in shadow. This is a very different scenario than the sun. I'll tell you the mistake that a lot of people make. They'll say, Okay, we're in shadow. There's obviously going to be a lot of skylight coming down just like we had on this ball here. But here's what they'll do. They'll take a skylight and put it like this in the same direction as the sunlight. But that's wrong. The skylight does not come down in a direction like this. Well, it comes down in a direction, but because the sky is like a 180 degree bowl over top of everything, that skylight comes down evenly like this. So what that amounts to is that the top of the ball overall is going to be lit by the sky. So I just pick this sort of generic lighter blue and I'm blocking this in. And you can play with different brushes, like here's a sort of rake style brush that kind of does like hatching for you, kind of like digital hatching for free. I do use this brush to mix colors together a lot. And because I'm in the blues, I'm free to change those hues. Again, Chapter 4, thinking here, wiggle those whose around a little bit, try even like purples. Let's see if flick it and get a purple working. If it's too aggressive, just gray it off. That will help link it with your other colors. And obviously I'm pressing pretty lightly on my tablet to encourage Photoshop or your painting app of choice to do some mixing for you. So this is already looking good as representative of a ball lit by the sky in shadow. Again, when you're outdoors, the sky will be your sort of primary driver for reflected light. Here's the next mistake a lot of people make. Remember how in the light sphere we had those greens bouncing up into the shadow? Well, the mistake people will make is they'll think the greens would bounce up into the shadow here. This is also wrong because this whole thing is in shadow. And because it's in shadow, there's way less impetus for light to bounce around. Remember, light only bounces because the sun is so strong that when it strikes something, it has the strength to bounce. But this whole area is devoid of sunlight. There is no light rays strong enough to truly bounce like that. The strongest influencer on this sphere is the light coming down from the sky, like I've already mentioned. So what that amounts to is that the bottom of this sphere is going to actually start dipping into ambient occlusion. Again, the ambient light is being occluded from the bottom of this sphere. Not as much ambient light is able to get there. So what I'm gonna do is I'm actually going to warm it up to get away from the cools because there's gonna be no cool sky there. So I want to go the opposite way, warm it up. And again, this is warmish, it's just a neutral red. And start a bit deeper than that and start painting in this transition to Ambient Occlusion. Now, underneath the sphere is going to be quite dark because that's where so much ambient light is included. There can be very little reflected rays getting under that sphere is going to be quite occluded, same with butts up against the wall here. There's gonna be a lot of ambient occlusion here. Now remember this is not a shadow. The whole thing is a shadow. This is just the ambient occlusion, that darkest part of the shadow. Let me zoom in a little bit here and I just want to work this transition. I can basically sample where it is, got a neutral sort of warm color and just bridge this gap. I'm using an airbrush for this mostly because of this fear is that has such soft color transitions. Because remember the whole thing is in shadow. So it's like this entire sphere has to be treated like this part of the sunlit sphere because this was the shadow part, right? There's also not going to be any highlights because there's no reflection of the light source. Just very subtle value and color transitions. I can try and get in a little bit more blue if I wanted to. And this is really now down to aesthetics. How far do you want to push it so that it looks good for you? And hey, there's nothing wrong with saying, okay, to make this sphere maybe harmonize with the scene a bit as dip into the greens a little bit. This is less for reflected light reasons and just more for pure aesthetic reasons. Just getting a bit of green into the scene here, into the ball might help link it with some of the other colors in the scene. That is a technique I use a lot, but I don't like, I don't want to do something like this and make it look like there's bounced green reflected light that is not realistic. That wouldn't happen if I do want to put some greens in is just an almost invisible effect. Just subtly linking the environment colors in with what I'm painting here. Integrating it as is the name of this exercise, integration. And all right, there's our finished study, I think in keeping with our cup of coffee timeframe. And you note the thing I want to stress here is even though as sphere as a very basic object, you can still come away with a pretty picture here. It's the lightened color that does it not necessarily the subject matter. 