Talent Acquisition: Match Your Job and Choose Your Right Hire | Vicky Fung | Skillshare

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Talent Acquisition: Match Your Job and Choose Your Right Hire

teacher avatar Vicky Fung, Senior Finance Executive, CPA

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

21 Lessons (1h 39m)
    • 1. Welcome to My Course

    • 2. Cost of Wrong Hire

    • 3. Introduction - The 5-Fit for Right Hire

    • 4. Motivational Fit

    • 5. Technical Fit

    • 6. Soft Skills Fit

    • 7. Personality Fit

    • 8. DISC Model

    • 9. Cultural Fit

    • 10. Assess your Company's Culture

    • 11. How to Assess Cultural Fit?

    • 12. Adaptability

    • 13. Key Takeaway - The 5-Fit for the Right Hire

    • 14. Introduction - Match your Questions to the Job

    • 15. Integrity

    • 16. Decision Making

    • 17. Teamwork

    • 18. Customer Focus

    • 19. Emotional Intelligence

    • 20. Key Takeaway - Match Your Questions to the Job

    • 21. Conclusion

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About This Class

Hiring is an art.  Though it sounds easy, getting a right hire is not easy.  If you are not prepared well beforehand, you will run a very high risk of ending up a wrong hire.  While preparation is highly important, one of the major concerns for hiring managers is how to ensure you have considered all aspects?

This class addresses this issue.  It focuses on how to determine the right hire for your vacancy and how to do assessment.   It begins with understanding the true cost of a wrong hire, followed up by the session, “The 5-Fit Model for the Right Hire”.   You will learn the 5 key areas that are a must to consider for every position regardless of industries, job nature and levels.  You will learn how you can assess these 5 areas with examples and sample questions.  No matter what kinds of positions you are seeking for, you can simply apply this model.

Afterwards, we will go to the second session, “Match Your Questions to the Job”.  There are some common competencies that we look for in every job in today’s society.  You will learn how to assess the top 5 most essential competencies.  Applying the same concepts and methods, you will then be able to assess any requirement that you are seeking for.

In short, if you want to learn how to pick up the right hire without missing any key factors, this is the class for you.  Please start watching now.  Thank you.

Meet Your Teacher

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Vicky Fung

Senior Finance Executive, CPA


Hi!  I am Vicky Fung, a senior Finance Executive with 20 years of experience in finance and accounting.  I have worked in many large companies with operations over the world.  I got 10 years of experience in recruiting and onboarding new staff, as I have actively involved in recruitment for my team and other positions for my ex-employers.  I would like to share my knowledge and experience with you.  Please feel free to contact me if I can be of assistance. 

