The Beginner's Definitive Guide to Aerospace Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design: EagleCAD | Knoph | Skillshare

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The Beginner's Definitive Guide to Aerospace Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design: EagleCAD

teacher avatar Knoph, Engineer, Designer, Content Creator

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

8 Lessons (1h 26m)
    • 1. Intro

    • 2. Installation & Setup

    • 3. 1st Project: The Time Machine Schematic

    • 4. 1st Project: The Time Machine Board Layout

    • 5. 2nd Project: Beats by Naf/Beets by Dre Schematic

    • 6. 2nd Project: Beets by Naf/Beets by Dre Board Layout

    • 7. Gerber Files

    • 8. Conclusion

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About This Class

  • Are you an electronics hobbyist?

  • Are you a student studying electronics (shout out to my Electrical Engineering folks)?

  • Ever wondered how Tony Stark makes those cool gauntlets?

  • Amazed at how you can listen to music on your headphones?

Well you’ve come to the right place! This course is tailor made for the needs of those new to electronics design tools (no prior PCB design knowledge necessary), simply because we need more Iron Men saving the world. If you're a beginner looking to learn PCB design as a hobby or for professional development, try this course out! Along with taking you through the software, I will be pointing out design practices I have learned working in the Aerospace, Automotive and Robotics industries, so you too can impress that interviewer (you know who I'm talking about) who wants to take you for a spin on the technical interview train. In addition to attending this course, I will be answering any questions you have, on the fly. All you need to do is send me a message. So take this journey with me and let’s make the world a better place!

A Short Blurb on EagleCAD

Forget Altium or Allegro, Eagle is the software of the hour! It is the most used design tool among amateurs/hobbyists and professional designers alike. If you have ever came across consumer open source hardware such as Arduino, the TI Launchpad, the Hexapod, Polulu A-Star etc, these are all designed on EagleCAD, with examples available on the software. What makes this software so accessible and popular you ask? The simple fact that it is extremely easy to learn and free to use for small project sizes (typically 2 layers).

This Course Will Teach You How To

  • Translate a circuit from paper to software, in the form of schematics and board layouts (single and double sided)

  • Understand Gerber files and export those Gerber files for production

  • Get some cred with the ladies/men, on account of your confidence levels rising with these electrifying (pun intended) newly acquired skills

  • Be an awesome electronics designer in record time

What This Course Will NOT Do For You

  • This course is not suitable for existing intermediate designers or those who already know PCB design and want to learn advanced techniques, however, there are some industry practices that seasoned designers can find beneficial

  • This course does not include multi-layer (4+) PCB Design

Meet Your Teacher

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Engineer, Designer, Content Creator


Hello everyone, I'm Knoph!

Armed with degrees in Aerospace and Electrical Engineering, I have been blessed enough to have worked in amazing industries including Aerospace, Robotics and Biotech. Spreading that knowledge is the least I can do! I, however, have not been so blessed with comedic timing, so please forgive the lame humor. If I can influence even 1 person to do good in this world, I've done my job as an instructor!

P.S. Check out my YouTube Channel where I'll be posting content on job search (mostly targeting engineers), career/interviewing insights and the Aerospace industry. Come over, say hi and Subscribe for more content!

