Textile Fibers | Magdalena Eriksson | Skillshare
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12 Lessons (1h 34m) View My Notes
    • 1. Introduction to textile fibers

    • 2. Textile Fibers

    • 3. Vegetal Fibers

    • 4. Animal Fibers

    • 5. Man made Fibers

    • 6. Synthetic Fibers

    • 7. Synthetic Fibers Part Two

    • 8. Textile Fiber Properties

    • 9. Textile Fiber Properties Part Two

    • 10. Care of Textiles

    • 11. Fiber Identification

    • 12. Assignment and conclusion


About This Class


If you want to know everything about textile and fabrics, this is where you start.

All textiles for fashion, home and healthcare products are made of fibers. Fibers are the smallest parts that defines the composition of a fabric. The fiber quality, how it is spun and knitted or woven defines the characteristics, look, feel, attributes and the and use of the final product. Different fibers need different agents to bind the pigments of the dyes and prints. They have different sensibility to sunlight, sweat and other substances and strain.


In this course you will be introduced to fibers and how they are spun. You will learn how they are classified and the basic characteristics of the different fibers and how to distinguish them from each other by burn test. You will know the different aspects of quality and how to use wash and care symbols.


This class is for textile and fashion design students, textile agents, designers who want a repetition of what the learnt and salespeople within fashion and textile products. But much of the knowledge is useful to everyone. 

Who finish the class project with at least 90% correct answers will receive a course diploma

 Let us get started to know more about fibers for yarns and textiles.


