Textile Fibers | Magdalena Eriksson | Skillshare

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Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction to textile fibers


    • 2.

      Textile Fibers


    • 3.

      Vegetal Fibers


    • 4.

      Animal Fibers


    • 5.

      Man made Fibers


    • 6.

      Synthetic Fibers


    • 7.

      Synthetic Fibers Part Two


    • 8.

      Textile Fiber Properties


    • 9.

      Textile Fiber Properties Part Two


    • 10.

      Care of Textiles


    • 11.

      Fiber Identification


    • 12.

      Assignment and conclusion


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About This Class

If you want to know everything about textile and fabrics, this is where you start.

All textiles for fashion, home and healthcare products are made of fibers. Fibers are the smallest parts that defines the composition of a fabric. The fiber quality, how it is spun and knitted or woven defines the characteristics, look, feel, attributes and the and use of the final product. Different fibers need different agents to bind the pigments of the dyes and prints. They have different sensibility to sunlight, sweat and other substances and strain.


In this course you will be introduced to fibers and how they are spun. You will learn how they are classified and the basic characteristics of the different fibers and how to distinguish them from each other by burn test. You will know the different aspects of quality and how to use wash and care symbols.


This class is for textile and fashion design students, textile agents, designers who want a repetition of what the learnt and salespeople within fashion and textile products. But much of the knowledge is useful to everyone. 

Who finish the class project with at least 90% correct answers will receive a course diploma

 Let us get started to know more about fibers for yarns and textiles.