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1. Welcome to My Course: Talent acquisition: Match Your Job and Choose Your Right Hire Welcome to My Course! Hi, I am Vicky Fung, a senior Finance executive with 20 years of experience. I have worked in many large companies with operations over the world. I started my first hiring more than 10 years ago. I have interviewed thousands of candidates. This is the second course on talent acquisition for hiring your best fit. In my first course, “Effective Questions and Listening Skills”, I have explained the essential knowledge of different types of questions, different questioning techniques and what you should listen during the interview, in order to identify low performers and superstars. This second course, “Match Your Job and Choose Your Right Hire” is developed based on the first course. I have assumed you have already watched my first course and have already acquired all the necessary skills. If you are not familiar with these, you may revisit my first course on “Effective Questions and Listening Skills”. The second course focuses on how to determine the right hire for your vacancy. Interview is not a normal chit-chat or an ordinary conversation. Every question you asked serve for a purpose and you only have limited time to assess your candidates. Whether you can pick up the right one, highly depend on what you asked and how they answered to you. One of the major concerns of interviewers is how to ensure you have considered all aspects, without leaving any key areas as the cost of having a wrong hire is very expensive. Therefore, in this course, I will address this issue. The course begins with understanding the cost of wrong hire. Some people think if you do not have right hire, you can simply replace with another one. However, in reality, it is not as simple as that. You have actually incurred lots of expenses, of which, some you may not even be aware. After this lecture, we will go to the main session of this course, “The 5-Fit Model for the Right Hire”. In this session, I will explain the 5 key areas for every position in every industry that you must consider. Ignoring any of these aspects may result in a fatal wrong hire. I will also tell you in details how you can assess these these 5 areas with examples and sample questions. No matter what levels of staff you are hiring, you can simply apply my model on your hiring and interview. Then afterwards, I will talk about the 2nd session, “Match Your Questions to the Job”. Despite we have many different criteria for every job, there are some major common competencies that are a must in today’s society. I have selected 5 of them and will go through them with you in details. You will learn how to assess these competencies. These lectures are actually illustrations on how to assess any competency. Once you understand the concepts and the methods, you can apply them on any requirement that you are seeking for. At the end of these 2 sessions, there is a key takeaway session where I recap the major points to facilitate your easy learning. Finally in the last lecture, I will conclude the whole course. In short, if you want want to learn how to pick up the right hire without missing any key factors, this is the course for you. Please keep on watching and start it now. Thank you. 2. Cost of Wrong Hire: "The Cost of Wrong Hire" What is hiring? For some people, hiring is like buying a T-shirt at a retail shop. From a wide variety of T-shirts, you just select the one that fits you. If the T-shirt is later found out not to be suitable for you, then you just do another shopping. Hiring sounds similar. From a pool of candidates, just select the one that you like most. If that candidate turns out not suitable, just replace him. Is hiring as simple as buying a T-shirt? Buying a T-shirt is easy and the cost of getting another one is not expensive. All cost you maybe just the purchase price of the T-shirt and the transport cost. The consequence of having a wrong T-shirt is not much. However, hiring is totally different. Cost, definitely does not only include the job advertising, but also many other explicit and hidden costs. What more important is the consequence of a wrong hire can be very severe! A wrong hire may even damage your Company's long- established reputation and brand name, ending up in irreversible cost! So how much is the cost of hiring? If it is not just the job advertisement costs, what other costs should be factored in? And what about the cost of wrong hire? Hiring includes every cost associated with each aspect of the recruitment, as well as the on-board cost whereas the cost of wrong hire, also includes the off-boarding costs in addition to the cost of hiring. For the first type of costs, hiring cost, as the name suggested, it covers all costs incurred in the hiring process, from advertising, receiving applications, screening, doing personality assessment, test results analysis, interview to issuing the job offer. It also includes all equipment costs, such as the installation and maintenance cost of application tracking system. If you employ recruitment agency to search for talents, then standard agency fee tends to be 20 to 30% of the annual income of the successful hire, including all the bonus and incentives. The second type of costs, is called on-boarding cost. It represents all costs from the first day of the on board until the last employment day of the new hire. Apart from the most obvious costs, payroll and staff benefits, on-boarding costs also include orientation and training expenses, as well as the computer, software and stationery expenses associated with the new hire. If the new hire is subsequently found not to be successful, you may have to dismiss him. By then, your Company has already sunk a significant amount of money into hiring, orientation and training. Now you may further incur off-boarding costs, including termination costs, potential legal fees, severance costs and other compensation, as well as all costs involved for the potential temporary staff during the interim period. What I have just talked, is just the finance cost, the most explicit costs, for a wrong hire. Don't forget that from the moments that you posted the job advertisement, screening, interview, evaluation up to issuing the offer, you have wasted all the time and effort! If you need to quantify the time cost, just calculate the hourly rate of all the staff involved and then multiply by the number of hours they spent in the whole process. You would be surprised at the big amount! In economics, we have a concept called, "opportunity cost", this means if the staff did not spend time in recruitment, they could have done something else. Therefore, there is a corresponding productivity loss from the moment job advertisement is posted until the new hire on board. The hiring team is not able to do their regular job and this may cost the Company to lose businesses and revenue. The longer the position is vacant, the more it may cost you in terms of overtime for existing staff and lost opportunities. In addition, there are also big amounts of hidden costs for bad hires. The sum of hidden costs is definitely higher than those explicit costs that I've just mentioned. Having a wrong hire unmatched to the job, it will lead to low morale of the team or the Department. Low morale will break the trust in the team and result in decrease in productivity, teamwork, efficiency, work quality and communication, but increase in conflicts, negativity and staff turnover rate as top performers may leave soon. If the wrong hire needs to represent the Company to serve external customers, their poor job performance will directly damage to the Company's long established image, reputation as well as the relationship and trust with customers. These will reduce the chance of repeated business, thereby impacting the long term revenue. Besides, it will take a very long time for the Company to remedy all these damages. In general, the higher the position the wrong hire holds, the larger the negative impact and hidden costs. On the personal level, for the hiring managers, bad hires can be a stress on their reputation. Just imagine if you hire a wrong candidate, it is natural that eventually your colleagues may question either there was something wrong with the interview, or you might have done something wrong in people selection. Making a wrong hire once isn't the end of the world, but twice could make people cast a doubt on your ability. Thus wrong hires might make you lose the faith and trust from the company and eventually your career development at your company might be at risk. To conclude, you must put in great efforts to hire the right candidate and ensure that adequate filters are in place to reject an unfit candidate. Right the first time is highly important. The impact of hiring a wrong candidate goes well beyond the monetary loss and can lead to long term consequences as well. Given that the cost of hiring is so expensive, particularly under the post COVID-19 economic situation, you may not want to engage outsource recruitment agencies, but do it by yourselves internally. Also, as hiring is a tough, time-intensive process, you surely want to do it right the first time! Master the interview skills is the best way to save hiring cost. This course is to help you to equip everything you need know for effective hiring and interview, so that even if you're not a professional HR, you can still find the best candidate most suitable to your company. Thank you. 3. Introduction - The 5-Fit for Right Hire: "The 5-Fit for the Right Hire" - In my previous lectures, I have explained the reasons why having a wrong hire is very costly, not only you will waste all your time and effort, but also you will incur huge financial costs in recruitment, on-boarding and off-boarding. In addition, the wrong hire may lower your team's morale, productivity, work quality and efficiency. And it may also bring more team conflicts and higher staff turnover rate. What even worse is that the wrong hire may damage your Company's long established customer relationship, trust, image and reputation, resulting in big losses in your Company's revenue and profits. On personal level, as the hiring manager, you will also suffer from great pressure and reputational risk. While you have already spent tremendous time and effort in recruitment, certainly you do not want to end up having such a wrong hire. So the question is, "How to hire the right candidate?" "What should we look for during the interview?" So here is the model to help you to solve all these concerns, the "5-Fit Model", the 5-Fit stands for motivational, technical, soft skills, personalities and cultural fits. These 5 fits are the keys for successful hire and they should all be assessed during the interview. All these fits are important and it is difficult to say which one is more important than the others. You need to consider all aspects before making your hiring decision. In this session, I will discuss each of them and how you can assess them during the interview. Master the skills of these 5-Fit, will allow you to find your best talent and minimize the chance of dismissing your new hire shortly after on-board. In addition, I will also introduce 2 other models, the DISC model for assessing personalities, and Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument for classifying organizational culture. These 2 models are also useful to enhance the development of your current staff and morale. Now let's move on. Please keep on watching. If you have any questions for the course, please feel free to leave me a message in the Q&A session. Thank you. 4. Motivational Fit: "Motivation Fit" - Among the 5 fits, the first fit you must assess is motivational fit. Motivational fit means how well the job offer aligns with the individual's preferences. In other words, if a job offer those "wants" and "preference" of a person, he or she would be more motivated to perform his or her job well and very likely, they