Synthesis 101: Logic Retro Synth | Ben Dudding | Skillshare

Synthesis 101: Logic Retro Synth

Ben Dudding, Music Producer

Synthesis 101: Logic Retro Synth

Ben Dudding, Music Producer

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30 Lessons (1h 57m)
    • 1. Welcome

      1:14
    • 2. What is sound

      3:06
    • 3. Harmonics

      3:00
    • 4. Tour of the interface

      1:54
    • 5. Building blocks of subtractive synthesis

      2:54
    • 6. Oscillators

      6:11
    • 7. Filters

      8:41
    • 8. Amp and effects

      3:19
    • 9. Envelopes

      8:37
    • 10. LFO

      5:12
    • 11. Vibrato

      2:05
    • 12. Oscillator Sync

      2:37
    • 13. Global settings

      4:25
    • 14. Glide

      3:13
    • 15. Example Seq Bass

      3:36
    • 16. Example wobble bass

      5:00
    • 17. Example sync lead

      2:14
    • 18. Wavetable Theory

      1:42
    • 19. Wavetable Oscillators

      3:16
    • 20. Modulating the Wavetable Shape

      2:55
    • 21. Custom Wavetables

      3:04
    • 22. Example motion Pad

      6:37
    • 23. Example vowel lead

      3:58
    • 24. FM Theory

      4:49
    • 25. FM operators

      7:01
    • 26. FM modulation

      4:34
    • 27. Example Deep House Bass

      3:27
    • 28. Example FM Pad

      4:38
    • 29. Example Chiptune Lead

      2:37
    • 30. Outro

      1:32
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About This Class

This course is targeted at beginners and intermediate level students.

It covers the fundamentals of audio synthesis.
The software being used is Logic Pro X’s Retro Synth, but the underlying concepts are transferable to the majority of other software and hardware synthesizers on the market.

The course is structured progressively, covering all the building blocks and different methods of synthesis commonly used.
Throughout the course there are animations demonstrating the concepts visually, so you can see as well hear the sound.

There are also example patches available to download that cover common types of sounds such as:

  • basses
  • leads
  • pads

This course is designed to be an in depth, comprehensive look at synthesis and on completion you will have all the basic knowledge required to kick start your own sound design journey.

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Meet Your Teacher

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Ben Dudding

Music Producer

Teacher

Ben Dudding is a music producer, multi instrumentalist, motion graphics designer, video editor and professional trainer based in Melbourne Australia.

As a musician/producer I have over ten years experience composing, recording, engineering, producing and performing music and have many releases on local and international record labels in the groups "Deep Fried Dub" and "Alpha Channel".

My 'Sonic Safari' brand is dedicated to music production tutorial videos. In addition to my courses on Skillshare and Udemy I have a Sonic Safari youtube channel where I host a lot of free content.