Meet Your Teacher

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Magdalena Eriksson

Fashion & Textile Designer

Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction to textile fibers: Would you like to be real pro in textile fabrics? My name is Magdalena Eriksson. I'm a Swedish fashion and textile designer. I run my own business. Determ or Magdalena Eriksson design. I studied fashion design both in Florence in Italy and the Textile university of Borås in Sweden. I worked in the textile and clothing field my whole life. I'm based in Fjärås south of Gotenburgh on the west coast of Sweden. Now I am freelancing within design and teaching. I mediate textile prints and construction and sewing services on a global basis. So fashion and textile is my life. I have a tight link to Italy as I lived there for about 15 years. This is the first part in a series I will make for you who want to understand the development of textile fabrics, understanding the fibers, yarns and the different ways to bind them together as well as the properties and how to take care of your textile products. This will increase your competence and your possibility to profit in the textile field. You will be able to recognize different fibers by the look and the hand feel of the fabric . You will love it as I do. You will comprehend the complexity off all the steps from fibre through spinning, knitting or weaving, dyeing and finishing procedures or printing for procedures for different qualities, by the end of the series. In this course, we will look at the different fibre types, the characteristic, what fiber quality and property really mean. I would talk about tactile differences differences, how to care for a fibers and how to make your own burn tests. These knowledge aims to you who wants to become a textile or fashion professional, but it's useful knowledge to everyone that wears textile materials and have textiles in your home. You will learn the names of the common fabric compositions and compare the different properties to understand why someone developed them. Come on, let's get started. 2. Textile Fibers: This is the second part of the introduction to textile materials. The word fiber comes from the Latin word fibra, which means thread formation in plant or animal tissues such as basic fibers, nerve fibers or muscle fibers. It is the fiber combination off different fibers that defines the composition of the textile material. It is the smallest visible constituent, that together, with a lot of other fibers form the yard. The yarn will be woven or knitted into fabric. Fiber means wire, string, filament or tendon. The textile fibres are divided into two main groups. Natural fibers and man made or artificial fibres. The natural fibres are divided into plant fibers, animal and mineral fibres. In turn, the man made fibres are divided into synthetic fibers, regenerated and mineral fibres. Natural materials are classified into plant fibers, animal fibers and minerals and skins. Some plant fibers are produced by rotten the wood in the stalk and releasing the fibers example of stalk fibers are flax and hemp. Cotton is the plants seed hair, which gets cleaned and brushed to get rid of the short fibres, called linters. Animal fibre is the fur from animals such as lamb's wool, alpaca, cashmere and angora or silk. Silk is made from the cocoon that the silkworm weaves. Skins and fur are skins from animals that are slaughtered, and these are also natural material. Examples are pig suede, Napa and fur from various animals. Regenerated fibers or men made cellulosic fibers are produced from cellolose, often from residues in cotton production. These are dissolved chemically and then spread out through small holes, such as sprouts for new fibers. Viscose / Rayon, Modal, Cupro and Acetate are regenerated fibers. Synthetic fibers are produced from coal or petroleum products. The most common synthetic fibers are poly-acrylics, polyamid and polyester. These can be made into tops or too long solid fibers. These are called mono filament. Of some synthetic fibers you can make very thin wires that mimic silk. These air called micro-fibers or even thinner are called nano fibers. Also, elastic fiber such as elastan, Lycra and spandex belong to the synthetic fibre group. In addition to mentioned fibers, different metals can also be used for textile materials. It's also very common to mix different types of fibers or to add chemical substances to change the fibers properties. Here is see a microscopic close up of different fibers. As you notice, the wools have more or less evidence scales at the cuticle. The wool gets felted when the fibers moves towards the roots and the scales interlock, and the shrinkage is permanent. You see how find the silk fibers compared to the other fibers and the linen flax. You clearly see the notes or joints that makes the fiber more flexible. As you see, the cotton fibre have a ribbon like twist that creates the characteristic convolutions. And the polyester is perfectly plain. Now, we have looked generally at fibers. In the next sequence, we will look at the cellulosic or vegetal fibers in the natural fibres group. Come on. 3. Vegetal Fibers: In this sequence, we will take a look at the first group of natural fibers. This fibers grow naturally in the fauna and derives from vegetal plants. Cellulosic natural fibres, plant fibers or vegetable fibres are divided into fibers deriving from seeds from bast plant stalks, from leaves and other. Here you see the most common fibers deriving firm seeds. The longer fibers in the cotton balls are used to make cotton yarns. You remove the seeds and shorter fibres called linters from cotton balls by combing. Some of these linters are then regenerated into viscose / rayon, and acetate. Coir is obtained from the fibrous mass between the shell and the husk in the coconut. It's a very stiff brown fibre that you can bleach. It's normally used for mats, rugs and other floor textiles. When I studied in the beginning of the nineties, it was in a group of itself called fruit fiber. Kapok is from the Java kapok tree seeds, the fibre is soft, hollow, lightweight and very buoyant. But as it's easily breaks down, it is primarily used as fiber fill in life jackets. Milkweed is similar to kapok, but it grows in North America. It's used to fill life tickets, comforters, upholstery and pillow fluff. It cannot be spinned due to its weakness. The bast fibers are flax, ramie, hemp, jute, kenaf, hibiscus, nettle and bamboo. Flax or linen, as the fabric is called, is the most common off the bast fibers. and one of the oldest documented textile fibers. A 3000 year old linen mummy wrap, have been found in Switzerland. It is a lustrous fiber with high moisture regain. Rami have been used for thousands of years in China, and it's also called China Grass. It needs a hoot humid climate. For apparel, it's often mixed with cotton. It is also used to make rope, twine, nets, banknotes, geo-textiles, textiles and floor covers. Hemp is made with almost the same procedure as flax. It's used to make rope, twine and course curtain weaves. Jute is one of the less expensive textile fibers., they are short, brittle, course and stiff. It's used to make sugar and coffee baggageing, rope, cordage and twine. The main uses of kenaf fiber have been rope, twine, coarse cloth and paper. Now days it's also used to make components in cars. The hibiscus fiber is a waste product when making clarify substance for sugarcane juice. It's stronger than jute and can be used to make bags, rugs and apparel, if in blends. Nettle fibre is hollow so you can use it for insulation. The fiber reminds of raw flax, and it's grown without pesticides. It has been largely used for clothing during the 15th century, and during the wars. It was replaced by cotton due to easier processing. There are two kinds of fibers that are made out of bamboo, the natural fibre that will keep its resistance for microbes. The fiber is absorbent with course hand. Natural bamboo is not used for apparel nor interior textile. Bamboo is mainly grown in China and no pesticides are used. Leaf fibers are obtained from the leafs of the plant. They long and stiff and with limited die affinity. So they are only used in their natural color. Pina is obtained from the pineapple leaves. The fibers are used for lightweight, sheer, and stiff fabrics. The abaca derives from a plant in the banana family, and the fibers can get 15 feet or 4.5 meter long. The fiber is also durable and flexible. It's used for ropes, cords, floor mats and table linnen. It's also called Manila Hemp. Sisal and henequen are agave plants. The fibers are smooth, almost white. They are used for better grades of ropes, twine and brush bristles. Now we have looked at the fibers deriving from vegetal plants. In the next part, we will look at the protein fibres deriving from animals. see you in the next sequence. 