1. Introduction to textile fibers: Would you like to be real pro in textile fabrics? My name is Madeleine Ericsson. I'm a Swedish national textile designer. I run my own business. Determine or Mullinix of decide. I said it. Fashion design both in Florence in Italy and the Textile university off boroughs in Sweden . I worked in the textile and clothing field my whole life. I'm based in ferrous serves off dull timber on the west coast of Sweden and now freelancing within the sign teaching. And I mediate textile prints and construction and soon services on a global basis. Sufficiently text released my life. I have a titling to Italy as I lived there for about 15 years. This is the first part in a Syria I will make for you who want to understand the development of textile fabrics, understanding the fire best yards in different ways to bind them together as well as the properties and how to take care of your textile products. This will increase your competence and your possibility to profit in the text field. You will be able to recognize different fibers by the look and the hand feel of the fabric . You will love it as I do. You will comprehend the complexity off all the steps from five Beatrice spinning meeting or weaving, dyeing and finishing procedures or printing for procedures for different qualities. By the end of the theory, in this course, we will look at the different fibre types, the characteristic what fiber quality and property really mean. I would talk about tax style differences, how to care for a fibers and how to make your own burn tests. These knowledge aims to you who wants to become a textile off fashion professional, but it's useful knowledge to everyone that wears textile materials and have texters in your home. You will learn the names of the common fabric compositions and compare the different properties to understand why someone developed er, Come on, let's get started. 2. Textile Fibers: thing is the second part of the in production to textile materials. The word fiber comes from the Latin word fibra, which means Fred Formacion in plant or animal diseases such as basic fibers, nerve fibers or muscle fibers. It is the fiber combination off different fibers that defines the composition of the textile material. It is the smallest visible constituent, together, with a lot of other fibers formed the yard. There will be a vote winner knitted into fabric. Fiber means wire streaming, filament or tender. The textile fibres are divided into two main groups. Natural fibers and man made or artificial fibres. The natural fibres are divided into plant fibers, animal and mineral fibres. In turn, the man made fibres are divided into synthetic fibers, regenerated and mineral fibres. Natural materials are classified into plant fibers, animal fibers and minerals and skins. Some plant fibers are produced by writing the wood in this talk and releasing the fibers example of stock fibers are flags and head. Cotton is the plants seed her, which gets cleaned and brushed to get rid of the short fibres. Cold winters. Animal fibre is differ from animals such as lamb's wool, alpaca, cashmere and anger or silk silk is made from the cocoon that the silkworm weaves skins them for our skins from animals that are slaughtered, and these are also natural material. Examples. US. Wade Pigs, Wade Napa and fear from various animals. Regenerated fibers or men made cellulosic fibers are produced from cellos, often from residues in cotton production. These are dissolved chemically and then spread out two small holes, such as fruits for new fibers. Viscous Braille model could row estate and residents are regenerated fibers. Synthetic fibers are produced from coal or petroleum products. The most common synthetic fibers are poorly acrylics. Poll amid and police stat. This can be made into tops or too long solid fibers. Thistle called moral filament off some synthetic fabrics you can make very thin. Why's that? May make silk these air called microfibers for even thinner or called nano fibers. Also, elastic fiber searchers. A Liston Lycra spandex belonged to the synthetic fibre group. In addition to mentioned fibers, different metals can also be used for textile materials. It's also very common to mix different types of fibers or to add chemical substances to change the fibers. Properties here is see a microscopic close up off different fibers. As you notice, the wounds have more or less evidence games that in cuticle the world gets felted when the fibers moved to force the roots and the scales into lock, and the shrinkage is permanent. You see how find the silk fibers compared to the other fibers and the linen flax. You clearly see the notes or joints that makes the fiber more flexible. As you see, the cotton fibre have a river like twist that graced the characteristic convolutions, and the Pallister is perfectly plain. No, we have looked generally at fibers. In the next sequence, we will look at the cellulosic or vigil fibers in the natural fibres group. Come on. 3. Vegetal Fibers: In this sequence, we will take a look at the first group of natural fibers. This fibers grow naturally in the foreigner and derives from digital plants cellulosic in natural fibres. Plant fibers or vegetable fibres are divided into fibers deriving from seats from bastar plants, talks from leaves and other. Here you see the most common fibers deriving firm seeds. The longer fibers in the courtroom bulls are used to make cartoon yarns. You remove the seeds and shorter fibres called Lintas from cotton balls by coming. Some of the lenders are then regenerated into viscous Ryan, and estate Score is obtained from the fibrous mess between the shell and the husk in the coconut. It's a very stiff brown fibre that you can bleach. It's normally used for mats, rugs and other floor textiles. When I started in the beginning of the nineties, it was in a group off itself called fruit Fiber. Cowpoke is from the Java Cup oak tree seeds, the fibrous soft, hollow, lightweight and very boil. But as it's easily breaks down, it is primarily used as fiber. In life, decades milkweed is similar to couple, but it's gross. In North America. It's used to feel life tickets. Comfort is opposed. Torri and peel off love. It cannot be spin due to the weakness. The best fibers are flags from me, Hamp, you takinoff, hibiscus little and bamboo flags, or linen, as the fabric is called, is the most common off the best fibers. And one of the oldest documented textile fibers, a 3000 year old linen mommy rap, have been found in Switzerland. It is a lustrous fiber with high moisture regain. Rami have bean used for thousands of years in China, and it's also called China Grass. It needs a heart humid climate. For a parent, it's a from mixed with cotton. It is also used to make rope, twine, nets, banknotes, dare, textiles and floor covers. Hemp is made with almost the same procedure as flex. It's used to make rope tow an and course curtain weeps. Judah is one of the less expensive textile fibers. They're short, brittle course and stiff. It's used to make sugar and coffee baggage ing, tope, cordage and tweet. The main uses of kin, a fiber have bean rope, twine, coarse cloth and paper. Now days it's also used to make components in cars the hibiscus fiber is a waste product when making clarify in substance for sure we can use. It's stronger than Duta and can be used to make bags, drugs and apparel. If in blends. Nettle fibre is hollow so you can use it for insulation. The fiber reminds of roe flags, and it's grown without pesticides. It has been largely used for clothing during the 15th century, and during the wars it was replaced by cotton due to re easier processing. There are two carries of fibers that are made out of bamboo, the natural fibre that will keep its resistance for microbes. The fiber is absorbent with course hand. Natural bamboo is not used for apparel nor interior textile. Bamboo is mainly grown in China and no pesticides are used. Leave fibers are obtained from the leaves off the plant, their long and stiff and with limited die affinity, so they are only used in their natural color. Pina is obtained from the pineapple leaves. The fibers are used for light, which year, and Steve fabrics. The barker derives from a plant in the banana family, and the fibers can get 15 feet or 4.5 meter long. The fiber is also durable and flexible. It's used for ropes, cords, floor mats and table in A. It's also called Manila Ham, Cissel and handed queen or agave plant. The fibers are smooth, almost white shoes for better grades of ropes trying and brush bristles. Now we have looked at the fibers deriving from digital plants. In the next part, we were looking at the protein fibres deriving from animals city you in the next sequence. 