Teaching English as a Foreign Language TEFL | Paul @ TEFLeducators | Skillshare

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Teaching English as a Foreign Language TEFL

teacher avatar Paul @ TEFLeducators, TEFL Educators

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

26 Lessons (1h 54m)
    • 1. Intro

    • 2. What You Will Learn

    • 3. Teaching English in Vietnam

    • 4. The Teacher

    • 5. Teaching Strategies

    • 6. TEFL Methodes and Approaches

    • 7. Classroom management 1

    • 8. Classroom management 2

    • 9. Classroom management 3

    • 10. Review Animation

    • 11. Goals for Teaching Grammar

    • 12. Techniques For Teaching Grammar

    • 13. Live Class In Session: Grammar

    • 14. Characteristics of Words

    • 15. Teaching Vocabulary

    • 16. Vocabulary Games and Activities

    • 17. Live Class In Session: Vocabulary

    • 18. Teaching English in Thailand

    • 19. Suprasegmental

    • 20. Phonenems

    • 21. Live class pronunciation

    • 22. Teaching Speaking

    • 23. Teaching Writing

    • 24. What

    • 25. How

    • 26. When

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About This Class

This is the first of a two-part series and is for anyone who is interested in starting a career as an English teacher. At the end of the 2nd class, you will have all the skills necessary to plan lessons, and to teach real students.

This class has a structured curriculum consisting of video lectures and an abundance of real-world examples.

Meet Your Teacher

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Paul @ TEFLeducators

TEFL Educators


TEFL Educators was born out of an idea from a group of experienced English teachers who aspire to offer quality courses based on years of experience in teaching abroad. Our purpose is to impart academic information, promote cultural awareness and guide individuals who are keen on sharing our vision of providing excellent training in teaching English as a foreign language.

