Textile Printing Technique | Magdalena Eriksson | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

15 Lessons (1h 17m)
    • 1. Textile Printing

    • 2. History of Print

    • 3. Natural colours

    • 4. Industrial Print

    • 5. Print Colours

    • 6. Block Printing

    • 7. Batik and Silk painting

    • 8. Ikat

    • 9. Screen Print

    • 10. Rotary Screen Print

    • 11. Direct Roller Printing

    • 12. Transfer Print

    • 13. Digital Print

    • 14. Other Printing Techniques

    • 15. Conclution

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About This Class

Do you want to learn how textiles ge printed?
Then this is the class for you. I will walk you through the different print colours used for different fiber compositions. With the help of printers from different parts of the world I will show you the different artisan and industrial ways to print on fabrics.
I think this can be useful for anyone, but I was firstly creating it for who is interested pin pattern design.

Meet Your Teacher

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Magdalena Eriksson

Fashion & Textile Designer


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1. Textile Printing: Hi. Do you want to learn all about how textiles get printed? My name is Magdalena Eriksson. I'm a fashion and textile designer based on the west coast of Sweden. I have 30 years experience in the fashion field. In this course, you will learn about the different ways to print fabrics with wooden blocks, silkscreen engraved plates, rollers and digital print. I will also talk about batik and silk painting techniques. As creatives is much easier for you to communicate with the print factories, if you have solid knowledge about the textile printing. Maybe you'll find a technique that you want to use yourself. You will learn about the coors used and what works for the different fibers. If you're not an expert in textile fibres and composition, please, watch my first course before you continue with this one. I want you to get better inside two possibilities and limits for different techniques. I will start with a historical overview, and my aim is to give you a greater insight in why you have start up times and cost that are higher for some techniques. You will learn what works best for large production and what is better for smaller companies and start ups. I recommend this course also for who is already in the business as an update, and repeat off your knowledge. Come on, let's get started. 2. History of Print: I will start with a brief introduction to the history of print. Designs on textiles were made historical by painting on the fabrics. In the fifth century, before Christ the history teller Herodotos writes about how Persians crushed leaves and mixed them with water. With this tincture, animals were painted on clothes. As humans have always had the will to embellish and mask themselves, is probably a technique as old as clothing itself. Batik is a technique that historians believe derived from the east of Asia or China, most probably from Indonesia. The word derives from the Javanese word ambatik, which means put dots, write and draw. batik is one of the most ancient ways to color and print textiles that we know about. It's made by painting the fabric with hot wax that prevent the cold dye to penetrate the fabric. After vaxing, the fabric is tinted or painted. Then the vax is removed by solvent or boiling the fabric. Wood block printing was invented in China. The oldest found silk, is more than 2000 years old, and it's a three color flower print from the Han Dynasty. Even before that, small stumps were used to print. I n Mesopotamia. they had made round stamps to print in clay. The block printing techniques spread from China to the rest of Asia. Also, the first screen prints are from China and were made during the Song Dynasty 960 to 12 79. Also, this technique spread in Asia and got largely used also in Europe. But first in the late 18th century, when the silk mesh was more available for trade. In the early 1910s photo reactive chemicals started to get used to transmit the motives to this screens. The Peruvians and Mexicans already knew the art of printing textiles before the Spanish invasion in 15 19 the Our Mix in Central America made ceramic cylinders for textile printers 2000 years ago. The European print techniques have. It's a region in India. France were the first adopting the cartoon print in the late 16th century that gave the name to the Cutem fiber. Also, Holland were early adopters off the print techniques from frauds, the art spread to Germany and how Spook got famous for its fine line printing. The Dutch East India Company introduced the printed calico fabrics even before it was brought to fraud. Hollande was the first country to imitate Indian chains. The Indian word Sheen's means mustard colored. When the Englishman started that cartoon printing, they took help from the Flemish manufacturers Thomas Bell. Printed with engraved copper plates, He invented the roller or silent, the print machine. It was paid tinted in Scotland in 17 83. The technique was perfected by Adam Parkinson in order to keep the roads in perfect register, and in 17 85 the machine was taken in use, printing six colors in a row. In Paris in 18 34 Louise Gilligan Power invented a mechanical way off hand printing that could 0.1 to 5 colors and even make double sided prints. Advantage with a protein to the rule or print was the transfer of a large amount of paste onto the fabric, so it was used for reserve prints, often with indigo dyes. Now they this kind of machine is no longer renews. The British chemist William Henry Perkin invented the first synthetic organic die in 18 50 tree first created the Koran more vain from any line, and later also, Anil in red, blue and green he's such a factory producing dies industrially and continued developing new dice. The latest textile print revolution started in the late 19 eighties with the development of the digital printing. This technique offer sprinting with a wider color range than earlier techniques. In the early nineties, the dye sublimation printer started to be used, a technique with apprentice made on a special paper and then is transferred to the fabric. For a start, the digital print was very expensive, but now, when the technique is developed and more common, the Costas more convenient. In the next sequence, I would talk about natural colors. 