will show better performance and higher productivity after hiring. Otherwise, even if the candidate fits all your desired requirements, including work experience and skill set, he or she would be likely not satisfied and eventually will leave your Company. Therefore, the key to your interview is to identify what motivate your candidates and then do the matching with the job that you offered. The more the similarities, the higher the motivational fit. So the question is how to assess motivational fit? In fact, motivational fit is often assessed in the opening of an interview when you go through the career history of the candidates. Regardless of any industries or any job nature, you can uncover the motivational fit from asking questions in 2 sessions: (1) Past career history of candidates and (2) Reasons of applying to job opening and candidates' likes and dislikes for the next job. For the first part on career history, you can verify what is written on their resumes and follow up those unclear points when you reviewed their resume. For every job, remember to ask questions on: (1) Reasons of leaving; (2) Reasons of moving to the next job. These 2 questions reflect important info about the candidates' likes and dislikes. Besides, notice whether there are any specific patterns for resignation and consider whether such pattern will be happened in your Company. For those jobs that are the most recent, significant and relevance to the current job opening, do also go through the followings with your candidates: (1) Job duties and responsibilities; (2) Reporting line and team structure; (3) What they like the most and the least about their job For those jobs that candidates stayed less than 2 years in recent years, try to dig deeper and you may get lots of useful insights about the candidates and you can tell how well is your job fit to the candidates' preferences. If there are gaps in the candidate's employment or education history, don't immediately assume negative but find out the reasons, otherwise, say, you may miss a top performer if he or she takes the gap just to take care of the family for a couple of months. For the second part on reasons of applying for the job opening and candidates' likes and dislikes for the next job, the typical questions usually are around: (1) What made the candidates interested in applying; (2) Expectation of the candidates; (3) How much they know about your Company; (4) What kinds of jobs and work environment the candidates are looking for; (5) What preferences the candidates have for the next job or simply what are their dream or ideal job? As motivation depends on the supervisor, the type of work involved, the resources available, the degree of independence, the salary package, the growth opportunities and all other preferences of the candidates, make sure you cover these items during the interview. Another way of asking the motivation fit is via a series of questions. So here is an example. "What was the best job you ever had?" "What were your responsibilities?" "Why do you consider it as your best job?" "Is there anything that you didn't like it?" No matter how you structure the questions, your main aim is to try to understand the candidates' career history and their preference for the next role. Listen very carefully and pay attention to their body language. Look for insights on how loyal, flexible and ambitious they are. Do match the similarities between their ideal job and the job you are currently hiring. If both are similar, these candidates are more likely to be a good fit for your position and will also be happy and productive employees. Otherwise, they may look elsewhere for a job in future, even if they accept the offers. During this step, here are some tips: (1) Notice whether the candidates like the contents of the past jobs or not. If they enjoy certain responsibilities and activities, they are more likely to perform these tasks well. Conversely, if they dislikes certain duties and tasks, they might avoid them or perform them poorly, and ultimately this may be part of reasons why they left the Company. (2) Please keep in mind that candidates may be good at doing something in the past but right now, they may lose the interest and do not want to do it anymore. So it is important to understand what the candidates like today. (3) If they talk about anything bad, say, complaining or blaming their former bosses, colleagues or other counter-parties, this may be a red flag. Make sure their resignation reasons would not cause them to resign at your Company in future if they were hired. For example, if they left the job because they were asked to work on Saturdays, then make sure you don't require them to do so, otherwise, it won't work. (4) Listen how the candidates link your Company with their career aspiration and what they believe they would succeed in this job role. Pay attention to the ideal work environment and job content of the candidates. If they prefer to follow rules and regulations in a well-established company with authority and structure, and your company is a start-up where everyone wears many hats, they won't be good fit. Lastly, be aware of both verbal and non-verbal communication. Look for enthusiasm in the candidate's voice and a sense of engagement in their body language. If you find the candidates are not prepared for the interview or provide vague answers on those commonly-must-asked questions, or they try to avoid directly answering you, these may pose red flags for you. In short, the purpose of this step is to determine whether the candidates will be happy working in the job and in your Company. During this step, if you have already sensed that the candidates are totally not fit for the job role, perhaps you may consider cutting your subsequent questions and finishing the interview earlier. Once finishing this part, you can move on for further assessment on how well the candidates fit your job in other aspects. Thank you. 5. Technical Fit: "Technical Fit" Technical fit means whether the candidate have the adequate knowledge and hard skills to perform the required job duties. Except for fresh graduates, all employers want the newly joined employees to perform immediately. So technical fit is the basic requirement of any recruitment. To assess this fit, the easiest way is simply to ask candidates to complete a written test. Some Companies would prefer the candidates to do at home and submit online, while some Companies would request the candidates to do it right before or after the interview at office. Doing at home saves time for both parties and the candidate can complete it at his comfortable and usual pace, however, he may seek help from external sources, including researching in the Internet, checking books or asking friends. Thus the written test may not reflect his actual skill level. For senior positions, very likely, the issues they handled are not so straight-forward and they may need external assistance. As long as they can solve their problems, it does not matter how they do it. For these positions, I usually ask candidates to do the test at home and submit before the interview. Say, if a hire an Accounting Manager, I will ask the candidates to prepare a report on a proposed budget. For administration / compliance senior role, I will ask the candidates to comment on a real case agreement. For junior positions, most of them are doing more routine and technical tasks, so I would prefer the candidates to do the test at office and write the answers on papers instead of typing. This will allow me to assess their actual work knowledge under pressure. For example, for internal control officer, the candidates may be asked to comment on payment controls. Through their handwriting, I can obtain more insights about their organizing skills and personalities. Besides, as I have mentioned in the previous lectures, using skill assessment interview questions can for the purpose of assessing technical fit. For instance, for financial accounting position, nearly every candidate claimed they have very strong accounting knowledge. I usually ask them to explain the latest accounting standard and its implications. By comparing their answers and presentation, I assess both their technical skills and communication skills. No matter how and where to conduct the assessment, using skill assessment method is a fair and objective way to compare the candidates. It minimizes personal bias based on appearance, gender and age. Unless you are hiring very senior positions where technical skills are no longer critical, I strongly suggest you assessing technical fit during the interview process. Thank you. 6. Soft Skills Fit: "Soft Skills Fit" - The 3rd fit is "Soft Skills Fit". Compared with technical skills, it is actually much difficult to assess soft skills. I will propose a 3-step approach to assist you during the interview. Step 1 - Identify the key soft skills necessary for the current opening - Certainly, soft skills vary across jobs and levels. The soft skills required for an accountant probably would be different from I.T., Sales, Marketing, Design and so on. Similarly, even within the same industry, say for accounting, that soft skill requirements for a CFO and a junior accounting clerk are of huge difference. So the first step is to determine which key soft skills are essential to succeed at this role. Definitely, you may want to hire a perfect person with all the soft skills, but in reality this is not possible. Besides, we usually have limited interview time and so it would be nice for you to focus on those key soft skills only. Therefore, please list out your 5-10 soft skills and then rank them based on the importance and relevance to the job role. Step 2 - Decide the behavioral interview questions to obtain past evidence - As discussed in the previous lectures, behavioral interview question help us to get real, concrete and specific past examples from the candidates for predicting their future performance reliably. We can base on the key soft skills identified to develop a standard set of questions for evaluation of every candidate, and then observe and listen carefully for what and how the candidates answer us. Not every candidate is well- versed with S.T.A.R. Model (that is, Situation, Task, Action and Result), but that does not mean they are not the best fit for the job. So during the interview, use the questioning techniques under this model to guide your candidates step by step to answer these questions. Make sure to apply S.T.A.R. 2.0 model with awareness and learning element, try to ask the candidates to share their self-awareness and what they have learned from these situations. We want candidates to demonstrate the required soft skills together with ability of self-awareness and a mindset of keep learning. Remember, the reliability of the prediction on future performance depends on 3 factors: (1) How similar the S.T.A.Rs are to the job; (2) The impact of the behavior on the situation and the result; (3) How recent is the behavior. So do ask the timing of the S.T.A.R. and clarify other information when necessary. In addition, for each question that you ask in the interview, always remember to have at least 1-2 follow up questions, such as, "Why so?", "Interesting. Please tell me more.", "What made that important to you?", "How did you go about accomplishing that?", "What were the most important steps you took to make that happen?" These follow-up questions allow you to uncover much more insights about the candidates' experience and skills. Before I move on, one more point to note is that sometimes the correlation between an effective action and a positive result may not be obvious. It is possible for a candidate to take effective action that has a negative outcome. Maybe the candidate did everything right, other people's incorrect actions or subsequent unexpected changes could cause a negative result. So do alert this point when you judge whether the actions of the candidates were effective or not. Step 3 - Design skills