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1. Intro: Hello, everyone. I am Neff, a k a. The Wizard. Welcome to my corner of the Internet, where I'll be teaching you. Ah, teaching is a big word. Let's just say I will be giving you insights on PCB design using the one and only Eagle cat . Now this course is mainly for beginners, but there's something in it for everyone, from beginners to industry professionals and everyone in between. We will learn about schematic design or layout, doing some air checks on our board, Gerber files or, as I like to call them, Gerber Burger Files. What a tongue twister, right? And then I will be sprinkling in some industry practices. Throat discourse. Now, in my opinion, Eagle Cad 7.2 is the best thing in the world. It's very user friendly and extremely easy to learn. Who is naff The Wizard, you might ask. Well, math is a jack of all trades. Also master of all that's a joke, by the way. Full disclosure. I suck at comedic timing. Now I have worked on some very cool tech in some insanely cool industries, ranging from robotics toe on a motive toe aerospace feel for you to call me, Tony start. Don't call me that now. I love PCB design. It is a scientific, creative and artistic element for me. You know, you can basically design and map your board any way you'd like be a symmetric or weird and unorthodox within scientific and industry boundaries. Of course. I mean, you don't want your PCB toe look amazing while it does absolutely nothing. Now let's put wisps of mystique into this course. Naff is not merely known by one name, but by many. Is it? One person is a different people. Is it one person with multiple personalities who knows a look. You made it. Thank you for sticking around, folks. Congratulations. You've made it this far without quitting this course Here's a trailer of a few topics will focus on so evil cat installation and set up extremely easy. Takes less than five minutes. We're gonna do some schematic designs on board. Leo. Primarily two layers were gonna be enduring some Gerber files for board fabrication. So basically, you make these files and send it over to these board manufacturing houses. And so the manufacture the board descent back to you either saw ordered or, you know, you could sort of do it yourself and then tested and what have you. Now I'll be sprinkling in some industry practices here and there, but there's just so many of them, and that's an entire topic all on its own. So actually be making a short course on that. So stay tuned. It'll basically be a breakdown of all the industry practices I've learned in all my years of industry experience. So that's all, folks. Hope you enjoy this course. I'm just kidding. Let's dig in. 2. Installation & Setup: Yeah. Hello? The Internet Hitman Hart here. So excited to start the course. Are you as excited as I am? I'm going to take that silence is a Yes. Let's go ahead and install legal cats. We can all designed the next pollutes your over or a digital alarm clock. You know, whichever you prefer. All right, so we're going to click this link, and it's going to take us to the Autodesk website, and you're basically going to download the stack appropriate to your machine. For me, it's windows. So let's go ahead and do that save file. All right? So we're gonna click set up. It's gonna do its thing. And a minute now. Okay, we click next. Ah, feel free to read this. I don't. Big splitter. Yeah. Okay. It's asking me if I want to overwrite these files. I've I've already installed this soul. I was gonna go ahead and see us. Come on. 2000 years later, Already on installed and ready to go. Let's begin, guys. 3. 1st Project: The Time Machine Schematic: Hello, everyone. This is naff the paleontologist Thistles. So exciting. Let's see what we will do in our first Eagle cat project. So as is tradition, we will be making a 555 timer circuit. So basically, this timer chip is used in clock circuits for a variety of applications. But in our case right now, we want to go a simple a Sui can. So we will use this 555 timer chip to turn and led on an off. That's it. It's going to be a simple one layer board that turns and led on and off. And we will use T I 555 timer. What will we learn in our first project? Well, for obvious reasons, schematic design bore Leo just a single layer. For now, we will learn how to name components, place components. We will learn how toe give our components. Names like our firstborn child also values right Nets. I'm not talking about the Internet. I'm not talking about a tennis court net. I'm talking about nets. You'll know what I'm talking about. Polygons. Rat's nest. I know what you're thinking. No, we will not be dissecting rats. We will not be rating a literal rat's nest. We will learn some industry practices. Has promised who maybe we'll build an arc reactor or a time machine. Who knows? I want to keep as much suspense right now as I can, so let's go. Okey Dokes. Let's go through the main window first before we start with our project. Not much to see here. Um, there is a few examples in this folder. If you go here, you're gonna find the schematic file and, um, the board layout file for a few preloaded examples here. They look a little complicated right now, but, um, I'm sure this will look easy once we go through this course fingers crossed. Next would be our main repository of projects that we work on, which would be under Igal Kam jobs. Well, this gives a description right here of what a cam job is. Script files. You don't need to worry about this right now. You LP's don't need to worry about this in this course. Some design rules. Not much to see here. Libraries. This is important. Now this contains all the libraries for all the parts that you're gonna be using in this course, and we'll fun fact. You can actually download some of these from Element 14. So if you go onto Google type element 14 eagle libraries, you're going to find all sorts of libraries on