3. Natural colours: natural colors derives from minerals, plants and invertebrates. The use of textile colors in China dates back to the Neolithic period 3000 years before Christ. This were used to die in print fabrics until the mid 18 hundreds, when they were replaced by synthetic tints. There has always been un interest in natural dyes from designers, and I've used her journey cartons in natural dyes in my collections. The process for using natural dyes differs depending on the dye stuff. Direct dyes, also called substantive, dyes like indigo or linch's gives good color resistance by themselves. Most dyes needs to be fixed chemically to the fabric with a mordant. These dyes are called Adjective dyes. Primitive mordants were salt, vinegar, alum and urine. Use of different mordants create different colors and shades. The fabric can be treated with mordants after the dyebath or the modern can be mixed directly in the dye. Animal derived dye. Cochineal is the scale insect, and the natural dye carmine derives from the females. 17 to 20% of its tried body can be extracted as carminic acid, and can yield shades such a crimson and Scarlett. To create carmin the powdered bodies are boiled in ammonia or sodium carbonate solution, then Alium is added. Also, other substances may be used searches citric acid, borax, gelatin or Stainus Cloride to regulated dye. Cochineal has best color Fastness on protein fibres, such wool and silk. It's one of the most light, heat and oxidation stable natural colors. Today it's widely used to color food. Carmese is another scale insect that was used in South Europe for producing the crimson red. Indian Yelleow was made from cow urine, the cowes were feed exclusively with mango leaves. The urine was evaporated to balls of raw pigment. It gave on intensive yellow shade. Due to the cruelty to animals, this way to produce the color was abandoned in the nineteen twenties. It was not very resisting to light. Lac is the resinous secrationn from the female lac bugs that are cultivated in India. This secriation is processed and sold. as dried flakes. The actual color used to die protein textiles come from the body of the insect. Lac is still produced, but for other uses. Sepia brown is a reddish brown color deriving from the ink sac of the cattle fish. Sepia was largely used as ink in the Greek and Roman civilisations. Leonardo Da Vinci made his famous sketches in sepia. It has also been a used to dye textiles, both wool and cotton. Tyran Purple was made from a very small amount of gland secretion produced by the Murex sea snail. To obtain the tyrannical purple the glands were boiled for three and then boiled for 10 days to make a red dye bath. After dyeing the fabrics was air dried. The dyed Fabric turned purple and the color became insoluble in water and very durable. The dye was extremely expensive as 12,000 snails were used for only 15 grams off pigment. Vegetal colorants. There are a lot of different vegetal colorants. Indigo is probably the most well known. It's a deep blue color deriving from Indigofiera or other plants like woad or levant. Indigofera was cultivated in East Asia, Egypt, India and Peru. The first known is from Huaca Pieta in contemporary Peru. Indigo isn't soluble in water but needs to be dissolved by a chemical sreaction called reduction Preindustrially. The reduction was made using ammonia from stale urine, but more convenient is using zink. Reduction converts indigo into a so called leuco indigo or white indigo. When the fabrics iss removed from the dye bath, it reacts with the oxygen in the air and the color turns intensively blue. and insoluble. Two different methods were used to make indigo direct print paste. The first method was adding a thickener and arsenic trisulfide to the indigo vat. The arsenic delayed the oxidation into indigo. This way, the printers had enough time to apply the paste onto the fabric, before the reaction. The second method was printing the insoluble indigo onto the fabric and then reducing it in a serial of sulfite baths, altered with oxidation in air. This method was called China Blue, and could not give the same dark blues as the first method. The natural indigo dyes were very polluted and dangerous for the workers. Indigo color was used for denim, which is created by a twill weave with tinted warp and natural coloured weft. Catechu is an extract of the acacia trees is extracted by boiling the wood in water and letting the water evaporate until a brew remains. It create a red brown color, and it's used to on wool and silk. It's also used for coloring foods. such as liquorice. Gamboge, is the color used for Buddist monk's robes. It's made from the race intact from some evergreen crease. Most commonly, the gambled tree chestnut task gives a brown color and was just for leather turning matter off. Different rubia species have given the red color to clothes and grapes for 1000 of years in various continents, Suffering has been used as fabric dye special in China. This despite its high cost, the colors face quite quickly to a pale yellow even in minutes. The suffering gives the fabric intense yellow orange shades increasing the concentration off suffering will give the fabric shades of red. Efforts have been made to substitute the suffering with other substances, and the gardenia fruit also contains the active colorant in safran correct annoyed protein . The suffering was used for the vermillion ocher and Safra nude robes on my Buddhist and Hindu monks. There are a lot of different plants, roots, fruits and leaves used to obtain different colors and chase of tech types. Mushrooms are also used to die for rabbits with good resource of good color spectrum. In the 19 it was Sim vogue to color fabrics with tea, which has made also industrially mineral dies. Some mineral colors have been used to print and die. Texters often matter salts and oxides, but I hardly used anymore. Mineral Karki Dies. Can be applied on cotton mixing Iram buff and green Crume Ahlam Solution. It cannot be used on protein fibres as it decreases the last year and flexibility off silicon rule. Mineral cock A have good light and wash Fastness, and it's used for military items only. All crumb colors are poisonous and unusual as colorants for textiles. Chrome yellow varies from lemon gelato. Orange yellow. It's made by mixing leading a nitrate and potassium chrome eight as its toxic. It have been replaced with cadmium yellow mixed with cadmium. Orange Crume Orange is a mixture of chrome, yellow and chrome red. Chrome red. It's a basic crewman. Chrome green is a chrome oxide. It's commonly used in pigments. Due to its stability. It's insoluble in water. Manganese is the brown with good color Fastness and resistance to Serb delegates, akali and acid. But it's discharged by reducing agents. I rely. Oxides are chemical compounds between Iran and oxygen. The most well known ISS rust, the brightest colors are obtain use in ferric nitrate. I run oxide ISS used in textile printing in Italy. I will show it to you later. Pressure in blue is obtained by making Iran self attracting with