4. Animal Fibers: Now we will take a look at the natural protein fibres for the animal fibers. There were a lot of different animals that have lovely, soft warming furs. We cut or comb animals to take their fur to make yarns. Wool from sheep and lambs are the most common. We also use wool from a variety of animals from the camel family, goats, rabbits and buffels. The silkworms cocoon is another well known textile fibre. Lambs wool is from lambs younger than seven months of age. Vergin wool It's non processed wool and recycled wool is from used garments that have been shredded into fiber and re-spun into yarn. Merino wool is from a Spanish breed and Shetland wool is from a shetland breed. Off course. there are other breeds of sheep. Silk is a very thin and long fibre. There are two different kinds of silks, wild silk and mulberry silk. The mulberry silk is breeded and the silkworms are feed only with leaves from the mulberry tree. The silk fibers glue is called, sercin, it solved in hot water and the 1000 yard or 900 meter long filaments are released from the cocoon. The mulberry silkworm dies. Wild silk is made from open cocoons found in nature, after the moth is matured, it has to be spun into silk. Tussah is the most common wild silk. cashmere wool is from the cashmere goat. As many other animals it has an outer coat of long coarse hair and an inner coat of soft downy, thin fibers. The hair is combed by hand during the molting season. The fabrics and knits madeof the cashmere inner coat are soft, warm and with a beautiful drape. Pashmina is a fine cashmere fibre. Alpaca and Liama are South American relatives to the camel and lives in the Ands, nowadays they are domesticated. The inner coat of the alpaca reminds of mohair and the liama of merino wool. Vicuna is a rare wild South American animal in the camel family, its fibre is one of the softest, finest and rarest and most expensive off all textile fibers. Gianco is another animal similar to the Vicugna. Camel have both undercoat and inner coat that are used for textiles. The soft inner coat is five to ten centimeter long, fine as Merino wool, but a lot more expensive. The fibre is smoother than sheep wool. Mohair is the hair fiber from the angora goat. The fibers a 10 to 20 centimeters long, smooth and the finest correspond to the crossbred sheep. Angora is fiber from the angora rabbit. The natural white fibre is very fine, fluffy, soft and slippery. It's often blended with wool to bind the fibers together. The yak is a buffalo with dark brown or black long hair fiber. It's undercoat is smooth and lustrous. It's collected by combing the yak during the spring molt. It's coarser than cashmere but often mixed with it to lower the price. It lives in Tibet and Mongolia. The musk ox off Alaska produces qiviut fiber, which is rare and luxurious. The fiber can be used as is, as it contains no lanoline. In the next sequence, I will tell you about man made fibres, starting with the regenerated cellulosic fibers. 5. Man made Fibers: The industrially made fibers, also called man made or artificial fibres, are divided into two groups. Synthetic and regenerated fibers. The regenerated fibers are made by a natural product, almost always cellulose. Examples of regenerated fibers are rayon or viscose, modal and cupro. These are pure, cellulosic fibers. Acetate and triacetate e acylated cellulose, a union between cellulose and acetic acid. There have also been experiments making protein fibres regenerated from milk. Synthetic fibers are made of total artificial repeated atom groups called polymers, which are combined by different simple substances. The most common are polyester, acrylic and polyamide or nylon. The artificial fibres are made as short staple- fibres or very long solid fibres called filament. Viscose or Rayan was the first manmade textile fibre invented by Hilarie Bernigaud de Chardonnet in France in 1883. In 1902 It was patented in Great Britain, in 1906 the patent was sold and the production started by Samuel Courtald. Viscose was made to be an economic substitute to silk. As I mentioned before, the regenerated fibers are divided into cellulosic and acetated cellulosic fibers. Viscose or Rayon is made from wood pulp or cotton linters treated with a calcium bisulfite to create sheets of bleached sulphite cellulose. The sulphite cellulose consists of very short fibres. Two create longer fibers the sheets are cut and solved in caustic soda and carbon disulfide. Then the viscose is pressed through small holes and spinned into fibers in a sulfur solution. The chemicals used are highly pollutive, both for air and water and regulations have made that some of the productions recover the used chemicals. . Tencell is a fiber created by the Austrian company Lensing in order to make a fiber that it's more environmentally friendly than the viscose. Since 2018 the tercel lyocell is extracted from sustainably grown wood and tencel modal from beech tree. The wood is cut into wood pulpl that is dissolved in amino acid. The solution is filtered To make sure that all the cellos is dissolved, the fiber is re-spun into a week bath of ammonia oxide. The fibres are cleaned and separated from the water and solvent that is purified and reused. Cupro is made of cotton linters, short cotton fibers and seeds. The cellulose in the linters is dissolved in an ammonia and copper oxide solution. It was originally produced in Germany by Bemberg Now it's sold only by the Japanese company, Asahi Kasei. For a start, the production was very pollutive, but nowadays it's produced in a closed loop like modal, and lyocell, and keeps up the OEKO-TEX standards. Viscose can also be made of bamboo, which is a very soft and comfortable viscose that though is a bit pilling. The growing off bamboo is ambient friendly as the plant absorbe a large amount of carbon oxide and produces a larger amount of oxygen, compared to many other plants. It also grow very quickly. The acitated fibers, acetate and triacitate are also made of cotton linters, but after cleaning and bleaching, the fibers are dissolved in acetic acid. The triacetate is more aciteted than the acetate. The fibers are formed when the diacetate is this dissolved in acetone, and are dry spun into hot air making the acetone evaporate. The cellulose is converted into a chemical compound of cellulose. There are a lot of different new regenerated fibers. Orange fiber in Italy make a sustainable fiber made out of regenerated cellulose waste from the orange juice production. Tree to textile is a new sustainable and low cost fiber created to reach the broad market. The production use less chemicals than traditional cellulosic fibre production. There is no sulfor emission during the production. Water and chemicals are recycled and reused. Naia is yet another new cellulosic yarn, created from cellulose esters of renewable wood pulp. It has high stain resistance, good colorability, soft hand feel and lives up to OECO-TEX Standard and USDA bio preferred labels. In the next part, we will talk about the synthetic fibers. 