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1. Intro: English as a universal language. English is the third most commonly spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and Spanish. It is used in almost 79 countries and territories and has about one million word entries. And counting. English is often used for books, newspapers, business, academics, music and much more. Not only is it the international computer language, but it is also the official language of the skies. Because of this, there is a growing demand for learning the English language, and it also means that the need for English teachers is steadily growing worldwide. This course is intended to furnish you with the necessary knowledge and skills you will need to teach English. Enjoy the course. 2. What You Will Learn: There's a lot of ground to cover, and that's why we've divided this class into two parts. In this first class, you'll learn temple terminology, teaching strategies, methods and approaches. There's a lot of examples to learn from and three live classroom sessions that will give you a good impression of what it's like to teach a real class. We'll start with a video about teaching in Vietnam. You will see in here different teachers talk about their experiences and their views on Vietnamese students and Ho Chin Minh City. You will be getting first hand information about life as an English teacher abroad. At the end of this class will have an exciting class project. For more information about that, please go to the project section. Enjoy the class. 3. Teaching English in Vietnam: - Hodgman City has become more Westernized, with more specifically Western oriented shops and businesses. And it's even encouraging out into the suburbs when we are certainly this now Burger King and settled in style butts in the center of town. But also you can get a cappuccino in Alaska that you couldn't couldn't get five years ago, even out in the suburbs. So it's getting easier for foreigners to live here in many ways, but it's still very, definitely a foreign and exotic destination. I've been invited, named for almost five years now. Vietnam was close, and I liked the idea of teaching English as a second language, and I knew that there was good opportunity to do that in Vietnam. I was a teacher in Hawaii and I work in Jakarta. Yeah, so you're talking like through Skype. And then we wanted to, like, move somewhere that we can work together. So we have thought of like, coming here first and then check out like the places and, you know, like people, um, I have lived here a long time. I've stayed. I live in a house, shared a house of people, stayed with his family once. Now for the last few years of living. My wife, uh, renting apartments. Personally, I think for foreigners, uh, apartment is probably the most ideal. Um, the curriculum's at the English language centers will be. You have a book, you get a book, and the school will give you a course outline, basically telling you what to teach. They set the pace for you. You know exactly what we're supposed to do. International schools by far. That's that is the best. I talked myself, uh, 6th 7th and eighth grade. And that's just wonderful, because you have every day with him at my school. I teach from babies by which I mean 456 year olds up to adults, um, including teenagers and Children. And they will go this special points. It's amazing, actually, the games of the activities that you can do with babies that you can also do with the teenagers and even with the adults as well. Just just minor tweaking means that there's not always a lot of difference between the different groups. Vietnamese students work very hard day go to school very long hours from early in the morning until sometimes nine oclock at night, sometimes when I get them at night, there's a higher need for games and activities. Get me students, actually, very good. Very well there. The younger ones are very energetic, very lively. Yet still, there's a lot more respect than than a Western classroom. Ah, typical work day at an English language center really is is fantastic. It's very convenient. You maybe will only work a few hours in the evening. So in my situation, I work 6 p.m. Tonight. It's best to be prepared. Come over with, uh, a local police record for your work permit, which you need to get You got to get. You have to have a degree in any field that doesn't really matter. You've also gotta have have a teaching certificate which you can do when you before you get here or do do online these days to doing your home city before you come. I did an online course for tearful teaching and that that tip, of course, was actually there. And the only qualification I needed The best things about Vietnam are obvious. Uh, it zee it's white teeth to live here. Um, work situations. Good. Probably cost believing off course is a lot. A lot. Cheap Pekan money quite easily can very friendly people very easy to get around. Easy lifestyle, our compensation. Our salary allows us to be live so comfortably here. You know, I just came here and you just come. You come to the backpacker area, you find accommodation. Eventually you'll find something better. You made some people finding a job in Vietnam. I think as long as if you've got you know, I think it's good to get some kind of teaching English certificate. Perhaps me just to come and try the country before you make it an absolute final decision. Vietnam is a great place to travel round, so you can come sit aside a bit of time. Let's see the country, see if there's any other cities that you want to work in. You prefer Hanoi, your regimen city. You don't have to have a job arranged before you leave your country. It's seems to me to be pretty easy to get a job here. There's plenty of English schools around. Some of the big several very small for my school. I applied online. They had a website. I got a reply. The boredom got a job 4. The Teacher: What is a teacher if you look it up in the dictionary? A teacher is a person who teaches, especially in schools. But is that definition enough to define who and what a teacher is? In this module? We'll discuss essential qualities that make up a teacher and valuable fax. Every teacher must know. As a teacher the classroom is your stage, your students or your audience, and you are the main star. You will have to play different roles in order to create a conducive learning atmosphere for your students. Here are some of them. You are the bridge between your students, native culture and the new culture they're trying to learn. As a teacher, you'll have to introduce, explain and even sometimes demonstrate the many similarities and differences these cultures have. You serve as a guide and help your students constantly, whether as a class or individually, you are the main source of knowledge and exposure for your students. In order to have a smooth sailing lesson, a teacher must be ableto organize what you want your students to learn and how they should learn it. Teachers are students. Personal cheerleader. You have to give support and encouragement to students so they may actively partake in the lesson and activities you have prepared for them. You also have to encourage your students to think and look for answers and solutions on their own. Spoon feeding is not favored now. We're not talking about harsh, blatant comments toward your students for them to improve. Definitely not. However, you must be able to provide positive criticism and let your students realize that there's room for improvement. Studies actually show that people perform better and re positive results when they're properly encouraged. Give proper feedback to your students. Don't take this literally and show up with a painted face and a red nose in your class. We're just saying that you're not supposed to be strict and stern. Rather, you should devise fun learning activities to keep your students alive and interested. Don't be afraid to look ridiculous like a clown in front of your students, just to make them understand what you're trying to explain. It's OK. You wouldn't want tohave sleepy students in your class, would you? What makes an effective teacher? This is a question many educators have been asking for centuries, although there's been a lot of discussion about this. Many educators agree there isn't really just one best way of teaching. Knowing different styles and strategies of teaching and understanding its scope and importance is the key. Teaching styles tell which approach you should use for teaching that we all have our preferences of doing things. It won't hurt to try toe alternate approaches other than the ones you're already used. Teoh the teachers teaching style made a pin on various factors such as the teachers personality, classroom demographics, mission statement of the school subject areas handled etcetera. Teaching styles can be classified into two key approaches, teacher centered and student centred. As the name suggests, the teacher centred approach means the style of teaching is focused on the teacher delivering the information to the students through lectures and direct instructions, Assessments and tests follow afterwards, whereas this student centred approach means the style of teaching is based on the teacher guiding the students. To discover the information, students are assessed through formal and informal methods like quizzes, projects, portfolios, etcetera. Here are some examples of commonly used teaching styles. Teachers with this teaching style are usually focused on lesson content, and act is the main leader, an authority figure in the classroom. Teachers lead by example, and students are expected to copy and follow. Teachers focus on utilizing activities in order for students to learn students urged to participate and work together with other students during a learning process. Autonomy is given to an individual or a group of students. The teacher just delegates tasks, provides guidance and gives complex situations or dilemmas for students to solve. Students are then expected to design their own learning path while dealing informing relations with their peers. 5. Teaching Strategies: teaching strategies are a mix of instructional methods, activities and materials that encourage your students to be actively involved in also support your learning objectives. There are many teaching strategies you can implement in the classroom. However, you must be able to discriminate which one would be more appropriate and advantageous for your students learning. There are some strategies every SL teacher must know, since part of your role as a teacher is to connect the gap between students, native culture and the new culture being learned. It would be very helpful if you, as the teacher, have a clear understanding of your students. Cultural background. You don't have to bury yourself in history and anthropology books in order to achieve this , creating a planning activities that will allow your students to share and talk about their background beliefs, traditions, morals, customs, etcetera in the class will simply do the trick. Incorporating such topics in your lessons not only promote student involvement, it also allows exposure and familiarity and, more importantly, clarity between cultures. Set a clear and realistic goal for all your lessons. Make it clear for your students to understand and realistic enough for your students to achieve you cannot expect a toddler to jump over a 10 foot high fence, right? Likewise, don't set impossible standards. You know your students will not be able to reach at the beginning of every lesson. Tell your students what you want them to know and achieve at the end of the day. This will guide them during the discussion and allow them to evaluate what they have learned. Active learning means any activity that students do in a classroom other than passive listening. Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much by sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged assignments and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they're learning right about it related to past experiences and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learned part of themselves. Active learning depends strongly on both the teachers, and the students prepared this for class. Here are some examples of active learning activities. A. This may be the simplest and easiest form of interaction between you and your students. Asking them questions once in a while during your discussion doesn't only make your students active listeners, but it helps you gauge their keenness and comprehension. Be having this activity would inspire your students to think rationally and explore different facets of the topic being discussed. You can employ different seating arrangements to get your students started. If you have students who refused to take sides, set them is middle ground and motivate them to reason out why they chose it. Don't forget to ask your students to summarize their arguments before arriving to a conclusion. See, after having a short lecture with your class, to set up the context and seen for the role play. Divide your class into small groups and assign specific roles in substantial tasks. Two. In the discussion. Allow your students who identify what they have learned and then carefully make the transition to the next topic. De you can utilize this strategy to find out if your students were able to grasp the lesson and to what extent? Simply throw them aside. Meitiv question or task like what did you learn today or what is the main point of our lesson today and let them write down their answers? E. This strategy is commonly used by teachers. You simply ask your students what they know about the topic and record their answers. You may provide your students with suggestions and categories to read more accurate answers . You may start with the analysis and evaluation once the idea contribution is given. This strategy encourages your students to work in teams to achieve a common goal. Each member of the team has a specific task. Cooperative learning fosters individual and group learning. Some activities for the strategy include a. It is a simple and quick activity that makes your students think first before sharing their answers to the other members of the class. Be groups of students work on different details of a problem, provide their answers, join them together and form a logical solution. See, small groups are given a signed topics to research on and prepare presentations to present to a bigger group. Make sure you choose topics that are suitable for your students. Level of understanding. Give specific tasks for each groomer. To make certain there prepared de former team with four members. Each member will be assigned a number 1234 Questions will be asked for the group to answer when you call in a sign number. For example, to the students signed with that number is tasked to answer the question verbally. E. You may stop at any point of your discussion and ask teams to review and answer questions about the topic in three minutes. Research shows that knowledge is best retained through linguistic and visual forms. Exposing your students to both means greater opportunity for them To absorb information, you may use images and symbols for word representation or use movement and models. President Information. You must keep in mind as well that not all of your students are the same. Recognize that they have different needs and learning pace. In short, be flexible to your students. Needs be open to experiments in order to discover the best strategy suited for you and your students. Proper and well organized teaching leads to better an effective student learning and teacher satisfaction. Applying different teaching techniques will help you motivate and maximize your students knowledge retention. Here are some of the teaching techniques and activities you use. Most students easily understand lessons With the help of visual representations. You could use graphs, maps, photographs, drawings and charts to introduce new vocabulary and concepts. Music can make the entire learning process mawr enjoyable and can stimulate right brain learning use songs that are popular with students. Whenever possible, it must have clear and understandable lyrics. Songs should have an appropriate theme. There are plenty of positive, upbeat, even humorous songs available that your students would love. Negative themes should be avoided. Students adore music and songs and contains numerous useful elements for language teaching . And it's also fun for both the teacher and the students. So why not include music in songs your language? Learning classes as well? Making students speak and work together, maximizes student talking time and minimizes teacher talking time. Aside from that, you're also giving your students opportunity to improve camaraderie and boost their confidence in class. Both learners and teachers alike love to use games in the classroom to make extensive use of games to teach and reinforce critical lessons. Watching while listening can also help your students retain information or even understand the lesson better. You could ask them to tell a story or asked to share their opinion regarding the film or video clip presented. Listening is very important, and learning students can discover new vocabulary and be able to use it. Pick an interesting clip that's neither too short nor too long. It may be a snappy dialogue commercial store your new segment from the radio cassettes, TV, CDs, DVDs, etcetera. You could even have the students suggest some clips, programs or other seems to use role plays or simulations are one of the ways ES El instructors can ease students transition into using English in a real world situation. A simulation is where students act out a real life situation, for example, checking into a hotel but do not act out a different personality. Role plays require mawr imagination by students and teachers and can be difficult to manage because they're unpredictable. The initial scenario develops from the students interacting with each other and can literally go in any direction. This gives students practice in a non threatening environment and gives them motivation and involvement where they have to think in English roll, place or interesting, memorable and engaging, and students retain the material they have learned in there. Soon, role students drop their shyness and other personality and cultural inhibitions, making them one of the best tools available for teaching a second language 6. TEFL Methodes and Approaches: this module will provide you with the descriptions of basic principles and procedures of widely accepted and commonly used approaches and methods for teaching a foreign or second language. You'll also learn the different ways you can manage your classroom for amore active and effective delivery of your lessons. There are numerous methods and approaches being implemented for teaching a second or foreign language. A myriad of factors are to be considered when choosing which method to use. Some of those factors have been discussed in module one. Student readiness, teaching and learning styles, learner levels, etcetera off some methods arm or favored than others. It is still important to be familiar with, if not all, that at least some of them studying