4. Animal Fibers: Now we will take a look at the natural protein fibres for the animal fibers. There were a lot of different animals that have lovely and soft warming. First, we got to combat most to take their for to make yours well from sheep and lambs are the most common. We also use will from verity of animals from the camel family, goats, rabbits and buffers. The silkworms cocoon is another well known textile fibre lamps. Will is from lamps younger than seven months of age. Boarding wolf. It's non processed wool and recycle Rule is from used garments that have been treaded into fiber and respond into yon merino wool is from a Spanish breed and Shetland ruling from a chitlin breed off course. There are other breeds of sheep. Silk is a very thin and long fibre. There are two different kinds of sales, while silk and mulberry silk Marber silk is breeding and the silkworms are feed it only with leaves from the mulberry tree. The silk fibers glue is called, nursing it solved in hot water. On the 1000 yard or 900 meter long filaments are released from the cocoon, the mulberry silkworm dies. Why did. Silk is made from open cools found in nature. After the movies matured, it has to be spun into silk. To show is the most common wild silk Kashmir rule is from the cashmere goat asthma near the rand meth. It's an article off long, coarse hair and an inner court off soft boundary thing fibers. The Harris comes by hand during the most in a season. The fabrics and it's made from the cash move in occult, a soft, warm and with a beautiful great pashmina, is a fine cashmere fibre. Alpaca and yamma are South American relatives to the camera and lives in the arts. Now they they are domesticated. The court off the alpaca reminds of more her and the lama off merino wool. Vic Orania is a rare wild South American anima in the camel family, its fibrous one of the softest, finest and rarest and most expensive off all textile fibers. Blanco is another animal similar to the cocoon Yah Camel have both undercoat and in the code that are used for textiles. The softer in a coat is five to tens, intimate along Karl if I Ennis Merino wool, but a lot more expensive, the fibrous moocher than she pool. More hair is the hair fiber from the anger a goat. The fibers a 10 to 20 centimeters long, smooth and the finest correspond to the crossbred sheep. Angora is if you're from the angora rabbit. The natural white fibrous is very fine. Fluff is often slippery. It's often blended with wool to bind the fibers together. The shark is a buffalo with dark brown or black long hair fiber. It's undercoat is smooth and last Yuras. It's collected by combing the ark during the spring mold. It's coarser than Kashmir, but often mixed with it to lower the price. It lives in TV it and Mongolia. The musk ox off Alaska produces quit fiber, which is rare and luxurious. The fiber can be used Aziz, as it contains no land Allene. In the next sequence, I would tell you about man made fibres, starting with the regenerated cellulosic fibers 5. Man made Fibers: The industrially made fibers, also called man made or artificial fibres, are divided into two groups. Synthetic and regenerated fibers. The regenerated fibers are made by a natural product, almost always cellos. Examples of regenerated fibers are Ryall or viscous model and cooper. These are pure, cellulosic fibers. Hesitate and creates it. Eight are as facilitated cellos, a union between sellers and exited kassid. There have also bean experiments making protein fibres regenerated from milk. Synthetic fibers are made of total artificial repeated atom groups called polymers, which are combined by different simple substances. The most common are polyester, acrylic and Pullum it or nylon. The artificial fibres are made a short staple. Fibres very long solid fibres called filament discos, or Ryan was the first manmade textile fibre invented by Hillary Ba Dee Gordon in frauds in 18 80 tree in 1902 It was paid tinted in Great Britain in 1906 the Peyton was so and the production started. But Samuel Courtauld Pisco's, was made to be an economic substitute to silk. As I mentioned before, the regenerated fibers are divided into cellulosic and hesitated cellulosic fibers. This girl's Orion is made from wood pulp Cottle Lintas treated with calcium vessel fight two great sheets off bleach sulphide cellos. The Selfies sellers consists of very short fibres. Two great longer fibers the Shater taught and solved in Castaic soda and carbon de sulfide . Then the discos is pressed through small holes has beamed into fibers in a solve for solution. The chemicals used are highly polluted, both for Aaron Water and regulations have made that some of the productions recovered the used chemicals. 10. Cell is a fiber created by the Austrian company Lensing in order to make a fiber that it's more environmentally friendly than the viscous. Since 2018 the tensile es el is extracted from sustainably grow would in turn sell model from peach tree. The wood is cut into Would Paul that is dissolved in amino acid. The solution is filtered To make sure that all the cellos is dissolved, the fiber respond into a week. Bath off Amenia Occid the fibrous cleaned and separated from the water and solvent that is purified and reused. Cooper is made of cotton Lintas, short cotton fibers and seeds. The sellers in the Linda's are dissolved in ammonia and copper oxide solution. It was originally produced in Germany by member. Now it's sold only by the Japanese company, a Shaka say. For a start, the production was very polluted, but nowadays it's produced in a closed loop like mortal, only yourself, and keeps up the acre Texas standards. This girl's canal sublimate off bamboo, which is a very soft and comfortable viscous that there is a bit peeling. The growing off bamboo is Indian friendly as the plant absorbed a large amount of Carvel offside and produces a larger amount of oxygen. Compared to many other plants, it also grow very quickly. Hesitated Fibers Estate in Trieste state are also made of cotton Linder's. But after cleaning and bleaching, the fibers are dissolved in a 30 s. Ed the president. Eight. It's more hesitated than the appetite. The fibers are formed when the day estate is this sold in S, it'll and our dry spun into hot air, making the assitant evaporate. The cellos is converted into a chemical compound off cellos. There are a lot of different new regenerated fibers. Orange fiber in Italy make a sustainable fiber made out off regenerated cellos. Waste from the orange juice production three to textile is a new sustainable in locust fiber created to reach the broad market. The production's use less came a coast than traditional cellulosic fibre production. There is no self permission during the production. Water and chemicals are recycled and reused. Nyjah is yet another new cellulosic EON, created from sellers Estes of renewable wood pulp. It has high staying resistance, good cholera ability, self turned field and ribs up to Ecotech Standard and USDA bio preferred labels. In the next part, we will talk about the synthetic fibers. 6. Synthetic Fibers: synthetic fibers are the second group of fibers that inventive humans created. Synthetic fibers are made from petroleum based chemicals into A six, the worldwide demand on synthetic fibers with 60% of the total fibre demand. Coartem fiber was 34%. Other natural fibers, only 2% and regenerated cellulosic fibers 4%. Strangely, to make these amounts off synthetic fibre, only 1% of the total petroleum based production was used for this purpose. The fiber production preview for 2019 is an increase to totally 11 million tons. The total production of synthetic fibers have increased most and recover almost 65% of the fiber production. Cellulosic regenerated fibers are predicted to be 6.2% and the cottages have decreased to 23.5%. Wool is 1% and other natural fibres 4.5%. There are two main ways to great pulling memorization. Additional memorization and condensation polarization. The polymers are extremely long repeated simple monomers or more complex repeated molecular shades. The polymer, suspended three different ways melt spinning, which is the most common for synthetic fibers, dry spinning or what spinning windmills on the column arisen often in sheeps, are melted in an autoclave, sometimes with chemical additives. The fibers have burned into cool air to solidify the former on the size of the holes in the spin rate, combined with the speed in which the fibers with roll defense, the shape and the size of the fiber, both filament and staple fibres are produced with the same method. After cooling the fiber, it is far too stretchy and with weak tensile strength due to the disorder off the molecular Shane's to orient the molecular. The fibers are drawn to 45 times their original length. This way they gained the decide stretch strange and elasticity. The mother fibers are drawn the high tensile strength but lower elasticity the fiber gets sometimes the fibers air textured with cripples, the shape is fixed by heating the fibers, nylon or poorly. Amid, as I would call it was the first synthetic fibre developed for the US company, DuPont. It had a combination of properties like abrasion resistance, excellent elasticity, and it could be heat set in the 19 4 days it was introduced for Woman's horse ary. For the first time, there was the light which year and washable, strong and chemical resistant fiber that also suited for ropes called saves and parachutes . The elements of pole amid or carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The parliament is produced by a condensation reaction between the monomers nylon six or per alone. It's another problem it produced in a similar way as nylon. 