17. Final Tips For Quick And Effective Study: Okay, So the third and final study tip I'd like to share with you here surrounds the information in Chapter 4, which we have already been dealing with in this chapter. But you know, the idea of making your local color, not just literally one color, but integrating different hues and temperatures while still maintaining the appearance of a singular color. Now, you know what the fastest way to practice this is actually to do this little exercise that I showed you in the chapter itself that is fine photographs of different materials in real life and just sample them and paint their various colors by keeping an eye on what the color wheel is doing as you sample, that'll help ingrain certain movements into your brain, which you can then pull out later as you work, say from imagination. But in order to bridge the gap toward working from imagination, we can take inspiration from another artist, say this painting by Greg man chess. I'm looking at that forearmed monster there. Anyone can tell you that he is green yet look at all the colors that are decidedly not green on there. So what I've done is I've cropped the Greg Mencius painting just so it appears as abstract colors. And typically I don't like to work on pure white, so I'll just block myself in some kind of neutral environment was grayish sort of thing. And we can get going from here. We're going to use a sphere again, as we do in these studies. If you like, painting basic forms like spheres is kind of par for the course with so many fine art things and illustration things. It's just great for practice because again, you don't have to think about the drawing so much. So you know what, I'll do that thing where I blocked the sphere in the wrong color, quote unquote, we want the sphere to appear green later, but I'll make it red to start with. In the original Manchus painting, we can see some areas that are reddish. That's more of an orangey thing. And I could use orange if I wanted to put those in. But we'll see if I can retain some of those colors as I now add the green. Now, while I do want this to have a light source, what I want to try and do now is paint it without the influence of light. So I'll grab my smudge tool maybe. And when I use my smudge tool, I like to turn finger-painting on, which allows me to paint with the color I have selected. And I'll go right into my greens and say, All right, it's kind of an earthy green tone like this. And let's just start laying in these greens, moving that red toward the green. This is where the smudge tool is nice because it kinda feels like almost like a wet oil impasto brush or something. Other apps, I've actually better in pastel brushes than this. Like Corel Painter is known for its natural media brushes. And even apps like Procreate really do a good job with this stuff. Krita as well, and Photoshop to a certain degree. Although honestly this is not Photoshop strength, but Photoshop does work well. If you can find the right brush to use with the smudge tool, I've got this kind of flat brush here. I believe this brush is one of Kyle Webster's impasto brushes that comes with a subscription of Photoshop CC, which I obviously ONE. So that's what I'm using. And obviously I can't share that brush with you because it's not my property to include it with my material. But if you have a subscription to Photoshop, you can access Kyle Webster's impasto kit, which is where this brush is from again. All right, so you can see I'm just moving around my Hughes wiggling, I'm around. This is more of a yellow, green. I have some cooler greens behind it and look at those reds, those warms that are just peeking through now in the background. Let's try some bluer greens. Let's go way up here. And again, that's such a big shift, this blue or green. So I'm going to keep it gray. That's a great way to integrate colors. If you're shy about it is just keep it gray at first. And then as you build confidence with those grays by sort of harmonizing what's there, then you can maybe add a bit of saturation is you go and I think I'm accidentally painting a light source. Let's make sure I apply these colors throughout. I don't want this ball to appear to have light on it right now. So I don't want to repeat the study I just did, which is the light and shadow spheres integrated into the photograph. I want this to be more of a flat color study. But once I'm done, say when I'm at this level, I'm looking at that and I'm like, okay, that, that reads as green yet just like the Greg Mencius monster painting here, there are many colors in there that really aren't green. In fact, let's add a few more. Like I see some touches of purple in the Mencius panning. Let's make sure it's very grade off. Maybe a bit more blue than that. Maybe it's actually more like this kind of purple. Put some of those in and see where you can push the limits. Like how much of that purple Can you put in before it starts not looking green like if I did this, now suddenly it's no longer a green ball, right? If you are mindful of how you're mixing those colors, soft edges, even this rake style brush will create its own version of soft edges if you push lightly enough. And then of course, the smudge tool can literally create soft edges. And then there's also tools like the airbrush that I have up here can create soft edges. You'd be amazed at how much color you can get into a little local color study like this and still have it, in this case, read as a green ball. Okay, So now let's simply add some light to this. I'll grab a airbrushed set to linear dodge mode, which I have bookmarked in my brushes here, because it's a mode that I use a lot. And you see where this monster is lit by the sunlight. It's kind of a warmer green. So I'll pick a warmer color here. Linear Dodge, you actually have to pick darker colors because it adds it like that. And then what I'll do is I'll just put