different aspects of each method may help you consider which one would work well for you in your class. A. This method is used to study second or foreign language using the Lerner's mother tongue. Detailed explanation of each grammar rule is given importance, followed by application through translating words and sentences. In and out of the target language focuses on reading and writing rather than listening and speaking be learners refrain from using their mother tongue this method forces them to use the language being learned. Questions, directions and lectures are delivered using the target language and learners are expected to answer in the same manner. Target languages reinforced through drilling, repetition and demonstration grammar rules, spelling and any printed text or avoided at the beginning to give emphasis on good pronunciation. See, this method is based on the principle that language is learned through habit formation. Listening, speaking, reading and writing are enhanced in order. The use of the target language is emphasized by the teacher through the use of visual AIDS tapes and use of language laboratories. Students. Learning depends strongly on mimicry, memorization and repetitive drills. D. In this method, learners are trained to use the target language in unrehearsed context, like how they would use it in their everyday lives. Focus is given on the components of communication efficacy. Students are actively engaged in using language in order to understand and be understood. Their feelings and opinions are also given importance as they're encouraged to communicate their thoughts and openly express their feelings in the class E. Dr. James J. Asher claims that Children learn their mother tongue through language body conversations meaning Children learn about the language even though they cannot speak it but responding to their parents verbal instructions. Look at mommy or get the ball through action. TVR attempts to copy this by simply having students respond to simple commands through action. Aural comprehension is given importance. F Students executed interesting task using both the target language and the language previously taught. There is no formal teaching required in this method. The aim, rather, is to encourage learners to use an experiment on their knowledge of the target language. The role place group activities pair works, etcetera. G. This is very popular and commonly used. It follows a structure from controlled speech, toe less controlled and freely use. Speech Teachers begin by presenting the target language generally through queuing and eliciting of the students to gauge how much they know or don't know. Then students practice the target language in 123 or more activities. Afterwards, students take the target language and apply it to their daily conversations. P. P P. Promotes less T T T Teacher Talk Time and Mawr STT Student talk time, which is what most SL teachers prefer. Age similar to P P P E. S A. Is designed with three stages. The first stage is to motivate students and engage them physically and emotionally at the beginning of your lesson. The second is to focus on the language and its structure. The third stage is to use the language learned for practice through exercises and activities, which may include role plays, debates, story telling or story writing and eventually apply it in their everyday lives. 7. Classroom management 1: effective classroom management cannot be easily learned but actually takes years of practice. This is perhaps one of the most important things you must know is a teacher. Students cannot achieve optimal learning if the classes chaotic and poorly managed. The only way for you to be able to run your class smoothly and established great relationships with your students is by experimenting and adjusting yourself to what you think would be the best ways for you to handle your lessons in your students and effectively manage classroom constitutes a teacher who exhibits appropriate levels of cooperation. Dominance, An awareness of students high needs dominance is a teacher's ability to provide strong and understandable instruction for both academics and behavior. This could be achieved by establishing clear behavior expectations and learning goals. And by exhibiting assertive behaviour, the teacher must acknowledge students behavior by reinforcing positive and acceptable behavior and ramification for negative and unwanted behavior. This is done differently for teacher. Most teachers use verbal or physical reactions to students behavior. Some use prearranged hand signals to Q and grab students attention, while others use eye contact or proximity. Teachers may also exhibit dominance by being clear about expectations and content of the lesson or unit. This lets the students know that the teacher is in control of the class and is capable of giving them proper guidance and direction. In terms of academic content. A teacher may display assertive behaviour by means of exuding confidence in their body language, tone of voice and general demeanor. Cooperation in the classroom best describe students and teachers working together to achieve an end goal. When teachers openly cooperate with students, they show that they're concerned about their students needs and value their opinions. Teachers with effective classroom management skills are aware of high needs students and have a repertoire of specific techniques for meeting some of their needs. Passive behavior that avoids the domination of others or the pain of negative experiences. The child attempts to protect itself from criticism, ridicule or rejection. Possibly reacting to abuse and neglect can have a biochemical basis, such as anxiety. Fear of relationships avoids connection with others, is shy, doesn't initiate conversations, attempts to be invisible fear of failure, gives up easily, is convinced he or she can't succeed, is easily frustrated, uses negative self talk, provide safe adult and peer interactions and protection from aggressive people provide assertiveness and positive self talk training. Rewards small successes, quickly withhold criticism aggressive behavior that overpowers, dominates, forms or controls others without regard for their well being. The child has often taken aggressive people as role models has had minimal or ineffective limits. Set on behavior is possibly reacting to abuse and neglect. Condition may have a biochemical basis, such as depression, hostile rages, threatens or intimidates. Others can be verbally or physically abusive to people, animals or objects. Oppositional does opposite of what is asked demands that others agree or give in, resists verbally or nonverbally. Covert appears to agree, but then does the opposite of what is asked often acts innocently while setting up problems for others. Describe the student's behavior. Clearly. Contract with the students to reward corrected behavior and set up consequences for uncorrected behavior. Be consistent and provide immediate rewards and consequences. Encourage and acknowledge extracurricular activities in and out of school. Give student responsibilities to help the teacher or other students to foster successful experiences. Attention problems behavior that demonstrates either motor or attentional difficulties resulting from a neurological disorder. The child symptoms may be exacerbated by family or social stressors or biochemical conditions such as anxiety, depression or bipolar disorders. Hyperactive has difficulty with motor control, both physically and verbally. Fidgets leaves seat frequently interrupts talks excessively in a 10 of has difficulty, staying focused and following through on projects. Has difficulty with listening, remembering and organizing. Contract with the student to manage behaviors. Teach basic concentration, study and thinking skills. Separate student in a quiet work area. Help the student list Each step of a task rewards. Success is a sign a peer tutor perfectionist behavior that is geared toward avoiding the embarrassment and assumed shame of making mistakes. The child fears what will happen if errors, Air discovered has unrealistically high expectations of self. Has possibly received criticism or lack of acceptance. While making mistakes during the process of learning. Tends to focus too much on the small details of projects. Will avoid projects if unsure of outcome. Focuses on results and not relationships. Is self critical. Asked the student to make mistakes on purpose, then show acceptance. Add the student tutor other students socially inept behavior that is based on the misinterpretation of nonverbal signals of others. The child misunderstands facial expressions and body language hasn't received adequate training in these areas and has poor role modeling attempts to make friends but is inept and unsuccessful, is forced to be alone, is often teased for unusual behavior, appearance or lack of social skills. Teach the student to keep the appropriate physical distance from others. Teach the meaning of facial expressions such as anger and hurt. Make suggestions regarding hygiene, dress, mannerisms and posture. 8. Classroom management 2: the way a teacher gives instructions cannot be underrated. The most exciting and riveting activity in the world will fail and become a waste of valuable time if your students won't be able to understand what they're supposed to do. Tips for giving instructions plan your instruction really well. Ask yourself the following questions to make sure your instructions air well stated. What information am I trying to communicate? What must the students know in order to complete the activity and perform successfully? What information do they need to know first, which should come next. What materials will they need for the activity? How are they going to work on the activity individually? Pairs or groups? Keeper instructions as simple as possible. Be clear, logical and specific You simple imperatives according to your students level. Make sure not to use colloquialisms to beginners and basic imperatives for advanced students. Deliver your instructions using a well modulated and calm voice. So many teachers use tape recorders, videos, computers, etcetera to give instructions. Thes equipment and technology won't always be present in your voice may be the only material you can use, and when you use your voice to give instructions, remember to enunciate the words properly and make it loud enough for everyone to hear. There's no need to shout, as doing so may strain your voice and convey a different message to your students. Make sure to provide a natural tone of speech for your students to imitate. Model the activity. When you plan your activity, make sure you've a lot of short amount of time to demonstrate your students the task they need to do. Students will understand better when you show them what to do and how to do it, rather than giving them a lengthy explanation. Assess your students understanding and repair misunderstanding Before starting your activity. Make sure that your students fathom the directions you gave. You may ask them questions about what they're supposed to do first, next and last. If your activity uses materials, ask them what the materials are and how they're supposed to use it. If your students cannot answer or at least mix up the steps, guide them and repair the part they misunderstood. If applicability implement a fair and consistent consequence. If the instructions weren't followed, sometimes your students will tell and even show you that they understood the instructions of the activity yet won't be able to follow the outcome you expect. If so, even set a few consequences for your students. Just make sure that these consequences air openly discussed and acknowledged by the class differentiated instructions. When you start your teaching career, you will most likely encounter a class of diverse learners. Some students may be advanced, while others maybe below average. Some may be shy, and others may be confident. One classroom structure alone is not enough to address all the needs of your students. You've already learned that students have different learning styles. Attitudes, readiness, experiences, etcetera. So how are you going to accomplish tasks and maximize student learning without compromising or neglecting your students? Needs differentiated instruction is an approach most teachers used to respond to. Students. Readiness learning styles needs etcetera. It requires teachers to know their students well so they can utilize activities and tasks that would enhance learning and make it more meaningful for each student. The concept of the I means that teachers may differentiate content, process and product according to student's readiness, interests and attitudes and learning profile to maximize learning. To put it simply, the goal of D I is to convey all the students the same learning content, using different ways suitable to their readiness, interests and learning profiles. As a teacher, you should ask yourself what you think your students need to learn, what materials and resource is will help them learn and how they can best apply what they have learned. There are five basic research based strategies that teachers must learn in practice rules. Teachers must discuss and establish well communicated and acknowledged expectations for behavior at the beginning of the school year or class. Thes rules should be positively stated and occasionally revisited so students won't forget routines routines of the backbone of classroom management and are therefore important for teachers. Routines were assented procedures and guidelines students can execute or conform to in any given situation like rules, routines should be created, explicitly discussed and taught at the beginning of the school year or class and periodically revisited throughout the year. Praise positive behavior should always be reinforced through praise and other rewards. Teachers may either give tangible or intangible rewards to students. Tangible rewards refer to things that teacher may give to students who perform or behave well in Class III. stickers, stars, scores, etcetera. Intangible rewards refer to praises like good job for fixing your table or an Beverly and Kevin are ready to listen. Well done praises should be given abundantly and specifically misbehavior. Teachers must be able to discern which repercussion is fitting for a certain misconduct. These repercussions may be based on the severity of the misdeed. It may also depend on the number of students misbehaving. Teachers sometimes start with one on one dialogues, detentions, meeting with parents and so on. Engagement Teachers should always strive to keep their students engaged in the classroom. Lessons and activities should be interesting and should provide plenty of opportunity for students to learn and participate. Students are less likely to act out if they're generally involved. Enter having fun. 9. Classroom management 3: the arrangement of tables, chairs, working area boards, bulletin boards, lighting, ventilation, etcetera all contribute to a well managed classroom conducive for learning. Classroom set up your classroom set up should be aesthetically appealing and functional. Take into consideration your students age level, appropriateness and needs, plus your personal teaching style, planned classroom activities and instructional goals. The physical appearance of your classroom includes seating arrangements, more displays and physical climate lighting temperature, etcetera. Your examples of seating arrangements you can use according to your classroom size or activity rose. This is mostly evident in traditional classrooms where everyone faces the board. This is suitable for the classroom lectures, tests or exams where the teachers need to establish eye contact. Tables may be arranged individually or in groups. Keep in mind the students who are seated at the back when you ask questions during your discussion circles and horseshoes. These seating arrangements are frequently implemented in smaller classes or seminars. The teacher and the students can easily move around. There's also enough space in the middle, which makes ideal seating arrangements for class discussions, debates, presentations, role plays using overhead projectors or power points, etcetera. Classes arranged in a circle promote equality among the students and the teacher cluster seeding or groups. This type of arrangement is formed by having a controlled number of students sit together. This encourages students to communicate and work together. Teachers may move around, monitor and advise a group without disturbing the others. Pairs have students seated next to each other. This is very useful when you want to think pair share activity. This also gives the students a chance to be independent from the teacher opposites. This is good for competitive class activities like debates face to face pairs. This seating arrangement is perfect for described and draw activities back to back pairs. This seating arrangement is great for telephone conversation activities or other activities that will minimise the students dependence on facial expressions and body language and have them focus on the spoken target language. Each of these seating arrangements has pros and cons. It's really up to you how you're going to manage your students and implement your activity . Observe your students carefully, then adjust if you think a certain arrangement is not working out for you. The key is to be flexible using your board and other educational technology and equipment teachers use a variety of teaching resource is to engage students and accompany their explanation of the lesson board. This is perhaps your most reliable resource. Next to yourself and books, the board serves as your students main visual stimulus in the classroom. Teachers used the board as no pad for frequently riding words, praises, sentences, pronunciation, etcetera, which you want your students to know and remember. Explanation Aid for showing relationships like similarities and differences between words, sentences or parts of speech. You can also use the board to explain pronunciations, grammatical structures, timelines, vocabulary, etcetera, picture frame for drawing pictures. Simple drawing. They help enhance your students understanding of the lesson. It's a good way to show meaning, but drawing on the board may be limited by your artistic capabilities. If so, you can off to print out pictures instead and post them on the board classwork book for writing questions of the board for all students to refer to an answer. You may either call students one by one to answer on the board or ask them to copy the text on their notebooks or any piece of paper. Sometimes teachers deliberately right mistakes and ask students to try and find and correct them. This is an effective way to put all your students attention in one place. Game board for playing games. Of course, there are plenty of games that can be played using the board. An all time favorite is the spelling game, where the teacher divides the board, according to the number of groups, and students go to the board and spell the word. At the same time, the group that has the most number of correctly spelled words wins notice Announcement board for reminding students about schedules, homework, etcetera. Teachers and students may write or post information on the board for the whole class to see . Your classroom may have a traditional blackboard, whiteboard or smart board. Regardless of what you have in your room, here are some tips to make the most out of it. Plan how you'll use your board. Consider the arrangement and logical order of what you're going to write. It should be easy for students to follow. Right allegedly. Put yourself in your students place. Engage how big your handwriting should be for the farthest student to see model. How letter should be written and don't rush if the board doesn't have lines. Do your best to write in a straight line. Do not block the board every time you write. If you have to turn your back against your students, be careful not to do it very long. Be sensitive with students, especially if you're teaching young learners. The best teachers always write on the board with eyes in the back of their heads. Double check what you wrote on the board. Make sure your grammar, punctuation and spelling is correct. Avoid modifications. Give your students enough time to understand and copy the text before you decide to erase. Avoid asking your students to copy and listen to you at the same time. Chances are they won't listen to you, and we'll just focus on finishing what they're copying. Use colors only for emphasis. Make sure they're visible in pleasing to the eye. Divide your board into sections of necessary. Separate the text that could be erased right away from the text that is needed for the whole lesson. 