66 Nylen, 11 or Eastland, is made from Castrol, which the vegetable oil that rex with ammonia nylon is a very resistant fiber to mold, smile, drew, rocked and money chemicals. It takes a very long time to degrade. Naturally, the patrol in transportation pipelines as well as the refinement are very polluted, and it requires a lot of energy. Investor is another producer of Parliament polymers used for examples to make clothing. Pallister is made from carbon, hydrogen and chlorine that creates an Esther that drives from petroleum. The fibrous respond in a similar way as the poli amid what's with the police. Stick fibers are drawn to orient the molecules, the police to fibers I made from P, E, T, PC DT and PPT. These have only Minner performance differences that we probably would not notice in a consumer products. The Pallister maintains a natural look, and it's easy to care. Police tourist use both in 100% Pallister and blended without the textile fibers. The treatable polyester is a result off, making the police to similar to see if it's made of verifying triangular shaped fibers in loose, bulky on and crypt fabric structure. The pearl esta fiber can be made in many different customers. Shapes the micro fiber suits for high fashion garments. The environmental expects of the polyester is similar to the nylon, even though it's uses less energy to produce the problem. It but more than Causton polyester is also offer recycle, and the recycling process creates significantly less pollution, then creating new fibers. The main room material creating acrylic is petroleum. It's combined by cole, hydrogen and nitrogen. It can't be melt spun as the critic problem ears are decomposed before melting. Instead, decide the D sold and dry spun extruded in warm air that evaporates the celebrant, or Westbourne with disarmament that coagulates in a bath. The word spun fibres gets to be in shape with high bending stiffness in receive Lynsey suiting for Barca sweaters and blankets. The dry spinning procedure creates a dog, bone shaped fiber with last year and softness most acrylics staple fibres. But Arcos creates a filament called Micro Supreme. A Critics are durable as Polly amid Pallister and all of in fibers but a resistant to natural degradation. The chemicals used to produce acrylic are significantly processed before the poll, immunisation and the solvents need to be recycled for minimal environmental impact. Acrylic uses 30% more energy and a lot more water than the production off polyester. In the next part, we're gonna talk about special used since ticket fibers. 7. Synthetic Fibers Part Two: welcome to the second part of much synthetic fibers. Acrylic fibre is the chemical and modified acrylic fibre, containing at least 50 weight percent acrylic in less than 85. The co polymers used are vinyl chloride. Fine. I let include right over an island in DS in aid. The fibers are soft flame retardant with low melting point quite high, peeling moderate resiliency in moderate dimensional stability. Low weight doesn't wrinkle and have a nice a nice aspect. It's useful. Fake fur fabrics, wigs, hair pieces, please, like pile fabrics. Chloral fiber is mainly made of metal, in which is a petro chemical product and who drew caloric acid when reacting with each other. A vinyl chloride is created poorly. Vinyl chloride PVC is a claro fiber that used to be made with toxic fell eights. Today in Europe, the Softener in BBC's based on caste, Roy Vai known, is made of 86% final to write important percent vinyl acetate. It's a fiber with warm, pleasant, hard, very sensitive to heat and should not be. I run. It has a lot of uses, infirm for mitts, off wrinkle vinyl and issues for rain, where umbrellas and thousands of other supplications. Vinyl chloride is a kind sir in user olefin or polio fibers, because he's it only off carbon and hydrogen and derives from metal in a by product of natural gas. It's made from Poly Problem and poorly Atilla. It's low cost, useful sports where socks core interiors a solution, stoppers and discover stuck in disposable diapers. It does not need I running, have good color. Fastness is strong and have good resistance to sunlight. Have good elasticity and heat resistance. Olefins are non absorbent, non static, light and wind resistant. Last Eliza sub dress fiber with maybe major stretch and recovery. It have similar environmental issues. Eston Island, but it's easy to recycle. Merkel and Merkel Andrea Ball are Olof MPP fibers for the Haijun market. Final fiber have a U form cross section with a grainy appearance is created by 50 weight percent vinyl alcohol and one or more a settle units. Extrude fiber is water soluble, and it's therefore treated with a toxic for Milo hide. It has a moisture regain off 5% and doesn't support combustion. It's used for protective apparel. Flora polio is made of at least 95%. LF attic Flora Carver monomers. The most common is politician floor. It'll in PT f E more known a step flow and use a sorry resistant finish at cookware. I'm sure you also know about Gortex, which is a fair break with a micro porous PT every film apply. It is resistant to wind and water. But wait for Perma ble under the name blister guard, it seems, still sucks to reduce friction that he isn't toes to make fibers. These are evolutions pun, a very expensive technique. Carbon fiber contains 96% or more pure carbon. It's made from Ryan or poorly a creed, and I tried or from a petroleum pitch. It has exceptional resistance to heat high strength, low weight, high stiffness issues for protective apparel to reinforce lightweight metals. And it's a substitute for as best us in technical products. It's technical uses seems endless. Its use is significant in non. If I burst nanotubes with this remarkable strength and high elasticity, large terminal and electron ical conductivity, lower density and hate resistance, understand or spandex are generic names for fibers with incredible elasticity and recovery . It's made off pull. You return the trade name Lycra is registered by Do Pull. The fibers are mainly made is quite course filament that are covered by twisting cartoon and other fibers around it. The fibers conceived of a flexible and a red, you'd said segments a list on fabrics are used for underwear, socks sports were, and now there's all kind of garments to create more comfort. The nomination Power stretch disused When the fiber fabric have strong retracted ability to mold and support and shape the body call Foot stretches when the fabric or fiber have the ability to lengthen and recover. As the body moves the weight of these fabrics allies er than the power stretch fabrics, Robert can be made from natural or synthetic rubber. Natural rubber is the oldest customer and the least expensive. It's obtained by the coagulation of Latics from the rubber tree. Heavier Brasiliense is which used to be cut into strips. Synthetic rubber is made from either I Creedon, I try and the fibers a cold last trial, or it can be made off flora print units. Neha Print is a synthetic poorly chlor Oprah in rubber. It's used either as an elastic fiber or a supported elastic film. It's resistant to acid calcalist alcohols always cast ICS and servants excuse its protective gloves, orthopedic braces, electrical insulation left up sleep and dry suits. Other elastic fibers are