potassium for Rhys iron eight. This white paste is further oxidized with acidic protest. Um, de cremate bright blue with good light resistance, but high sensitivity to Alcala is created. Oakar is the earth mineral oxide used for yellow, brown and red color toes. Gold occur is a hydrated Eireann hydroxide. Rado Kirk untaes the hem. It'd mineral Perper. Poker is chemically the same a thread, but with different particle size. Brown Oakar Issa partly hydrated iron oxide. The family also contains sienna, which contains a small amount of magnesium oxide, and amber, which contains a larger amount of manganese oxide. Malek. It is on intense green mineral that consists of copper carbonate hydroxide. It is moderately light, fast and sensitive to assets. Sheena Bar is a light scholar to break writ quick silver sulfide. The color is called vermillion and have bean used since antiquity. Nasserite is a copper mineral, often found together with Malik. It it is just the name tells Blue the calories unstable in air but was used as blue pigment in antiquity. Arrogant night is the colorless, a white carbonate mineral, but it's used for white nuances. Lapid's laterally is a semi precious stone. It's a felt spiraled silicate mineral. Most llopis laterally also contains kill seat so delicate and periods it disused for natural ultra marine pigment. 4. Industrial Print: Now I will talk about industrial print. Textile printing can be made with a lot of colors printed on top of each other, or side-by-side or of each other. Each color is applied locally. Basically, the same stuff is used for printing as when dyeing fabric. But thickening is added as the dye colors are too liquid and would bleed out on the fabric. The print colors are called print paste. Some pastes are transparent and some totally cover. In Block, screen and roll print, the higher number of colors, the more expensive is the print. Every single screen, role or block have its own development cost. Of course, it's setting of the machinery, adjusting of the pattern and color mixing have it's cost on top of the actual production time. Also in digital print, the more covered the surfaces, the more colors needed, but it doesn't effect on the development cost. Sometimes different color tones have different cost. Normally, weave or knit is prepared for print by washing and bleaching. And if it has a background color, it's also dyed. A fabric that haven't been prepared to dye or prepared to print mike not have affinity. So if you've going to print or dye a fabric yourself, you need to pre-wash textile before coloring it. Most kinds of dyes and prints also need to be fixed by heat or chemically to be resistant and not bleed or stain. Most common is to use a vapor chamber where the heat makes the dye enter into the fiber and create so-called affinity to the fiber. This way, the color becomes wash resistant. For pigment paste acrylates binds the color to the fiber. The printed design is coming back as a pattern, repet, at fixed distance in height and in width. Most print factories have standard repeat sizes. And for clothing, It's normally 64 per 64 centimeter, which is made to fit on a backer front of a t-shirt. But it's important to know the exact print repeat size that the actual factory work with before creating the repeated design. In full with digital printing, there are no repeats pattern limits. The limits might be the size of the digital file and the width of the fabric. There are different ways to print. Direct print, which is probably the printing method most of us are thinking about when talking about print. This technique is mainly made on white or light color fabrics. Most common is the printing with pigment color, which is used for about half of the prints worldwide. Discharge print is made mainly on dark dyed fabric with a dye that gets removed by the strong alkaline chemicals in the printed discharge paste. The print is made using roller or screen techniques. Dyes that are not harmed by the discharge chemicals can be added in the discharge paste. This way, a new color gets added in the discharged areas. When the fabric is steamed, the pattern appears as either a white or a colored area. Using the discharge technique, the fabric color penetrates well on the reverse. The discharge paste may not totally penetrate on the reverse, leaving a background color around the edges of the motif. In convenient with this technique is that the strong alkalis might harm the fibers. Duplex print is when you print on both sides of the fabric or contemporary or phase and reverse in different operations. Warp printing is when the warp is printed before weaving the fabric. This is not commonly used as it's an expensive way of printing. DTG printing is a shortening of direct to garment printing with a modern machines, you can print on both t-shirts, shoes, and caps with the same printer. The pattern is positioned by help of a software. Photographic prints can be made. There are also embroidery machines that inkjet prints the embroidery thread just before the stitches on the fabric. 5. Print Colours: Now I am going to talk about modern colors for printing. Starting with pigments. Pigments are insoluble particles that are held onto the fiber by a binding agent such as butadiene or acrylates. It also contains a catalyst that activates the binder, if not activated by heat. It is printable on almost all fiber qualities. The application is quick, simple and economical, but the hand feel get stiff due to the binding agent. It's also risk there's a print crocks and fades. The print is on top of the face of the fabric but doesn't penetrate totally to the reverse Opacifiers are used in the paste to create good coverage and can create selected lustres, from dull to glossy, pearlescent or metallic. Thickeners are used to create dark shades and prevent colors from bleeding into each other. . Other additives that might be used are anti bleeding agents, thinners, retardants that slow the drying procedure to keep the screen open. Dryers to speed up the drying and softener to keep the color flexible. when dryed. As the pigments doesn't react with the fiber and stays at the surface, they're easy to match. This opposite to reactive dyes the change color or shade when reacting with the fibers. Anyhow some of the additives in the pigment dyes my change the shades of pigment color slightly. Pigment paste is widely used but not suggested for surfaces, particularly exposed to abrasion like trousers. Dyes are complex organic compounds that bind with the material. They need to be solved in water or other solvent to penetrate in the fiber. The molecules consists of two parts. The chromophore and the auxochrome. The chromophore part of the molecule is the actual color. The auxochrome makes