Currently I am working for City Desktop Training in a part time capacity teaching accredited Adobe and Apple video, audio and motion graphics courses. I also work as a freelance moti... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Welcome: Hey guys and girls, by names Bain and welcome to synthesis 101 with logic retro synth up in producing electronic music for i between two years and teaching it for over 15 years professionally. In this course, you'll end the principles behind the most common forms of synthesis. Most of the content covered is transferable to other synthesisers. So you'll be a synth and injure in no time. If you're a beginner and are intimidated by all those knobs and controls on synthesizes. Or if you've been making music for awhile, but want to move beyond the preset and create your own sounds, then this is the course for you. We take a step-by-step look at all the controls in retro synth and explain the fundamental concepts behind synthesis using visual animation so you can really understand what it is that you're doing. This also a practical example, patches demonstrating how you can design common types of sounds, such as bases, leads and pads. So you're ready. Let's get into it. 2. What is sound: Before we get into retro sinth, we need to cover some audio fundamental concepts. What is sound? Sound can be thought of as a series of fluctuating vibrations moving through the air. Now something needs to start a vibration, whether that is plugging your guitar string or hitting a drum. And this causes the air particles to move in wave-like patterns, referred to as sound waves. A good way to picture this as if you imagine a still pond and you drop a pebble into that pond where the pebble hits the surface of the water, it's got to radiate out and ripple like patterns. This is very similar to sound waves. Now there's two fundamental elements to sound. First up, we've got the amplitude. And we can see here on this graph that amplitude is basically the volume of the sound. So the higher this is in this graph, the louder it will be. Now, amplitude is measured in decibels. The other fundamental building block of sound is the frequency. And the frequency you can think of as the speed of the sound, how fast that sound is vibrating. Now, this actually affects the pitch. The faster the object is vibrating, the higher the pitch and frequency is measured in hertz or one hertz equals one cycle per second, or one vibration per second. One kilohertz equals one hundred, ten hundred cycles per second. Human hearing goes roughly from about 20 hertz to 20 kilohertz. These concepts will be very fundamental when we're moving on and synthesising sounds. To demonstrate amplitude and frequency, I'm here in logic, and I've got a test tone utility loaded up with a simple sine wave. I'll just unmute that so we can hear it. Now. First of all, we have the level and this is measured in decibels. Now, anytime you see a level dial or a fader, or anywhere else where you might be sitting the level that is to do with the amplitude and as measured here in decibel. So you can see at the moment is negative 24 decibels. If I was to turn that up, it'll get louder. Or if I turned it down is gonna get quieter. Next up is the frequency. And again, we can see this is measured in hertz. At the moment we're listening to 100 hertz. You may need to hear this on headphones. If you've got very small speakers. As I increase this, we're going to hear the frequency get higher and that's gonna raise the pitch of the sound. So that demonstrates amplitude and frequency. 3. Harmonics: Now that we understand what amplitude and frequency means, let's talk about harmonics. And harmonics relate to the frequency. When you play a note on the keyboard that corresponds directly to assert and frequency measured in hertz. When an orchestra tunes they tuned to something called concert pitch, which means that middle a equals 440 hertz. Now, when you play a note on a piano, you're not just playing that one frequency. You're playing that fundamental frequency and its harmonics. This gives the character or timbre of the sound. So we can distinguish the difference between the sound of a piano or a violin, or a flute. When we're using synthesis, we're shaping the harmonics of our sound. I'm gonna do a little experiment here, which is actually a form of additive synthesis, where we're gonna start off with individual frequencies and we're going to blame them together to show what's called the harmonic series. So starting off here, I've got a bunch of test tone oscillators. And the first one here, I've got tuned to 100 hertz. And you can see that if I look at the second one here that's tuned to 200 hertz, the third one is hit to 300 hertz, and so on and so forth. So this, if we keep going, is basically what's called the harmonic series. Now I'm going to bring these up. And while here, first of all, the first fundamental time, this is 100 hertz. Now I'm going to add in the first harmonic, actually the second time. And now at the third, false. So and you can hear as we added more harmonious way, trading a richer time. And again, this is referred to as the Tambora. This is very much how an organ works. In synthesis, we're shaping the harmonics using various different tools, such as filters and frequency modulation. So it's important to understand what these harmonics mean. Now, if these weren't multiples of the fundamental frequency, they wouldn't be called harmonics. And these are called in harmonics. And we'd get a very dissonant tone. 4. Tour of the interface: So here we are in logic and I've got returning fopen. In this video, we're gonna take a tour of the interface. Now first up, why retro synth? Why not use one of the other more powerful synthesizes and logic? Well, for a number of reasons. First up, retro synth is really for synthesizes. And one, what I mean here is that there's four different types of synthesis methods, and these are the common ones that you'll come across. 