LS toe Esther in a less Trail P era. Meid. It's a long Shane synthetic aromatic column it a part of its exceptional strength. It's also exceptionally heat and flame resistant to Portis trading the I removed fibers under the names. No mixing, Keibler, teaching connects and signora or example of other. Aramis. Five years. The elements are used within by the armor. Bulletproof West, firefighters, uniforms, bike aware and protection gloves. Killer is five times stronger than steel. Unequal weight basis. Bless fiber isn't in combustible, which means that it doesn't burn, so it's suitable for you, says where the fire dangerous problem glasses made of sand. Silica limestone felt burned boric acid, which is melted in furnaces at 4400 degrees Fahrenheit, or 1700 degrees Celsius. The furnaces have holes in the base of the melting chamber, and the stream of glasses stretched to make the fiber thin that before it harder to make staple fibres, high pressure air jets or steam breaks them into staples, plus fibrous use for draperies in public buildings, optical fiber, leading laser beams, salmon for enforcement and installations. Etcetera. Metallic fibers are coated with plastic or plastic coated with matter or a core covered by my meta. Most common is Lurex polyester that issues to make fabrics for apparel in interior is more declarative. Earlier, thin metal trades were used. Goldenseal were used already in Asian two times. Stainless steel is made both as filament and staple in verifying treated fibers. Houston Mets to reduce static metal fibres are also used in cut resistant gloves. Normally is the fiber that issues for its outstanding flame resistance. It resists up to 2500 you grease lt's and its use for protective apparel and fabrics, as well as chemical filters, gaskets and picking materials. It's made of more than 35 weight percent off. No black. A federal for mother had pulumur PB I. It's a long Shane aromatic fiber. It doesn't burn. Made to shrink when exposed to flame. It's used for protective where for firefighters or stroller and where there is the risk for heat exposure so far is a policy fight with aromatic rings. It has high resistance toe acid and alkali issues in frustration, fabrics, papermaking felt and high performers. Membranes. Mela Mine is producers. Bassett feel It's just for products that require high heat resistance. There are other synthetic fibers that I won't mention. Instead, I will tell you about five properties in the next episode. 8. Textile Fiber Properties: until I talked about which fibers exists and how they're grouped. There are a few like biological lab grows by the silk and leather, algal life, bio fiber and ceramic fibers that I didn't mention as the fiber spectrum is vaster than when I studied textile knowledge. I would primarily compare the most common fibers in clothing, fashion and interiors. I will explain. Explain the different aspects that defines the fiber or fabric quality way. Start with durability. Expects. Strength is the fiber or yards ability to resist different kind of stress. The strength off the fibers are not to be mistaken with a strength off the yard or the text types that is affected also by their chorus evenness, which is the ability of the fibers to cling together, the fiber length and the twists, Among other factors, The Fiber dia meter defines the fiber quality final fibers, a generally smoother, a softer with nice rand feel and comfort, the larger fibers large if I just tend to be more stiff, rough crease. There are different ways to measure the diameter of the fact fibers. Natural fibers used to be measured in my crew meters, which is one thousands millimeter or 1 25,004 hundreds. Often age natural fibres are often irregular. Carton is normally 6 to 20. Make room eater flags 12 to 16. Cool 10 to 50 and seal 11 to 12. A manufactured fiber. Finest is measured in the near, which is grams per 9000 meter or fiber or yard. Small numbers describe fine fibres and large number. Describe coarse fibers. Takes indicates the weight in grams off, 1000 meter off fiber or yard. The near perfect element. DP F is a way to specify yar. It's calculated by dividing the 10 year by the number of filaments. Abrasion strength is the ability to resist rubbing and contact with the surface. For example, the trousers contact with a share when you see synthetic fibers, caromed, flora, programmers, polyamide all affairs and pull estes have excellent abrasion resistance. Ceron Ellison flags, acrylic PB cell for costal and Syria have good abrasion resistance. Woolen whiskers have more direct abrasion resistance. Environment s estate in class have poor abrasion resistance. Tensile strength or tenacity is the ability to resist pulling strength for the fibre. A test of strength is measured in pounds per square inch tenacity is measured by grams Purdon Year, which is the number of brands required to break the fiber glass pyramid. Blair Cell and Sick have high tensile strength. Pola made flags olefin Kirsten sulfur pp viscous polyester, acrylic and flora pulumur have medium tensile strength moored acrylic mela mine as it'd viscose via neon. Spandex and rubber have low tensile strength. Elongation is how much the fiber can stretch without breaking. It should be considered in relation to elasticity, and it's measured in percent. The favor relegation and recovery is not to be confused with the allegation off the yarn or the fabric, as it also depends on the young twist in the fabric construction. As we know, Rubber and Ellison can stretch to between 407 100% with a waiver. Very high recovery elephant can elongate 7200% but can only be stretched by 5%. To recover, acrylic can elongate 35 to 50% with 92% recovery. If stir child by 3% polio meat can be stretch 3200%. With the total recovery, hesitate. Can delegate 25 to 50% but will be recover between 50 to 95% remind can be straits 22 to 32% polyester 12 to 55% with 80% recovery. Whisk owes 8 to 20%. Also, Liesel Vinyl, Moellemann and Flora Pola Marin Glass have low elongation wolf Can Ellen Gate 25 to 35% with very good recovery, SEAL can elongate 20 to 30%. With a 90% recovery. Carter can elongate 2 to 7% with 75% recovery. Meanwhile, flags on Lee Can Ellen gate 2% with a 65% recovery. Creek is when the fabric of fiber gradually over time Ritter's to its dimension before relegation. Peeling in Israel, loose fibres at a fabric surface gets entangled, creating bulls. It's mainly present synthetic texters or when natural fibres are mixed with synthetic fibers should find fibers in loose constructions have a major tendency to peeling except being an attractive peeling can be so comfortable Peeling off a pair in loose knitted garments also rules. You can try by rubbing your tongue on the fabric to see if it pills. Flexibility is the ability off the fiber or fabric to bent repeatedly without breaking silken rule of fibers with good flexibility. Meanwhile, glass fibre easily break creating uncomfortable fiber ends. This is why glass fibre isn't normally used in clothing. The fiber flexibility is essential for the fibre abrasion resistance. Flex is another fibre. The can break if bent. Way off issues are textile based on their appearance way. Love to protect and cover ourselves with fabrics, either to hide a body or to keep the body temperature. Hand is the way the fabric fears to the booth capacity. Kirsten is a open fiber that can be made in lightweight weaves. Still be quite covering translucency. Nylon and polyester are more translucent and may be used in lightweight weaves that allows the light to pass. True, Laster is ability to reflect light. Trey is the way the fabric falls over it. Three dimensional object texture is the regularity in the surface of a yarn or fabric receive. Lynsey is the ability of the fabric to return to its original shape after bending, twisting or crashing Good. Receive Lindsay is when the fabric won't drinker like wool and polyester and with low receive Lynsey, the fabric remains cramp boat like cotton and linen fibres with excellent receive unsee are nylon and wool fibres with good receive. Lynsey are all Affin, acrylic, acrylic and polyester purpose with mood rate receive Linsi Our silk and spandex fibres with poor receive Lynsey our Flags Curtain, Liar, Cell viscose and S It. Eight Compress ability is the resistant to crashing. Cotton is easy to compress and gets easily wrinkled. And it's used to make fabrics as Danny Wall that is difficult to compress. Have good resistance to Rinker and issues for bulk of war fabrics. The receiver and see to compression is also called, laughed and reached a term