6. Synthetic Fibers: Synthetic fibers are the second group of fibers that inventive humans created. Synthetic fibers are made from petroleum based chemicals. In 2006 the worldwide demand on synthetic fibers with 60% of the total fibre demand. Cotton fiber was 34%. Other natural fibers only 2% and regenerated cellulosic fibers 4%. Strangely, to make these amounts off synthetic fibre, only 1% of the total petroleum based production was used for this purpose. The fiber production preview for 2019 is an increase to totally 11 million tons. The total production of synthetic fibers have increased most and recover almost 65% of the fiber production. Cellulosic regenerated fibers are predicted to be 6.2% and the cotton shares have decreased to 23.5%. Wool is 1% and other natural fibres 4.5%. There are two main ways to create polymerisation. Additional polymerisation and condensation polymerisation. The polymers are extremely long repeated simple monomers or more complex repeated molecular chains. The polymers are spun in three different ways: melt spinning, which is the most common for synthetic fibers, dry spinning or wet spinning. When melt spun on the polymer resin, often in chips, are melted in an autoclave. Sometimes with chemical additives. The fibers are spun into cool air to solidify. The form and the size of the holes in the spinnerate, combined with the speed in which the fibers is withdrawn, defines the shape and the size of the fiber. Both filament and staple fibres are produced with the same method. After cooling the fiber, it is far too stretchy and with weak tensile strength, due to the disorder off the molecular chains. To orient the moleculares the fibers are drawn to 4-5 times their original length. This way they gain their desired stretch, strength and elasticity. The more fibers are drawn the higher tensile strength but lower elasticity the fiber gets. Sometimes the fibers are textured with cripper rolls, the shape is fixed by heating the fibers. Nylon, or polyamide as I would call it, was the first synthetic fibre developed for the US company, DuPont. It had a combination of properties like abrasion resistance, excellent elasticity, and it could be heat set. In the 1940:ies it was introduced for Woman's hosiery. For the first time, there was the light weight, sheer and washable, strong and chemical resistant fiber that also suited for ropes cord sails, and parachutes. The elements of polyamid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The polymer is produced by a condensation reaction between the monomers. Nylon 6 or Perlon, another polyamid produced in a similar way as nylon 6,6. Nylon 11 or Rislan, is made from castor oil which is a vegetable oil that reacts with ammonia. Nylon is a very resistant fiber to molds, mildew, rot and many chemicals. It takes a very long time to degrade naturally. The petroleum transportation, pipelines as well as the refinement are very pollutive, and it requires a lot of energy. Invista is another producer of polyamide polymers used for example to make clothing. Polyester is made from carbon, hydrogen and chlorine that creates an Esther that drives from petroleum. The fibres are spun in a similar way as the polyamid. Also the polyester fibers are drawn to orient the molecules. The polyester fibers are made from PET, PCDT and PPT. These have only minor performance differences that we probably would not notice in a consumer product. The Polyester maintains a natural look, and it's easy to care. Polyester is used both in 100% Polyester and blended with other textile fibers. The triobal polyester is a result of making the polyester similar to silk. It is made of very fine triangular shaped fibers in loose, bulky on and chriped fabric structure. The polyester fiber can be made in many different customised shapes. The micro fiber suits for high fashion garments. The environmental aspects of the polyester is similar to the nylon, even though it's uses less energy to produce than polyamid, but more than cotton. Polyester is also often recycled, and the recycling process creates significantly less pollution, then creating new fibers. The main raw material creating acrylic is petroleum. It's combined by cole, hydrogen and nitrogen. It can't be melt spun as the critic problem ears are decomposed before melting. Instead, it’s either dissolved and dryspun extruded in warm air that evaporates the solvent, or wet-spun with dissolvent that coagulates in a bath. The wet spun fibre gets a bean shape with high bending stiffness in resiliency, suiting for bulky sweaters and blankets. The dry spinning procedure creates a dogbone shaped fiber with lusturer and softness. Most acrylic is staple fibres, but Arcos creates a filament called Micro Supreme. Acrylics are not durable as polyamid, polyester and olefin fibers, but are resistant to natural degradation. The chemicals used to produce acrylic are significantly processed before the polymerization and the solvents need to be recycled for minimal environmental impact. Acrylic uses 30% more energy and a lot more water than the production of polyester. In the next part, we're gonna talk about special use synthetic fibers. 7. Synthetic Fibers Part Two: Welcome to the second part of about synthetic fibers. Modacrylic fibre is a chemically modified acrylic fibre, containing at least 50 weight percent acrylic and less than 85. The co-polymers used are vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride or vinylidene dicyniade. The fibers are soft flame retardant with low melting point quite high, peeling moderate resiliency and moderate dimensional stability. Low weight doesn't wrinkle and have a nice aspect. It's useful. Fake fur fabrics, wigs, hair pieces, fleece like pile fabrics. Chloro fiber is mainly made of ethylene, in which is a petro chemical product and hydrochloric acid. When reacting with each other, a vinyl chloride is created Polyvinylchloride, PVC is a chloro fiber that used to be made with toxic phthalates. Today in Europe the softener in PVC is based on castor oil. Vinyon is made of 86% vinyl chloride and 14% vinyl acetate. It's a fiber with warm, pleasant hand, very sensitive to heat and should not be ironed. It has a lot of uses, in film form it is, often called vinyl and issues for rain wear, umbrellas and thousands of other applications. Vinyl chloride is a cancer inducer. Olefin or polyolifin fibers, consist only of carbon and hydrogen and derives from ethylen, a by-product of natural gas. It is made from polypropylene or polyethylene. It's low cost, used for sportswear, socks, car interiors, as erosion stoppers and as cover stock in disposable diapers. It does not need ironing, have good color fastness, is strong and have good resistance to sunlight, have good elasticity and heat resistance. Olefins are non absorbent, non static, light and wind resistant. Lastol is a subclass fiber with major stretch and recovery. It have similar environmental issues as the nylon but it's easier to recycle. Merkalon and Merkalon triobal are olefin PP fibers for the hygiene market. Vinal fiber has a u- formed cross section with a grainy appearance. It is created by 50 weight percent vinyl alcohol and one or more acetal units. The extruded fiber is water soluble, and it's therefore treated with a toxic formaldehyde. It has a moisture regain off 5% and doesn't support combustion. It's used for protective apparel. Flouropolymer is made of at least 95 % aliphatic fluorocarbon monomers. The most common is Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) more known as Teflon and used as soil-resistant finish at cookware. I'm sure you also know about Gortex, which is fabric with a micropourous PTFE film applied. It is resistant to wind and water. but vapor permeable. Under the name Blister Guard it is used on socks to reduce friction at heals and toe. To make the fibers these are emolution spun, an expensive technique. Carbon fiber contains 96% or more pure carbon. It’s made from rayon or polyacrylonitrile or from a petroleum pitch. It has exceptional resistance to heat, high strength, low weight, high stiffness. it is used for protective apparel, to reinforce lightweight metals and as substitute for asbestos in technical products. It's technical uses seems endless. Its use is significant in nono-fibers and nanotubes,with this remarkable strength and high elasticity, large terminal and electrical conductivity. Low density and heat resistance. Elastane or spandex are generic names for fibers with incredible elasticity and recovery. It is made of polyurethane. The trade name Lycra is registered by DuPoint. The fibers are mainly made ais quite course filaments that are covered by twisting cotton or other fibers around it. The fibers consist of flexible and rigid segments. Elastan fabrics are used for underwear, socks, sportswear, and nowdays all kinds of garments to create more comfort. The nomination Power stretch i used when the fiber or fabric have strong retractive ability to mold, support and shape the body. Comfort stretch is when the fabric or fiber have the ability to lengthen and recover as the body moves. The weight of these fabrics are lighter than the power stretch fabrics. Rubber can be made from natural or synthetic rubber. Natural rubber is the oldest elastomer and the least expensive. It's obtained by the coagulation of latex from the rubber tree Hevea Brasiliensis which use to be cut into strips. Synthetic rubber is made from either acrylonitrile and the fibers a called Lastril, or it can be made of chloroprene units. Neoprene is a synthetic polychloroprene rubber. It's used either as an elastic fiber or a supported elastic film. It's resistant to acid, alkalis, alcohols, oils, caustics and solvents. It is used as protective gloves, orthopedic, orthopedic braces, electrical insulation, laptop sleeves