assessment and situational questions to validate the soft skills - Nowadays with the abundance interview resources in the Internet, many candidates in fact are well-prepared with their stories for various situations. So in addition to step 2, it is necessary to validate whether the candidates really perform as mentioned in the past examples. To do this, the best way is to use a combination of skills assessment and situational questions. Let them demonstrate their soft skills in real time. For example, to assess the people management skills, during the interview, you can role-play a situation where you are the difficult employee and the candidate is the Manager. Ask him or her to demonstrate different scenarios, such as coaching you to improve your performance, handling the conflicts with you and with other workers, convincing you to accept some duties that you don't want to do and so on. Similarly, to assess the selling and persuasion skills of a salesman, the direct method is to ask the candidate to role-play a situation to sell you something, even for a pen. Watch and listen very carefully how the candidates perform and speak, including the words, ideas and approach they use. Then you can tell how skillful he or she is. Notice whether his or her approach is consistent with the past examples. Sometimes the candidate will tell you a theoretical approach but in fact, they act differently. Thus a combination of these 3 questioning techniques will give you the most reliable evidence. Thank you. 7. Personality Fit: "Personality Fit" -The 3rd fit is personality fit. It is important for 2 main reasons: (1) To enable the team to perform; and (2) To ensure the candidates are the right fit to the job. Everyone must work with others and fit into the team. Great teams about personality mix. A team composed of different personalities enables its members to influence each other. Any team sports, including football, basketball, volleyball are focused on team's collaboration. Meanwhile, if the employees are good fit with their team, they are usually most satisfied at their work and have greater sense of belonging. Thus, each team should have the right balance of different personalities to function well. Before interview, you should first analyze your current team's personalities. As team members have been working with you for a while, I believe more or less you would understand them well. After analysis, you should decide what kinds of person you would like to hire to fit into the team. Secondly, personality is also a factor to consider whether the candidate is a good fit for the job role. Sometimes candidates may apply for positions which they don't have any experience at all. In this case, their personality can give insights on their potential to take up these challenging roles. For instance, if a person is very innovative, likes new ideas and breaking the old practice, probably he or she may not be a good fit for a compliance role. Again, before the interview, it would be better to list down what kinds of personalities are preferable for the job opening. For technical and soft skills, candidates can master these skills through coaching and formal training. However, personalities are hard to be trained or learnt. To a certain extent, personality also has a very close relationship with soft skills. Thus during hiring process, You should not ignore this. Some companies request the candidates to do personality tests. Some may use this alongside the first interview to retrieve additional information about the candidates. There are a wide variety of tests you can choose, but overall, they aim to understand and measure a person's motivators, values and priorities regarding situations and tasks. These tests are believed to be a reliable indicator of the candidate's working style and give an insight on how they interact with their future colleagues. If you decide to run the test in-house, ensure that those conducting the tests have received adequate training and are qualified. Alternatively, you can outsource to professional firms. They will understand your business needs and provide the most beneficial insights to suit you. If you use this test for assessment, please bear in mind that these may not reflect the true aspects of the candidates accurately and how they handle every situation at work at all times. Some candidates may treat this as a test and they try to choose the right answer instead of answering honestly. Some may not have the patience and are not serious enough to answer the long series of questions in these tests. As a result, the reliability of the test results may be in doubt. For some tests, there is a rating on consistency of the candidates' answer at the end of the report. If you find such rating to be below 70%, this indicates the candidate did not show consistent pattern in answering the questions and thus the test result is unreliable. Because of the above, some companies may decide not to do personality test but instead, based on interview questions for assessment. Or some may use a combination of 2 to ensure personality fit. No matter whether personality tests are used, if you need to assess personality by interview, you should use behavioral interview questions that related to a specific personality trait. Situational interview questions and skill assessment questions are both not suitable for assessment on this area. Lastly, though personality is an important criteria to consider during hiring, It should never be used as a single indicator of a candidate's suitability for a job. It is also not recommended for pre-employment screening as personality does not tell the motivation, the technical skills, soft skills, aptitude or factors specific to any position. So when you consider the suitability of any person, you need to consider all the 5 fits as a whole. Thank you. 8. DISC Model: "DISC Model" - In the last lecture, I talked about personality fit. Many Companies will perform personality assessment to understand the personalities of candidates. One of the widely used model is DISC Model. I would like to briefly introduce this model to you as it is useful not only for hiring, but also for on-boarding and development of your staff. Understanding this model allows you to identify different styles of people and facilitate you to modify your behavior based on other people's style, so as to build better relationship and trust. DISC Model comes from a Harvard psychologist named Dr. William Marston in the 1920s. He developed a theory that people tend to develop a self-concept based on one of the 4 factors - Dominance, Influence, Steadiness or Compliance. To start with, we need to define 2 key motivators that affect behaviors, namely motor drive and compass drive. Motor Drive (also called the Pace Drive) - To illustrate, let's use a circle. The upper half represents outgoing people. The lower half represents reserved people. Outgoing people tend to move faster, talk faster and decide faster. Reserved people tend to speak more slowly and softly than outgoing people, and they generally prefer to consider things more carefully before making a decision. Remember that these descriptions of behaviors are tendencies rather than absolutes. Close to the middle of the circle represents less intensity and the motor drive whereas moving towards the outer edge of the circle represents high intensity in the motor drive. A person's personal perspectives and behaviors could be anywhere along this line. Compass Drive (also called the Priority Drive) - Now let's use another circle to illustrate. The left half represents task-oriented people whereas the right half represents people-oriented people. Task-oriented people tend to focus on logic, data, results and projects. People-oriented people tend to focus on experiences, feelings, relationships and interactions with other people. Close to mid-line shows less intensity in the Compass Drive whereas towards the outer edge shows more intensity in the Compass Drive. When you combine the drawings for the Motor and Compass Drive, you get a circle of normal behaviors and perspectives divided into 4 quadrants. This circle represents the full graphical description of what is commonly referred to as "The DISC Model of Human Behavior". Each quadrant of the circle has descriptive names and is a separate behavioral type. These 4 names are Dominance, Influence, Steadiness and Compliance. (1) Dominance - These people are outgoing, task-oriented, fast paced and direct. They solve problems quickly and assertively. They are motivated by challenge and actions. They focus on results, problem-solving and get things done to meet the objectives. (2) Influence - These people are also outgoing and fast paced but they are people-oriented. They are talkative, expressive, interactive, open and inspiring. They are motivated by recognition and social influence. They focus on interacting with people, having fun and creating excitement. (3) Steadiness - These people are reserved, people-oriented, slow-paced with supportive and steady behaviors. They prefer to a more controlled and predictable environment that allows them to stay in the same position. They are motivated by cooperation but may be limited by their own indecision with concern of stability. They usually focus on preserving relationships and maintaining peace and harmony. (4) Compliance - these people are also reserved, slow-paced but they are task-oriented, careful and cautious. They tend to follow rules, standards and policies. They are motivated by expertise and quality work. They worry about criticism for being wrong. They usually focus on facts, rules and accuracy. The DISC model describes the 4 primary behavior styles. However, each individual person can, and likely will, display some or all 4 behavior styles depending on the situation. For more details, you can do some research in the Internet and find it out. During the interview, you can also use the candidates' DISC results to tailor your interview questions. For example, if your candidates are fast paced (that is "D" or "I" type) applying for a job which requires strong attention to details, you may ask them to share a past experience in which they had to slow down to ensure they have made a well-informed decision without leaving anything overlooked. To sum up, the DISC Model allows you to identify and understand candidates' behavioral traits and interpersonal communication capabilities. It enables you to predict how they would respond to problems and challenges as well as behave in a team situation. It gives you additional objective data for your hiring decision. However, please remember the DISC Model is a measure tool for personality. You should not rely purely on it for screening. You still need to determine the candidates' technical, soft skills and cultural fit to determine whether they are the best talents that you are seeking for. Thank you. 9. Cultural Fit: "Cultural Fit" Let me first tell a story, Henry is a nearly perfect candidate with great technical and soft skills, as well as the ideal personality that the team need. He had very successful track record in his previous Company. He also liked both his new job and his new Company's services and products. The Company was so glad to hire him and had great expectations on him. However, a few months after he joined, despite he was very devoted at his new job, he was found to be under-performed and ended up leaving the Company shortly. So what could go wrong? Unfortunately, Henry's story is not a single case. In fact, Henry exists in many Companies, especially for external hired leaders. The reason Henry and these leaders failed was because the way they did at the previous Companies might be wrong today at their new Companies with different culture. Every Company has its unique culture. If there is a mismatch between the new hire's work style and priorities with those of his new colleagues, he would not be able to tap into informal and formal sources of organizational power. Thus he would not be able to function