90% of what we learned in this course will be transferable to other synthesisers. Second of all, it's a very clean and simple interface, so it's great when you're learning. So the idea is that when you've done this course, you'll have a firm grounding and synthesis to move forward and look at some other synthesisers. As I mentioned, there's four different types of synthesis in retro synth, and we can toggle between them here at the top left of the interface, starting up with analog. This is what you'll see by default. This is a standard analog synthesizer that you would find, such as the minimum OAG. And most analogue synthesizers or hardware isn't the sizes will have similar controls. Next along we have sink. And this really just gives us a couple of extra controls here that would find on analog synthesizer. Now, you'll notice that every time I change the method of synthesis, that the interface changes. So if I click here on Table, we're now looking at a wave table type of synthesis. Many modern synthesisers such as massive use wave tables synthesis, but it was first introduced by Wolfgang palm using his PPG synthesizer in the early 19 eighties. And then lastly we have if m, which stands for frequency modulation. And this was first introduced by Yamaha in the d exhibits synthesizer. So there's a quick tour of the different synthesis modes in retro synth. In the next video, we're going to get into the specific building blocks of analog synthesis. 5. Building blocks of subtractive synthesis: Let's have a look at the building blocks of subtractive synthesis. These type of controls you'll find in 90% of synthesisers out there. So once you learn these terms, you'll be able to transfer your knowledge. Starting off here to the top left, we have the oscillator. And the oscillator is where the sound is generated in the first place. Now there's many different waveforms that we'll talk about that generate different harmonics. But I think that this is where the sound starts from the rawer sound. You can actually have multiple oscillators in a synthesizer, and they can be mixed together to create even more complex harmonics. From there, the sound goes into the filter and the filter is used to shape. And this is the subtractive bit in subtractive synthesis. So you're starting off with a complex harmonics from the oscillator and then they are being subtracted and sculpted with the filter. This is somewhat akin to sculpting in stone where you start off with, you know, a large block of stone and you're shaping that into the form that you want. From there, the sound is passed into an amplifier section where you can shape the volume of the sound and finally, output to the speaker where we can hear it. Now so far, this is a very straightforward signal path. And if we just listen to the sound, it would be very static. So to add movement where sound we use what are called modulators. Now common modulators you'll find on flops. And these will shape the sound every time you play a note on your keyboard. Another common type of modulator is an LFO, or low frequency oscillator. And these are similar to, you know, the oscillators that we're actually here. But they are used to change the volume or the filter of the sound over time. And this adds a sort of continuous cycling change. And finally, we have some global controls where we're changing the overall volume or pitcher tetra of the entire sinth. So here on logic looking at retro sinth, we can see starting at the top left of the interface, we have the oscillators. And we've got two oscillators here. And then moving on here in the top middle, we've got the fill section, followed by a volume section, and then some basic effects. Now the modulators are found down the bottom of the interface. We've got two envelopes down the bottom right here. We've got an amplifier envelope and a filter envelope. And there's also an LFO. There's some global controls such as glide, also down the bottom left. So there the basic building blocks. Now we understand the signal flow. Let's jump into retro synth and have a closer look at the oscillators. 6. Oscillators: Let's have a close look up the oscillators in this analog mode. Retro synth has two different oscillators here. And there's a slide here where we can mix between oscillator one, an oscillator to, at the moment the slide is right in the middle. So we're hearing a blend of oscillator one an oscillator to, I'm going to drag the slider all the way to the top. So we just hit oscillator one. Now at the moment with the factory default patch, which is loaded every time you open up for a truss and we can hear the sound going through the filter. And that's going to actually take out some of the harmonics. So if we would just want to hear what the oscillated sound like on their own. We can just turn off the filter. So I can do that here with this little power button. So now we're just going to hear the roar sound of the oscillators. If we come here to oscillator one, we can see that these different oscillators have these different wave forms or different shapes. And we can change the waveforms with these two dials here. At the moment oscillate u1 is set to a saw wave, and a small wave contains all of the harmonics of the harmonic series. It has a fairly thick, buzzy type tone. Let's have a listen. So that gives us a fairly thick tone. I can change this to another common waveform that we'll find is called a square wave. And it looks like this. A square wave contains only the odd harmonics and it has a more hollow kind of a sound. Let's have a listen. So square waves, great for bases and leads. Now, you'll notice that the square wave has a continuously variable width to the square wave. And we can change, listen to the sound change as I move this dial. So we can hear the sound getting a bit thinner. Now, later on we'll talk about how we can change the SOPA time. Finally, we've got a noise oscillator here. So if we sit the waveform to noise, we'll get some white noise, which sounds