10. Review Animation: from making sure your classroom is conducive to learning to keeping her students focused and delivering a smooth lesson. Managing your classroom starts from the moment you enter your classroom until your students go home with no breaks in between. Let's recall the tips you learned from this module. Make sure you're prepared. Double check your lesson plan activities and materials before your class begins. Consider the following areas in your classroom to ensure a smooth flow of activities. General climate. Check the lighting, ventilation and general condition of your classroom seating arrangements. Make sure your seating arrangement suits your activities for the day. For interactive or group activities such as debates, guessing games and research projects, you may use clusters face to face and back to back seating arrangements. On the other hand, you may use Rose horseshoe and circle seating arrangements for individual activities and playing class discussion. Get your students full attention before starting your discussion. Go over the class rules. If you're still a the beginning of the school year, give your instructions clearly. Ask your students what to do to make sure they understand you well. Use your board for explaining your lessons and instructions manage your board properly. An effective way would be writing from the left side of the board going to the right during your activity. Roam around the room to monitor your student's progress. Correct mistakes when necessary. Don't forget to give praises for a job well done. Gather feedback from your students after the activity. It gives you an idea of what they learn during your lesson. Lastly, be confident and have fun with your students. 11. Goals for Teaching Grammar: students cannot master a language without learning grammar. But sometimes learning grammar could be very tedious for them, especially when the teacher presents it as a list of rules they will need to memorize and use appropriately. This module will help you learn new and effective ways to introduce grammar to your students. Grammar provides a structure which we necessarily need in order to organize our thoughts and ideas and be able to put it across. It's like the gas that enables your car to move from one point to another without it. In the same way that a car won't move, you won't be able to convey your messages and be understood. The goal for teaching grammar of her students to communicate comfortably and effectively in both spoken and written standard English with awareness of when it could be used appropriately analyzed the grammatical structure of sentences within English texts. Using grammatical terminologies correctly and demonstrating knowledge of how sentence level grammatical structure contributes to the coherence of paragraphs and text have an understanding of and appreciation for the natural variation that occurs in language across time. Social situations and social groups demonstrate an understanding of the equality and expressive capacity and linguistic structure among a range of language varieties both vernacular and standard, as well as an understanding of language based prejudice. Sometimes we come across difficulties. When we discuss certain grammatical structures as teachers, we deal with the following questions. How and when do we deal with errors when they occur? How do we give feedback to students who were at different stages of grammar development and for whom? Some explanations will either be irrelevant or incomprehensible for other students. It may be that they can't understand a grammatical structure because they're doing the following using incorrect form, using the structure in an inappropriate context, not able to pronounce the structure properly. Many teachers tend to teach grammar the way they learned it. In school, they treat grammar as an extensive list of word forms and rules that govern how we communicate. Thus, when they teach it to students, Thean result is their students become bored, uninterested and failed terribly, using language and contextual situations. To avoid this, there are a few techniques you can employ in your class. One understanding what grammar is and how it works allows you to understand better the errors and challenges your students space? A. This refers to how the piece of grammar is put together. The words it consists off example. I have traveled to Frankfurt three times. The form is have plus past participle form of the verb be. This is also referred to as meaning or concept. It's what the speaker means when he or she uses that particular grammar structure. You can use questions to check if your students understand the context and function of a grammatical structure. See, this refers to the sound of a particular grammar structure. When you say it, students need to be taught how a certain structure should be pronounced naturally to help them with listening comprehension. This can be done through drilling and repetition till overt instructions. Help students acquire the target language more efficiently and should be incorporated with as many communicative activities as possible. Break your class time into manageable sections and make sure you're introducing and explaining the grammar lesson, demonstrating how it is used in contextual situations. Put into practical use and doing engaging activity that will reinforce your lesson. Three. In the communicative competence model, the purpose of learning grammar is to learn the language of which the grammar is apart. Instructors, therefore, teach grammar forms and structures in relation to meaning and use for the specific communication tasks that students need to complete for at all proficiency levels. Learners produced language that is not exactly the language used by native speakers. Some of the differences air grammatical well. Others involved vocabulary selection and the stakes in the selection of language appropriate for different contexts. In responding to this, be careful not to focus so much on correcting their errors to the point of decreasing their confidence and losing track of the purpose of communication. Remember that you're letting students know about their mistakes for them, toe work on them and improve. Your goal is to build their confidence in their ability to use the language by focusing on the content rather than the Form five. In this approach, students are supposed to complete a task without the teachers help. Then, based on the problem, seen, the teacher addresses and presents the target language. Afterwards, the students will do another task and practice the new language learned. Six. When you teach language to your students, you have to show how it is used in the best way to do this would be the presented in a clear and interesting context. Learning context could be a really effective way of bringing grammatical structures toe life. It can either be riel personally connected to the learner or simulated. This is very effective because it allows students to relate to the situation, which stimulates their interest and keeps them motivated. It also demonstrates the grammar taught and helps them deal with real life situations. Seven timelines or diagrams that illustrate the reference to time made by a given piece of language. It is used to explain language in a more universal form of pictures, diagrams and symbols. Example. Present perfect, continuous tents. I have been studying French for two years. Eight. There are plenty of games that could be used for studying grammar games, air, highly motivating, challenging and fun. It also allows meaningful use of the language and context. Nine. Have you ever wondered why you remember lyrics of songs that you just recently heard? Well, that's probably because the song was interesting for you. It works the same with grammar. We incorporate music and sing words, phrases or sentences in class. It will be embedded in your students minds a lot faster. This is particularly true with young Children or even teenagers. 10 is another way to make grammar easier to digest for your students. Make sure the story you will use makes use of the target grammar structure. It also helps your students to relate to this story on a personal level. If your students are adults, you can use a story that relates toe working sports money, etcetera. Make sure the stories you use, our level appropriate. 12. Techniques For Teaching Grammar: the transition from knowing grammatical rules and being able to apply those rules and communication is often a frustration for both language teachers and learners. This reflects a gap between declared of and procedural knowledge declared of knowledge is knowledge about something. It enables a student to describe a rule of grammar and apply it in practice drills. Procedural knowledge is knowledge of how to do something. It enables a student to apply rule of grammar in communication. Procedural knowledge does not automatically translate to declare it of knowledge, and vice versa. Many native speakers can use their language correctly without being able to explain grammatical rules. At the same time, students can state different grammatical rules but have a difficult time applying those rules when speaking or writing. To address this gap, you can apply these strategies. One, if your students goal is to learn the language to be able to use it. For further studies, like reading journal articles or research papers, then focus more on the declared of knowledge and discourse structures that will help them understand those texts. If their goal is to travel and immerse themselves in a country that speaks the language than focus on the procedural knowledge that will help them manage everyday Orel and ridden interactions. Till recognize that by developing your students declared of knowledge, you are also hastening their development of procedural knowledge. Teaching students how language works and giving them opportunities to compare it to other languages they know allows them to draw on critical thinking and analytical skills. Three. Understand that students develop their declared of and procedural knowledge based on the input that they receive. This input includes both finely tuned input that requires students to pay attention to the relationships among form, meaning and use for a specific grammar rule and roughly tuned input that allow students to encounter the grammar rule in a variety of contexts. Four. Discourse analyst. Does Beiber, as demonstrated that different communication types can be characterized by the clusters of linguistic features that are common to those types, verb tense and aspect. Sentence length and structure and larger discourse patterns may all contribute to the distinctive profile of a given communication type. For example, a history textbook in a newspaper article in English both use past tense verbs almost exclusively. However, the newspaper article will you short sentences in a discourse pattern that alternates between subjects or perspectives. The history textbook will use complex sentences and will follow a timeline in its discourse . Structure. Awareness of these features allow students to anticipate the forms and structures they will encounter in a given communication task. Five mechanical drills each prompt has only one correct response, and students can complete the exercise without attending to meeting there the least useful because they bear little resemblance to real communication. They do not require students to learn anything. They only require parroting of pattern or rule meaningful drills. Each project has only one correct response, and students must attend to meeting to complete the exercise. They can help students develop understanding of the workings of rules of grammar because they require students to make four meaning correlations communicative drills. Each prompter dialogue is given to students to role play. It requires students to be aware of the relationships among form, meaning and use. It is best to do mechanical drills before you begin meaningful drills, which are more difficult because students have to provide information in addition to the correct language form. This is how you could teach parallel structure. This is the first part of a four part series about parallel structure. Your students can make their writing clearer by creating word patterns that readers can easily follow an increase readability. There are a bunch of things we have to cover, since we can use parallel structure with correlative, conjunctions, coordinating conjunctions, phrases or clauses of comparison and leszcz, let's start by giving our students a definition and writing it on the board. Parallel structure, also known as parallelism or parallel construction, is a balance within one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses that have the same grammatical structure. At this point, I don't think many students will be any wiser, so it's time for some examples. This is not parallel Paul, like swimming the cinema and to take afternoon naps. This is parallel. Paul likes to swim, attend the cinema and take afternoon naps. Another option would be Paul like swimming, attending the cinema and taking afternoon naps. Think of a few more examples and let your students think of some to, but for now, keep it simple to provide authentic assessment of students. Grammar, proficiency and evaluation must reflect real life uses of grammar in context, meaning your activity must have a purpose other than merely assessment. Require students to demonstrate their level of grammar for efficiency by completing tasks. Concept questions. Check the understanding of difficult facets of the target language. It should be simple to understand and to answer. Example, If I win the lottery, I'll buy a 1962 Ferrari to 50 GTO concept questions. Did I win the lottery? No. Will I win the lottery? Maybe. Well, I buy the car. Maybe. Do I have a lottery ticket? Possibly. What conditional form is the sentence? In first conditional mechanical tests motivate students to memorize. It can therefore serves a prompt to memorize irregular forms and vocabulary words. However, it only tests your students memory. Don't use it to test language ability. 13. Live Class In Session: Grammar: good morning. Today we're going to be learning a little bit more about life. Experiences are gold. By the end of the lesson is to be ableto ask questions confidently to one another I would like you to do to start off with. Is it gonna work in pairs? You gonna play a game called Have you ever? I'm gonna give you this handout. What you'll see is on the different boxes. There is tasks for you to complete the sentence. Have you ever You're gonna complete it with questions such as? Get seasick. Now, have you ever get seasick? Does not make sense. See you to think about the way to correct it. So that is in the right tense. We're going to discuss this afterwards, but I want to see what knowledge you come to the lesson with. First, you could be working in pairs to start off with. Please take turns to do this as you go, I may ask for some volunteers once you've started, so please start working together. Work your way through the boxes, correcting the tenses of what you're saying. Off you go. Please ask the questions to each other. You want to stop. So you start with this. Have you ever? And then you've got to think live in another country. Is that the present tens of the past tense? Do you want to say good? So how would you What would you change here? How would you change live into the past tense? Good. Well done. You've had a D on the end of live. Yeah. So it would turn into Have you ever Well done. Correct. Have you ever lived in another country? Yes. Do you on time again? And I said, Okay. Start off with the beginning of the sentence. Have you ever? Good. Now I want you to take take turns choosing which boxes and see whether you can correct them so that they're the right tense. Christine can Hey, have you ever I say, say the first words may have you isn't if it's if it's in the past, how would you change? Meet good. Well done. OK. Do you want to go choose whichever one you want? Have you ever Mr One? Have you ever? Okay. Does that make sense? How would you change? Lose into the past tense. Well done. From the T on the end Good. Changing the E to the T. Can you repeat it together for me now with the correct Well done. Correct. So working partners to make sure you get me a pronunciation correct as well as moving into the past tense to continue on our theme of asking questions, we're going to work on the present perfect tense. Here are some examples on the board What you need to understand is that you can use has all have with the past participle If you look on here, what I've done is color coded Akwa color for at the start and then plus the past participle . The present perfect is color coded plus the past participle. First example. You have seen that movie many times. Second, have you seen that movie? Many times You see the way that the question changes around which way the present perfect at the past participle come. And the third example you have not seen that movie many times again, a change around as well by including the negative. Okay, What I want you to do for our next activity is I want you to first of all, complete the gaps on this sheet. Both the A and B gaps for each question because afterwards I'm gonna label you A and B and you're going to try and complete a dialogue with one another with your answers, checking verbally that you have got them correct for the present. Perfect tense. Okay, we can go through number one together if you wish. Hey, look at the three words you eat ever seaweed. It's a question. So which one of these would would be using if it's a question Well done, Hannah. Good. So