that website. Okay, Let a start. A project says you can see here. I already have made a new project titled A New project. You right. Click on new project. Go to new schematic. Now we will always be making schematics first, and then we will go on toe board layouts. So we're making a 555 timer circuit. It's basically a 555 trip and an led and the led will be blinking. That's basically our our first project. All right, let's start off with the components we need for the circuit. We're gonna go here to this button right here that reads ad. Click this. And while, uh, all of our component library is here, that search for the 555 and there you go. Click. OK, left. Click here. We don't need any more of these chips. You press escape, the I library is gonna come back up again in case we want to add more components. So we do want more components. Let's go to shop for some resistors are us We're gonna let's choose the American symbol. Why not cause Marca? That's reason enough, right? So here you see, these numbers are 06030805 These air just the packages or the sizes Rather so it 0805 is is large Well 603 small, narrow four to his way smaller, insanely hard to sort her, by the way. So I'm gonna just choose r 0805 So we need three resistors for this project of ours. And now that's shop for some capacity wars for the capacitors. And let's go for the European symbols. Let let's give these European some love CEO 603 Okay, let's just go for a No. 63 this time. So we need to capacitors for the circuit and we need an led. Let's go look for and led out e d. Here. Let's go for this through whole perfect perfect places here. Oh, we want a battery and the ground. So let's let's choose a battery first nine volt battery clip. OK, let's go for a nine volts and ground. All you have to do is write down G nd. Yep. This is it right here. Let's use one ground symbol for this entire circuit. Okay? Now, let's do some component placement just to make sure that the circuit actually looks like a circuit. So we're gonna click this number right here. Move. So, folks, if you want Teoh, rotate these components just right, click and then rotate. All right? Now, how do we connect these components with each other? Simple. You go to this button net, you click this, you can connect these components in all kinds of combinations. Basically. OK, so let's connect the ground to ground R one and r two. Connect to the threshold. Just move our toe. A little lure. They see this thought here. That means that it made a connection. All right. Eight, it is vcc, which means goes to the positive sign. Negative goes to ground output. Ghost are three or three, connects to the led year and then the early D connect to the ground. Also, we need passenger to connect to these resistors. One goes here and then it's connected to ground. Oops. Place the capacitor here. Pin five which is control. Connect the other end to ground and then and then the scene here for the resistor. And then see one brings seat one over here, connect that to the resistor and then to the ground. And then or one also connects to the VCC. Oops. Six does not connect. Seven connects to the divided voltage wanted that won't work. There you go. Six connects here to which is the trigger. Connect to six, which is a threshold. Now, guys, let me explain this entire circuit. So when one is ground, we all know more ground iss into his trick or trigger, which is the start of the timing. And put three is the output forest reset? Five is the control which basically controls the comparator thresholds and then an output. 2/3 of the VCC six is the threshold which signifies the end of the timing input this and no , it's not that this that goes into a distract it's discharge, which means it's basically an output to discharge timing capacitor. And when it is vcc the power. So what are we trying to do? We're basically trying t o make this led blink and not stay on the whole time are off the whole time. So basically, we're connecting the trigger and put to the threshold input. And that causes the timer to self trigger I e. It being periodic meaning. If it's on for two seconds, it's going to be off for two seconds and then on for two seconds again and then off for two seconds and then the duty cycle. For that, we can determine through these resistors R one and R two. So this connection results in this capacitor charging and discharging between the threshold voltage and the trigger Voltage are three is just to control the brightness of the L E D. And C two is basically capacitors that decoupled voltage to ground, which basically improves the operation off the icy. Okay, guys. So we have made our first schematic way to go Beautiful. Now and the next lecture, we're going to move on to board layout, which is exciting. And I know you love it. Before I stopped this lecture, though, I want to go back to the main control panel. Now let's go to libraries and you're going to see these green dots here, which means that these libraries air active. If you right, click these. Well, if you right click the library's tab. We're going to see Use all their use. None If you see nothing, hear when you goto ad That means you're libraries are not turned on. So you have to go back, right? Click on libraries Use all that, is it? See you next time. 4. 