it soluble and slightly alters the color. A small amount of dye occurs for a large amount of fabric. The color strength of dye is great, but if unsolved particles off dye remain out of the fiber, this might bleed onto other materials. Dyes for printing are used as pastes and can be distinguished from pigments as they penetrate more to the reverse of the fabric. specially between the yarns. Reactive dyes are colored compounds capable of forming a covalent bond between the dye molecule and the fiber. Reactive dyes is mostly used for printing on cellulosic fibers, but it's also possible to use and wool and silk. It can also besedd on polyamide and polyester, but applied under a weak acid condition. The colours are bright, easy to apply, and the color fastness and light fastness is good. Reactive dye can be made a bifunctional dyestuff that fixes better in the fibers. Reactive colors connect chemically with cellulosic fibers and in an alkaline environment. The alkaline used is sodium bicarbonate on a thickening agent is sodium alginate deriving from seaweed. The color generally gets fixed by steaming. Vat colors are insoluble in water and are made soluble by reduction with sodium hydrousulphite or hydro sulfate. When penetrated in the fiber, it's transformed to oxidized form and its insoluble in water. Castaic Soda and sodium hydrosulphite are used in the process. Vet dye is primarily used for cottons or cotton polyester blend. It has an uncomplete color range. The original vat dye is indigo, which is just for denim. Disperse dyes are developed for acetes and synthetic materials and are mainly used for polyester. Disperse dyes are used for heat transfer printing. The dye enters in the fibers as high temperatures by adding hot air, hot vapor or passing heated rolls. The molecular weight off the dispersed dyes are low and needs to be nonionic to be stable. Dispersed eyes are used for sublimation print. The disperse dyes resistance to light and wash. it's fair. The dispersed colors have a wide color range and are toxic in water. Acid dyes or anionic dyes are used for printing wool, silk and nylon. The acid dyes contain functional groups of sulfonic or carbohylic salt. The acid solution makes the dye entering the fibers. It can be used only on fibers that creates a positive charge by the acids. There are three classes off acid dyes, levelling acid dyes that have the moderate fastness and color evenly in highly acids. Milling dies have better wash fastness but less brilliant colors. This air printed in diluted acids. And finally acid milling, that have larger molecules, high wet- and light Fastness, more uneven color. Acid milling is often used on wool. The acid colors are not as toxic as the name might sound, even the some of them are. Metal complex dyes are also called premetallized dyes. These are developed to be more ambient friendly and easy to use than the chrome dyes. The metal complex dyes have low water solubility. There are two main groups off metal complex dyes, 1:1 that are made soluble by strong acid and 1:2 that are made soluble by weak acids. Most of monoazo type and derived from metals that are complexed. Metal complex dyes are used to print on silk. The thickness are high molecular biopolymers, like different kinds of gum. The dye is fixed by first drying the fabric followed by steaming. A disadvantage of the color group is the lack of clear color shades. Azoic dye is, created by two uncolored compounds. The ago function is bound to an aromatic ring and can be broken down to arylamine, an aromatic amine. Originally, the compounds were added in two steps. First, the naphthol, a process called premier and then the diazo of salt that develop the color. Now both are mixed in the paste. The light and wash fastness are excellent. The color range is complete and the cost is moderate. Azoic dyes are primarily used on cotton and also some polyester. Azoic dyes may be toxic, and some of them are prohibited for some uses in Europe. Basic dye is a catatonic dye. This means that the color carrier ione in the dye salt is positively charged. These are attracted by the negatively charged ions in the fiber. Basic dye is mainly used on acrylic fibers as Orlon, Dralon and acrilan. The basic colors give very clear, almost neon color shades. It's also used for discharge print on cotton. Sulfur dyes are the most commonly used dyes for dark cottons.. They have good color fastness and are easy to apply. The black is made by a reaction between dinitrophenol and sodium sulfide in hot water. It's also used as coating on cotton. But not common in print pastes. 6. Block Printing: block print ain't used industrially, but only for craftsmanship and artistic hand printing. The block print machine perrotine invented in the 19 century isn't used anymore. In India and Indonesia blocks are used both for printing in applying vax when making batik. The blocks are either relief carved in wood or made with copper inserts in the wood. There is a tradition off block printing in Romania in Italy. As I have been there quite a lot of during the years I lived in Italy. I've seen this kind of towels frequently. These air normally printed in one color. Here I show how they press the fabric before printing it with a five ton mangle. This is from Antica Stamperia Marchi, that have it's origin back in 1633. Emanuel in the Antica Stamperia Carapegna. explains how the print paste is made. The print paste is made with floor as the binding agent rust as the main pigment and vinegar as the preservative, He puts the paste on the swab and distributes the paste. How thick the paste layer is depends on the print he's going to make. The cliché he is using is from the fifties. Both these antique laboratories have bean in the families, since the start, passing from generation to generation. The relief pattern is carved into the block off pear tree, as pear is robust, solid and most of all, it doesn't curve and change shape over time. The traditional designs in Romania are wheat, bunches of grapes, leaves, fruits and animals, which is what made the living on the Italian countryside. The stone table is covered by absorbing and spongy paper. To help the cliche, transfer the paste onto the fabric and enter between the yarns in the weave. He hit the block with the mallet to help the paste penetrate the fabric. I don't understand how they matched the patterns as well. If they do together, they need to be very skilled. But one technique is to use pins on the blocks to match them together, but here they seem to make it totally by freehand. When the fabric is printing, they hang it to dry. Then it passes a fixing bath before it's washed, dried and then pressed again. And now the fabrics is ready to be sold 7. Batik and Silk painting: batik is a