as effective in his new role, as in the past. Within months, he may be excluded from key networks and loses valuable information, further reducing the successful chance. This isolation will sooner or later cause him to be under-performed. Hiring is very expensive in terms of money, time and effort. We definitely want to avoid this unfortunate situation to be happened. Apart from ensuring technical fit, soft skills fit, personality fit and motivational fit, you cannot ignore cultural fit when assessing the suitability of the candidates during recruitment. Cultural fit means the candidate shares the values, beliefs, attitudes and principles that drive work, behaviors and relationships in the Company. Candidates with cultural fit tend to perform better, more productive, stay longer and have greater job satisfaction. On the other hand, hiring people without cultural fit, may hurt staff morale, cause friction within the team, create a negative work environment and lower productivity. Please bear in mind that as in the example of Henry just mentioned before, a candidate with strong matches to the job activities, soft skills, technical skills and personalities won't necessarily be a good fit into the Company's culture. For instance, if your company emphasizes employee empowerment, delegation, reasonable risk-taking, you will not hire a micro-manager who is very hands-on all the tasks. Similarly, if your Company has an easy-going and relaxed atmosphere, it would not be suitable for a serious- minded candidate. On the other hand, in both cases, the candidate would not be happy to do the job. One point to clarify is that culture fit doesn't mean hiring people who are all the same. It means you are looking for people who share the same goals, values and beliefs as your Company and these people have a higher chance of becoming successful in the Company. We still value a diverse workforce that make up of people from different background, gender, personalities and attributes. I think you now understand what is cultural fit and its importance. Now the question is how to assess cultural fit? Compared with other fits which are more easily to be defined, cultural fit sounds more judgmental and vague. Why? Ask yourself, how much could you describe your Company's culture? You may reply with adjectives like sales-driven, fast, friendly, open-minded, team-spirited and so on, but you may not be able to elaborate even further. You understand it deeply, but somehow it is not easy to describe the culture accurately. 2 Companies describing themselves as "friendly" may have different culture. Culture is much more than these adjectives and it is unique in every Company. It is formed by how people interact and communicate, how they make decisions, and how they organize the day-to-day schedules. Therefore, to assess cultural fit, you first need to perform cultural assessment of your Company. Then you use these keywords as the basis to match with the candidate's preference, likes and dislikes. I will elaborate these 2 steps in the next 2 lectures. Thank you. 10. Assess your Company's Culture: "Assess your Company's Culture" - Culture refers to the values, beliefs, attitudes and principles that drive work, behaviors and relationships in the Company. In other words, it means everything in your Company. Honestly, identifying the culture of a Company is very complicated. According to Robert E. Quinn and Kim S. Cameron, at the University of Michigan, who developed the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument or the "OCAI Model", there are 4 types of organizational culture: (1) The Clan Culture - This culture is rooted in collaboration. Members see themselves as part of one big family who are active, friendly and involved. Leadership takes the form of mentorship, and Company is bounded by commitments and traditions. The main values are rooted in teamwork, communication and consensus. (2) The Adhocracy Culture - This culture is based on creativity, innovation and risk taking. Employees are encouraged to take risks, and leaders are seen as innovators and entrepreneurs. The Company uses innovation to create bonds between workers to achieve its long-term growth objective and also developing new ways of doing things. The core values are based on change and agility. (3) The Market Culture - This culture is built upon the dynamics of competition and achieving concrete results. The Company is result- oriented with tough and demanding leaders. It is united by a common objective to succeed and beat all rivals. The main motivation drivers are market share, profitability and success. (4) The Hierarchy Culture - This culture is based on structure and control. The work environment is formal and procedures determine how people behave. Leadership is based on organized coordination and monitoring, with a culture emphasizing efficiency and stability. The major values are consistency and uniformity. Based on the OCAI Model, Companies rarely just show one cultural type. But most businesses develop a dominant cultural style on which they rely on in daily operations. It is likely that Departments within the Company may show sub-dominant styles. For instance, Accounting Department may have a mainly Hierarchy / Control culture whereas Product Development is shaped by Adhocracy / Creativity culture. To identify your Company's culture and the dominant style, you may either perform a very detailed OCAI assessment or follow my below suggested 6 steps: (1) Notice the Company's strategic emphasis and the criteria to determine success; (2) Observe the management and leadership styles; (3) Observe how your colleagues interact with each other, their emotions as well as how they resolve conflicts; (4) Look around the office environment. Have your employees personalized their space with photos and plants? Are the common areas warm or lifeless? How is the space allocated? (5) Ask your colleagues their comments on the Company and in their team environment; (6) Conclude the common agreed values, beliefs, principles, behaviors and attitudes of the Company. These will be the key words for future assessment on cultural fit. After identifying the Company's culture, you can proceed to design questions to understand the candidates' values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. I will talk more about these in the next lecture. Thank you. 11. How to Assess Cultural Fit?: "How to Assess Cultural Fit?" Culture, as discussed in the previous lectures, it includes all aspects of a Company. Thus to assess the cultural fit of a candidate, we cannot simply dig out one single side of the candidates, but need to understand his habit, preference, wants, values, approaches and beliefs. During interview, to assess cultural fit you can ask 3 types of questions: (1) Behavioral interview questions to dig up candidates' past performance and habit. (2) Situational questions to ask them general opinions; (3) General question to understand details of their ideal job, including job content, management style, work approach, work environment as well as their personal values, beliefs and attitudes towards work. Remember, the aim of these questions is to uncover matches and discrepancies between the job and the Company's offer, and what the candidate likes and dislikes. For matches, apart from the candidates' preference, do also pay attention to what the candidates dislike a lot, annoyed and happy to avoid. Candidates are very likely not happy at the job if these strong dislikes are present at your Company. Fortunately, many of these underneath would have been discovered when you go through the employment history, motivation, soft skills and personality fit questions with the candidates. For instance, in checking the candidates' career history, you should have got an idea on what kinds of work environment will be most suitable for them and preferable by them. If your Company has similar environment as their past jobs, that it is likely that the candidates would adapt more quickly in your Company. However, any mis-alignments between the candidates and your Company, no matter in values, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors or styles, may indicate a red flag. When you ask the behavioral interview questions on their soft skills and personality traits, you can also ask the candidates how they felt about a particular situation, task, action or result. This may trigger valuable insights about their satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Apart from the candidates' preference, the comparison on culture, size, hierarchy structure and values of their previous Companies with your Company also matter. Big companies and small companies usually have significant difference in the daily work arrangement, job scope and approach. If their previous companies emphasize on strict compliance to rules and regulations and following traditional methods, and your Company is a new technology start-up which require innovation and fast changes, the candidates may not be a good fit. Apart from questioning, you may also consider 2 other approaches in a later stage of interview: (1) Tour your candidates around the Company and let them see how your colleagues at all levels interact with each other at meetings, during lunch or during office hours. Pay attention to their comfort level and their body languages. This also allows the candidates to imagine themselves working at your Company. (2) Introduce your candidates to meet some of the people within your team and the Company, or maybe invite them for coffee chat or a tea break together. Observe how they interact and this will give you an insight not only whether they are right fit, but also their interpersonal and communication skills. On the other hand, candidates can also assess whether they would go along well with these future peers if they are hired. In fact, this is also a method to sell your Company. The positive work experience shared by your colleagues would add as a convincing supporting evidence to what you told the candidates during the interview. Remember, do obtain the feedback of your colleagues who have met your candidates. They can also tell you their impression, how well the candidate would fit into the work environment. Of course, you should also follow up with the candidates for their impression after the office tour and meeting your colleagues and whether these have influenced their decision of working here. Hiring is a mutual process between 2 parties like marriage. Both parties should be in love with each other and should not be forced to accept the relationship. Through conversations in the interview, office tour and meeting peers, both parties would gain more insights whether this marriage can go on and predict whether there will be a happy ending. Thank you. 12. Adaptability: "Adaptability" - Imagine now you found a great candidate with motivational, personality and skills fit, but unfortunately there seems to be a gap in the cultural fit. So now you hesitate, should you drop this candidate? There is no perfect candidate in the market. Depending on how large this gap is, you can give the candidate a further chance, to assess his adaptability to different cultural environments and situations. In general, the higher his adaptability, the higher his ability to get used to the new environment. In fact, under the globalization and increasing cross-functional assignments nowadays, it is normal that a company has different cultures across different countries or different units. We want to have candidates to be sensitive and adaptable about the difference in ways of working and living from their own. They should be able to understand and appreciate for any differences. They should get used to unfamiliar processes and even conflicting values. These candidates are likely to embrace changes and the new technology evolution. Adaptability can be broken down into 3 components: the mental, emotional and physical. To assess adaptability, you can use behavioral interview questions to ask candidates