1st Project: The Time Machine Board Layout: already beautiful people. Let's start laying this board out. We will go and click this tiny button at the top. There it is. So you have your riel components Here you have this square which basically is the size of your PCB. You want to know the size of the PCB? All you have to do is go to dimensions right here. This small button click one side. Click the other side, Tom. Once I click the other side, click again. Ah, 100 millimeters. I'm assuming yes, millimeters Click one side. Click the other 80. So this PCB is 100 by 80 or 80 my 100 millimeters. Okay, let's move or components to the board again. You go on, Teoh. Yes. So basically, you're components are outside the area of the PCB. It's okay. Let's just go ahead and put this right here again. If you want to rotate right click and a rotate for you. So that is the battery A through hole battery. You know we have to do is you basically go here to the movement and then you can move violets. Whoa! No, guys, component placement is crucial and having an amazing PCB free from any e m c interferences versus a sucky board that when you go and troubleshoot, you just can't figure out what the problem is. Let's please this front and center our main. I see you see these yellow lines thes air, basically telling you that this component is connected to this pen of the icy and you have to route this, which we will do in a second after laying these components out first. Okay, this one looks like should be going Here are one or two. This one looks good. Here are three is connected to this pin. Also, if you zoom in enough, you can see the pin numbers. 12345678 How e. D led can come here. See one right here. Okay. No, guys, there is a small hack that you can do, and I'm only going to show you this one time I would recommend against it. However, you can honor route your entire circuit. Yes, It'll route it for you if you click on a runner. Toffler Auto bottom layer Auto effort. Let's let's do some high effort, alter routing click Continue and it will wrote everything for you Oh, forgot to start the show. Look at that. It also routed for you. It's pretty cool, but, you know, it's no fun. It's whim or fun doing it on your own. So let's do that. Okay? No. Another function. Weaken Dio this this is called rip up. It's basically undoes a rips up the traces that you worked on. I do double click because well, you have one left here. Usually just deletes all of it. Okay, already let a start routing on her own. So you click this button wrote, which is right beside rip up. Forgot this in. Never mind. Now the red is basically top layer If you want to go to layers or bottom layers which we're gonna doing and another project, you could just click your mouse wheel But click my mouse. We was gonna go blue, which means it's at the bottom layer. But we're not doing the bottom right now. So also, if you click Ah, if you right click, basically change the direction of routing. Do it like that. Do it like that. That that circle e 90 degrees now, guys, industry practice number one avoid doing 90 degree tracks like that, and this is especially applicable toe high speed circuits ranging from 10 gigahertz, because that might become a point for ah e m my mission. So always choose in angled a 45 degree angle truck if you can. Also, you could change the with of your tracks if you go here, tracks or traces if you go here and change it to 0.2 and that is especially beneficial for your power traces. So for power applications, picker tracks or rather, connections to power, let's continue. Let's go back to a 16.416 By the way, you can ah, go and activate the great as well. Sure, you have to do a display on first. If it makes it easier for you, obviously you can change it to. So let's change it. 2.25 and let's change it to 1/2 of half of what we have currently. There you go. We can also opt for thinner tracks, so let's go Point or 12 Okay, folks, no. Yes. Do the easy ones first. Now, guys, you can see this highlighted, which means that these tour connected and you can see that on the schematic, too. So you can basically connect this anywhere on this board. Let's just connect out here and over in the Catholic that here, connect this year and connect that here. And there you go. OK, so let's turn off the display for now to make it clear for you guys. Okay? No, I want to show you something else. Say hello to a polygon. So basically what I am doing here is I am going to make Upali on to make a ground plane. No, it looks like we missed one. Okay, So if I go here and I do this, that's not good. Because you're creases. They're crisscrossing. That might cause problems for your circuit. So I will rip this up. I will do the easier trace first. Straightforward. And then I will do the hard to reach now in a Tulare PCB. This would have been way easier. But since this is single there, I am going to show you how it's done. This does not look good. And then we can move this blue. It's work this up. Whoa! Okay, let's do that again. So you see that double clicking it ripped out all these traces. So let's do that again. Here. This We're just gonna do like that. Perfect. Okay, Back to the polygon. Now we want to make a ground plane. No, you can do this for anything. If you want thicker power supply traces. You can do that as well. Using a polygon if it has to withstand really, really high current and voltage is. But we're just making a ground plan here. So we've made the polygon We are going to give it of value or a name rather Click this now we're gonna name it the exact same as the ground we named on the schematic. So it's GMD okay? You want to see some more magic? Well, we can't see the ground plane right now. Well, for that we need to click this button. The rats n'est Whoa, magic. Perfect. So you see, if I zoom in a little more, you see components. So you see C one here and then you see the cathode of the led here. They're connected to the ground on the schematic here, and then see one here. It is now connected to this entire ground plane and the components that are not connected to ground. They have some space in between here, and that's how you know that you're connected to the ground here. Perfect. And now we will give thes components. Values are three of the output. Let's give it one K R one and r two. Just get our one one KR to 10-K All you have to do is click this button value. Beside that is the name button. You can change it to anything else. L e D d d. There you go. Similarly, apartment grown has no user defined herbal value. Do you want to change in any way? Yes, but it actually does