and dry suits. Other elastic fibers are Elastoester and Elastrelle-P . Aramide is a long chain synthetic aromatic polyamide. Apart of it’s exceptional strength it is also exceptionally heat and flame resistant. Du Pont is trading the aramid fibers under the names Nomex and Kevlar, Tejinconex and Technora are examples of other aramid fibers. The aramidsare used within bodyarmor, bulletproof wests, firefighters uniforms, biker wear and protection gloves. Kevlar is five times stronger than steel on equal weight basis. Bless fiber isn't in combustible, which means that it doesn't burn, so it's suitable for you, says where the fire dangerous problem glasses made of sand. Silica limestone felt burned boric acid, which is melted in furnaces at 4400 degrees Fahrenheit, or 1700 degrees Celsius. The furnaces have holes in the base of the melting chamber, and the stream of glasses stretched to make the fiber thin that before it harder to make staple fibres, high pressure air jets or steam breaks them into staples, plus fibrous use for draperies in public buildings, optical fiber, leading laser beams, salmon for enforcement and installations. Etcetera. Metallic fibers are coated with plastic or plastic coated with matter or a core covered by my meta. Most common is Lurex polyester that issues to make fabrics for apparel in interior is more declarative. Earlier, thin metal trades were used. Goldenseal were used already in Asian two times. Stainless steel is made both as filament and staple in verifying treated fibers. Houston Mets to reduce static metal fibres are also used in cut resistant gloves. Normally is the fiber that issues for its outstanding flame resistance. It resists up to 2500 you grease lt's and its use for protective apparel and fabrics, as well as chemical filters, gaskets and picking materials. It's made of more than 35 weight percent off. No black. A federal for mother had pulumur PB I. It's a long Shane aromatic fiber. It doesn't burn. Made to shrink when exposed to flame. It's used for protective where for firefighters or stroller and where there is the risk for heat exposure so far is a policy fight with aromatic rings. It has high resistance toe acid and alkali issues in frustration, fabrics, papermaking felt and high performers. Membranes. Mela Mine is producers. Bassett feel It's just for products that require high heat resistance. There are other synthetic fibers that I won't mention. Instead, I will tell you about five properties in the next episode. 8. Textile Fiber Properties: until I talked about which fibers exists and how they're grouped. There are a few like biological lab grows by the silk and leather, algal life, bio fiber and ceramic fibers that I didn't mention as the fiber spectrum is vaster than when I studied textile knowledge. I would primarily compare the most common fibers in clothing, fashion and interiors. I will explain. Explain the different aspects that defines the fiber or fabric quality way. Start with durability. Expects. Strength is the fiber or yards ability to resist different kind of stress. The strength off the fibers are not to be mistaken with a strength off the yard or the text types that is affected also by their chorus evenness, which is the ability of the fibers to cling together, the fiber length and the twists, Among other factors, The Fiber dia meter defines the fiber quality final fibers, a generally smoother, a softer with nice rand feel and comfort, the larger fibers large if I just tend to be more stiff, rough crease. There are different ways to measure the diameter of the fact fibers. Natural fibers used to be measured in my crew meters, which is one thousands millimeter or 1 25,004 hundreds. Often age natural fibres are often irregular. Carton is normally 6 to 20. Make room eater flags 12 to 16. Cool 10 to 50 and seal 11 to 12. A manufactured fiber. Finest is measured in the near, which is grams per 9000 meter or fiber or yard. Small numbers describe fine fibres and large number. Describe coarse fibers. Takes indicates the weight in grams off, 1000 meter off fiber or yard. The near perfect element. DP F is a way to specify yar. It's calculated by dividing the 10 year by the number of filaments. Abrasion strength is the ability to resist rubbing and contact with the surface. For example, the trousers contact with a share when you see synthetic fibers, caromed, flora, programmers, polyamide all affairs and pull estes have excellent abrasion resistance. Ceron Ellison flags, acrylic PB cell for costal and Syria have good abrasion resistance. Woolen whiskers have more direct abrasion resistance. Environment s estate in class have poor abrasion resistance. Tensile strength or tenacity is the ability to resist pulling strength for the fibre. A test of strength is measured in pounds per square inch tenacity is measured by grams Purdon Year, which is the number of brands required to break the fiber glass pyramid. Blair Cell and Sick have high tensile strength. Pola made flags olefin Kirsten sulfur pp viscous polyester, acrylic and flora pulumur have medium tensile strength moored acrylic mela mine as it'd viscose via neon. Spandex and rubber have low tensile strength. Elongation is how much the fiber can stretch without breaking. It should be considered in relation to elasticity, and it's measured in percent. The favor relegation and recovery is not to be confused with the allegation off the yarn or the fabric, as it also depends on the young twist in the fabric construction. As we know, Rubber and Ellison can stretch to between 407 100% with a waiver. Very high recovery elephant can elongate 7200% but can only be stretched by 5%. To recover, acrylic can elongate 35 to 50% with 92% recovery. If stir child by 3% polio meat can be stretch 3200%. With the total recovery, hesitate. Can delegate 25 to 50% but will be recover between 50 to 95% remind can be straits 22 to 32% polyester 12 to 55% with 80% recovery. Whisk owes 8 to 20%. Also, Liesel Vinyl, Moellemann and Flora Pola Marin Glass have low elongation wolf Can Ellen Gate 25 to 35% with very good recovery, SEAL can elongate 20 to 30%. With a 90% recovery. Carter can elongate 2 to 7% with 75% recovery. Meanwhile, flags on Lee Can Ellen gate 2% with a 65% recovery. Creek is when the fabric of fiber gradually over time Ritter's to its dimension before relegation. Peeling in Israel, loose fibres at a fabric surface gets entangled, creating bulls. It's mainly present synthetic texters or when natural fibres are mixed with synthetic fibers should find fibers in loose constructions have a major tendency to peeling except being an attractive peeling can be so comfortable Peeling off a pair in loose knitted garments also rules. You can try by rubbing your tongue on the fabric to see if it pills. Flexibility is the ability off the fiber or fabric to bent repeatedly without breaking silken rule of fibers with good flexibility. Meanwhile, glass fibre easily break creating uncomfortable fiber ends. This is why glass fibre isn't normally used in clothing. The fiber flexibility is essential for the fibre abrasion resistance. Flex is another fibre. The can break if bent. Way off issues are textile based on their appearance way. Love to protect and cover ourselves with fabrics, either to hide a body or to keep the body temperature. Hand is the way the fabric fears to the booth capacity. Kirsten is a open fiber that can be made in lightweight weaves. Still be quite covering translucency. Nylon and polyester are more translucent and may be used in lightweight weaves that allows the light to pass. True, Laster is ability to reflect light. Trey is the way the fabric falls over it. Three dimensional object texture is the regularity in the surface of a yarn or fabric receive. Lynsey is the ability of the fabric to return to its original shape after bending, twisting or crashing Good. Receive Lindsay is when the fabric won't drinker like wool and polyester and with low receive Lynsey, the fabric remains cramp boat like cotton and linen fibres with excellent receive unsee are nylon and wool fibres with good receive. Lynsey are all Affin, acrylic, acrylic and polyester purpose with mood rate receive Linsi Our silk and spandex fibres with poor receive Lynsey our Flags Curtain, Liar, Cell viscose and S It. Eight Compress ability is the resistant to crashing. Cotton is easy to compress and gets easily wrinkled. And it's used to make fabrics as Danny Wall that is difficult to compress. Have good resistance to Rinker and issues for bulk of war fabrics. The receiver and see to compression is also called, laughed and