technique that I would love to master. At fuji studio in Florence were, I learned silkscreen print back in 1999, they also had courses in batik and silk painting. I saw how they sat painting with with vax before coloring the silk fabrics. The colors and the designs were just amazing. Batik is a reservation technique that's made by vaxning the fabric. The vax is either applied by hand with a tool alled tjanting or printed with copper stamps called cap. The most skilled batik artisans are found at Java in Indonesia. The tjanting is a wood or bamboo stick with a small metal spouted copper cup. This technique is the most refined, and expensive one. It's called batik Tulis and translated to written batik. The vex used is a mix of paraffin, beeswax and resin. It's melted it and kept over flame or hot charcoal to remain liquid. The tjanting is dipped into the vax, and the vax is painted onto the fabric by hand. Both sides of the fabrics are vaxed. For detailed designs, a thin spot is used and for filling larger areas a larger spot or stiff brush is used. The dyes are or synthetic or made by boiled leaves and boiled wood. The fabrics air dyed in cold dye bath as heat would melt the vax. When dyed, the fabric is hung to dry. Often it needs to be dipped in the same dye bath several times and dried between each bath. The fabric is boiled or scraped to remove the vax. Depending on the complexity of the design and the number of colors, new vax is added, and the procedure restarts again. This might be done several times, and it can take up to a year before our design is finished. The final wash is made in several steps, first in boiling water and then cooler and cooler water. The vax is taking care off and is reused. Batik is made on cotton on fabrics. In Sweden, we used the word batik also for reserving areas by binding, tying and other tied I techniques. As there are no clear limit between the different techniques, I will mention them briefly. You can create a lot of clarity in the decides by tying the fabrics in different ways, using dye baths, pouring the color painting or spraying over the fabric. Japanese tie dye technique is called Shibori. Also within Shibori There are a lot of different techniques to reserve when dying. The word comes from the root Shiboru and means ring, squeeze and press. In Shibori, also the fabric structure is often shaped. The patterns are, created by sewing, folding, binding and stitching. There are different techniques in silk painting, as in all artistic fields. If you want to use to resist first, you need to shoes between a water based that you can wash away, a gutta, which is a rubber based resist or vax, that needs to be removed by a solvent. The painting can be made both with pigments and dyes. The pigments are fixed by ironing. The dyes needs to be vaporised for two - tree hours with the textile wrapped in paper, specially the dyes that interest in the fibers, give lovely, brilliant colors. To create effects. there are delusions and alcohol. For structures, sugars and salts are used. Before starting painting the silk, the fabric is stretched out on a frame. This to make the chorus flow on, bleed into each other, often wet in wet techniques, are used. Common for all these techniques is that even using the same design, the outcome off each item will be somewhat unique. Dyes are, depending a lot on the circumstances as quality of the color stuff, temperature, color bath air moisture etcetera. Paintings are dependent on each stroke and ties of each exact fold of the fabric. 8. Ikat: Ikat is the word for tie in Malay, and it's another resist dyeing technique. When making ikat, the yarns are bound in different patterns and dipped in dyes. This is made before weaving the fabrics. As with batik, it can remain a lot of times in different color dye baths. Great artisan skills are needed to make ikat weaves. There are three ways to make Ikat. Warp ikat is when the warp has the pattern. Fill or weft ikat is when when weft has the pattern and double ikat is when both the warp and the weft have patterns. As the design is created on the yards before weaving, the ikat weaves have a characteristic blurriness at the ages of the design. In Tenganan at Bali, the very skilled artisans make a double ikat called Gring Sing, which means sick and no. Due to the high skill and time used to create these weaves, they're considered sacred and only used for special occasions. They used to grow cotton that Bali, but nowadays it's imported. The cotton yarns are boiled in water and ashes to get rid of chemicals and softness, and to get the alkalinity needed to absorb the dies. Natural mordants are mixed using crushed candlenut, papaya leaves and turmeric. The turmeric also gives a light yellow color. The yarns are soaked in the mordant for three days. Then the yarns are hung outside for six weeks, letting the mordant fix. The light yellow mordant is the ground color for Going Sing. The warp and the weft yarns are wrapped around wooden frames and grouped depending on the final design of the pattern. The groups are marked with non permanent strokes to help bounding the patterns. Then the very skilled artisans are covering the parts of the yarn that will remain light yellow. The yarns are sent to be indigo dyed in the nearby village Buggbugg. The yarn boundles are dipped in the indigofera dye baths several times and left to dry in the air between the baths. Returned again to Teganan, the yarns are resist bound again and died again in the red, made by bark off marinda or mulberry tree. Again. The color dips and dryings are repeated, and the process can take several months. Then finally, the resist ties are removed. Warp yarns are placed on the loom where you can see the first forming the pattern. Then the weft is added, yarn by yarn in the correct place to match and create the pattern. So why am I talking about ikat in a print course? Concini is a classic taffeta design of, the Le Manch house, which is now owned by Pierre Frey in Paris. It's a historical fabric created in the Swiss Alps. The silk warps loosely will want to keep in place. Then it's glued on a cotton canvas. The seven print colors are measured and prepared before it's printed with screens. The screen printing is made in the same way as on a woven och knitted fabric. Each of the colors have its own screen with its own stencil, for its own separated color. When printed, the silk warp is separated from the cotton canvas, and you can see the excellent print precision. The warp is washed to remove the glue from the canvas backing and dryer by passing between cylinders. Then one of the edges off the weave is cut, and the weft threads are removed a few at the time. A few of there left for keeping the pattern alined. The 10,000 warp trhreads are knot one by one to another warp that is already installed in the loom. The weaving is started but needs to temporary stop as the remaining pre warp threads needs to be removed. The white silk weft creates a dense weave. 