have a value. And you see here it's ground GMD. Now let's go to something which is not related to design design, but basically you want to check if your design makes sense here. If there's any errors that you did not catch, and that's why we have these buttons right here your c, DRC and errors. If you click DRC, it's going to take you to the schematic. Now there's one air here. Reset is not connected. That's fine. We don't need to connect to reset part C one has no value seat to has no value part l e a d d d has no value. We could take care of that. And we should Actually So we go to this button again. Value si two will be 10 nan affairs. See, one has to be 10 micro ference. Perfect. If we go back to E. R. C, these errors should be gone. Parnelli DDT has no value. That's fine. That's OK. No, let's go back to the board layout screen. Click this button. And now we go onto DRC, which is designer checks. So these air basically the dimensions you've set for your board and this basically tells us if those specs have been infringed upon. So let's do check. Oh, clearance. It will actually take you here. So it says that the clear there's not enough clearance between the resisters pad and the trace. So we have to go and change it. Okay, the with the with of Okay, these are just dimensions. No vector fund. That's fine. No other errors. Perfect. This is it, Guys, this is the first project. Way to go. Congratulations. And I hope you had fun with this one. We're going to kick it up a notch in the next project. 5. 2nd Project: Beats by Naf/Beets by Dre Schematic: This is your second eagle cut project. I am NAFTA, German media. Was that a good impression? I think that sucked. Anyways, let's get into our second eagle Cat project Beats by Dre. Oops, no beats by naff. We will be making a circuit that and puts audio signals via a headphone jack. I'm talking 19 nineties technology, folks, and our circuit will output clear audio through a speaker using a t I l m 386 Chip, please don't copyright strike me, Dre, what will we learn in this project? Well, we're moving up to more complex circuits now with a higher component count. It's a challenge, but I know all you guys love challenges, So this board will have two layers. For now, we will be naming nets this time to reduce some net clutter. We don't want a convoluted schematic. You know, we want to be able to understand the schematic. We wanted to be a simple assed possible toe our eyes and to someone who's reading it in the future, we will be labeling nets. I have some more industry practices for you. Also, we could also call them good design practices and we will be making Gerber files. Yea, all righty. Let's get to it. Let's jump into Project Number two guys now. It's a little complicated, but I guarantee you will learn much more. There's many more things to do here. Um, and we will basically be making or rather, designing a circuit that outputs audio using a headphone jack. I know. What the hell's the headphone Jack, right? Using an l m 386 audio amplifier chip made by T I. Okay, let's jump in schematic. Oops, it's on the other screen again. There you go. No, guys, I'll just be placing these components for now. But I will explain the circuit when it's all pretty and done up. Okay, let's search for no m 386 low voltage audio amplifier. Let's pick a dip package. Look at that. So pretty. Okay, then we need some resistors. Are U s. We'll use the American one again are a wayto five. That's just the default. I go to guys, you can use anything you want. Okay. I need one to and three resistors for now. Let's go ahead. Choose their capacitors. Can't forget those Europeans A Let's go for 0603 again. So we need one to the re four, five and six already. Looks brutal, doesn't it? Now, what do we need? The headphone jack that is too complex. A headphone jack. That search for something more simple? No. After five minutes of search, I have finally found one. There you go. And last but very much needed a speaker. This looks cool. Okay, let's begin constructing our circuit. We will place these components first. So using the move button. Oh, I forgot something else. So we will be using an external power supply here, so we will choose a connector. This looks like a good connector. All right. - Okay . Now that we have our desired placement, let us connect all of these components. You click net. We forgot one more thing, Ground. How can we forget our trusty old friend, ground? Okay, so for a headphone jack, you see this one connecting to this block. This block represents the sleeve. So this is countered his ground. So let's connect this to ground. So two and three are the left or the right channels. I am just going to choose one of them. Doesn't matter which for the sake of this project, at least I'm gonna choose to. We will connect that to the inverting output. It's place this ground here. Go back to net again Now, guys, instead of coming all the way here and connecting this the negative terminal to the ground , all we have to do make this and then we name this using this button right here. So we named this the same as what we've neighbor Ground connect and daughter signed four and ground. Yes, you do. That's it. This is part of the ground now. So And if you really want to make sure we have something called label, you click this net and it will tell you that it is in fact, connected to ground. So interesting. Okay, let's go back to net completed search. - So then negative. The inverting output or input also connected to ground four is also connected to ground. So let's actually name this one ground and dollar Sign nine and ground. Yes. Connect both of them. Six. Oops. Not six is. I believe the s. So we connect that to our connector and four we can connect to ground as well. What's label it just so we know this is ground. In fact, let's label our supply rail as well. Well, let's name it first. It's to 12 volts. There you go. Okay, let's continue. Yes, folks, it