reached a term used for carpets, knits and pile fabrics. Dimensional stability is the ability for a fabric to remain its shape and size to using care. Drinking's resistance is the ability of the Texas to retain international dimensions. To care is related to the reaction to heat moisture on the combination of both. In addition to movement 9. Textile Fiber Properties Part Two: Welcome to textile fiber properties. Part two. We're going to start to talk about safety and comfort properties. Absorbency is the fibers ability to absorb moisture. It's normally measured as percentage off the moisture free weight at 75% relative area Immediate E and 70 degrees foreign height, or 20 degrees Celsius. Normally, synthetic fibers are hydrophobic, which means that they have very low or no most your absorbency. With this exception for people I natural and cellulosic fibers are you Just go pick except hesitate and resuscitate, and they have very high moisture. Absorb asi without feeling wet. Sec Woolen flex are the fibers with highest moisture absorbency Wallace off used in winter clothings as it absorbs melted snow and body moisture without feeling wet. The human skin evaporates about one litre off water every 24 hours. Lindland IHS, a superb material to use for bed linen and towers do too tightly moisture absorbent. The hydra skull. Portability also affects the dye ability when absorbing a lot of blood, amount of moisture, the collar and as well in the fiber. Also, the ability to transport electric charges make them known static. Here you see the absorbency of off the different synthetics, which also explains some of the uses for the different fibers for rain, where we need them to be very hydro for big there so burns. It also affects the electrical conductivity and the ability two great static electricity. Her Drew Filic fibers are more likely to develop static electricity as they don't easily conduct electricals. Also, the wicking ability, which is the ability to transport moister along the fabric surface and fix the comfort wicking fabrics are nice to the skin as moisture a pulled away from the skin and true, transported to the outer layers. I will get get back to the absorbency when talking about the care. Instructions at the wet, swelling and fiber strength. When wet affects the text types, terminal retention is the ability to select the heat. The terminal retention is depending on the volume of air withheld within the textile wool. With this, balconies keeps the heat well. As the fibers are crease, acrylic is made to resemble the will fiber. The less contact the textile have with the body, the less the Texel lead away the booth. Heat conductivity is the ability for a fiber to lead the heat carton have good heat conductivity, where it's popular to use during the summer that it helps the body to release heat. Heat resistant stability for the fibre to resist heat. Some fibers will melt when I running too hot. Flame ability is the resistance to fire resistance to light light breakdown some fibers. It's especially the ultraviolet light that degrades the chemical fibre structures and decrease the fiber tenacity. Wool, silk and polar made are especially sensitive to sunlight. Viscous motile acetate transited and all offices have moderate resistance to sunlight. The resistance of plastic Orton, Lioce L and P B I is high, but the best resistant as glass acrylic in chloral fibers have alor genic potential is the risk that the fiber causes red nous on the skin. A lot of people claim that they're allergic to world, but often their only sensitive to coarse fibers. Aging resistance is the ability to keep the characteristics over time. For example, L. Estelle's get read it stiff and brittle. It helps to keep your bathing suits in a closed plastic bag during the winter, when they're not used to prevent them from drying out. My resistance. If natural plant fibers are stored in a humid and warm enough environment. The maker organisms like mold, mild drew and funks will be able to grow. Sometimes the Texas get permanently damage and can adore med resistance is the ability to resist microorganisms. Muth resistors during storage, insects might emit textiles. Most common is the movie that make holes in wool, but also beetles. Crickets, Roaches and spiders can damage the fabrics. Resistance to chemicals. We have some chemicals in our homes that may harm some fibers. Fruit juice vinegar contains assets as well. Some medications, skin and hair treatments. Assets cannot find fibers like art on flags, seal s estate and polyamide, especially nylon. Six Al Callous are present in our homes in forms of baking soda. Sodium bi carbonate soaps, detergents, ammonia and Bork's silk and wool were affected by college, and hesitate will have a more minor effect. Acrylic, polyester and viscous with direct or stronger our college, but are resistant to week. Al Callous estates intrastate will be dissolved by acid tone, and it's better to keep away from pink in a polish remover. There is a huge environmental movement, and the ticks of business stand for a lot of pollution. The European producers have bean upset for a long time, a say. I have followed high restrictions for emissions. Meanwhile, the products sold in Europe often have been produced in locust countries without with much lower environmental restrictions. The environmental concern is nothing new. We talked about it already in the eighties and in the fifties. The textile industries in Paros, where I was born, color the river Biscan and the Fish died last week. We saw in TV that a textile industry in Turkey still pollutes the river. It takes a lot off pesticides to grow, Carter and a lot of water to clean. Prepare on DIA finished the texters. New fibers are developed in different ways to use less water, new ways to recycle and reuse fibers and chemicals around the development. The textile industry is under changed, and I'm sure we will see new kinds of fibers on the market quite sued. There are also a lot of concerns about it, people working in the production and that they are fairly treated in the next section. I would talk about how to care for your textile, see that 10. Care of Textiles: different countries have different guidelines for marking and wash care instructions for apparel and textiles. The text are care symbols are developed by International Association for Care Labeling. Gina takes its used in 22 countries. Every company require a license to the correct use of the symbols that are registered trademarks at V. I. P I. World Intellectual Property Organization. Ginna takes also have information about how to mean in my life the an environmental impact . When caring for a textile products here, you can check it out for the U. S. The regulations are stated on the site and the instructions need to be written instead of using the symbols. So I will show you the writings together with the symbols. Normally all the wash care instructions need to be indicated, as well as the fiber composition and the country of the region. Make sure that you have the correct information required for the specific market before you start selling your products. So what does the different symbols mean? The symbols shows the maximum permitted treatment off the care off the text size and include coloring dreams, see prison buttons and applications when using Lowy care than indicated on the terrorist action. No harm should be made on the text types. The washtub indicates how to lower the textile. The triangle indicates bleaching structures. The square indicates how to drive the text. I The irony indicates the temperature for the I running the textile. This circle indicates how the textile should be professionally dry cleaned. The worst up with an X over means do not wash. This textile is sensitive to water or can't be washed at home due to its size. Example of fibers that might not be washable are hesitating wool and silk. They washed up with a hand inside myth hand was only the water temperature should be cold below 30 degrees Celsius or 85 degrees. Foreign height or warm 30 to 40 degrees Celsius or 9200 and town degrees Foreign height, depending on the text. I make sure the defined detergent is perfectly solved in the water. Before placing the textiles in the water, agitate the solution carefully. Do not rub pool of ring. The text. I rinse well and preserve the water carefully and pull it into shape. Don't leave sensitive pieces wet as it might harm the fabric. We'll use to be hand washed as the combination of mechanical movement, moisture and heat could make the wool fibers felt and shrink silk often