used for carpets, knits and pile fabrics. Dimensional stability is the ability for a fabric to remain its shape and size to using care. Drinking's resistance is the ability of the Texas to retain international dimensions. To care is related to the reaction to heat moisture on the combination of both. In addition to movement 9. Textile Fiber Properties Part Two: Welcome to textile fiber properties. Part two. We're going to start to talk about safety and comfort properties. Absorbency is the fibers ability to absorb moisture. It's normally measured as percentage off the moisture free weight at 75% relative area Immediate E and 70 degrees foreign height, or 20 degrees Celsius. Normally, synthetic fibers are hydrophobic, which means that they have very low or no most your absorbency. With this exception for people I natural and cellulosic fibers are you Just go pick except hesitate and resuscitate, and they have very high moisture. Absorb asi without feeling wet. Sec Woolen flex are the fibers with highest moisture absorbency Wallace off used in winter clothings as it absorbs melted snow and body moisture without feeling wet. The human skin evaporates about one litre off water every 24 hours. Lindland IHS, a superb material to use for bed linen and towers do too tightly moisture absorbent. The hydra skull. Portability also affects the dye ability when absorbing a lot of blood, amount of moisture, the collar and as well in the fiber. Also, the ability to transport electric charges make them known static. Here you see the absorbency of off the different synthetics, which also explains some of the uses for the different fibers for rain, where we need them to be very hydro for big there so burns. It also affects the electrical conductivity and the ability two great static electricity. Her Drew Filic fibers are more likely to develop static electricity as they don't easily conduct electricals. Also, the wicking ability, which is the ability to transport moister along the fabric surface and fix the comfort wicking fabrics are nice to the skin as moisture a pulled away from the skin and true, transported to the outer layers. I will get get back to the absorbency when talking about the care. Instructions at the wet, swelling and fiber strength. When wet affects the text types, terminal retention is the ability to select the heat. The terminal retention is depending on the volume of air withheld within the textile wool. With this, balconies keeps the heat well. As the fibers are crease, acrylic is made to resemble the will fiber. The less contact the textile have with the body, the less the Texel lead away the booth. Heat conductivity is the ability for a fiber to lead the heat carton have good heat conductivity, where it's popular to use during the summer that it helps the body to release heat. Heat resistant stability for the fibre to resist heat. Some fibers will melt when I running too hot. Flame ability is the resistance to fire resistance to light light breakdown some fibers. It's especially the ultraviolet light that degrades the chemical fibre structures and decrease the fiber tenacity. Wool, silk and polar made are especially sensitive to sunlight. Viscous motile acetate transited and all offices have moderate resistance to sunlight. The resistance of plastic Orton, Lioce L and P B I is high, but the best resistant as glass acrylic in chloral fibers have alor genic potential is the risk that the fiber causes red nous on the skin. A lot of people claim that they're allergic to world, but often their only sensitive to coarse fibers. Aging resistance is the ability to keep the characteristics over time. For example, L. Estelle's get read it stiff and brittle. It helps to keep your bathing suits in a closed plastic bag during the winter, when they're not used to prevent them from drying out. My resistance. If natural plant fibers are stored in a humid and warm enough environment. The maker organisms like mold, mild drew and funks will be able to grow. Sometimes the Texas get permanently damage and can adore med resistance is the ability to resist microorganisms. Muth resistors during storage, insects might emit textiles. Most common is the movie that make holes in wool, but also beetles. Crickets, Roaches and spiders can damage the fabrics. Resistance to chemicals. We have some chemicals in our homes that may harm some fibers. Fruit juice vinegar contains assets as well. Some medications, skin and hair treatments. Assets cannot find fibers like art on flags, seal s estate and polyamide, especially nylon. Six Al Callous are present in our homes in forms of baking soda. Sodium bi carbonate soaps, detergents, ammonia and Bork's silk and wool were affected by college, and hesitate will have a more minor effect. Acrylic, polyester and viscous with direct or stronger our college, but are resistant to week. Al Callous estates intrastate will be dissolved by acid tone, and it's better to keep away from pink in a polish remover. There is a huge environmental movement, and the ticks of business stand for a lot of pollution. The European producers have bean upset for a long time, a say. I have followed high restrictions for emissions. Meanwhile, the products sold in Europe often have been produced in locust countries without with much lower environmental restrictions. The environmental concern is nothing new. We talked about it already in the eighties and in the fifties. The textile industries in Paros, where I was born, color the river Biscan and the Fish died last week. We saw in TV that a textile industry in Turkey still pollutes the river. It takes a lot off pesticides to grow, Carter and a lot of water to clean. Prepare on DIA finished the texters. New fibers are developed in different ways to use less water, new ways to recycle and reuse fibers and chemicals around the development. The textile industry is under changed, and I'm sure we will see new kinds of fibers on the market quite sued. There are also a lot of concerns about it, people working in the production and that they are fairly treated in the next section. I would talk about how to care for your textile, see that 10. Care of Textiles: different countries have different guidelines for marking and wash care instructions for apparel and textiles. The text are care symbols are developed by International Association for Care Labeling. Gina takes its used in 22 countries. Every company require a license to the correct use of the symbols that are registered trademarks at V. I. P I. World Intellectual Property Organization. Ginna takes also have information about how to mean in my life the an environmental impact . When caring for a textile products here, you can check it out for the U. S. The regulations are stated on the site and the instructions need to be written instead of using the symbols. So I will show you the writings together with the symbols. Normally all the wash care instructions need to be indicated, as well as the fiber composition and the country of the region. Make sure that you have the correct information required for the specific market before you start selling your products. So what does the different symbols mean? The symbols shows the maximum permitted treatment off the care off the text size and include coloring dreams, see prison buttons and applications when using Lowy care than indicated on the terrorist action. No harm should be made on the text types. The washtub indicates how to lower the textile. The triangle indicates bleaching structures. The square indicates how to drive the text. I The irony indicates the temperature for the I running the textile. This circle indicates how the textile should be professionally dry cleaned. The worst up with an X over means do not wash. This textile is sensitive to water or can't be washed at home due to its size. Example of fibers that might not be washable are hesitating wool and silk. They washed up with a hand inside myth hand was only the water temperature should be cold below 30 degrees Celsius or 85 degrees. Foreign height or warm 30 to 40 degrees Celsius or 9200 and town degrees Foreign height, depending on the text. I make sure the defined detergent is perfectly solved in the water. Before placing the textiles in the water, agitate the solution carefully. Do not rub pool of ring. The text. I rinse well and preserve the water carefully and pull it into shape. Don't leave sensitive pieces wet as it might harm the fabric. We'll use to be hand washed as the combination of mechanical movement, moisture and heat could make the wool fibers felt and shrink silk often have hand