looks like we need another capacitor, so I don't have to go back to the ant button. I can just copy it. So you see this button? Here, you put repress this. Press it again. There you go. Easy peasy, lemon squeezy. We need one here and there you have it. Our schematic. All right, folks. So pens one and eight are your gain setting pins. Pin two is the inverting input in three is theme non inverting. Input four is ground reference five is via Boat six is the supply voltage, and then seven is the bypass spin, which is used to decouple the audio input signal. So this entire circuit is basically very susceptible to noise, right? And when we have eye sees that are susceptible to noise and noise that we will hear on the speaker, it is very, very important to have decoupling capacitors as many as you can. So, industry practice number is that number two industry practice number two is to use a minimum of two equal value decoupling capacitors on these stiff packages. I'm using a dip package. Or if it's if it's any other package. For example, if it's an S o e c package or something like that, we need more than two. And for circuits dealing with audio signals, we need capacitor banks. Basically, whether it be, you know, noisy audio signal ICI's whether they be high power or high frequency. So there you go into soup. Practice number two. Okay, so we connect headphone jack channels to the non inverting input. Here. The inverting input is connected. Teoh ground. And we have this capacitor here between this input and ground which filters any radio interference that's picked up by the audio input wires. Six is the V s, the supply voltage. And we have these two capacitors here C one and C five between the positive and the negative power rails to basically decouple the power supply. The higher valued capacitor, which is C five. Well, we haven't labeled them yet. We haven't set their values that, but Okay, So C five is the higher valued capacitor, and that filters the low frequency noise while you have the lower value capacitor, which filters the high frequency noise and then seven on the bypass spin. We have a resistor and the capacitor in Siris between pin seven and ground. Um, so that'll decouple the audio input signal a swell. And then we have a couple more capacitors on the output to the speaker so that we get cool year audio are three and see to. These are both used to set the gain, and I am planning to use a gain of 50 bestest arbitrary. I just want to use a gain of, say, 50 so we're going to use resistor and capacitor values accordingly. So let's do that, shall we? So we click the value button. C five, as I said, is the higher value capacitor. So let's use 100. My Crawford's C one is the lower valued capacitor. Let's use 10.1. Micra fared. Oh, guys, by the way, if you want to move either the name or the value, all you have to do is press the smash button right here. So you click this mash button, you press the component you want Teoh, but move around and then you can move thes. There you go, you learn something new way. Okay, let's continue. This should be a lower value. So let's use 100 peak affairs. Well, so see, this is overlapping. It doesn't look pretty. It doesn't look meat. So let's go ahead. Smash this capacitor and move the 100 PICO Fair value here. Very go. Now let's do this. Our would be 10-K c six would be 10. Micro ferrets are one is 10-K C three week can use 30.1 micro parents and this we have to use Ah higher value. Okay. For the gain, we will use a 1.2 k resistor. See, it's dirty again. Let's go back and smash this smashed the like wooden. There you go. That's better. Si two will be using 10 Micro Farage's perfect. So that is our entire schematic guys 6. 2nd Project: Beets by Naf/Beets by Dre Board Layout: And now let's go ahead and lay out our board. Go on top here. Okay? Now, if we want to reduce the size of where board, all we have to do basically is just move thes lines. There you go. Nice and small. No one's ever said that. Well, maybe intact. Okay, let's place our components on the board. I want to be nice and in the middle here. Okay? Our speaker. It's going to be here and put can be here and now let's place our passive components already. It's put this as close as we can. Two of the speaker C one c five. Let's place close to the source. - It looks like C seven isn on being connected on the negative side. Let's go back and see. So this is it. It's connecting ground and ground. That does not make sense. So let's delete this and connected to the positive terminal. There you go. Now it will filter radio interference coming in from the headphone Jack. Holy perfect. It's moved that close to the head forger. All right, guys, I think we're ready to route the board now. You could do auto Rojer. Yeah, that's just too low effort. See what it comes up with. Yeah, that looks ugly. Let's just do it ourselves. Cancel. Okay, we will click this button route and let's start. So, guys, this is showing. Ah, blue trace. This means that it's at the bottom layer right now. If you click your middle button, will my button is my mouse wheel. It's going to go to the top layer now you can see that here. Actually, if I click my middle button again, it'll go Bottom right here. Layer number 16. Click my middle button again and goes back to the top layer. No, I don't want 90 degree traces. So I will, right? Click and choose either this or this. That's just that. Okay, If you want a more finer grid, all you have to do is school here. I think 0.5 point 25 was Okay. So if you want the finer grid guys, all you have to do is press Ault and then routed. And then you can use the alternate. Great. Oops. Let me do that again. There you go. Already. That is much better. That's an extremely long distance. It's OK. It's almost like a long distance relationship. Wolf. That hurts, right? This is the ground. So we can basically guys connect this anywhere. And even if you leave these ground