have hand washed. The washed up number tells you how many degrees Celsius the water should be. A normal washed up means fine wash. If it has one underscore, it means my fine wash. The machine should will only be 2/3 full if it has to underscore us. It means very mild, fine wash, and the drums should only be 1/3 full. If you have fine fabrics as wool, silk, cooper and viscose, I would suggest cold or 30 degrees Celsius mild or very mild wash, even though the fibers can be washed in higher temperature. Warm, which is further 40 degree Celsius, is, according to the school book, the highest temperature for following fibers. Cooper, a model estate, acrylic, Liza Meta olefin silk, a Leicester and wool hot, which corresponds to 60 degree Celsius for Pallister Poll. Amid viscous and crescent State court in um, flags can be washed in his high temperatures a 60 to 95 degrees Celsius, the triangle with two lines or the labour ticks only. No chlorine bleach we needed. This means only oxygen bleach, an empty triangle bleacher needed means any bleach allowed across tree anger or no bleach means the fabric will be hard if you bleach it and you should know that six Spandex wool and Cooper cannot be chlorine bleached. This square, with two horizontal lines means I drink flat drying, which is written dry, flat. Drink dry the horizontal line core supposed to flett. Dry the line in the ag. Assistants for ish in the shade, the vertical eyes says for lying dry. The two vertical lines stands for three blind drying a line dried, drip dry, empty square. It means natural right. A square with a circle means tumble dry without heat restrictions. With two darts, it means tumble dry medium, which is normal load and temperature at 80 degrees Celsius. One dot means my trying process. With reduced temperature, it's written tumble. Cool crossed means no tumble. Do not number term, but Brian consumes the fabric and might even damaged them. The less of a drying method is flat drying, which I recommend for delicate item. I would recommend hanging off most textiles indoor in a well aired, invented or outside my men created a space saving in construction to try raw agree in our home regarding my running A crust I run. They do know Tyrone issues for crow fiber one dot on the I Ron. A cool irony means I run at maximum 110 degrees Celsius and issues for acrylic, polyamide, nylon and acetate. Normally, this temperature work solely without steam. The Iran would two dots or warm I Iran means a maximum temperature of 150 degrees Celsius with steam and issues for world silk, polyester and viscous. The iron with three darts or I running is needed. The maximum temperature is 200 degrees and with steel, and it's used for carton, lean and and Trieste. It states when I learning some fabrics gets shining on the surface and would better to be Byron on reverse. Pressing down the loose vibrance into the fabrics actually makes the fabric last longer and out. Now days it's suggested. No, Tyra, we're not needed in order to save energy. Professional care. A circle with a W with a cross silver means do no sweat. Clean the circle with a double, you would double underscore. It means very my professional wet, clean and issues for very sensitive textiles with very reduced mechanical movement. The circle with a double you and a single under skirt score means my professional wet cleaning a circle with a W means professional west cleaning, and it's normally unrestricted with cleaning. An empty circle means wet cleaning. If it's just below another professional care symbol, it means that this I didn't can be wet clean by a professional laundry. A crossed over surrogates means do not dry, clean and do not use. Remove is that contain solvents? A circle with F an underscore mean professional dry cleaning in hydrocarbons. The underscore indicates mild cleaning process, which is limited humidity and limited mechanical action and temperature. Servants cannot be used. Circle with means professional dry cleaning in hydrocarbons, this time with normal cleaning process, servants cannot be used. The circle with a P means professional dry cleaning with perk. Lowrie It'll in or hydrocarbons? The letters inside the circle are for the professional cleanest, and they also have to concede it the soil on the product before cleaning. So how do I? As a designer, I know what to care. Restructures to use the fabric producer provides the suggested care instructions and, if requested, the text of specifications. Normally, this is the information that I use. But I also need toe Ask the suppliers off the Lining Streams application that they also are assistant to the same care treatments as the fabric to make sure they won't bleed, staying or caused damage to the fabric. The items are washed and tested for staining and shrinkage, sometimes also peeling an abrasion strength, etcetera. The shrinkage is controlled by measuring the garments before and after wash. There is always a small dimensional allowance admitted, which could be 1% shirt next circumference and 2% involving garments. But the Basic Guy Island is that are normally sold. Product should get clean and keep its function and be able to get used for its original purpose. The staining may be tested by putting it on musty fiber fabric Rieber, the two countries, different fiber stripes, for example, viscous Carter, Parliament, acrylic and rule in the washing machine, together with a garment. After the washed, the ribbon is compared to a gray scale. The servant is water when we wash our clothes at home, but what does the detergent contain. It varies a bit, but here are some of the contents in detergents, surfactants, the organic sword removal agents, and they lower the surface tensions so that water enters in the fabrics. They include known you Nick on a neo nick and cattle unique types. The surfactants enter in the soil as a lot of molecules and justice spot the sports get lifted out away from the fabric. Build this softness. The water. The pH between eight and 10 gives the best cleaning efficiency. Now they build this our beauty gray doble. But earlier first, fate causing over fertilisation were used and sometimes read uses fuss and remember food stays. They break down proteins without getting consumed. Anti fading agents have fabrics. Maintain original colors. Di transfer in her bitters usually contains borax. Prevent that color please onto like to call us. Anti deposition agents are used to avoid that fabrics. Pick up the soil from the water. Water soared. Um, carbon metallic cellos. Organic polymers are used. Perfumes are used to give fresh new washed perfume to do laundry and mask the chemicals mouth, if not perfume. Normally a compound that mask or absorb the chemicals mouth from the other ingredients is used, Dice may be used to make the detergents organizer flourish, and whitening agents or optical whitening agents are weak. Die sticked absorbs delight. These ingredients do not remove so but make them not visible. Bleach is our oxidizing agents and will damage the fibers. Often chlorine is used for cellulosic fibers. There are also milder powder bleaches that may be used or your fabrics. So do some faith in washing powder, a water alcohol and poorly prepared in re quits. You should always sort of law degree by color and recommended care before cleaning. Turn sensitive garment inside out. Useful worker bags, empty and closed pockets and separates. Make sure that nothing, nothing staining. Have bean in the washing machine before you wash your delicate light clothings. A soft inner codes the fabric, and it's used to make the laundry softer and increase the electrical conductivity Drink. It often depends on the fiber moisture absorption. Season ticket fibers normally don't shrink when washed. Synthetics may also be heat fixed. There are three reasons for shrinkage. Relax ation string kage as the 5% your yours have stretched out during this beaning training and fabrication process, the fabric, it tends to return to its natural, let relaxed state. Swell shrinkage occurs when the fiber gets thickened by the water absorption and needs to go along away in the text. I would trinkets as a result. First thing shrinkage is what happens to rule when washed with warm or hot water detergent and mechanical movement. This case of the epithelial cells off the wolf I biscuits stuck in each other in this shark . You see that Causton and Flex gets stronger when it's wet. You're to see that whiskers get a lot weaker when it's wet. You can also compare the weight swelling off different fibers. In the next episode, we were compared two different fibers. 