a bit like this. Now that sounds a bit harsh, but it can be very useful for creating percussive Top sounds like snare drums or high hats. Now there's some different waveforms for oscillate and number two. So if I bring the mixed slider down all the way to the bottom, we'll just hear oscillate in number two. So we've got the same soul wave and the same square wave, but we also have a triangle wave that we don't have on oscillator one. A triangle wave is a bit of a duller sound and it contains less harmonics. Lists have it, listen to that. So triangle wives can be very useful as a sort of low sub base layer. To add to other harmonics. I'll set this back to a sawtooth wave here. And we can change the pitch of oscillator two as well. We noticed that we have some controls here where we can change this in semitones. So as I increase, this will hear the pitch go up. Or we can bring the pitch down. 12 semitones. Up or down is the difference of one octave, so it's the same note. We also have a control in cents, which is less than a semitone. So this will slightly change the pitch. Now that doesn't sound great on its own, but when we mix these two oscillators together, we can be 2p1, the pitch of oscillator to compare to oscillate U1 and get a much thicker sound oscillator one back to sawtooth wave. And I'll change first of all, the semitones. So we can create almost like a chord. We could tune this in octaves, an octave lower. I'll set this back to 0. Or we could just slightly change the pitch of oscillator to incense, and that will thicken up the sound. And this gives us a very nice rich kind of sound, great for things like pads. So there the basic controls that the oscillators, there's also a vibrato here. And vibrato is a change in pitch. So if we come here to this vibrato section at the moment, this is mapped to the mod wheel. So we've got this by vibrato dial here. And if I bring this down and come to the vibrato tab here, at the moment, this is being controlled with the modulation wheel on my keyboard. So if I bring this all the way down, now will hear, will adding more vibrato as we increase this dial. So that changes the pitch of the sound. So that's a look at the oscillator section. Next up the field station. 7. Filters: Let's now look at the filters inside of retro synth. Now, I'm going to listen to a single oscillator here. So I'll move the dial will slide all the way up to the top here. So we're just hearing oscillator one. And I'll turn on the filter here by making sure that this button is turned on. Straight away, we should hear the sound is a bit dull up because this filter is filtering out some of the harmonics. Now, there's two main parts to the filter. And the first is the cutoff frequency, and the second part is the resonance. Now the cut-off frequency is the frequency below which the harmonics are filtered out. And we can actually change this number here. You can actually click and drag on the number. Or we could drag this little dot here in this graph. And if we drag that dot left and right, we are changing the cutoff frequency. We can say the numbers change here. Let's have a listen to this. Now, the default type of fields we're hearing right at the moment is a low-pass filter. Up the top here it says LP for low-pass. And what that means is that it lets the low frequencies pass and it filters out the high frequencies. It's maybe a bit counter-intuitive, but that's the terminology. And notice that when the filter is opened all the way up, if this cut-off frequencies all the way to the right, it's basically not filtering out any frequencies at all. As we bring the cutoff down, we're removing more of those high frequencies. And the sound is becoming Della to the point where it almost disappears altogether. Okay, so the cut-off is changing the tone of the sound. There's also the resonance. And the resonance again, there's a number here at the moment, there's no resonance. But if we increase the resonance by increasing this number, we'll see a little peak here at the cutoff frequency. And basically what this is doing is it's adding a little bit more emphasis to that cutoff frequency. I'll decrease there isn't, it's back to 0. And then I'll increase it. We can have a listen to how that affects the sound. Now, with this particular type of filter, the sound is getting a little bit thinner and we're losing a bit of bass by introducing this resonance. And the resonance is kind of not something that you hear too much on its own. However, when we start then moving the cutoff frequency by dragging this dot lyft and write, well actually here, this having a bit of resonance adds a little bit more emphasis to the cutoff frequency. So we can hear now it's got more of a squelch e or talky kind of a sound. Now if we increase that resonance even further by dragging this dot up. And play the filter cutoff left or right. We're getting a kind of ringing sound. And this is very different depending on different types of filter design. Now if we increase there isn't, it's all the way to the top. The cut-off frequency will actually start to self oscillate and it will create a whole new tone. Let's increase that. They can hear. There's a whole new tone there now this can get quite loud and piecing, but now I'll change the cutoff frequency. So now we're getting this sort of screaming sound with a lot of resonance. So of course you can dial this into tiestall, bring this reason that's down a bit. Now, of course, rather than just moving the cutoff in the resonance simply with our mouse, we might wanna have more control over this. And if I bring the cutoff frequency down little bit, we can control the cutoff frequency either with an envelope or an LFO. Now we're gonna talk more about these modulators in-depth more. But you can see that here on the field section, we've got two different knobs here that control how much the envelope or the LFO can all affect the filters. So at the moment the envelope is actually turned up. Now if this is right here