to provide you past examples in which they adjusted themselves to get in harmony with other people. You may use the S.T.A.R. 2.0 Model to guide the candidates to provide you information on: (1) Situation - Understand the background of cultural differences. (2) Task - Recognize what to change (mental) and how they felt (emotional); (3) Action - Understand what they actually did (physical) (4) Result - the outcome after their actions; (5) Awareness - their self-reflection (mental and emotional); (6) Learning - what they have learnt (mental) and what actions they have taken afterwards to prevent future occurrence (physical). After you questioned them, observe carefully and listen how and what they reply to you. Apply all the listening and observation techniques. Look for signs that the candidates are: (1) Curious and excited to learn different cultures; (2) Flexible and open for changes; (3) Being an enthusiastic learner interested in learning new things, including new trends, processes, knowledge and technology. (4) Keep positive mindset even under high pressure or stressful situation. If your candidates have high adaptability, then you may re-consider them very carefully; otherwise, you may consider to drop them. Thank you. 13. Key Takeaway - The 5-Fit for the Right Hire: "Key Takeaway - "5-Fit for the Right Hire" - Thank you for watching this session. I hope you now understand the 5 Fits that are essential for considering a right fit. Without considering any of these, you may end up having a wrong hire. This part, in fact, is the main part for this course. In this session, I have also mentioned different tips, red flags and attention areas during the interview. You may revisit to each individual lesson for details. Right here, let me recap the key takeaway: (1) Motivational fit means how the job offer aligns with the individual's preferences. Your job is to identify what motivate your candidates and then do the matching with the job you offered. The more the similarities, the higher the motivational fit. You can ask 2 part of questions: (1) Past career history of the candidates; (2) Application reasons and the candidates' preference for the next job. If you find the variance between the candidates' preference and your job role is too big, then maybe they are not the right hire. (2) Technical fit means whether the candidates have the adequate knowledge and hard skills to perform the required job duties. The best way to assess this is by skill assessment interview questions, no matter via tests, role-play, projects or interview questions. (3) The 3rd fit is soft skills fit. To assess this, you need to follow a 3-step approach. Step (1) - Identify the key skills necessary for the current opening. You need to list out and rank the top 5-10 soft skills that are essential to succeed at this role. Step (2) Design the behavioral interview questions to obtain past evidence. You may apply S.T.A.R 2.0 model with follow-up questions to facilitate the candidates to answer. you. Remember, how reliable and useful of these evidence depends on (1) how similar the examples to the job; (2) the impact of the behavior on the situation and the result. And (3), how recent is this behavior. Step (3) - Design skills assessment and situational questions to validate the soft skills. You need to notice whether the candidates' approach is consistent with the past examples that they mentioned in Step 2. Do identify for the reasons of any material discrepancies. (4) The 4th fit is Personality Fit, This fit is important as it ensures the team to perform well and the candidates are the right fit to the job role. Before interview, you should first analyze the current team's personalities and the job nature, so as to determine what kinds of person you need for the team. To assess the candidates' personalities, you may request them to do a personality test. You may also use behavioral interview questions that related to a specific personal trait. Though personality is very important, please remember that this should not be a single considered factor for concluding the candidates' suitability for a job. (5) In this session, I have also introduced a common measure tool for personality, the DISC model. DISC stands for 4 main behavioral types, namely Dominance, Influence, Steadiness and Compliance. The DISC Model facilitates you to identify candidates' behavioral traits and interpersonal communication capabilities. It allows you to predict how they will respond to problems and challenges, as well as how they will behave in a team situation. (6) The last fit is cultural fit. It means the candidate shares the values, beliefs, attitudes and principles that drive work, behaviors and relationships in the Company. Candidates with cultural fit tend to perform better, more productive, stay longer and have greater job satisfaction. To assess cultural fit, you first need to find out the culture of your Company. Then you can apply behavioral and situational interview questions together with general questions to uncover the matches and discrepancies between the job and the company offer, and what the candidates likes and dislikes. You may also provide an office tour and introduce your potential hire to meet some of your teammates for both sides to obtain more information about the cultural issue. If the candidates fulfill the 4 fits except for cultural fit, you may further assess the adaptability of the candidates to see how well they can accommodate to the new environment. You may use behavior interview questions together with S.T.A.R. 2.0 Model to obtain past examples on how the candidates adjust themselves to get in harmony with different people. If the candidates have high adaptability, you may re-consider them carefully. In conclusion, these 5 fits are all nice to have. In reality, it is difficult to find a perfect candidate. Please bear in mind that technical and soft skills can be trained, but personality and motivation are difficult to be altered. Cultural fit and adaptability are also not easy to be acquired at the job. So think carefully what kinds of candidates you need and you can then prioritize your requirements and make your own hiring decision. Lastly, thank you very much for watching this session. If you have any questions, please feel free to tell me. If you like this course, do thumb up and also consider giving me a good rating. See you in the next session. Bye! 14. Introduction - Match your Questions to the Job : "Match your Questions to the Job" - Interview questions are not something random and each of them must have specific objectives. These objectives are closely related to the 5-Fit Model that I introduced in the last session of "5-Fit for the Right Hire". These 5-Fit represent motivational, technical, soft skills, personality and cultural fits. To assess each of these fits, you will ask the well-designed, effective behavioral and situational interview questions as well as using the skill assessment method together as introduced in the session of "Effective Questioning Techniques for Interviews". Before designing the questions, you must first clearly identify the job requirements for the position and what exact kinds of person you are seeking for. It would be better to list down the competencies, soft skills or personal characters that are critical for this role and then design the questions for these targets. Different jobs require different competencies and characters. For example, Sales person should be strong at persuasion and convincing skills while the Product Developers are expected to be innovative and creative. No matter what these targets are, the methods of designing these assessments are similar. In this session, I have selected 5 most common competencies that are required for every job. These competencies are integrity, decision-making, teamwork, customer-focus and emotional intelligence. I will use them to illustrate to you how to design effective questions and assessments to find your best talent using all the techniques that we discussed before. Once you understand the concepts and key points, you will be able to make your own questions and assessment for any targets you want. In addition, I have included the sample questions for these 5 core competencies in the resource areas, together with more sample questions in the takeaway session. Please feel free to download them and tailor-made them to suit your interview style. Lastly, please feel free to leave me a message if you have any questions. Now, let's start and hope you enjoy watching this session. Thank you. 15. Integrity: "Integrity" - Every relationship, regardless of levels or positions, internal or external, all built on trust. Trust requires integrity. Integrity and trust are highly important in any Company and industry. Integrity can be described as doing the right thing even when nobody else is around. Certainly, you want the new hires, not only have the experience and skills to excel in their roles, but are also honest and trustworthy with high moral standing to represent your Company. Perhaps you may say, "Oh, I'm just hiring a junior position and so it doesn't matter." Mmm....Do you agree? Let me answer you by telling you a story. My friend's 6-year-old little girl was in Grade one and she was so proud to be the Class Monitress. One day her best friend kept talking with her classmates during the lesson, despite her friendly reminder. Being the Class Monitress, she knew very well that no one should talk during the lesson, and so she should report to the teacher, but if she did so, her best friend would no longer play with her, and she would lose her friend. The little girl hesitated whether she should do her duties or cover the issue. A 6-year-old little girl even faced the integrity problem at school, let alone us at the workplace. So integrity matters for all positions. During the interview, we should assess the honesty and integrity of the candidates. Listen carefully and look for those who can demonstrate the below: (1) Understand and strictly follow the Company's rules, regulations and policies; (2) Act with integrity in everything they do and not easily compromised; (3) Maintain confidentiality at all times; and well-versed in data privacy rules and regulations; (4) Even under dilemma and difficult situation, still firmly hold the principle to do the right thing; (5) At all times make right decisions and not influenced by personal relationships and interests. You may first start asking candidates with a simple question, "What does integrity mean to you?". Look for the key words such as "honesty", "doing right thing", "moral" and so forth. If they struggle to even grasp the concept, this might pose a red flag to you. Then you may proceed to ask for examples. Everyone knows the importance of integrity. If you ask situational questions, such as "Would you cover up for colleague in general?", "what would you do if you witnessed a colleague violate the Company's policies?" Probably you will receive the same or very similar theoretical answers. Instead, if you use behavioral interview questions to ask for actual past example, you may receive a much more reliable evidence. If the candidates have only worked for a few years, maybe they do not have much experience facing these situations. In this case, you may simply ask another simple question: "Could you please tell me a time your experienced failure at work?". No one is successful at all times. Honest candidates will share their failure stories with you, ideally followed by what they have learnt. It is a red flag when the candidates refuse to acknowledge any shortcomings or weaknesses. Thank you. 16. Decision Making: "Decision Making" Absolutely, you want to hire candidates with logical decision-making ability, so that they can help you to handle day-to-day small issues; or for senior executives, they can make big decisions for your Company. You do not want them to bring any troubles or create any problems to you or to the Company because of their bad decision-making. The higher