11. Fiber Identification: way we're going to talk about fiber identification. I've prepared a table with a lot of different fabrics off different composition. The first step to identify a fiber is the hand feel and the look of the fabric when you then you can untwist the fiber and compared with each other. Firstly, the length of the fiber or fair, brisk and, um, it be made a staples, but only man made and see can be made a slow filaments. Secondly, examined the last year of the fiber. Thirdly, feel if the fiber stiff, smooth, soft, hard, rough or flexible. If you have a microscope, try to see the cross sectional shape. Let's begin with Qatar. Carter have a fiber link between 10 and 50 millimetre, with a medium length off 15 to 20 millimeter. The Egyptian cotton is the most precious. That is, has the longest fibers. The American custom had medium length, and the Asian cutter had the shortest fibers. The fibers are 16 to 20 micro meters in diameter. Seen in the microscope, the fibers are flat, with a characteristic 4 to 5 convolutions per millimeter. The cut of fibers breaks down by acids by resist college, the hand feel of cotton is soft, flexible, uncomfortable with a mast aspect. When burning copter, try no trying to burn it. Oh, let's see if it gets a flame here. When burning castor, it will wrecked as other natural regenerated cell. It'll take five us. The fibers burns with a stable flame, smell like burnt paper and leave a small amount of gray. It's actually quite difficult to recently a little bit of ashes and the ashes gray and fan dory with a smooth edge. Flags is stiffer and wrinkles more than Carter. It's often shiny. The Flex Charles have more uneven structure. It's less elastic and have and have higher tenacity. The flags fibers are normally 50 to 50 millimeter. Long, steep, frustrated than cattle. The Dia meter is 12 to 16. My perimeters, when I'm twisting the cutter fiber from the yard, it easily library, it's. Meanwhile, the linen fiber is more stock in the yard. If you west of flags fiber and place the fiber and two words you, it will twist clockwise. If you do the same with carton fiber, you will see doesn't have an a tendency to twist at all. I would have a mat aspect and and the fibres give the yard a loved embody. It's Hydra Skopje characteristic makes it will San forcible When ed the fiber are very elastic. If you feel a lot of the fiber, you can feel more friction moving one way than other. Try to feel it on your own hair. In microscope, it's easy to distinguish will use to the epithelial cells or surface scales. It also have the particular ability to felt. All is a poor contractor of heat, where you stay warm in wool in the winter and cool in the summer. Rule burns very slowly with the jerky flame that self distinguish. It's considered good flame resistant. Its mouth birds hair if you boil will in 2%. Castaic saw that the fibers will get totally solved as the strength reduces to only 40% when wet. Will should be washed with caution. It's only by microscope. You can distinguish cheap from Wolfram other animals by comparing the epithelial cells, the fiber lengths off ruler verse between five and 17 centimeter. Now I will talk about sales sick, have the ability to get very brilliant. Carlos. The triangular cross section, together with slightly irregular surface Crazy soft last year with occasional sparkle. Fabrics off cultivated seal have a soft lecturers. Head silk have excellent tenacity, combined with good delegation in quite good recovery. Why silks are less last jurist and with more pronounced texture. Silt burns like wool and smells like hair. It leaves the carbon right mom that you can easily squeeze apart in the microscope. You can see the to wrangle cross shape. This goes wrinkles less than Custer have. A more even structure had via draped, and the staplers are normally longer around 40 millimeter and a lot of the same length. When wet, the viscous fiber loses its strength and the carton gay string. So if we wait apart over yard and stretch it when carton, it will break at the drag part. Meanwhile, the viscous will break it. The wet part. Whiskers also have its characteristic on hand feel when wet, you can almost sense it's break ability. These ghosts or I n issues call it can as a manufactured fiber, be controlled to create five that resemble Carter linen and woollen zeal with different last year and fiber ling, the viscous fibres have lengthwise lines, course striations Lioce Ellis, another soft, smooth and comfortable fiber, is receiving, sees more right. It's a good, dimensional Stability could prove more allies of intense sell similar to viscous, but do not decrease the trace when weight kupolokun look quite like seal, especially were washed. Is have a soft, smooth Handfield s it eight and tree acid state Havel last year and a soft often used for linings and dresses. It may simple away from flame and keep burning, creating bristle blackheart. Speed smells AC read. It's a harsh, sharp adore. The fibers are dissolved in aceto. The synthetic fibers are similar. Burn tests can be used to identify some fibres as managing and gripping occurs as the fibers can be shaped. The microscope is not reliable for defining the fibers. Using solvents is the only reliable way toe. Identify the synthetics. I recommend to have it done by a texter laboratory if needed. As some servants are very strong, glass have no reaction whatsoever. When exposed to flame, police melts and burns. It's myself. Extinguish. The ashes are hard black bead. It's most sweet. Polestar is very system toe ass. It's resistant to lights. Acrylic meddlesome but and leaves a brittle and hard black bead and the odorous chemical acrylic have very high resistance. Light in high, resistant to acid. Pulliam need or nylon meddlesome birth. It may self distinguish. The ashes is hard and a great bead. It's must celery, like polyamide, have made high resistance to light and the source by formic acid and ascetic acid. Olof in meddlesome burn it's myself. Distinguish the ashes is a hard time bead. It smells chemical A list. Um, else embers. The ashes is soft and black with chemical or door. I want you to feel and compare the different fibers you have in your home text size clothings and in your car heard us different qualities. Field raven behave. Is there any characteristics that you recognize in different fire? Best made out of the same kind of fiber? In the next part, you will get some questions to answer, and I will give you missions to complete. When you pass the test, you will get a pdf diploma. Good luck 12. Assignment and conclusion: I have given you so much information, it's time for you to work. His a little assignment for you. Students have passed this test with a least 90% correct answers. We receive a diploma first. I want you try. Answer the following questions. What? Which are the main five groups to which are the different groups off natural fibers? Three. Named the different regenerated fibers and two characteristics they have in common. Four. Which are the fibers that bit best? Resist heat five. Which fibers are normally used for winter warm sweaters? Six. Which fiber have the vest its market shares? Seven. Why should sail cool and viscous? Be washed with special attention to movement. Eight. What is the difference between the Ciric fiber length and other natural fibers? Nine. Name five different five properties 10. Name three Common characteristics for synthetic fibers. Secondly, I want you to investigate and come to your own conclusions. 11 on three different fibers compositions and make your quality test. Describe the Handfield, the look and what happened when exposed to flame. 12. Name three different uses off fibers and motivate why you should use the fiber for that purpose when you also do all the questions. You can post a file with ounces in the community. Please make sure to put your email address and full name so I can send you the fiber introduction course diploma to you. I suggest that you look at care labels when you go shopping to see the composition and feel their hand and see the look of the fiber when you're done it for a few times trying to guess, would it? The composition is before you look at the label feeling compared different fibers you have in your own home. Textiles, clothing and in your car. How does the different qualities feel? Grape and behave is the running characteristics that you recognize in different fabrics made out of the same kind of fiber. Thank you for following this course. I hope you have a lot of new knowledge and insights hope to see you again. I