do you want to say that out loud? It's is that Have you ever eat seaweed? Good. Well corrected. Anyone want to go for B? Yes. No, I I have never Well corrected. Good. Well done. Well corrected. I have never eaten seaweed. So do you see the way you individually are going to complete the task sheets and then we're going to work in pairs as I label you A and B to complete your dialogues. Off you go. Thank you. Okay. Having do you want to have a go? A b for me? Why? I haven't No, I haven't even teens. Good. We just go back to the beginning. You want to say No, I haven't yet. Oh, yes, I have. So which one you going for? I haven't correct. Well done. Let's do the second half of the sentence. I and then what we use, that is I I have never I haven't never eaten. Oh, I haven't never eaten or haven't ever, is it? Haven't never all haven't ever having correct well done. Good. Next, we're gonna work on sentences of transformation. In the past, you had to choose the correct word for the sentence. This time round. Both sentences will make sense. But there's two different ways you can say them According to whether you're being specific or general, If we take a look at the board, the two words we're gonna look at our four Andi, since they're commonly used words with the perfect present tense full as an example we use to talk about a period of time. It's more of a general approach. For example, I haven't smoked for weeks. We don't know how many weeks, but we know it's a general period of time. On the other hand, since is used, we talk about a specific point in time or when the action started For example, I haven't smoked since 2000 and 10. That's given us a specific point in time. So you've got the general on the specific. What I want you to do is you're going to work in pairs of one sheet between two. And you're going to decide how to change sentences so that they use either four or since, please, a variety of both of them in there. They both can make sense. So is your choices to which, which one you do. If you look at the example of the top, it talks about a particular kind of watch, so you could choose the watch that you're using. For this example, we can use a Seiko 1st 1 says I have had my Seiko watch four years. Okay, Now you can see that's what a general amount of time. On the other hand, if we use since we get specific, I have had my Seiko watch since my 18th birthday. Have specified exactly when it is that you got your watch. Okay? I want you to now work in pairs and get a variety of both since on four sentences. I see you one, please. So we need to use since or four. So I live in two G for for Do you want you need You want being specifically reading, general. Okay, So if you're being specific, do we use four or since since. Good. So we can change that round. Good. Much better. Okay, so if you change since 2000 and 30. Good. Ok. Could you change that? Could you say I've lived in too big for How could you make it so that it's General? Could you make it, generals, if you can use four as well? Yeah. How could you use for I've lived in two g four first? Yes, making that plural years. Yeah. Or weeks? Months? Yes, Much more generalized. Well done. Next, we're going to put our practice into a real life situation of an interview. For this, we're gonna have to work in threes will divide you into that. In a minute. You're going to have one person who is going to be the job applicant. That's gonna be person number one. Person number two and three gonna work together as the interviewer's. All three of you are going to use the present perfect simple tents to make this run smoothly. You're going to be given sheets to help you prepare. So in the situation, the applicant must be preparing examples of their experience using the present perfect, simple tense. The interviewers will work together to welcome the candidate initially and then ask questions just like we prepared at the beginning using the present perfect simple tense. Okay, so if 123 work together, if 123 set person one is a job applicant two and three of the interviewer's. And then 12 Oh, I think about a 123 together. Off again. Thank you. If you three want a group together. Thank you. So you're going to welcome her into the room? Yeah. So how long have you been working this breaking, isn't it? Who is with with full? Do be a general or specific General. So is a week. General or specific is a week. You could say a few weeks. Yeah, One week sounds specific. A week is like specific. Yeah, so we need to get a bit more general. So maybe you could say for a while or for a few weeks. A few weeks is general a week suggests one that specific. Good. Yeah, Well, identify well supported. There. We give that another game. We're Do you want to know how many? Because she's been general. What could you ask her? Were home one. It is full. Or do you want to give it? If you're gonna be specific? Do we use for? Since cso I've been working is estate agents since since one week ago. Okay, give that another go. Your question again. So how many for me? For how long? Since one this one week ago. Good. OK, well done. It was great hearing you speak there in practice and I'd like to invite two of you appear to demonstrate to the rest of the class how we can make this work. So, Hannah Melvin, we'd like to come take a seat, see if we can understand who is the interviewer. He was the applicant. Either way. Take us a okay. Thank you, Guys. Off you go. Yes, please. Good. What? Good. Good. So when you start working, see this. That's well done. Well corrected Their good use of since and four already four times it's being used. Well done. Andi also welcomed the candidate Well in a good formal situation. Anybody make any improvements on that or any further questions to help Melvin out here? No good. They did well, didn't they? Thanks very much, Guys. Want to take your seats again? 14. Characteristics of Words: spending all your time learning grammar will go in vain if you don't put as much effort to learn words and expressions. Likewise, no matter how well you teach your students grammar, it won't be enough to communicate properly if they have poor vocabulary. In this module, you'll learn about words and their meanings. Understanding the meaning of words will allow your students to convey their ideas. Even with pronunciation or grammar mistakes. Learners of second languages may feel lost when reading a simple text. They may come across words that are unfamiliar or that are vague. They may even meet concepts that are presented differently or don't exist in their first language. When your students learn new words, you should guide them to focus on a few characteristics. Words have several different meanings. It's important to know them because they could be expressed differently from one language to another. Boards can be divided into groups based on their semantic relations. Synonyms words with the same or almost the same meaning big, huge, humongous, large, giant, vast, great, enormous, gigantic and synonyms words with opposite meetings. Tall, short, big, small, near far narrow, wide, soft part Piper Enemy words with more general or super ordinate meetings. To other words, shape is the hyper nim of square circle triangle Oval Star rectangle hi panem e words that are subordinate toe words with more general meaning apple, orange, banana, kiwi grapes. Pomegranates are high panem e of fruits, Marana Me. Words that are semantically part of something hold roots, stem leaves. Flowers are Marana me of a plant, Alana Me words that other words are part off body is the Holon IMM of head, toes, hands, arms, legs, knees and waste hominum words with the same spelling hama graphs or pronunciation Hama phones, but with a different meaning. Their place, they're belongs to them. There they are, Polly Samy words with different multiples. But closely related meetings head part of the body above the neck, or a person in charge of an organization nurse serving the needs of others or someone who serves the needs of others. Words can have several forms. They could denounce verbs, adjectives or adverbs. Adding grammatical or lexical affixes to the root can change awards form. Students must be aware of these affixes because it can help them. Guess the meaning of the word, the prefix her is used to express negation as well as M in an UN the Suffolk's mint. Young and Shun are used to form announce from verbs. Spelling refers to how word is written. It is important to spell the word correctly because it represents the spoken word. Thus, to avoid misunderstanding, pronunciation refers to a way of word is spoken. There are three accepted standards for English pronunciation received pronunciation for the UK, General American for the U. S. A. And General Australian for Australia, be careful when teaching both spelling and pronunciation. There are some words that are pronounced differently from how they're spelled publications or two or more words that often go together. They're often used by native speakers. However, second language learners might find it difficult to use and understand them. Hence, it is important for students to learn cull occasions so that they will be able to express themselves more creatively, sound more naturally and be easily understood. It's the point in a word or phrase were pitch changes, vows, lengthen and volume increases. Changing the stress of a word with two or more syllables may help a student determine its form. It is also important in expressing the meaning of words and phrases or sentences. Here's a fun vocabulary activity. Expanding vocabulary. Expanding the vocabulary of your students is a certain way to improve their English language skills. You can do this in a fun way using a deck of cards. The activity involves assigning letters to the 13 cards of a normal playing deck. The key is to assign to different letters to each card, not necessarily in sequence right. The card, name and letters you have assigned on the board Divide students into two teams. Choose a category When you pick a card, each team can use the letters assigned to their column, shuffle the cards and draw one. Ask your students to come up with a word, one for each team but related to the category. For instance, if you draw 41 team can call out outfield while the other says baseball. To make it more fun. Assigned points for each correct answer and set a time limit. You can assign different categories to each team or even make multiple categories to make the game more comprehensive. 15. Teaching Vocabulary: teaching vocabulary. Learning words doesn't happen with just a snap of your fingers. It is a continuous process that happens wherever whenever we expand our vocabulary through the things we see, the sounds that we hear and the movements that we make. Guidelines for teaching vocabulary Karen Bromley gave nine guidelines for teaching vocabulary. Effectively connect prior knowledge. Provide opportunities for students to connect similarities and differences between new vocabulary and what they already know. Share meta cognitive knowledge. Provide strategies for knowing and learning words to your students. Actively engage students in a variety of ways. Help your students manipulate words, Talk about them. Encounter them in a variety of context. Explore their dimensions and compare and contrast them. Create a word rich environment. Observe your students learning environment. Are there visible prints? Is their opportunity for students to talk among themselves? How is vocabulary learned across content areas? Are there a variety of books available? In short, create an environment that allows students to learn from their surroundings and through interaction, Don't fall into the pre teaching vocabulary trap. Be flexible. Vocabulary doesn't always have to be taught with books and dictionaries before studying a topic. Instead, let them discover and figure out words independently through games and activities. Apply strategies across the curriculum. Learning vocabulary should not only be done during reading class, it should stretch across other disciplines as well. Teach strategies for independence. When students construct meaning for themselves, it is more effective than having meetings imposed by someone else teach students how they can figure out unknown words on their own share. The benefits of learning words lets students understand that developing the row, Cavalleri will prove to be useful for them in life. Don't forget no Monix. They simply aid and improve your students memory. There is really no right or wrong way of teaching vocabulary. However, there certainly are ways that provide teachers and students with better results. Here are some examples of creative, effective and memorable ways to teach vocabulary without the stress that it brings. Engage your students visually aurally and kin aesthetically. Tap into your students senses by letting them experience vocabulary words. You may bring in some real Aaliyah pictures. Use sounds acted out. My mid play games, etcetera. Use the semantics of the vocabulary words to explore its meaning. For example, you may explain a vocabulary word by providing multiple and simpler synonyms and anti Nimes . This not only expands their vocabulary further, but it gives them a chance to associate it toe other words they're already familiar with. Ready Set. Repeat. No, we're not talking about rote learning. Repetition is a time tested way of remembering new words. However, simple repetition will not encourage long term memorization. Exposing your students the vocabulary words repeatedly over spaced intervals will do the trick. It could be through displays in the classroom conversation or reading materials out of sight. Out of mind words will be easily forgotten if they're not put to good use. Give your students plenty of opportunity to use words in writing and in conversation. Check how they use the words to communicate concept questions. Ask concept questions to check. If your students understand the vocabulary word. Sequence your vocabulary lesson properly. Consider the following steps When presenting a new word to your students present. Present your word through different techniques. Illicit. Don't spoon. Feed the words to your students. Draw the answers from your students feed. If they really don't know the word, feed them information that will lead them to it. Czech concept. Check of students can follow the discussion by asking concept questions. Drill. Ask your students to repeat the words together or individually, right? Right. The word an elaborate on its grammar and pronunciation. Don't overdo it. Do not overload your students with the vocabulary. Even a native speaker has limits as to how much vocabulary they can absorb in one productive day. 16. Vocabulary Games and Activities: students will definitely enjoy learning vocabulary through a variety of fun and engaging activities other than the traditional ones. There are some games and activities they might enjoy activities. Word cards ask teams to write a vocabulary word on one side of the paper and its translation in their native language on the back. Students can use this to test their knowledge of vocabulary words taught in class, peer teaching and testing. Pair off students at the beginning of the lesson and asked them to compare word cards. Encourage them to teach and test each other word trees. This activity can help students recognize how words grow from base words and root words. Ask students to write base words or root words on individual cards, their meaning and 3 to 5 more words that contain that part. Stick the cards on a tree design in the classroom for students to see semantic maps using semantic maps have been proven effective for eliciting prior knowledge and new ideas from students. Underlining after your reading comprehension activity. Ask your students to underline at least 10 or more words now owns verbs, adjectives, words they don't know etcetera from the passage then grew prepare your students and let them discuss the words and do peer checking games. Memory game. This can be done by using a box and putting materials inside the box. Ask your students to sit in a circle and put the box in the middle. Let your students look at the contents of the box and give them a minute to memorize it afterwards, past the box clockwise, with the first students saying the item he or she remembers from the box, followed by the next student and the student after example. Student. One pencil student, too. Pencil paper student, three pencil paper sharpener and so on. Categories. Students work in pairs or small groups on a piece of paper. They draw five columns following a model in the board. Each column labeled with the name of a lexical set. Fruits, transport, animals, etcetera. The teacher calls at a letter of the alphabet. See, and with limited time students write down as many words as they can, beginning with that letter. Under the separate columns, the group, or pair with the most number of correct words wins knots and crosses, draw two knots and crosses grids in the board. One is blank and the other labeled with categories related to the vocabulary. Words prepare questions for each category. Divide the class into two teams, knots and crosses. The goal is for the two teams to take turns choosing a category and answering the questions correctly to earn the right to place their symbol on the blank grid. The first team to create a pattern wins the game. Coffee pot. This is a kind of guessing game where one student answers yes or no questions from the rest of the group or class, about a verb given to him or her by the teacher. In the questions, the words coffee pot are used in the place of the mystery verb. For example, the verb is laugh. The questions could be. Do you coffee pot in the classroom? Yes. Is coffee pot easy to do? Yes. Can you coffee pot with your hands? No, etcetera. They do this until I guess the word. Pictionary students gets a word or phrase based on drawings. They work in teams and take turns to be the artist. Cue cards or words will come from the teacher. The team who makes the most number of guesses wins at the end of the game, the teacher can use the drones to prompt students to recall the vocabulary words past the world Group students into three or more, depending on how many students you have, ask students to form a straight line. Students at the end of the line will look at the picture or word that the teacher will show and pass the word to the person in front and so on until it reaches the person in front. The person in front of the line spells the word on the board. The group who gets the most number of correctly spelled words wins hang man. Choose a word that the students already know and right Dash is on the board to represent each letter. Students take turns at guessing the letter. If the word contains the letter, replace the dash with it. If not, draw a section of the scaffold. The students win. If they guess the word before getting hanged, take into consideration the age of your students. If drawing a hanging man is too violent, replace your drawing with a dog bone, slowly being chewed for mistakes. Use your creativity word. Search students have to find a specific number of words in the square of letters. Clues or meanings may be provided for the students I spy. This is another type of guessing game where the