washed. The washed up number tells you how many degrees Celsius the water should be. A normal washed up means fine wash. If it has one underscore, it means my fine wash. The machine should will only be 2/3 full if it has to underscore us. It means very mild, fine wash, and the drums should only be 1/3 full. If you have fine fabrics as wool, silk, cooper and viscose, I would suggest cold or 30 degrees Celsius mild or very mild wash, even though the fibers can be washed in higher temperature. Warm, which is further 40 degree Celsius, is, according to the school book, the highest temperature for following fibers. Cooper, a model estate, acrylic, Liza Meta olefin silk, a Leicester and wool hot, which corresponds to 60 degree Celsius for Pallister Poll. Amid viscous and crescent State court in um, flags can be washed in his high temperatures a 60 to 95 degrees Celsius, the triangle with two lines or the labour ticks only. No chlorine bleach we needed. This means only oxygen bleach, an empty triangle bleacher needed means any bleach allowed across tree anger or no bleach means the fabric will be hard if you bleach it and you should know that six Spandex wool and Cooper cannot be chlorine bleached. This square, with two horizontal lines means I drink flat drying, which is written dry, flat. Drink dry the horizontal line core supposed to flett. Dry the line in the ag. Assistants for ish in the shade, the vertical eyes says for lying dry. The two vertical lines stands for three blind drying a line dried, drip dry, empty square. It means natural right. A square with a circle means tumble dry without heat restrictions. With two darts, it means tumble dry medium, which is normal load and temperature at 80 degrees Celsius. One dot means my trying process. With reduced temperature, it's written tumble. Cool crossed means no tumble. Do not number term, but Brian consumes the fabric and might even damaged them. The less of a drying method is flat drying, which I recommend for delicate item. I would recommend hanging off most textiles indoor in a well aired, invented or outside my men created a space saving in construction to try raw agree in our home regarding my running A crust I run. They do know Tyrone issues for crow fiber one dot on the I Ron. A cool irony means I run at maximum 110 degrees Celsius and issues for acrylic, polyamide, nylon and acetate. Normally, this temperature work solely without steam. The Iran would two dots or warm I Iran means a maximum temperature of 150 degrees Celsius with steam and issues for world silk, polyester and viscous. The iron with three darts or I running is needed. The maximum temperature is 200 degrees and with steel, and it's used for carton, lean and and Trieste. It states when I learning some fabrics gets shining on the surface and would better to be Byron on reverse. Pressing down the loose vibrance into the fabrics actually makes the fabric last longer and out. Now days it's suggested. No, Tyra, we're not needed in order to save energy. Professional care. A circle with a W with a cross silver means do no sweat. Clean the circle with a double, you would double underscore. It means very my professional wet, clean and issues for very sensitive textiles with very reduced mechanical movement. The circle with a double you and a single under skirt score means my professional wet cleaning a circle with a W means professional west cleaning, and it's normally unrestricted with cleaning. An empty circle means wet cleaning. If it's just below another professional care symbol, it means that this I didn't can be wet clean by a professional laundry. A crossed over surrogates means do not dry, clean and do not use. Remove is that contain solvents? A circle with F an underscore mean professional dry cleaning in hydrocarbons. The underscore indicates mild cleaning process, which is limited humidity and limited mechanical action and temperature. Servants cannot be used. Circle with means professional dry cleaning in hydrocarbons, this time with normal cleaning process, servants cannot be used. The circle with a P means professional dry cleaning with perk. Lowrie It'll in or hydrocarbons? The letters inside the circle are for the professional cleanest, and they also have to concede it the soil on the product before cleaning. So how do I? As a designer, I know what to care. Restructures to use the fabric producer provides the suggested care instructions and, if requested, the text of specifications. Normally, this is the information that I use. But I also need toe Ask the suppliers off the Lining Streams application that they also are assistant to the same care treatments as the fabric to make sure they won't bleed, staying or caused damage to the fabric. The items are washed and tested for staining and shrinkage, sometimes also peeling an abrasion strength, etcetera. The shrinkage is controlled by measuring the garments before and after wash. There is always a small dimensional allowance admitted, which could be 1% shirt next circumference and 2% involving garments. But the Basic Guy Island is that are normally sold. Product should get clean and keep its function and be able to get used for its original purpose. The staining may be tested by putting it on musty fiber fabric Rieber, the two countries, different fiber stripes, for example, viscous Carter, Parliament, acrylic and rule in the washing machine, together with a garment. After the washed, the ribbon is compared to a gray scale. The servant is water when we wash our clothes at home, but what does the detergent contain. It varies a bit, but here are some of the contents in detergents, surfactants, the organic sword removal agents, and they lower the surface tensions so that water enters in the fabrics. They include known you Nick on a neo nick and cattle unique types. The surfactants enter in the soil as a lot of molecules and justice spot the sports get lifted out away from the fabric. Build this softness. The water. The pH between eight and 10 gives the best cleaning efficiency. Now they build this our beauty gray doble. But earlier first, fate causing over fertilisation were used and sometimes read uses fuss and remember food stays. They break down proteins without getting consumed. Anti fading agents have fabrics. Maintain original colors. Di transfer in her bitters usually contains borax. Prevent that color please onto like to call us. Anti deposition agents are used to avoid that fabrics. Pick up the soil from the water. Water soared. Um, carbon metallic cellos. Organic polymers are used. Perfumes are used to give fresh new washed perfume to do laundry and mask the chemicals mouth, if not perfume. Normally a compound that mask or absorb the chemicals mouth from the other ingredients is used, Dice may be used to make the detergents organizer flourish, and whitening agents or optical whitening agents are weak. Die sticked absorbs delight. These ingredients do not remove so but make them not visible. Bleach is our oxidizing agents and will damage the fibers. Often chlorine is used for cellulosic fibers. There are also milder powder bleaches that may be used or your fabrics. So do some faith in washing powder, a water alcohol and poorly prepared in re quits. You should always sort of law degree by color and recommended care before cleaning. Turn sensitive garment inside out. Useful worker bags, empty and closed pockets and separates. Make sure that nothing, nothing staining. Have bean in the washing machine before you wash your delicate light clothings. A soft inner codes the fabric, and it's used to make the laundry softer and increase the electrical conductivity Drink. It often depends on the fiber moisture absorption. Season ticket fibers normally don't shrink when washed. Synthetics may also be heat fixed. There are three reasons for shrinkage. Relax ation string kage as the 5% your yours have stretched out during this beaning training and fabrication process, the fabric, it tends to return to its natural, let relaxed state. Swell shrinkage occurs when the fiber gets thickened by the water absorption and needs to go along away in the text. I would trinkets as a result. First thing shrinkage is what happens to rule when washed with warm or hot water detergent and mechanical movement. This case of the epithelial cells off the wolf I biscuits stuck in each other in this shark . You see that Causton and Flex gets stronger when it's wet. You're to see that whiskers get a lot weaker when it's wet. You can also compare the weight swelling off different fibers. In the next episode, we were compared two different fibers. 