pins, as is we will basically be making a polygon and naming and ground so that we have a ground plane and it'll automatically connect to it. So let's wait for that, and I'll show you. Wait, wait. It will pay off in the interest. Me. Okay. Okay. So hit number one on our connector is the supply. So we need We need thicker traces. It's less 2.25 so thick to try something else here. Yeah, this works. The four here is also ground. Let's go back to 0.16 actually, weaken do 0.12 as well. This is ground. Okay, guys, moment of truth. Now it's going to be pretty hard for me to route this trace. You know, I'll have to go a long distance relationship again and then do it all the way here like this. But wait, there is a solution for this. We can use a via so all you have to do is tracing right up to here. Click your mouse wheel. Are the middle button of your mouse. It will go to the bottom layer and then you can basically Oh, you see that here that is called via Let's finish this tracing first. So you know this blue part, this blue trace rather is at the bottom so you can crisscross this other trace that's on the top to that. And then middle click again, not change to this. Oh, another via via basically connects your top layer to your bottom layer. So if you have a trace going from the top layer this via will transport that trace, if you will, to the bottom layer and it'll connect the trace on the top layer to the bottom layer. Now industry practice number three guys, it is beneficial. It is good design practice to use a teardrop Via now. This is square we have around via here. We have an octagon via here. You might think Well, Eagle doesn't have Teardrop VI ous. Not quite. I'll show you where they are. So we go to file, we click Run you lp u o P is basically user language programs. So this comes with a teardrop via program preinstalled. We will click teardrops open teardrop board. So why is a teardrop via good design practice? It just improves the reliability of the connection. You can see the trees growing thicker as it goes towards the Via I mean, personally, I prefer round visas. And I would recommend using this. You, Opie, after you've made your design. Now, if you want to change this square via all you have to do is click the I button for information. Go here, choose round. And there you go. Same goes for this guy. Oops. Finally, Perfect. Now let's finish the rest of our layout. We click wrote That's just place this year. This is ground. So, guys, if you can see here these different packages and their pins So these pins are kind of like via so you can actually start routing from the bottom here as well. Start here. Middle click. Cool like that? Yeah, really hard to trace here. So we go at the bottom now, guys. Industry practice number. But Gillian So we want to avoid the electrical effects of E. M I. And cross talk between layers or traces. Right? So you might want avoid tracing a Jason Signal airs parallel So if what I am doing right now, that's that means that it's parallel, right? So I should probably wrote it like that because they're per particularly here. So their ego industry practice But Gillian on adjacent layers. So we have two layers right now, top and bottom. We have to avoid parallel routing to avoid crosstalk, so they have to be perpendicular to each other. All right, let's wrote our remaining traces. This is all ground. Yeah. Ground ground around. Okay, the only thing we have left is ground traces. No, let's make our polygons. We can make the money ship. By the way, let's have some fun with shapes. A We name this GMD. That's press rat's nest. Pretty a now, guys, as I told you so, I didn't route any of these ground traces. However, when we made this polygon and we named it ground all you're grounded connections and your schematics have connected to this ground plane here. And number four pin number two. Ah, pin number one as well. Ok, so we should probably change our polygon here. Increase that area. Perfect. There you go. Okay. Now we do have a bottom layer as well So let's go ahead. Click Paula Gone middle click and it'll a dialog box will basically open. And we have all these layers and all these cryptic names. I will explain that in a sec. So let's do bottom. It's called the 90 degree one here for the bottom and let us also name that ground Rat's nest. Look at that. Absolutely beautiful. You know it. It also helps to add in more via so there's ah, via button. Here, just add as many as you want. Basically, we want to make a good connection between these layers and these via zehr basically called stitching views of the basically allow return currents to properly transition between, um these layers right for the currents to flow directly beneath the signal. So we're not quite done yet. We actually have to name these visas. Ground. Yes, see these air ground. But as soon as I name this one, this will turn into something like this and these other V is Now you see the sauder mask going around it, which means that these via zehr not connected to the ground plane. Also, this is bad design practice where you see these gaps here if you follow my cursor in an eight motion. This is bad design practice. Basically, what's happening is the ground has to go around this slot opening this entire slot. In order for you to have a good design, you need Teoh. Have V is properly separated so that the current is perturbed just a little bit, you know? So that's industry practice zillion. Let's go with zillion. You know what? Let's name these This one This guy here gente Yes. Okay. I think we are ready for our design checks. Let's go with the RC first power pin. I see one b s connected to 12 volts. Okay, I dont know why Thats a warning segment of net ground has no visual connection. That's fine. Let's approve these now Let's go to our design error checks the RC This is pretty standard . You don't need to worry about this at this point. Okay, Let's check who so many dimensions. Okay, this