at the 12 o'clock position, the envelope will have no effect. And as we increase this, the envelopes is going to have more effect. So if I bring this up Bletchley here, that the sand is being shaped every time I hit a note it's being shaped by the envelope. This might be more apparent if I change the envelope settings and bring this sustained down to 0. Ok, so we can hear now that envelope is really shaping the cutoff frequency. I'll bring that back to 0. And we also have an LFO, which as I increase this, we're hearing. The LFO, or low frequency oscillator is having more and more of an effect on the cut-off frequency one. And we get that wobbly type of sound. Okay, so I'll set that back to 0. Finally, we have this thing called filter FM. Now, if M stands for frequency modulation, and we'll talk more about frequency modulation as a type of synthesis later in much more depth. But this specifically controlling the cutoff frequency of the filter. And this is either controlled by the envelope or just with a static value based on this dial. So if I turn this dial to the lift, will hear more of the filter, frequency modulation of the filter. And we can here that's adding more harmonics to the sound. Now, there's different types of filters here at the moment, by default, that's using this low pass filter, and this has a 24 decibel slope. We can change the type of filter with this dropdown menu here. You notice a lot of these, say LP, That stands for low-pass filter. And we've also got some BP that stands for bandpass and HP, which stands for high pass. Now there's many different options here, and some of these have a different slope measured in decibels. This is a fairly subtle distinction, but if we change the type of filter to say a high pass filter will get a fairly different kind of sound. So a high-pass filter compared to a lowpass filter, actually takes out the low frequencies and lets the high frequencies pass. So let's have a listen to this. If I start with the cutoff all the way down, then no frequencies will be filtered out. As I increase the cut off frequency by dragging the dot to the right, we're taking out more of the low frequencies and leaving the high frequencies to pass. And we can hear the sound thinning out there. Now of course, this also can work with resonance. Then we have a band-pass filter. And a bandpass filter is a combination of high-pass and low-pass. So it takes out the high frequencies and the low frequencies, and it leaves a narrow band in the middle that is gonna pass. So let's have a listen to the bandpass filter as I move the cutoff frequency. So here that has a different sound. And it's a combination of a high-pass and low-pass filter. So that's an overview of the filter section here and retrenchment. 8. Amp and effects: Okay, so I just quickly want to talk about the volume and the effects section. Now, I'm just going to reset my sound by coming here to the top of the interface and recalling the default patch where we're just hearing to simple sawtooth waves here on the oscillator section. And the filter has a simple low-pass filter, and it sounds like this. So moving over here to the volume section, this is a very simple section. We can see there's a simple volume control. And at the moment the sets it to negative 6.5 decibels. If we turn this to the left, we're turning the volume down. And as we turn to the right, we're making it louder. So this is basically an overall volume control. Now, before, when we're talking about the oscillators, I said that there was no sine wave oscillator. And that's not quite true because here on the volume section, there is actually assigned level. And as I increase this, you'll hear a sine wave added to our two oscillators. Listeners I dollar up. See that's adding a little bit more thickness there by adding an extra sign wave. Okay, so moving on to the top right here, we've got the effects section. Now this is turned off by default. So let's turn that on by turning on this little power button here. And we've got two different effects. We've got a flanger and a chorus. Now, these are similar to the sort of guitar stump box based effects that you find. And a flanger gives a sweeping kind of washing sound. Now, this very simple controls here, there's a mixed dial. So if this is turned all the way to the left, we won't hear any effect. As I increase this will hear more of the fit. So you can hear that sweeping metallic sound that's classic of a flanger effect. Now there's also a right dial here. So as I increase the rate, the sweeping will get faster. So that's the flanger. Let's change this to the chorus and courses, usually a bit more subtle. Let's have a listen as I bring the mixed Nobel. So we don't get so much sweeping here, but it does sort of thicken the sound up, particularly when you're playing chords. And again, there's a right control, so I'll increase the right. And now we can hear that coarse effect more. So that's a quick look at the amp and a fixation. 9. Envelopes: In this video, we're gonna talk about envelopes and envelopes away that we can modulate the sound every time we play a note. I'm going to start off here with the factory default. And I don't want to focus on the filter at the moment. So I'm gonna turn off the filter with the power button here. Now, we'll notice that there's two different envelopes here. We've got a filter envelope and an amplitude envelope. And I'm gonna focus on the amplitude on light first, because once we understand how that works, we'll then be able to see how it affects the filter envelope. So we'll notice that there's actually these sliders here. That's a v l or velocity. And what that means is that these are turned up at the moment. So the harder I hit the note, the higher the velocity, the more of this amplitude envelope is going to be applied. Now, I don't want to actually have the velocity effect, the envelope. So I'm going to turn these velocity sliders down for now. Okay, let's look at the amp envelope here. And this