9. Screen Print: These amazing pictures are from Kudhinda in Zimbabwe. They are printing the base for a print with the stripes directly in an open screen. Screen printing is also known as serigraphy, serigraph printing and silkscreen print. The technique is used both for placed prints like T-Shirt, front prints, and all over repeated patterns of fabric rolls. It can be made by hand or machine driven or something in between. In screen printing, a tight mesh is stretched over the frame and glued on it. It needs to be in tension. For a start, it was of silk, but now it's normally in thin nylon weave. The frame can be practically any wood or aluminum. The more fine details in the design, the finer weave is needed. With fine lines and a fine weave less print paste is transferred to the fabric and the color stays at the fabric surface. With a courser weave, the paste passes better, but the edges of the designs are less sharp. Fine weaves tends more to get closed by stuck paste than coarser weaves. A light sensitive emolution is scooped onto the wave and dried in a dark room. The pattern is created by separating the pattern in colors. There are different ways of doing this. During my studies, we hand painted the pattern, then we separated the colors by hand. Each color was transferred on a film or transparent paper by painting and drawing with totally light covering ink and paint. Now it's more common to separate the colors in the computer. It's also common to separate this colors in cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. With these four colors, you can achieve almost any shade in the darkroom. Each of the drawings were placed on the glass for over vacuum machine. And a frame with a light sensitive evolution was placed on top. Here I'm showing you how it's made with a home kit. Each drawing is placed so they would match. If placing the screens on top of each other, then the vacuum machines get closed and the air is removed. The opposite side of the glass in the vacuum machine is of a stretchy rubber material that stretch into each angle of the frame and keeps it in place. The glass is then flipped over and the drawings are in front of the screen towards the glass. Then it's exposed to ultraviolet light, which solidifies the areas of the emolution that are not covered by light resistant paint. When it's over, the screens are removed and washed in water. In all the areas that were covered by the drawings, the emolution is washed away and the screen opens to let the print paste pass. When the screen is dried, the edges of the screens that weren't covered by the evolution gets scotch. Scotch prevents the pace to leak at the sides of the screen. There are a lot of different ways to put the weave in tension on different kinds of screens. New smarter screens and techniques using less chemicals are developed. It's also possible to print separated colors directly on the pre prepared special weave. The printer opens this screen where desired. This way the screen printer don't need any strong solvents to remove the dried emolution once the screen will be reused for another design. Some machines have the ability to print up to one thousand, two hundred dots per inch. Dots per inch is the resolution of a digital picture. The prints gets very high quality, similar to the direct digital prints. Once the screens are ready the screen needs to be adjusted so that's the pattern on each screen matches properly with a pattern on the other screens. Independently if you print with a four-color process or would spot colors. Again, there are different ways to keep this greens aligned depending on the way you're printing. When I was printing by hand, we made the registration marks on the screens and stretched threads over the fabric. Through the screen emolution, this treads crossings were mutched with the registration marks on the screen. Traditionally, textile prints have been made with spot colors, often indicated from the Pantone colors, or color swatches. When printing with spot colors, the maximum printable colors are 32 in the school book. In reality, I've never heard about more than 12 colors. Printing with 12 colors is complicated and expensive. With traditional screen printing grain or dots are quite big. Often you see the dots in the print. 10. Rotary Screen Print: The screen print I was talking about in the previous episode with the flatbed screen Print There is also rotary screen print. It's made with seamless round screens with the print paste inside the screens. These cylinders give more limited size of the repeat height. I believe you noticed that the flat bed screens in the continuous printing machines are much higher than 64 centimeter. As the movement of the cylinders are continues, the print speed is much higher respect to the flatbed screen print that's need to stop for each time the screen is lowered and the squeegee passes the paste. The rotary screens have stationary, squisegees that forces the continuously feed print paste through the design areas, pressing it out on the fabric. The screens are off 0.1 millimeter thick nickell with a standard circumference off 640.0 to 640,1 millimeter. But also other dimensions are available. The width covers the total fabric width. The nickel sleeves have small hexagonal holes, alled mesh. The mesh fineness is measured in holes per inch, so the higher the mesh number, the smaller the holes in the mesh. The mesh gets covered by a lacquer that gets engraved as the flatbed screens or with UV- light or with the laser beam, The computer driven laser beam passes in a mirror and then a lence to get the preciseness needed. It's a very quick procedure. It only takes an hour to engrave a screen. Also, the computer driven exposure is quick, but the screen needs to pass a couple of steps after the exposure. The access lacquer is carefully removed. Then the screen is dried before it's ready to be used in the printing machine. When creating the screens also, registration marks are engraved on the screens. All the screens following the first screen need to be perfectly in register to it so that each color gets in the correct place in the pattern. The stencil is fixed in the machine by a stencil ring glued at each side of the screen. The print machines have a rubber band that the fabrics are glued onto before printing, to keep the textiles plain while printing. Normally in mordern machines, each role is driven separately and can be ingested by the computer. In the older machines the regulation of the print could be a problem consuming rolls of fabric before getting the roles in perfect register. When printed, the fabrics passes into the dryer. These machines have a production speed of up to incredible 80 to 90 meters per minute. Rotor screen printing machine is the most used technique for textile printing. It can also be used to make coatings like fake leather, for example. With all this information, it's fully understandable that the textile industry have high production minimums on that small quantities gets very expensive to produce. 