teacher described an object by saying, I spy a The students take turns in guessing what it is. The object must be visible to the students. Anagrams. Students rearrange words written on the board to find the correct vocabulary word. More games can help you teach vocabulary in your classroom. Find further details about these games in the games and activities lesson of the second class of this basic temple Siri's. 17. Live Class In Session: Vocabulary: today, we're gonna talk about being at a restaurant on our goal is to be able to look at recipes and ask for certain food groups or meals. So to start off with, I'm gonna go through, show you some images and you're gonna tell me specifically what you see. And I'm gonna tell you the general term for them. So number one we'll ignore. Ignore these. What could this bay come get And beef. Good. Well done. This chicken. Nice. The generic term for this is meats. Okay. Meat. Okay. Here, brands. Pastor. Good. I think we've got I don't know whether you can see this properly. Can you see class on good is like type of pastry. Good thes are wheat wheat products. Okay. Now, I need you to ignore the wheat products that we're on here. That would go in our last category. Can we look more at this cheese And what else might be on there that you might? Somebody said it. Butter cheese. On another thing that would fall into this category would be milk. Okay. Thes are daring products daring. Next. Got my favorite. Anybody tell may work for this one. Yeah, absolute favorite these very expensive. Yeah, Exactly. Delicious good thes of fruits. And lastly, similar to fruit justus. Colorful, but, um, slight difference to it. The's ones. That's similar to salary. But these ones are leaks, Leaks. Pepe felt good. Cabbage. Good thes of vegetables. Okay, technically, tomatoes on here we waken forget about because they belong to the fruit category because they have seeds. So what I'm going to do as you gotta work in your threes on, I'm going to give you a selection off different foods. You're going to decide in your threes by writing on the words I give you whether they fall into the vegetables, meat, fruits, dairy or wheat category that I'm gonna ask one of you to come up after your discussion and to write it underneath the correct column, and we'll all decide whether they're correct or not. Is that okay? Great. If you three work together again. So if we do em, you three work together. If we have a look at this one to start off with, which one with this fall into one orange? Oh, you're already gone away. No problem. Could you give me an example? Which one with this fall into one orange. Good. Well done. So you be right. You could write on their fruit seeking copy on the board. Good. It's a type of cheese. So why is this one over? Have you got Have you done these ones yet? Which ones? This one. Good. I thought you're going to say we've when they said meat. Good on. So then this one would work with this one? Yes. Great. This foot. So can I ask for a volunteer, please? When you're groups. Thank you. Gillian, If you want to come up on if you want to take a pen on, take one category on, choose which way you gonna write on the board? Let's see whether we agree or disagree. Well done, Gillian. That Jillian's taken the probably one of the hardest variety there. Do you agree or disagree? A great. Now hear this one was quite tricky. Why does it fit into the meat category? Good. Well done is a product of an animal. Yeah, and similarly, we could call the meat is the meat and fish. We know that we categorize them differently, but it's that category of flesh that you could eat. Well done. and obviously the salami as well. Good. Well done, Jillian. Can I ask somebody from this group? Thank you. Okay. Let's see whether again, whether we agree or disagree. Brilliant. Well done. Do we agree or disagree? Well done. Anybody out? Anything that they can think could also fit in this category. Anything specific that they could add? Maybe Look at you. Or less. Anything specific that you can think if they could fit in that category. How have you got any idea? Another fruit? No. Brilliant apple. Another example of fruit. Do you guys have an example of a fruit? Grapefruit? Mango. Really brilliant. What did he say? Good. Why does tomato fit in the fruit category has the seeds in it. Well done. Ok. And lastly, who's gonna get up? Fantastic. Let's see whether we agree or disagree. Who could pronounceable first word for May. They say that loud carrots. Thank you. Yep. Lovely second word Trickier. Asparagus well done has put them in the right category. Do we know what they are? Vegetables. Good. Well done. Yes. Carrots being the orange ones that grow in the ground. And asparagus being the longer stalks. Okay, well done. Good job, guys, what I'd like you to do now it start creating. What we're gonna use is the development of our lesson. Will be using this again towards the end. You're going to create your own menu from a starter through to the main course. And, of course, our favorite, the desert. To do that, you're gonna have to make sure you combine a mixture of your vegetables, meat, fruits, dairy and wheat Thinking about when you would, for example, have meat. Which course it would come into. Which course would you mostly have a meat in? What do you reckon? Main dish. Good. Would it fall into the desert? Fruits would fall into the desert. Yes, absolutely. So please start completing your menus. Thinking about the types of food you would have in each course. Don't be general. Don't give the food titles. Give the specific foods You can use the examples that you had from this starter. If you want to write down your menu So what type of things would you have in your starter? Wheat? What type? What type of wheat bread. Good. What we want. Want what? Might you have the bread with dairy. What what dairy, but a good well done. What might you have for your starters? Good to have all had an idea. Now off. What foods fall into which categories? From this, we're gonna develop your vocabulary so that we can then make our own recipes. What I'm going to do is I'm going to show you some words. I'll pronounce it, then ask you to repeat, and I'll explain what the word means. 1st 1 is dessert good. It's normally comes at the end of a meal, and it's normally something sweet or something that is taken in a smaller portion to your main meal breakfast. Okay, this comes from the idea that you break your fast after your sleep, so it's your first meal in the day dinner. Good. This is normally them your main meal of the day, and it's the third meal that you have out of the three meals in the day. Lunch. Good. This comes in the middle of the day on your desks in front of you. You have one sheet between three. I want you to work collaboratively to think about a type of meal you're going to make a recipe for so you can choose whether it's breakfast, lunch or dinner. You're only gonna choose one meal. You're gonna choose the types of ingredients that go in there. Don't worry. We're not actually gonna cook these. They don't need to taste perfect. We want to make sure that you understand the right combinations and what time of day that they come in. So if you could work collaboratively Jews the type of meal on a specific recipe that you can create off again what a meal type of you. Have you chosen dinner? Good. And what? We decided on a recipe that you want to make lasagna. Good. So what type of things will you need to include in lasagna, Pastor? Correct. And what type of meat? Lean meat. What type you thinking? Breakfast. Okay, So what time of day does that come? What we are? When do we have breakfast? Good. Yet? So what type of what type of food groups would we evolve? So breads You could have a sandwich. Yeah, absolutely. What would you put in the sandwich yet? Dairy. What? Dairy. Okay, So from the start of the lesson where we started, sound in the words out and categorizing them. We've then advanced into practicing by writing it down collaboratively. Now, want to put it into a real life situation? You're gonna practice in threes, being waiters and customers. For this to work, you need to understand the difference between this sort of formal and informal ways that you can request or offer support. So if you're using, would like to make offers and requests your being more polite. Okay. Is it slightly more formal if you use can, it's more casual. K count isn't rude. It was more casual. So, for example, if you're making offers can help. Kim is casual, a little bit more informal, whereas would you like to? Would you like to have a starter? Chicken that. There you go. It's a little bit more formal is a bit more polite. Okay. Same over here. I'd like to have the set lunch. Okay. You see, that's the response. Another response. I'd like to have a bowl of soup, please. Okay. You can see on here. You have one person that's working as a waiter. The response is going to come from the customer. You're gonna work in threes. One of you is a waiter. one of the other customer and the other one listening as to whether they're getting the commands correct. Look, if these sheets out, you can rotate. Who's the waiter who's the customer and who's the person listening to see whether you've got it correct as well. You're gonna have to think what drinks you might want to order. So which one of you is gonna be the waiter? Thank you. Who could be the customer? Thank you. You're gonna listen out as to whether they're being specific is what they're going to order . Okay, So the way to starts. Good. It says you're going to serve the asas. Yeah. Asked what started main course, because we would like. So, do you want to have a starter? Uh, I think good. On a main course. What could you have for a main course? So you'd have a starter? Main course dessert. That's the main dish. So hopefully have had some chances to experiment yourselves with the types of dishes you could have, whether it be a breakfast, lunch or dinner and starters. Main is a desert so that we can see this in practice of what would it look like in reality . Could I invite Hannah, Melvin and Irwin up to perform their dialogue, please? Thank you. Which one of you is going to be the waiter? Thankful in which one of you is gonna be the customer. Thanks, Hannah. And you're the observer, then. Thank you. Great. Off you go. Well, good. Is that correct? Can they have a super good starter? Is that the good and a chicken adobo rice? Is that a main course? Fantastic. Do you see the way they can understand? They're the types of foods that would fit into a dinner menu in a restaurant. How did hey do as a waiter? More than good. And he was very polite as well with welcome them in the first place. So, as you can see here, what we've been able to do is not only learned the vocabulary, but understand what meal they fit into, What time of day And even when it comes to maybe lunch, but more often a dinner time money with when you have a starters, main and dessert, what type of food for falls into what category? And we can do it either in a more informal environment or a more formal environment. Well done. Congratulations. 18. Teaching English in Thailand: I love Thailand, and my first impression was that it's a real melting pot of different cultures and people. Really modern with really traditional things can all mix together chaos and order. It's a cool place to live. Teaching English for about a year-and-a-half. Now I started off in the UK teaching at some schools in between semesters at university. Actually, I came here as a study abroad student when I was finishing up my university. And so then once my university was finished, I got into teaching. I chose to come to Bangkok because I've been here several times, are the two is before. And I've always enjoyed my time here. From a work perspective. There's a big market for teaching English. It's a great city, I think most people recognize it. Bangkok is a world city now. And in terms of its location in Southeast Asia, it's really well located. The flight C, you can be in Indonesia, China, Hong Kong, my mob within an hour, two hours. And it's also relatively cheap to travel within Southeast Asian region and also within Thailand itself. If you want the city you got Bangkok. If you want to go trekking, You can go to Chiang Mai. If you want the beaches. You can go to the South and then there's include in the weather. So all around it's no place to live. Bangkok is a city that is always developing. So during the time that I've lived here, I've seen lots of new construction, lots of new condominiums, Bean Belt, lots of new shopping malls. Shopping malls are very popular here in Asia. And even the transportation system has expanded a lot. In terms of living conditions. There's a lot of availability even been called because it's a buyers market. They built many new condos recently, so there's lots of empty condo, so it's quite easy to find warm. I think most teachers here, they rent an apartment in the city. That's what I've done the whole time I've lived here. It's very easy, convenient. You can live in the heart of the city, use the public transportation. I live in a small apartment downtown, which I found on my own. It's a studio apartment. It's quite easy to find accommodation. And Bangkok, there are apartments and condominiums all over the city. You pay more if you live right downtown. You can small, small space. The cost delivery compared to salaries is pretty good. I think you can live your quite well with width what you earn. I initially found the job on on the internet and they invited me to come in for an interview in person. So I flew myself here and interviewed with the school and started working. A few weeks later. I actually, I did my TEFL course through my current school and at the end of the course they hired me. The qualifications I have I have a degree from a university in the UK. It's not specific to education. And then while I was in the UK, I got a TEFL Certificate, one of the 120 our ones, which is just one of the many certificates which you can use to teach English. There are varying degrees of price and availability. Some people have a cell to a TEFL, but mainly in Thailand, the main requirement is a Tafel. In terms of the curriculum, be school providers with a book for that particular level which we're teaching. But I mean the lessons are 2.5 hours, have a page or two to work with. So there's always some additional material which we have to supply and create ourselves. But there's always a base to work with, but it's quite flexible in terms of as long as you are including the grammar points, or as long as you are including the specific target language for that day, were allowed to be slightly creative, but there is something to work with which is helpful that you don't have to make something up out of nowhere. I think the ties are more fun, maybe slightly more relaxed. You can ask the students to do anything to be silly, to be creative. So in that way, I think they're very easy to teach because they're very willing to do whatever you ask. For people who want to come here and teach, they should come first, see how they like it. And don't worry about finding a job before you come. I think the culture here, the atmosphere at different schools is quite relaxed. So they tend to like to meet people face to face and kind of higher on the spot in that sense not in advance from abroad. I'd recommend Thailand or Bangkok specifically because it's very cosmopolitan and it's a comfortable place to live. You have a lot of creature comforts and from home and international food. And there's a lot of ex-pats who, who live here. I suppose I think my main advice would be is just approach it with a sense of fun and a sense of adventure. There will be times when you might want to go a little bit crazy and there will be times when things will be slightly different, but that's really where the phone lines and if you don't take it too seriously and relax into it, you can have a great time, see the world and meet some great people. Up to now. 19. Suprasegmental: It's teaching pronunciation important. Of course, when we teach a new language, it's important to teach students how to pronounce a word or grammatical structure. Learning pronunciation allow students to be aware of how sounds are formed, how words are stressed, and what intonation patterns exist. It also helps them become intelligible speakers and improve their comprehension of spoken language. Here's some key terms you will need to know in order to understand the complexity of teaching pronunciation. Super segmental features. These are features of speech that generally applied to groups of segments or phone hymns. Two important features in English, our stress and intonation. Stresses important. By shifting it around in a word, phrase, or sentence, we change its emphasis in meaning. For example, if you stress all the words in your sentence, you may be perceived as angry or saying something unpleasant, which may result in a misunderstanding. Syllable stress and words. Word stress is the beat on one or more syllables within a word. Examples. For words with only one syllable, the stress mark appears below the stressed vowel. One. Sand, mine, rows. For words with two or more syllables, there will be one main stress syllable while the other syllables will not be stressed. Japan. Interesting, demand. Mathematics. Mathematical. Mathematician. Sometimes the main stress will change from one syllable to another depending on the function of the word. Record. Record. Phrase, sentence stress is the beat on certain words in a sentence. It can be described as the rhythm of spoken language. When stressing a sentence, it's important to know which should be stressed, in which should be unstressed. Here are two classifications of words in a sentence. Content words are the key words that carry the meaning or sense of the sentence. Structure words or the other words in the sentence that support the content words. They help make the sentence grammatically correct. I will take the exam on Friday. Who are you talking to? Content words are stressed and structure words or unstressed. Draw your students attention to the way stress can change meaning by presenting a phrase or sentence and asking your students what it can mean at the main stress is placed on the different words. The change of stress in a sentence caused by the speakers effort to convey if specific meaning is called logical meaning. Teaching stress. Students need to be taught how to pronounce words correctly. This can be done through coral and individual drilling. You can also provide your students some worksheets with words and ask them to draw stress patterns or classify the words according to stress patterns. You can use dialogs From your course book and go through it, drawing different stress and intonation patterns from your students. Let your students practice individually or in pairs or groups. The term intonation refers to the ability to vary the pitch in tune of speech, the way your voice goes up and down. When we speak, we use intonation to determine meaning and to give us clues about the attitude and feelings of the speaker. You can get an idea whether someone is interested, bored, honest, lying, et cetera. We also use intimidation to show how certain we are about what we're saying to indicate