11. Fiber Identification: way we're going to talk about fiber identification. I've prepared a table with a lot of different fabrics off different composition. The first step to identify a fiber is the hand feel and the look of the fabric when you then you can untwist the fiber and compared with each other. Firstly, the length of the fiber or fair, brisk and, um, it be made a staples, but only man made and see can be made a slow filaments. Secondly, examined the last year of the fiber. Thirdly, feel if the fiber stiff, smooth, soft, hard, rough or flexible. If you have a microscope, try to see the cross sectional shape. Let's begin with Qatar. Carter have a fiber link between 10 and 50 millimetre, with a medium length off 15 to 20 millimeter. The Egyptian cotton is the most precious. That is, has the longest fibers. The American custom had medium length, and the Asian cutter had the shortest fibers. The fibers are 16 to 20 micro meters in diameter. Seen in the microscope, the fibers are flat, with a characteristic 4 to 5 convolutions per millimeter. The cut of fibers breaks down by acids by resist college, the hand feel of cotton is soft, flexible, uncomfortable with a mast aspect. When burning copter, try no trying to burn it. Oh, let's see if it gets a flame here. When burning castor, it will wrecked as other natural regenerated cell. It'll take five us. The fibers burns with a stable flame, smell like burnt paper and leave a small amount of gray. It's actually quite difficult to recently a little bit of ashes and the ashes gray and fan dory with a smooth edge. Flags is stiffer and wrinkles more than Carter. It's often shiny. The Flex Charles have more uneven structure. It's less elastic and have and have higher tenacity. The flags fibers are normally 50 to 50 millimeter. Long, steep, frustrated than cattle. The Dia meter is 12 to 16. My perimeters, when I'm twisting the cutter fiber from the yard, it easily library, it's. Meanwhile, the linen fiber is more stock in the yard. If you west of flags fiber and place the fiber and two words you, it will twist clockwise. If you do the same with carton fiber, you will see doesn't have an a tendency to twist at all. I would have a mat aspect and and the fibres give the yard a loved embody. It's Hydra Skopje characteristic makes it will San forcible When ed the fiber are very elastic. If you feel a lot of the fiber, you can feel more friction moving one way than other. Try to feel it on your own hair. In microscope, it's easy to distinguish will use to the epithelial cells or surface scales. It also have the particular ability to felt. All is a poor contractor of heat, where you stay warm in wool in the winter and cool in the summer. Rule burns very slowly with the jerky flame that self distinguish. It's considered good flame resistant. Its mouth birds hair if you boil will in 2%. Castaic saw that the fibers will get totally solved as the strength reduces to only 40% when wet. Will should be washed with caution. It's only by microscope. You can distinguish cheap from Wolfram other animals by comparing the epithelial cells, the fiber lengths off ruler verse between five and 17 centimeter. Now I will talk about sales sick, have the ability to get very brilliant. Carlos. The triangular cross section, together with slightly irregular surface Crazy soft last year with occasional sparkle. Fabrics off cultivated seal have a soft lecturers. Head silk have excellent tenacity, combined with good delegation in quite good recovery. Why silks are less last jurist and with more pronounced texture. Silt burns like wool and smells like hair. It leaves the carbon right mom that you can easily squeeze apart in the microscope. You can see the to wrangle cross shape. This goes wrinkles less than Custer have. A more even structure had via draped, and the staplers are normally longer around 40 millimeter and a lot of the same length. When wet, the viscous fiber loses its strength and the carton gay string. So if we wait apart over yard and stretch it when carton, it will break at the drag part. Meanwhile, the viscous will break it. The wet part. Whiskers also have its characteristic on hand feel when wet, you can almost sense it's break ability. These ghosts or I n issues call it can as a manufactured fiber, be controlled to create five that resemble Carter linen and woollen zeal with different last year and fiber ling, the viscous fibres have lengthwise lines, course striations Lioce Ellis, another soft, smooth and comfortable fiber, is receiving, sees more right. It's a good, dimensional Stability could prove more allies of intense sell similar to viscous, but do not decrease the trace when weight kupolokun look quite like seal, especially were washed. Is have a soft, smooth Handfield s it eight and tree acid state Havel last year and a soft often used for linings and dresses. It may simple away from flame and keep burning, creating bristle blackheart. Speed smells AC read. It's a harsh, sharp adore. The fibers are dissolved in aceto. The synthetic fibers are similar. Burn tests can be used to identify some fibres as managing and gripping occurs as the fibers can be shaped. The microscope is not reliable for defining the fibers. Using solvents is the only reliable way toe. Identify the synthetics. I recommend to have it done by a texter laboratory if needed. As some servants are very strong, glass have no reaction whatsoever. When exposed to flame, police melts and burns. It's myself. Extinguish. The ashes are hard black bead. It's most sweet. Polestar is very system toe ass. It's resistant to lights. Acrylic meddlesome but and leaves a brittle and hard black bead and the odorous chemical acrylic have very high resistance. Light in high, resistant to acid. Pulliam need or nylon meddlesome birth. It may self distinguish. The ashes is hard and a great bead. It's must celery, like polyamide, have made high resistance to light and the source by formic acid and ascetic acid. Olof in meddlesome burn it's myself. Distinguish the ashes is a hard time bead. It smells chemical A list. Um, else embers. The ashes is soft and black with chemical or door. I want you to feel and compare the different fibers you have in your home text size clothings and in your car heard us different qualities. Field raven behave. Is there any characteristics that you recognize in different fire? Best made out of the same kind of fiber? In the next part, you will get some questions to answer, and I will give you missions to complete. When you pass the test, you will get a pdf diploma. Good luck 12. Assignment and conclusion: I have given you so much information, it's time for you to work. His a little assignment for you. Students have passed this test with a least 90% correct answers. We receive a diploma first. I want you try. Answer the following questions. What? Which are the main five groups to which are the different groups off natural fibers? Three. Named the different regenerated fibers and two characteristics they have in common. Four. Which are the fibers that bit best? Resist heat five. Which fibers are normally used for winter warm sweaters? Six. Which fiber have the vest its market shares? Seven. Why should sail cool and viscous? Be washed with special attention to movement. Eight. What is the difference between the Ciric fiber length and other natural fibers? Nine. Name five different five properties 10. Name three Common characteristics for synthetic fibers. Secondly, I want you to investigate and come to your own conclusions. 11 on three different fibers compositions and make your quality test. Describe the Handfield, the look and what happened when exposed to flame. 12. Name three different uses off fibers and motivate why you should use the fiber for that purpose when you also do all the questions. You can post a file with ounces in the community. Please make sure to put your email address and full name so I can send you the fiber introduction course diploma to you. I suggest that you look at care labels when you go shopping to see the composition and feel their hand and see the look of the fiber when you're done it for a few times trying to guess, would it? The composition is before you look at the label feeling compared different fibers you have in your own home. Textiles, clothing and in your car. How does the different qualities feel? Grape and behave is the running characteristics that you recognize in different fabrics made out of the same kind of fiber. Thank you for following this course. I hope you have a lot of new knowledge and insights hope to see you again. I