this in. And the nice thing about laying in my local colors first and having all those color vibrations built in is now when I add this light layer with linear dodge mode, or you can use color dodge mode or screen mode. They do very similar things. It preserves all of that work I did underneath. And now I feel like we have a three-dimensional ball with all those color vibrations, those hue varieties lit by an actual light source. I could go the opposite way and flip this over 2 multiply mode, maybe get a cooler color. And with multiply, you go pick a lighter color because it's going to darken it. And I can just maybe increase the contrast in the shadows and get this ball popping its form a little bit more, you know. Change those colors as I work. And again, multiply mode, very much like linear dodge mode, will preserve all that color work I did underneath. And this study is decidedly not pretty. I mean, there's a halo of light around here that I can just paint away, but it doesn't matter. You know, you're not don't think you're posting these to your Instagram account or anything. Again, these are things you do over a cup of morning coffee and you are just trying to familiarize your brain and your eye with how colors are moving around on this, all important, it's digital color picker. You know, this class is mostly targeted towards digital painters, even though the color theories are fully applicable to traditional artists as well, when we work digitally, we have to abide by this color picker. We don't mix our pigments like a traditional oil painter does. For example, picking colors is tricky because it's tempting to want to pick the exact color you want to paint with. What I'm showing you here, especially in this example, is that's not really what you do. Or at least another option is you mix colors on the actual canvas and you arrive at the colors visually. That is, you evaluate them visually, not necessarily picking that color and saying, Oh, that's the right color. It's more like you can pick that color and then mix toward it by pressing softly with your brush or something and you have the influence of that color on an overall area. All right, and if we wanted to add a little shadow here, I could just pick a neutral cold colors something and you know, if it's a warm light at my classical or shadow and just do something like this. Again, this one is decidedly less pretty than the last one, but that's okay. I'm doing that on purpose because I want to encourage you to get in these reps. And I feel like perfectionism and too much quality can sometimes hurt that. I'm never saying you should abandon quality entirely like this has quality to it, but it's by no means a polished painting of a sphere. However, I feel like the colors I just captured there, and this took me 15 minutes, would be extremely valuable if I wanted to paint something as complex as this monster in the original Mencius painting. Or maybe one of my own green monsters, which is exactly how I go about painting this guy. It's not a coincidence that that monster is very close to a sphere. Okay, so let's pull this key up from Chapter 5, and I just want to show you one more thing. Don't be afraid to blob of phi things. This whole study tips chapter I've been talking about basically eliminating the drawing as much as you can. Well, why not simplify this study even more and do it in spherical form? The only thing I'll do differently here is add a few more spheres to flesh out the scene, and I'll pick some of the major colors in there. You can see the jacket tones, the flesh tones, the bandana, red tones. And I'm just kinda taking some inspiration as to where those objects lie. That sphere farthest back, which represents the boy at the far end, does need to be a bit darker than the boy closer up. And you can see my two spheres represent that. That's important to me in this piece because you don't want those figures just clumping together as one mass. You do want some separation there. That's what Rockwell did in his painting anyway, and I liked that even though they're wearing the same colored clothing, they separate from each other via a value difference. And in this one, because the boy at the bottom and the dog are kinda so separate from everything else. I'm not even going to include them in this version of the study. If I can get those top blobs working, all you gotta do is replicate those decisions for the bottom and it'll work out just fine. Studying sometimes can involve creative simplification of your subject. And again, this is specific to color study. I mean, it's kind of similar to how we study drawing, right? When we studied drawing, we eliminate color. So when we study color, why not eliminate as much drawing as possible? Now that newly freed up creative bandwidth can all be focused at your color selections. Yeah, I think I'll end that one there. Then I'll also end Chapter 6 here. And by extension, this is the end of the class. I want to thank you for watching the color Survival Guide. I really hope this class has given you some valuable insight and lessons and tools that will ultimately help you propel your color use to that next level. After all, I do think coloured can be a very logical thing. It's surely can feel scary at first, but with the help of tools such as the ones in this class, I have confidence that you'll be able to make more sense of it. All right, folks, This is Marco Gucci signing off. I'll see you in another class. Happy studying.