what response do we expect? It's crucial when communicating meaning. Intonation patterns. Sometimes we can use the same word but convey different meanings. For example, the word, okay? You can say it using different intonation patterns to change this meeting. We agree with something enthusiastically. We finally agree with something you don't like. When you show interest and encouragement. When you're amused, when you're bored, when you're asking about someone's condition. Here are seven basic intonation patterns. She's a model. He wants to cook dinner. I was very happy. They came back from Germany yesterday. What did she say? What did Marvin go? Is that your mother? Did you win the lottery? Their fringe, aren't they? Jonas better, Isn't she? He's cute, but not that handsome. The pasta was yummy, but the others weren't. This pattern is often used to sit out other signals to an addition, a reservation. It may, for example, express warning and even irony. I bought pasta, meat, cheese, herbs, and wine. After eating dinner, she went to sleep. Very often. The use of a rise means the speaker is not finished. A fall often indicates the end of the message. It is important to drill students correlate and individually so that they will learn them as they learn a popular tune or a nursery rhyme. Some teachers like to exaggerate, which helps students figure out intonation patterns clearly. Letting students listen to recorded dialogues is another helpful way to learn intonation patterns. Leave pauses between sentences so students can try repeating them. 20. Phonenems: Phonemes are different sounds within a language. The symbols which represent these sounds are called phonetic script, also called Phonemic scrip, phonetic phonemic alphabet. In most bilingual dictionaries, next to the word, you can find his pronunciation written in symbols. This helps foreigners to pronounce new words properly. Teaching phonetic alphabet to students is an open debate. Some teachers think that learning phonetic alphabet can be too much of a burden for students, while others think it's necessary to at least know how to read it, since some of the words in English are spelled differently from how they're pronounced. There are 44 sounds and the phonetic alphabet, 20 vowels and 24 consonants. There are words that may have the same sound but have different spelling. Consonants. Sounds formed when your tongue, lips, etc, partly or completely stop the air current. For example, in R, k, T. Voice sounds occur when the vocal cords and the larynx and vibrate. Book, bat, Balloon, Dog, Day, desk, door. Gut, give game, gorilla. Very volume. Vast. The the father. Worthy. Love. Linger. Right? Run. Hungry. Yeah. Yes. Yellow. Yesterday. What? Well, we window much. Milk. Monday. Mother is x2 rows because Asia, jump, vision, pleasure. Gender, juice, jet. No name, no. Inside. Seeing ring. Drunk. Unvoiced sounds occur when there is no vibration produced. It's easy to tell whether a sound is voiced or not. Simply place your fingers on top of your Adam's apple and feel whether it vibrates or not, for example. And when you make the sound, your vocal cords do not vibrate at all. When you make the sound, you will feel a vibration. Pin, panic, trap, table, tower, territory, cat, strike, counter. Fish. Follow. Fear. Think, throw, think. Less. City. Rice, sheep, shirt, fashion. Chin. Chin. Chart. Church. Vowels sound pronounced with an open mouth and the tongue touching the cheek. Top of the mouth, et cetera. For example, a, e, I, o, u. The term pure is simply use the separate vowel sounds from diphthongs. Long vowels, e, sheep, clean, week, farm, com, bother. Ooh, ooh, ooh. Boots. Parse, call, SAW or bird. Urn. Word. Ship, clip. At, Pat, Man. Foot, box, socks, cup, love. Head, bread. Above item. Mother. Her worm. Diphthongs are a combination of vowel sounds. English language has eight diphthongs which can be usefully grouped in the following ways. Sintering, ear, ear, fear. We're a, a payer stair where UA, pure her cure, closing, a day. Cray, stay. I, I ride life. Boy, boy, joy, toy. Our mouth. Now sound. Oh, nos, grow. Rows. Let's take a look at the following words and sentences and phonemic scripted information. Unbelievable. I will go to church on Sunday. Are you okay? They are having a party. Notice that some sounds disappear or change their quality and connected speech. It's important to teach natural English pronunciation to students through demonstration and drilling. Some native language speakers may have problems with certain sounds depending on where they come from. Deliver rising yourself with these may help you identify the cause of your students intelligibility or comprehension problems. Teacher sometimes want to focus on particular sounds or pair of sounds to make students aware of their pronunciation difference. Demonstrate the sound you want to teach using words your students are familiar with. Examples. Week, steel, meal, feet, hit, sit, fit, Tip, Drill awards to practice the difference between a and E. Keane. Kin, feet, fit, steel, still, seat, Sit, drill, target sounds and sentences. I want it. They will go to France. I ate ships during the movie. I want to eat. The wheels are flat. I like sweets. Let your students that identify the correct sound through an exercise. After demonstrating, drilling, and checking, let your students do activities to apply what they learned. Phonemic bingo. Instead of having words in the bingo cards, replace them with the phonetic alphabet. When the teacher says a word, students cross out the sound of their bingo cards until they form a pattern. Phonetic noughts and crosses, right? A sound in each square and claim the square by saying a word that contains that sound. Tongue twisters. She sells seashells by the seashore. Should you require students to speak perfect English like native speakers, or should it be enough for them to understand and be understood? Many second-language speakers prefer not to sound like a native speaker because they would prefer to retain their native accent and keep their identity. Other struggled to copy the exact pronunciation of words. Keep in mind that the main goal of learning pronunciation is to be intelligible correctly students mistakes as necessary to avoid misunderstanding. For example, you heard your students say eat, but pronounced it as it, then they must be corrected right away. However, there are some students who prefer to speak like native English speakers. Of course, if that's the case, then don't deny them their objective. You don't really speak like the Queen of England to be an ESL teacher. In fact, there are only about 3% of the population in Britain who speaks Received Pronunciation, otherwise called the Queen's English. However, despite its declining usage, RP has been the basis of much modern investigation into pronunciation. And so it's influenced still persists. While it's important for you to model proper English pronunciation, it's still important to stick to your own accent, especially if you haven't mastered an American, British, Irish, Australian accent. Your students need to be aware of these accents to understand that not all English speakers speak the way you do. This way, your students will also learn a variety of accidents and be able to understand L1 speakers and be understood and return. If your students target accident is British or American, you may want to expose them to recordings using these accents and draw their attention to some noticeable differences in pronunciation between the two using phonetic symbols. Butter. But a potato. Potato. Glass. Glass. 21. Live class pronunciation: Good morning. Today we're going to work on pronunciation. We're going to start off by talking about the family. I'm going to divide you into pairs and you're going to speak to each other using a handout that I gave you. A few too wet together, YouTube. Youtube and YouTube. This is the handout I'm going to give you. I'll read it through fee once fast. Hello. My name is Bonnie. You'd obviously put your name in that. I want to introduce you to my family. This is my family. These are my grandparents. This is my grandfather. His name is Robert. This is my grandmother. Her name is money. These are my parents. This is my father. His name is Victor. This is my mother. Her name is Rose. These are my siblings. This is my eldest brother, John. This is my eldest sister, Coretta. This is my second eldest sister, Sandra. This is my younger brother, Jeff. Finally, this is my baby sister, Sally. I'm going to get these out team and I'd like you to work in pairs taking tons. Completing this task, remember to substitute your name and the gap. Please pay particular attention to your S and Z sounds as we'll be focusing, focusing on them for the duration of the lesson. Start with these 2 first, if you want to take it line after line. Okay. Iraq with my family. My grandparents. Good. Vc's, my grandfather. This is my grandmother. Her name's money. Go. Did you hear the difference there between the sounds the container it could be a good uses. My father, he's named Victor. Yeah. That rose. Sound rows. Yeah. Yeah. Well done. Okay. Now what I'd like you to do is to damn good to volunteers up here. And you're going to go through line-by-line, reading it out to see how much progress you've made. Pamela. Jillian, can I ask you to come up? Brilliant, so commoner, if you want to start Julian, and you take it line by line and then we'll hear you guys through it. This is my family. Good. Sounds. Good. Good. Careful with that sound that these are my grandparents. More of this as a sound. Much better. Good. My grandmother. Good, could you say for me? And then these Good, I can hear a difference. Try to make sure there's a difference between that and the misnamed. Much better. Good. Good. This is my sister. My younger brother. Good. Well done. Thank you, guys. Plan to attend to your seats. Thank you. That was a good start with a warm up there. Next, I'm going to go into a little bit more detail about the S and the Z sounds. Hence the S sound. We need to understand that it is unvoiced. That means it doesn't come from our vocal box here. So it doesn't vibrate here. So if you touch two fingers, touch here and go, can you feel anything? No. You can't feel anything. Yes. So that means it's unvoiced. So the counterpart is the sound. So if you take, if you have a little look to make the sound of got to make sure our tongue comes to the front and top of our mouth. And there's a little channel that runs down the middle where the air will flow. Your tongue is quite rigid, but your lips aren't that rigid, so you're not hosting ellipsis. A soft sound. Good. You shouldn't feel anything here. The different sound is the sound. This is Voice. Take your two fingers again, put them on your vocal box. Make the same sound, but your tongue to the top again, but push from here. Can you feel it? Yes, that's the difference. Okay. So in the warm up when you are doing this sound, and when you're doing these, that was a z sound. So I want you to first of all say this. And I want you to carry on beds in this list. Can you feel anything? Now? Now we're going to say these. And we're going to carry on the z sound reading these. And if you let, good, there are two sounds we're going to be working on. So what I want us to do next is to complete this activity. And I need some volunteers to do this. I've got a list of words up there, but they're mixed up as to whether their sounds or whether that Z sounds. What I want you to do is identify which category they go into. S. Or the first word we've got is seats. Seat. So you might want to carry on the sound of the end seats. Which one do you think that belongs to him? Good, well done. Absolutely not belongs to the S sound. Okay. The next word, who wants to read out the next word forming. Oh, and could you read out the next word? Good. Which one does it belong to? Correct. Well done. Okay. We're getting on a bit further. Nika, the next workplace. Good. Which sounds you think it belongs to. Feel it. You're getting used to this. Here we go. Seeds. Jillian. So which sound? So juicy seeds or seeds. Or seeds. So which one do you think? Better? Well done. Well corrected. You see if you, if you're stuck, if you're confused, continue the sound and put your two fingers on your throat so you can feel whether you can feel the vibrations. If it's unvoiced, it's as if it's voiced. If you can feel the vibration, it's well done, you make good progress there and they Activity 1. Next we're going to learn a little bit more using tongue twisters. The S and Z sounds into sentences. Tongue twisters a difficult because it's a repetition of consonant sounds, which means that it will be getting a brain to think as fast as possible. Which way round the sounds go to two different sounds are voiced and the unvoiced. So to start, we're going to be the top one. I'm going to try and demonstrate it. Wish me luck. Sinful Caesar seized his knees and sneezed. The second example is a little bit trickier because it involves the th sounds with the S and the Z sounds. It goes a little bit like this. Is this your sisters? What I'd like you to do is have a go at demonstrating it. Does anybody want to go first? Julian? Do you and have a go at this first one. This sound sees dad's got these at the beginning and in the middle. Sees much better, good. And one last time. Much better. Well done. Thank you. Hannah, could you read the second one for me, please? Good. Well done. That's trickier, isn't it? Good? What I'd like you to do now is work in pairs. And I want you to see that maybe you can do a little bit of a competition. I want you to practice taking turns, reading the first one, each of you individually, and then written the second one and see you can do it with the least amount of errors in your pairs while one person is speaking, the other person is listening to make sure the sounds are correct. If you need to put your fingers back on your vocal chords again, that's absolutely fine. There's no problem. Okay, in pairs again. Thank you. Good. I'm impressed. Last thing we're going to do is work on putting this into practice. You're going to be using action games to which conclude S and Z sounds to work in pairs and have a bit of a competition against one another. Each group is going to get to fold a piece of paper inside. Words that you need to keep secret from the other groups were going to pronounce those words. And the other groups, it could have a chance to raise their hand if they think it's an S sound or z sound, the group with the most amount of correct answers wins. So you can take a look at your words in pairs. You can work together, maybe whisper them to each other. We'll practice them. Have a look, make sure you're confident. Check with each other. Make sure you know whether it's an S or Z. Sound. Good. U2 working well. Now the 10 seconds, 3, 2, 1, 0. Ready? Okay, we'll start off with YouTube. So you guys, if you think you know whether it's an S or Z sound, I want you to raise your hand. Okay. Good. Well done. Now, I went to give this again. Yes. S as well. One oh, you guys, I gotta get it. Get involved here. We might make this trickier in a minute by making you try and act it out instead. Yes. Weights to be a bit louder and let them guess. One more time. Louder. Fixes. Well done. Good. Yes. Good. So we've got to 11. Let's see if we can get this team on the school. But Nikkei yes. I would agree, yes. Because the last time that we're passing on Well done, Good. Good, Well done. Good, well done guys. You obviously understand these action words quite well. 22. Teaching Speaking: Stt stands for student talking time, while TTT stands for teacher talking time. Balanced between the two is very important in the English classroom. Students may benefit a lot from TdT. They can improve their pronunciation then be adapted to new sounds, stress, and intonation patterns. It also helps improve their listening and comprehension skills. However, too much TTT lesson students chance to practice and apply the language being learned. Sdt is the top priority. Getting plenty of opportunity for SDT increases students knowledge and confidence and expressing their ideas verbally. Maximizing STT. During the planning stage, choose materials that capture the interest of your students. Clear instruction to your students and avoid using excess metalanguage. Use activities that involve pair or group work. During class. Don't spoon feed information to your students. Elicit answers from your students as much as possible. Ask open-ended questions instead of yes or no questions. Give students ample time to think about their answers and responses. Listen to your students and don't interrupt them when they talk. At the end of class. Make it a habit to correct errors either through class discussion or through pure checking. Get feedback from your students. Ask what they've learned or given them a chance to ask you about certain parts of the discussion which were vague or unclear. Here's some of the most widely you speaking activities. Simulation in role-plays. These activities both provide occasions for students to emulate real life situations. Each simulation should have the following characteristics. Reality function. Students must really feel like a real participant in the given situation, a simulated environment. The teacher must explain the environment clearly. It'll be easy for the students to be in character structure. Students must see how the activity is constructed to carry out the activity effectively. On the other hand, are affected when they're open-ended because students can apply different views on what the outcome could be. Remember to do the following when you have a role-play activity, set a clear scenario conducive to interaction. Define clear roles. Set thinking time. These are games that are aimed to revoke students to talk and communicate with each other. It can either be solving puzzles, drawing pictures, et cetera. Some examples are call my bluff, fishbowl and 20 questions. Many students don't actively participate in discussions either because they're not confident in how they might express your ideas in a given language or simply have no idea to contribute. Buzz group solved this problem, students are given the chance and discuss ideas first in small groups before discussing them in a bigger group. The stress of having a talk in front of many people on the spot reduces as they're already fed with ideas from their small group. Debates are another form of discussion. Students are asked to prepare arguments in favor and against different propositions. Students prepare any topic individually or per group and talk about it in front of the class. This can be very interesting because students are exposed to different ideas and opinions. Questionnaires are useful because they are pre-planned. Therefore, ensuring that both the questioner and responder have something to say to each other. Students may design their own questionnaire about any suitable topic. The results obtained from the questionnaires can be a springboard for other activities in the classroom. Correcting your students errors when speaking is not really difficult task, but may easily go wrong if not done properly. Keep in mind that constant interruption from the teacher destroys the