11. Direct Roller Printing: Direct roller printing or gravure roller printing isn't common in textile printing. It's just mainly for packaging, and some use it for transfer printing on textiles. Transfer print is when you print the motive mirrored on a paper and then heat transfer it to the fabric. Direct roller print replaced the rotor block printing in the late 17 hundred. The copper plate printing on textiles was invented in Scotland by Thomas Bell. The pattern is engraved in the surface of the copper role. There is one copper roll for each color. The printing machine consists of one big steel mandrell with 1 to 1.5 a meter in diameter. Around it runs an endless rubber blanket outside of the rubber blanket. there is a back greige with the fabric on top. The print cylinders are placed around the big metal mandrel. Each off the engraved rollers have a color furnisher roller that supplies the paste all over the print cylinders. Then a steel blade called color doctor removed the color from the print cylinder. Except for the color in the recessed pattern areas. It's important that the doctor blade is perfectly placed, sharpened and in the correct angle to be able to do its work correctly. There are machines with continuous wash off the printing blanket and dryer for the printed fabric. The print cylinders are very heavy as they're made of solid copper. So the machine needs to be very robust. The machine is driven by a central wheel. So it's very important that all the cylinders have the same circumference to keep the same print rate. Otherwise, the print needs to stop and the cylinders needs to be readjusted. The roller direct printing machine is limited to a fabric with around one meter. This, of course, is a problem for both interior and clothing textiles. The heavy pressing of the mandrel make a wider print toll bend slightly. It also have a color contamination problem. Yet another disadvantage is that the change of pattern in the machine is very time consuming. and that the machine operators needs to be very highly skilled. The advantages are mainly the high production speed and its precision. 12. Transfer Print: Transfer print is printed on a paper and then transferred to the fabric by heat pressing vacuum pressing or steaming. The advantages with transfer print is that the textile company doesn't need much knowledge about the printing techniques nor big, complex color fixing machines and after washing machines. Instead, they can order transfers to press on to the fabric. Another advantage with transfer print is a big possibility to make details and the high quality of print. The production cost is low and eliminates some chemical waste. The printing techniques used are screen print, gravure, flexography, offset and rotary printing. Nowadays, it's also very common with digital print. The transfer print works best on polyester and other synthetic fibers or acetates. Nowday's, it's possible to make good quality on cotton on another fabric compositions. The motif is normally printed mirrored on the paper. Then it's transferred to the fabric or product, with the motive facing the surface to be decorated. Transfer print is used by screen printers that mainly work for profile college and team wears. It is also used for clothing lines by fashion designers, mainly for casual wear. There are special transfer papers you can use to print with your own printer, and it's possible to make it both by ink it and laser . Sublimation print is a very quick way to create personalized products. The inks used are dispersed dyes, also called sublimation inks. The dye is transformed into gas state and enters into the fibers by heat and pressure. There, it's transformed into solid form, again. it's possible to make full color photographic prints with this technique. We used it a lot in the nineties due to its beautiful colors in many shades. At the time, the production volumes were very high, as traditional print techniques were used. Again, the print is made on a transfer paper as a mirror image. Then the paper is placed with the fabric face down on top. The transfer paper and fabric passes a calendar consisting off hot metal rollers with pressure. This converse to dye into gas that enters in the fibers and get fixed by the heat. The disadvantage is that it's only works of polyester or blend with that least 85% polyester in the composition. 13. Digital Print: There are two main ways to print digitally direct print and sublimation print. You can make both as garment print or printing full with on the fabric rolls. The digital direct printing procedure is like the other printing procedures, starting with pre treatment than it gets printed, then steamed to fix the color, then washed to remove the thickners. And it's and it gets dried. The inkjet printer converts lab or RGB colors into tiny ink droplets. There are two ways to direct print textiles with the Multi Pass and the quicker single pass. The advantages with digital prints is the possibility to start up the production quickly and with low development cost as no screens or rolls needs preparation and installation. The quick start up time make it possible to have smaller stocks and less overproduction. The print quality is high, with well defined details and possibility to make almost any color. The more advanced printers use more than four colors in the CMYK standard. There is also an environmental saving by less color loss both in the printing procedure and because knows green or rolls needs to be washed. The Digital Multi-pass printer works much like a normal inkjet printer. It have one or more print heads for each color that moves horizontally one way printing. Then it stops at the side, meanwhile the paper or fabric move forward. Then it move horizontally printing in the other direction before the paper or fabric will be moved ahead again. Row by row, the design is created. The disadvantage with this technique is that if one of the nozzles gets clogged, a white faulty stripe will be created in the print. This is solved by printing with overlapping print rows of half the width of the printheads. This slows down the print speed but reduces the risk of faulty stripes. The multipass printing can be made with up to 16 passes. There are special developed