the position you are hiring, the more you need to ensure the right hire has excellent ability in making decisions. To assess decision-making ability of the candidates, you may consider asking them to do a case study on your current Company's problem, and then observe how they solve the problem and how they make the decisions. In addition, you may ask behavior interview questions to seek for relevant past examples of the candidates. Evaluate whether they demonstrated logical, realistic, effective, well-thought decisions with systematic and step- by-step approach. In general, you may ask the candidates the below 2 main questions using the S.T.A.R. 2.0 model: (1) Share some examples of how they made decisions in the past; (2) Ask if they would do differently today if they faced the same situation again, why and why not. Look for the words used by the candidates, particularly "gathered", "analyzed", "organized", "decided"and "chose", which may all indicate the candidate's decision-making ability. Decision-making ability actually composed of a series of actions. So when you are listening to the candidates describing their steps of actions, assess whether they have performed the followings: (1) Identify and understand issues, problems and opportunities; (2) Collect and interpret data from a variety of sources for better understanding; (3) Generate and evaluate alternatives to achieve desired outcome; (4) Formulate clear decision criteria by considering all implications and consequences; (5) Stay calm and keep emotions out of the decision-making process; (6) Implement decisions within a reasonable time. Remember, whether you agree with their decision is less important than noting on the process. In their answers, try to look for detail actions on 2 things: (1) Whether they have set up any measures to prevent re-occurrence; or (2) Whether they ensured the same problem to be resolved more quickly if re-appear next time. Meanwhile, please also pay attention if they are willing to: (1) Involve others for better decision- making; (2) Take responsibility and follow up closely; (3) Keep learning and improving. These qualities are important to ensure future success. Be aware of the red flags, too. Say, assume you ask the candidates to tell you a difficult problem that they had solved. If they cannot name a specific problem but just something that is a routine part of the job duties which should be easy to handle, or they cannot tell a systematic and logical approach, may indicate to you that they do not have good decision-making ability. Lastly, apart from questioning, please also pay attention to the candidates' personality. Personality plays a crucial role in decision-making. For example, some people make decisions based on gut feel or in an emotional manner, while some are more rational. People with low risk aversion may be more innovative and more risk-taking, while those who are risk avoidance are more conservative. In addition, some people, by their nature, are indecisive. They find it quite difficult to make decisions but are very loyal to their decisions once they made it. Other people are more impulsive and they may make their decisions too quickly without considering all the consequences. Therefore, when you evaluate the decision-making ability of candidates, it is better to combine your test assessment, information obtained from the interview with the personality assessment. Thank you. 17. Teamwork: "Teamwork" Teamwork is crucial for most jobs. It enables you to accomplish tasks faster and more efficiently than handling projects solely by yourself. Even if you are working as an individual contributor, you still need to cooperate with other Departments, other functions or even other countries in your workplace. Since the advantages of teamwork are very obvious, I do not spend time explaining here. But definitely, this is one of the essential qualities we are looking for from the candidates. During the interview, you should look for 2 things. (1) How much your candidates value teamwork? and (2) How well your candidates work in a team? So what should you do? Now I will talk about the key items for each part. For the first item, "how much they value teamwork", try to listen for 5 items during the interview: (1) How much credit the candidates take for the team accomplishments? (2) How did they describe their former supervisor, peers and subordinates? (3) How frequently did they use "I" over "we", if your candidates frequently use "we" or "the team", probably he is a teamwork supporter. But please note you should follow up by asking what role they played in the team, or what specific actions they did in these examples, so as to identify their real contribution to the team. (4) Whether their achievements and future goals are individual or collective based; and (5) How comfortable they are with the team? For the second item, "how well they work as a team member" actually includes many areas. You want to know whether they can communicate effectively with different personalities, whether they are easy to get along with, whether they can handle conflicts or compromise with their teammates, whether they can flex the styles to suit different situations at work, whether they will provide assistance to the team when needed, and so on. Thus in other words, you are assessing several soft skills as well, including their interpersonal skills, conflict handling skills and relationship building skills. If candidates can demonstrate effective skills in all these areas, you can tell probably they can go along with the team well. Again, you can use behavioral interview questions to ask your candidates to provide past examples to support these skills. Say, you may ask them, "Tell me about a challenging project that you required cross-functional collaboration". Listen carefully and try to identify 2 things: (1) What are their strengths in the team environment? (2) What are their typical roles played in a team? If you cannot find their roles and strengths in a team from their examples, you may ask them directly, supported by examples. These 2 items give you hints what team environment will be most suitable for the candidates and how they can function best. When you assess how well they work with others, One important thing you should know is their working style, or at least their preference, say, whether they prefer to work alone or take a really collaborative approach, whether they require supervision and direction, whether they like making orders and so on. In this regard, if you have performed personality assessment for the candidates, you can also get some hints on their working style and what might be happened if they work in your team. Before I end this lecture, I would like to share with you for one great interview question that can show candidates' values, just ask them, "Could you please name 3 things that you are most proud of in your last job?" Listen what they tell you and how they describe. Did they talk about personal or team achievement? What kinds of tasks did they mention? How did they comment their supervisors and colleagues under these accomplishments? You can get lots of hints from this question and identify what the candidates are good at and enjoy most. This is a very good question for assessing motivational fit and culture fit, too. Thank you. 18. Customer Focus: "Customer Focus" - The success of any business can be attributed to its customers. In other words, customers have the power to determine the fate of any Company and must be given upmost priority at all times. The more the Company focused on customers, the more money they will make and the higher the probability of being successful. Let's think about 2 cases. In the first case, assume you had a good experience with a Company, I guess you might want to share with your friends. In the second case, this time, if you had a bad experience, I believe you probably want to tell a lot more people than the first case and you cannot wait, right? In today's society, particularly in the age of digital social media, it is so easy to complain publicly. Companies don't want to hurt their brand name and reputation because of making a customer angry or disappointed. Therefore, customer focus is highly crucial nowadays. Definitely, every company wants to have the customer-focus employees. Everyone has at least one customer, even not working in a customer-facing job. The customers, if not from external, would be from internal, including your boss and other Departments. Thus as the hiring manager, you want to hire someone with strong customer-focused quality. So what precisely are you looking for? Candidates with strong customer-focus mindset, should be able to demonstrate 4 behaviors: (1) Seek to understand - this means actively seeking info to understand customers' problems, expectations, and needs; (2) Create customer-focused practices - this represents doing whatever it takes for the delivery of products or services to ensure customer satisfaction and to prevent potential issues; (3) Identify customer service issue - this includes solving customers problems quickly and identifying the breakdown in internal process that directly impact the customer service; (4) Assure customer satisfaction - this includes developing and using ways to measure, keep track of and maintain high levels of customer satisfaction. After understanding the core behaviors, you should try to locate these actions from the examples shared by the candidates when you asked for customer-related behavioral interview questions. You may ask questions such as: (1) "Tell me your most difficult customer. What was the situation and how did you handle it?" (2) "Tell me about a time you received negative customer feedback. What could have been done to make it better?" (3) "Describe a time a customer had a question or an issue that you did not know how to answer or solve. How did you approach this situation and what happened?" Listen to the process and steps the candidates have taken and how they present to you. See whether they got an effective strategy or a plan in dealing with the customers. Notice how they define "difficult customers". Besides, if the candidates trigger any negatives towards their customers or their colleagues, this would be a red flag. Also, pay attention whether the candidates took responsibility for situations without asking somebody else to solve them and whether they shift their responsibility to someone else. As you may be aware, when you assess the customer-focus competency, actually, you are also assessing various soft skills. These include problem solving, communication, adaptability, listening, stress management, attention to details, analytical and conflict handling skills. That means very often when you ask for one behavioral past example, you can actually assess several competencies or skills together. For sure, if a candidate has all these strong soft skills, together with a customer-focus mindset, he would likely to be a strong candidate. But as no one is perfect, listen and identify his strong and weak skills. This will be useful for you to decide what to help him to perform better if he is hired. Apart from behavioral interview questions, you can also use skill assessment questions or even a role-play to assess the candidates' customer-focus competency. For instance, if you are hiring a customer service, you may role-play to be an angry, impatient customer, and then ask your candidates to handle your complaints. Or if you are hiring a Salesman, asked them to demonstrate how they will sell you a new product if you were the customer. If you don't like role-play, you may use situational interview questions instead. For example, "Imagine our company has launched a new service line on providing customer service with document filing solution. Please walk me through how you will sell to your customer." In all these scenarios, look for an answer that indicates the candidates know how to position themselves as strategic consultants, who help people solving their