flow and purpose of any speaking activity. Here are a few tips to consider when correcting speaking errors. Observe and listen. During a speaking activity. Observe and listen to your students. Note down positive comments and the errors they committed. Sandwich effect after the activity. Sit a minute or two to discuss with them the notes you made. Start with a positive points, didn't mention the errors they made. Give them time to correct their own mistakes and praise them again for self-correction and for an overall job well done. Avoid individual criticism. For group speaking activities. Be careful not to single out students for a particular mistake. Remember that the goal is to correct mistakes, not to embarrass students. You want to build confidence, not trample on it. If you know you have a good relationship with your students, don't hesitate to correct the errors right away. Just make sure you do it in a discrete and non-obtrusive way. Some students prefer to be corrected on the spot. 23. Teaching Writing: Written text has many conventions which separated from speaking. Students whose native language orthography is different from that of the English language may have a hard time writing English letters. Teachers then should focus on this and give the students plenty of practice. Problematic handwriting may prove to be some sort of hindrance between the writer and reader. Although many written communications take place from a computer keyboard nowadays, encouraging students to have better handwriting is still important, especially for writing personal letters, written homework, journals, and answering exams. Although incorrect spelling doesn't prevent comprehension ever written message, it often provokes negative judgment from readers. For many readers, misspelled words perceived as a lack of education or simply carelessness. One reason for misspelling as the correspondence between the sound of a word and the way it's spelled. As you've learned in Module 6, 1, Val or one diphthong can have several sounds. Get your students to practice the pronunciation of different phonemes and draw their attention to different spelling rules. Another reason is because of the varieties of English being used. Not all words may be spelled the same. For example, color and color. Theater and theater, center, in center or realize and realize. To address this problem to your students to focus on a particular variety of English, British, American, Australian, etc. It will also help to make your students didn't either with different spellings for extensive reading and exposure to written words. There are different punctuation and layout conventions followed by different writers from different cultures. Such differences are noticeable when it comes to how punctuation marks are used and how capitalisation of some words is not done in other languages. Though, usage of punctuation is really a matter of personal writing style, some readers may find a reading material awkward when a writer defies conventional writing practices. There are also differences between genres of writing, such as in the layout of business letter and a personal letter. Letting your students become aware of all these differences may help them modify the writing according to the appropriate norm their readers are used to and therefore be able to convey their messages as clearly as possible. Here's an example how you can teach the proper use of commas. The comma is one of the most used punctuation marks in the English language. Yet, there are students who don't understand how to use commas properly. It is important that they are taught the proper use of commas, so they're writing looks clearer and flows better. Write a sentence without commas on the board. For example, I like ice cream. My favorite flavors are vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry. Considering that our example contains three flavors, it's clear that the second part of the sentence needs commas. Ask your students to point out where they think that comma should be placed. Give feedback, and show your students how this example can be made clearer by using commas. I like ice cream, comma, and my favorite flavors are vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry. Bring your students attention to the comma after chocolate. This is a common mistake. Students new to the English language make. They don't add a comma when listing objects in succession. Once this part is done, educate your students about the use of commas to separate independent clauses which had been combined using prepositions such as and 4. But yet, and so I won't go unless I see you. I was sleepy comma yet I stayed up to afford to keep the guests company. The more examples you provide, the easier it will be for your students to understand how to properly use commas when writing. Students writing with numerous approaches to the practice of writing skills both inside and outside the classroom. Choosing between them as crucial in order to develop students writing habits. When you teach writing, you can either focus on the writing process or the written product. When you concentrate on the written product of your students, you're only interested in the end goal of the written work. Was the objective achieved? Were questions answered? We're all the topics covered. On the other hand, we focused on the writing process. You pay attention to the individual stages that written material goes through. Many teachers favored this because they're able to guide their students thoroughly with the planning, drafting, redrafting, editing, and finally publishing of the written work. No writer can write about things they don't know. The genre approach helps your students to familiarize themselves with their target style of writing. They need to have knowledge of the topic, the standards and style of a specific genre, and the context in which their work will be published, as well as who will read it. This can be considered as a prelude to the writing process. If their task is to write a newspaper article, for example, provide them with newspaper articles and then give them the time to steady the layout and Lexis used in those articles. If their task is to write business letters and then provide them with many examples from the study proper format, and terms used. From the term itself. Creative writing suggests imaginative and unconventional writing, such as plays, stories, poetry, haiku, sonnets, et cetera. Many students enjoy this because of the sense of accomplishment and pride they feel when they finish writing and when they are read by meaning, teachers prefer giving their students creative writing tasks because it engages them in the writing process. Most of the time, students get ideas and inspiration from their personal experiences. This is why they strive harder compared to when they're writing normal homework. Teachers like to take advantage of having a group of students work together to work on a research or class project. Having students work together generates more ideas and makes the task definitely easier compared to individual warn. Students often find themselves writing about ideas they couldn't even have thought of on their own. Co-operative writing can be greatly motivating for students as it involves interaction through writing, research, discussion, pure checking, and group accomplishment. Today's technology, many students and teachers prefer to work with computers for writing practice. Computers provide an easy way for students to write. It eliminates the problem of poor handwriting, spelling errors and quickens the editing process. Having a screen also makes it easier for students to look at the written work at the same time compared to a whole group sharing a piece of paper. Computers also enable students to communicate with people from all over the world. Writing, emails are chatting alone represents another genre of writing or formalities and linguistic accuracy are not given importance. Rather, it considers cultural norms. Always try to include written tasks with your lessons, whether their grammar, vocabulary, speaking activities, et cetera. It's always a good idea to exercise the four skills in one lesson. Although many teachers agree that focusing on writing takes longer than the other skills, the benefits of having a written work cannot be denied. Study the steps to having a successful writing lesson, introduce the topic and let the students discussed it in small groups and get feedback afterwards. Assign the writing tasks. Ask students to focus on the purpose of the task and consider their target readers. Show students sample models to show the correct form. Let your students brainstorm and arrange their ideas and proper sequence. Check the logical sequence of their ideas, edit if necessary. Prepare a rough draft. Let students do peer checking. Ask if all students understand the task. A final task may be done as homework. In every stage of the writing process, remember that you should intercede with editorial comments, suggestions, and advice to motivate students to keep writing. The way you react your students work may either make or break their drive to finish the written task. There are many positive ways of giving your feedback without diminishing your students confidence. Selective correction. This makes the editing process less tedious for teachers and even less daunting for students. Getting papers back that are bleeding with red marks may be very stressful for students. Therefore, teachers may simply focus on a certain aspect of the writing to correct, such as punctuation, verb tenses, her word order. Make sure to discuss it with your students so they're aware not only of your goal, but also the decision on how to edit their work. Marking scales. Many teachers use this to check written tests and projects. Teachers provide categories and give students marks based on new correction symbols. Correction symbols let your students become aware of the mistakes they made and how they can correct them. Reformulation, simply show students how they can write a sentence in a better way. Dictionaries and grammar books. It also helps when you refer students to use available resources. This encourages them to check their work and look for information independently. Ask. We don't mean that students should ask you rather us your students questions. Teachers don't understand the way the students right 100% of the time. A simple solution to this would be to ask your students why they wrote the way they did remedial. It's inevitable for students to commit the same mistakes in their written work. To address this, you may discuss together as a class the common mistakes your students make. Remember to keep it anonymous to avoid embarrassment. 24. What: Righting wrongs isn't always easy. This has long been an issue for all teachers worldwide. Committing mistakes is inevitable. However, if teachers give corrections too frequently or quite forcefully, it diminishes students confidence and motivation to perform and participate in class. On the other hand, if the teacher let it slide and doesn't correct the errors, it may become inherit and eventually tarnish their communication skills. So how are you going to do it? In this module, we'll discuss what causes students to commit errors. Give you tips on how to handle it properly and tell you when the right time to do it is. Errors, mistakes, attempts, errors are systematic missteps that students are unable to self-correct. Errors revealed a teacher's what students have yet to learn, mistakes or non-systematic slips that students can correct themselves. Attempts are usually the mistake students make when they want to say something. They don't know how to say line categorizing errors. Why do students commit mistakes? Let's discuss the following reasons. L1 interference, mother telling interference. This is when the learner's knowledge or the first language interferes with their use of English. I have 27 years. In French, they say, is you having separate ions for saying their age? I am fairly hungry. Arabic speakers have no phonemic distinction between an over-generalization. This happens when students apply general rules that are not applicable in specific situations. Porsche is beautiful or than Candace adding her to comparative adjectives. We go to the park last Saturday, adding ED to regular past tense of verbs, occasional slips. These are the simple mistakes that both native and non-native speakers commit, especially when they speak or write fast without concentrating, especially when they're tired. It's called typographical error for written work. Till types of errors, we can classify errors into the following types. Productive, spoken or written, receptive, inaccurate understanding, lexical, vocabulary, phonological, pronunciation, syntactic, grammar, interpretive misunderstanding or misinterpretation of meaning or context. Pragmatic. Failure to apply rules of conversation. Knowing which mistake they made enables you to provide proper correction and useful feedback. 25. How: It's always a puzzle for teachers why students tend to commit the same mistakes over and over, even after it's been pointed out to them. But making mistakes is an important part of language acquisition for students in, encourages them to be risk-takers. And for teachers, it gives an idea about student's progress. Before giving corrections, consider first the type of activity your students are doing. Students are working on accuracy when they do controlled activities and fluency when they're working on free practice activities. During the warm up and activity stages, mistakes will normally be corrected immediately. This is referred to as immediate correction. During production stage, correction may be saved for later. This is called the layed correction. Types of correction. Self-correction. Students correct their own mistakes. Peer correction. Students correct each other's mistakes. Teacher correction. Teacher makes the correction. It's better to encourage students to do the correction themselves. It's advantageous if they can easily identify their own mistakes, learn from them and avoid making them again, if some students find it difficult to correct themselves, they've encouraged them to help each other through peer correction. Your other option, of course, is to do the correction yourself. When you feel that mistakes need immediate correction, you can execute the following techniques to address them. Facial expressions. When you hear your students make mistakes, you can feign a puzzled expression to give the students an idea that they made a mistake, self-correct automatically when they realize what their mistake was. Hand gestures for short sentences, you can use your fingers to indicate that students missed a word in their sentence. For grammar mistakes, you can use hand gestures to indicate, for example, prepositions are tenses of verbs. Repetition, echoing. Repeat a student's answers up to the point of error and let the student continue or ask them to repeat it themselves. Slowly growing, use drawings to indicate their mistakes. Voice indicate their mistakes by changing the tone, stress, or intonation of your voice. Type of mistake. Identify the type of mistake they made. Options. Give your students weren't options to use. Reformulated, revise your students answers through your response. It is not a good idea to correct your students immediately during a fluency activity. This interrupts their train of thought. Remember, the focus is on communication. What they're saying, not how they're saying it. You may only intervene when there's a pause or when your students are finished. What you can do is take notes of your students mistakes. When the activity is finished, part of your feedback would be the mistakes they made and how they should be corrected. Keep the mistakes anonymous to avoid judgment for peers and not to embarrass students. Proofreading. Written work can also be corrected through proofreading. Again, the target of correction is based on what the activity is or what the objective is. Whether it's fluency or accuracy. Certainly correcting all the mistakes and written work as possible. However, it's a lengthy process that both teachers and students do not like. Over correction demotivate students. Teachers use proofreading symbols to correct written work. Here are some examples. Teachers and books may use different ones. Using these symbols make correcting papers cleaner and easier for teachers. Just make sure to discuss the symbols with your students before using them. Some things to remember when proofreading written work. Always asking another person to proofread your work. Read everything from beginning to end. Make your marks legible and understandable. Do not use red ink. It gives a negative effect that damages students confidence and motivation. 26. When: Exams and tests. This is the most common way of assessing students speaking, listening, writing, and reading skills. Here are four common test types. Placement tests to find out the correct level of new students. Diagnostic tests, identify students strengths and weaknesses. Achievement tests finds out students level of English in relation to other course objectives. Proficiency tests show students levels of understanding English based on specific standards. Objective tests types are easy to grade because there's only one answer. Some examples of objective test types are multiple choice, gap, feel True or false. Fill in the blanks in sentence formation. For subjective test types, establishing a point system of criteria, also known as rubric, will help. This makes grading fair for students. Using a series of criteria like this helps you grade your students the same way. Report cards. Most teachers in schools record students grades on cards which are given to parents or guardians to let them know about their children's progress. This is usually done during parent-teacher conferences. So both partners can talk about the student's development portfolio. Just like artists, students can have portfolios which are a collection of their best works. This is another way to showcase your students progress. Portfolios can be used for both young and adult learners. Self-assessment and peer assessment. As previously mentioned, self or peer assessment is a good way of promoting learner autonomy. It's especially useful when you're handling a large group. By implementing self and peer assessment, you've gained the following advantages. Students develop a better understanding of the criterion you set. Students find out why they commit errors and eventually avoid making them again. Spotting errors becomes faster when everyone works together. Increasing student's confidence on the language or skill being learned. Developing camaraderie among your students, creating a positive atmosphere inside the classroom. Informal feedback. This is the natural way a teacher responds to students errors. Spoken comments are a good way to offer feedback in the classroom. Informal feedback allows teachers to establish a level of rapport with students. It also helps motivate them when they hear and feel their teachers support, such as a simple good job or congratulations, instantly boost their morale and even improves their behavior and attitude towards learning.