machines to print on elastic fabrics. The rolls keep the stretch relaxed meanwhile printing. Otherwise the pattern would get strange proportion when relaxed. Single pass printing is a modern technique that makes it possible to produce very fast, high quality prints. It can print us much as 80 - 90 meters per minute. This is at least six times faster than the multipass printer. It's have multiple firm print heads distributed over the fabric width. This way, the fabric can be in constant movement. This permits a very fast printing speed and excellent sharpness in the print. Of cause it's a bit risky as a clogged nozzle would create a lot of faulty fabric. Another disadvantage is the high investment costs, due to the many expensive print heads. It's recommended for businesses with a large production quantity exceeding four million meters a year. Not all fabrics are recommended for digital print, as loose treads can damage the print heads. Anyhow, there are some digital printers to have the possibility to adjust the height of the print heads to print on fabrics with different weights. Reactive inks works well for cottonand viscose, creating good wash fastness and nice colors. Off course. these are suitable also for other regenerated cellulosic fibers and for linen. Reactive inks also give good color fastness on wool and silk, but less brilliant colors. Acid colors have the best color range for wool and silk. It also the optimal for polyamide and Lycra swimwear that needs high color vibrance and good color resistance to sun, saltwater and chlorine. Disperse inks are used for polyester. Earlier on the sublimation print was used due to the problem with ink mist. Now days there are direct printers that can avoid this problem. The disperse inks are steamed into the fibers. Digital sublimation print is the technique, when the digital print is made on paper. The inks are transferred to the fabric under pressure at 200 degrees Celsius, which changes the ink solid form into gas that penetrates the fibers were they solidifies when lowering the temperature. The advantage is that the fabric doesn't need to be steamed nor washed. This makes the technique more environmentally friendly, quicker and less expensive than other techniques. Pigment inks can not be used for all print heads as the color density tends to clog the nozzles in the printing heads. For some printers, it's works and is used for both for clothing and interior textiles. The fabrics needs to be prepared by padding, but no steaming and after wash is needed. Direct to garment printing is when the print is made directly at the clothing item. First the fabric is prepared, normally in a special machine, but it can also be sprayed by hand with a premiere. If it's a dark item, it needs first to be covered with white then it's printed with the motif. Often the printer have a white print cartage beyond the CMYK. The print color needs to be heat fixed normally in a heat tunnel, There are printers with exchangeable pallets to print on different kinds of garments, and holders to print on sneakers. By now, you all know what sublimation print is. It's often used by a print on demand companies, due to its quick and easy application on polyester fabrics and on acrylic and polyester objects as phone covers etcetera Every machine have a special software to control and drive the machine. These are sophisticated and not much handwork by stuff it's needed to run the machines. Some suppliers have special developed textile design plug in programs that works with photoshop and illustrator 14. Other Printing Techniques: There were a few more, very interesting print and pattern techniques used for textiles that I want to mention. Laser engraving on textiles have become quite common in uses as giving the denims, a washed and worn look. . The Italian company that I collaborate with use laser at furry and hairy fabrics to create structures and patterns. It's also possible to make perforated patterns with laser. And, of course, it's used to cad cam cut out government pieces in clothing production. Foil print is when an adhesive glue or plastisol ink it's added to the textile by printing. Then a thinfoil of metal or other material, is added on top. finally, it's heat set. This way the textile lamination can be made both totally covering the textile or in patterns The non glued foil is removed from the fabric surface. Flock printing is when short fibres, are added after an adhesive print have been made on the fabric surface. It gives a velvet looking structure the fiber standout after passing a high voltage electromagnetic process, both natural regenerated and synthetic fibres can be used. There are also a lot of different additives and inks to create shimmer, Gloss, suede feeling, metallic and expanding effects in the prints. Devoré or burnout is a technique where a to fiber quality it's used. One of the fibers get dissolved and washed away. This technique, it's most common on velvets. Caustaic paste is printed to the fabric. The cellulosic fibers get solved, leaving the protein based fibers. For example, a base weave of silk with viscose velvet can be used. After the treatment only the base weave of silk remains in the treated areas. There are on going studies in smart textiles with application of different kind of techniques in clothing and fabrics. I recently did a study about printing layers with photovoltiatic semiconductors to fabrics. This in order to create solar cell clothings, I found that it's possible, but a bit complicated and expensive, reaching quite low effect. In the future, with more advanced nano technology, it can be a great technique for energy transforming. Smart textiles are used for health monitoring and wearable technology. There are heat sensitive inks, changing color, depending on temperature. The soft screens technique is probably not far. 15. Conclution: future off text. A printing is more exciting than ever. There is always a development of smarter and quicker, easier and less environmentally harming techniques and inks. There's a big interest in developing smart textiles and new uses for textile materials. It's very comforting to know that so many textile companies really are trying to make the textile industry less harmful. I hope that discourse have bean informational for you and that you want to try new techniques. I really would love to know if you will use and of the techniques I've been talking about at last. But not least, I really want to thank all the company's film AST's Artisans and Museums for letting me use their materials to demonstrate what I'm talking about. I'm also grateful to all people sharing the photos in Creative Commons. It's really been a great help to me, and I very much appreciate their fantastic work way