business problems, rather than just pure salesmen. In short, customer focus is an essential competency that you shouldn't ignore during the interview, no matter for front-line or back office staff. Thank you. 19. Emotional Intelligence: "Emotional Intelligence" - Emotional intelligence or EQ is the ability to recognize your own and others' emotions, and use this information to guide your behavior and interactions. People with high EQ can recognize their own feelings, what triggers their feelings and how to channel these emotions to get results. They are also sensitive to the emotions of their colleagues, allowing them to build strong relationships. Thus EQ has a great impact on the working relationships with colleagues, customers, suppliers and other stakeholders. EQ is not a new concept but in recent years, 2 trends have made EQ to be much more important than before: (1) With the technology advancement, such as A.I. and machine learning, more and more traditional process-based tasks would be replaced by machines in future. Thus employees previously engaged in administrative role must be re-skilled for more personal connection jobs, as machines cannot handle and build rapport with people. Those with high EQ are more likely to succeed. (2) Today we emphasize agile and dynamic in workplace, together with the entry of multiple generations and diverse employee expectations as well as the sudden attack of COVID-19, the business world is much more volatile than ever before. EQ will determine one's success and performance. Definitely, you want the new hire to have high EQ. Given that each candidate will try to behave in the most positive way during the interview, so the question is "How to assess the EQ of the candidates and what should we listen during the interviews?" To assess EQ, of course, you can use a personality test. However, you can also assess by asking candidates specific behavioral questions. To begin with, we should look into the components of EQ. These will be the key words that we should look for during the interview. Let's look at the official component as defined by Daniel Goleman, the first introducer of EQ. According to him, EQ is made up of 5 essential traits: (1) Self-awareness - It means people recognize their own moods, their emotions, their motivations and how these factors impact their behavior and affect others. In the workplace, self-aware employees evaluate their strengths, weaknesses and performance realistically, and are more confident in their abilities. (2) Self-control - These people analyze before they act. They avoid emotional reactions to stressful situations and try to analyze a problem logically. Employees who have self-control, are more open to change, work well under pleasure, react calmly and handle conflicts better. (3) Motivation - Motivated people are passionate about what they do and are focused on setting and reaching goals. They are driven, optimistic and loyal. They are highly engaged in their work to achieve results. (4) Empathy - Those who show empathy can look at a situation from the viewpoint of others and be more sensitive to their needs and feelings. Empathy can help improving workplace communication, cooperation and relationships. (5) Social skills - Individuals with strong social skills are comfortable speaking with new people and building relationships. They can build a more friendly work culture and keep office morale high. By now, I believe you should be familiar with behavioral interview questions. You can design questions and assess each personality trait. For example, to assess self-awareness, you may ask something like this, "Please tell me a time when you received negative feedback even though you didn't agree with it." This type of questions allow you to evaluate the candidates' ability to be coached and accept feedback. For assessing self-control, you may ask questions for providing you insights on impulse control, such as "Describe a time when you said something you immediately regretted." In addition, you may think about the types of challenges the candidates are likely to face in the job that they are applying and then ask for past examples showing similar situations. Look for signs of self-awareness, self-control, motivation, empathy and social skills. Listen for thoughtful answers that show how the candidates reflect their own emotions and on the emotions of those around them. Observe how they describe their relationships with their supervisors and colleagues, and how well they get along with others in the job. If there were any patterns in criticizing previous supervisors or colleagues, this may be a prediction of continued unhappy relationships in the new role. Remember to use the S.T.A.R. model to ask multiple follow- up questions to get details on the examples provided. Encourage the candidate to discuss how he or she handled each situation, and to discuss the impacts of each situation on other people. By going a few layers deeper, you will have a more in-depth idea of how the candidate has used emotional intelligence in real life examples. No matter what question you asked, do also observe non-verbal communication, including the below: (1) "Do they have a positive attitude and are they respectful?" (2) "Do they practice active listening?"; (3) "Do they smile and show enthusiasm and excitement for the position?", (4) "Do they try to establish rapport with you in terms of tone of voice, body language and postures?" By active listening and observing for information like these, you can better understand a candidate's level of emotional intelligence. If you think behavioral interview questions are not enough to assess the EQ of candidates, again, you can apply role-play. In the role-play model, you can ask the candidates to put themselves in an employee's shoes and stimulate their reactions to different workplace triggers. For example, you may ask out negative criticism from a Manager and observe how the candidates respond. If you are conducting interviews with your peers, both of you may stage a conflict and ask the candidates to solve it. By role-play, you can observe how candidates use their EQ and apply their soft skills in real scenario. This way is far better than asking scenario interview questions. Together with the insights you obtained from the behavioral questions, now you can get a more accurate assessment. Thank you. 20. Key Takeaway - Match Your Questions to the Job: "Key Takeaway - Match Your Questions to the Job" - In this session, I have used 5 common competencies that are required for every job to illustrate how you should design your questions and assessment. For every competency or personal trait, you can follow similar methods. Once you grabbed the key ideas, you will be able to design effective questions on your own. Now let me summarize the key takeaway here: (1) To assess each competency, first you need to understand the components of this competency, say, what behaviors, signs, actions and major factors contribute to the competency. These components are the key words that you should look for during the interview. (2) Behavioral questions, coupled with the S.T.A.R. model, is the most commonly used methods for assessment. You can also combine this questioning technique with the situational questions, skill assessment and role-play as means to verify the evidence that you got from the candidates' answers. (3) Each competency is closely related to other competencies, personality traits or soft skills. Each interview question may not only assess for a single competency but can serve for multiple purposes. In other words, very often, you are not assessing a single competency for each question but multiple of them together. (4) Notice that personality plays a very important role in soft skills, preference and tendency of the candidates, you can get hints on how the candidates may react in the workplace environment by understanding their personalities. Meanwhile, do remember people adapt and can flex their own styles to accommodate others. (5) Apply all the listening and observation skills that I taught during the whole course. Pay attention to red flags and all non-verbal cues. You can then have a more complete and reliable assessment. This is the end of this session. Now it's time for you to design the questions and assessment for the position that you are hiring. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me. To facilitate your preparation, I have prepared a list of sample questions for you to download. You may revise them to suit your own style. Lastly, thank you for watching this session. I hope you enjoy it. Feel free to give me your feedback and ratings for the course. See you in next session. Bye! 21. Conclusion: Thank you very much for completing my whole course “Match Your Job and Choose your Right Hire” on talent acquisition and hiring In the beginning of the course, I have explained how expensive it is for having a wrong hire. It is much more than the advertising expenses but includes a lot of hidden cost, such as negative impact on productivity, motivation, morale and the Company’s reputation. In order to avoid having a wrong hire, I proposed the 5-fit model for hiring. These 5 fits are motivational, technical, soft skills personality and cultural fit. I explained each fit in details and discussed how to assess each of them. Afterwards, I talked about another important consideration, adaptability, in case the candidate does not fulfill the cultural fit assessment. During this session, I also explained the DISC model for assessing the personality of candidates. These 4 basic types are dominate, inspiring, supportive and cautious. You can apply the DISC model, not only in interview, but also in your daily interaction with people. Remember, all these 5 fits are extremely important to get your right hire If you are not familiar with any of these, you may revisit my lessons. In the second half of the course, I started the second session, “Match Your Questions to the Job”. I listed out 5 major competencies that are a must for every job in today’s society. These 5 competencies are integrity, decision making, teamwork, customer focus and emotional intelligence. I advised you how to assess each of them in details. These 5 competencies serve as examples to teach you how to assess any competency that you want. Once you understand the concepts and the methods, you can apply them on any requirement that you are seeking for. To summarize, whenever you assess any requirement you want, the first thing is to understand the major factors contributing to the competencies. These components are the key words that you should look for during the interview. For assessment, the best method is by a combination of behavioral interview questions, situational interview questions and skills assessment. Of course, you should try to use the STAR model to guide your candidates to provide you concrete and relevant information. Throughout my examples, I believe you should notice that each interview question can serve for multiple purposes. You can assess multiple competencies and requirements by using a single question. Therefore, do remember, always structure your questions before your interview. Make sure you have prioritized your questions based on the importance of your requirements for the opening. Of course, you should pay close attention to red flags and Of course, you should pay close attention to red flags and reply to your questions. If you are not familiar with the listening and observation skills during interview, you may revisit my course called “Talent Acquisition: Effective Questioning and Listening Skills for Hiring your Best Fit.” Remember, ask great questions and interpret answers accurately, are the keys to succeed. Please make sure that you have mastered this basic foundation. Lastly, thank you again for watching my whole class. I sincerely hope that you have got new insights. I wish you all the very best in the days ahead. Good luck. Hope you find your best hire, too. See you in my other classes!