is the design of the part itself, so I wouldn't worry about that right now. At least drill size. It's okay. You don't need to worry about the drill size and we don't have any other design errors. Perfect guys. Now, one more thing I'd like to show you is actually the layers themselves. So right now, all these most of these leaders are enabled. If I am able, all of them, you're going to see more information on the board. So we're going to see the the silk screen, the Sauder mask and everything in between basically, So you can also go the nun route, which basically disappears everything. But if you want to see a particular layer, you just click off the layer you don't want to see. Apply. So you're seeing the bottom there right now. Not many increases on this layer, but you can have your fun apply, and now you can see the entire board. Okay, Now that you have made or rather design your board, let's go ahead and add a bill of materials you know, for your own use. If you actually want to get this board fabricated, so you go ahead and click here. It's called Design Link. Let's go here to the design link button. Click that click schematic and it'll try to populate all the components you've used in the schematic so that it's easier for you to order all of these parts from one bill of materials sheet 0.1. Micra fared capacitor. You look at the voltage requirements, you look at the package and then you selected. So it's going to go through all of these components one by one. 10 Micra fared capacitor, so elect. All right, guys, we have a full list of components we need. What? We have some unknowns here. I'm assuming this is the headphone Jack. One of these is the speaker, and one is a connector. Other than that, we have a full list of components. You can export it. You can close it. It all depends on you. Your choice. It's a free country. Close guys, Congratulations. You've made a board that outputs clear, crisp audio. You can listen to your music or sports or whatever you want. Really? Podcasts. Do you guys know of any good podcast cycle? Listen to you know what the next step is? Gerber Burger files. Yea. See you all next time 7. Gerber Files: Welcome back, you beautiful people. We made a board that transmits audio from your phone to a speaker. How cool is that? My mind is officially blown. Congratulations again, guys. Okay. Gerber files. Gerber files are basically files that you send to your board. Fabrication house. They'll take those files, magically convert them to a riel board and then send it back to you. How do we make or conjure these Gerber files? Well, it's easy. Very easy. You go to this button right here. The camp processor. Now we will goto file open. We go to a job. Give me a job, please. And I actually have a custom cam file, which I will be, including in the course. It just makes it easier for me to know what I'm looking at. Open. Okay, Now it has all these different tabs open. The 1st 1 is a drill. So basically but drilled size. So the only thing it has highlighted our grills and holds its all these drills and holes. You see, for the V Aziz for the components. This file includes those now I have components sides for the top components. Side files for the bottom sauder, which means all the sauder mass that's required here. Any pads on the components. So Sauder top Sauder bottom the silkscreen The silk screen is basically this stuff the white stuff that denotes you know, your component name its value, stuff like that. So I have silk screen on the top, so screen on the bottom. Now, I don't have any components at the bottom, but it is what it is. Sauder, Stop mask top and bottoms of stop mascots. Basically the green stuff you'll see on the board that goes above the copper. So you'll have the exposed silver ish copper for all these pants on your components and your your I see here, but the green stuff basically covers that to protect it. Okay, Now all you have to do process, job, and it is done. So let's go to the destination here. Now I have it as a part of my project. So what we're going to do is copy all of these files dot BRD dot dear i g p i NCD PLC pls sch stc s t s cmp GPS oil cmp GP I asshole l from top in the bottom. We will zip it up Gerber burger, and we will send this a file to the board manufacturers. And there you have it, Gerber files. 8. Conclusion: Congratulations, guys. You have finally completed this course. I knew you could do it. I had trust in you from the beginning. I'm so damn proud of you. Okay? Compose yourself. All right. What did we do in this course? We learned some horrible humor. I mean, I told you guys, I am just really challenged at comedic timing. We learned schematic design, which I'm not so challenged. That board layout. We did one and two years. We made some Gerber burger files. We created a custom parts library, and, as promised, I sprinkled in some industry practices and some good design practices. Okay, what's next? I shall also be creating a course on PCB designed with much more industry practices because there are just countless of thumb, depending on your application. Some of them are general, so that'll be easier to implement in your circuits. So after you've taken this course, I think you will be ready to dig into that. It would also be geared toe words your season designers, your seasoned industry professionals who may not have heard of industry practices as it relates to aerospace, automotive and biotech. So thank you so much, guys. I really appreciate you taking this course. I hope I taught you something. I hope you learned a lot. Please send any questions. You may have my way. Any concerns you have with the course are just any comments about the course. Anything I can improve on, whether it be my delivery, my communication with you, the course content. I am open to all kinds of criticisms. But this being the Internet, please be gentle or not. It depends on you. Thanks again, guys. See you in the next course.