is a typical ADSR envelope, which is the most common type of envelope. There's different types like AD envelopes, but these are the ones that you will come across the most. Now, ADSR stands for attack, decay, sustain, and release. And these are the four stages our envelope. Now, starting off with the attack, we can actually see here a little button that says I, this is the attack. And at the moment this is set to a very low value. I could even set that to 0. Now I can either type in a number here or I can move this first little dot here all the way to the left. Now there's 0 attack, meaning that it's going to be at the very fastest attack. And the attack controls when you play a note, how long it takes to get to the maximum volume. So if I play a note now, what we've done here is that as soon as I strike that note, it's instantly go into the maximum volume because I've got a very fast attack. Now, if I was to increase that attack by dragging this first dot to the right, I can have that attack much slower. So it's gonna take awhile for that sound to fade in. Okay, so that's the attack. Let me say that back to 0. And the next stage in our envelope is the decay. And in order to hear this decay properly, I'm actually going to turn down the sustain. Now I can come here where it says s For sustain and certainly type in 0. Or alternatively, I could drag this dot all the way down the bottom. And that's going to allow us to hear that decay. So the decay is how long it takes after the attack stage. So when I trigger a note, it gets to the attack volume. And then the decay is how long it's gonna take to die down to the sustain. So at the moment I've got a fairly fast decay. Let's have a listen. Now, you'll notice that I was still holding my finger on the note, but the sound stopped. It faded out based on the length of this decay. So we can have this even shorter. So now we've got a really fast percussive sound, or we could have a longer decay. And now that's taking longer to fight out. So I'll say that back to roughly about 500 milliseconds. Now, the sustain is the next stage. And if I was to bring this up, I will simply drag the second dot up. We're increasing the sustain. And if I was to drag this all the way up to the top, now we've got the maximum sustain. Sustain is different from the other stages in the envelope. Attack, decay and release are all measured in time, how long it takes to get to a certain stage. The sustain is actually a level control how loud it is. And with the stain at the maximum volume. What that means is as long as I hold the note down, it's going to stay at that maximum volume. So let's have a listen. And it would just stay at that volume as long as I hold the note down. Now we could bring the sustained down a little bit. Okay. So we can still hear them as I'm holding it down, but notice that it went down a bit and volume. And again, if we have no sustain in, the sound's gonna die out even though I'm holding my finger down on the note. So I'll just bring that up again. And the final stage is the release. The releases, how long it takes when I let go of the note for the sound to die down at the moment, I've got a very short release. I could even set that to 0 or one millisecond, which is the smallest amount. And it's going to instantaneously stop when I let go of the note. Okay, as we increase the release, we're going to have a longer release stage and it's gonna take longer to die out when I released the note. So they're the four stages in our envelope. And we can use these to create all sorts of different shapes very fast because of shapes or very long sustained shapes. So if I bring the sustain all the way up and have a much slower attack and a much slower release. I'm going to get a much longer sort of a sound that is good for things like pads and codes. So as you can here, we can really shape the dynamics of each note using amplitude envelope. Now, I'll say this back to a fast attack and maximum sustain and a short release. Now we also have the filter envelope here. And as you'd imagine, the filter envelope controls the filter cutoff frequency. Now, if I turn the filter back on, we'll see that there's actually a dial here for the amount of envelope. And this will control how much this envelope is affecting the filter. So if I increase this to the maximum value, we're going to hear this more. Now if I counted filter on blood potentially doing something now. But here this a bit better, I'm actually going to bring the sustain all the way down on the filter envelope. And let's have a listen now. Here that filter is clamping down and we're getting this sort of plucky sound. This is great for bases or sequence sounds. Now, we can play around with the actual cutoff frequency and additive resonance as well. Okay? So the attack decay sustain release works the same in the filter envelope as the amplitude envelope, but here it's controlling the filter. So if for example, I could have a slower attack and a slower decay. And then I'll actually here the filter sweep up and down. So as we can hear, the envelopes are great for shaping the sound. 10. LFO: Another type of much later is an LFO. And an LFO stands for low frequency oscillator. Now, an oscillator is just the same as the actual oscillate is we're hearing. But in this case, the LFO is operating at such a low frequency that we can't actually hear it. We can only hear its affects on other perimeters. And the LFO can affect many different parameters, enrich our sinth. So there's different places we can choose the LFO to affect site, the filter, or the shape of a square wave. So let's have a listen to how the LFO affects the filter. And I can do that by increasing this dial here. And that's increasing the amount that the LFOs controlling the filter. Now at the moment, the LFO amount is being controlled based on the mod wheel. And you can actually change that here to a different type of controllers such as after touch. But if we don't want to have to use the mod wheel on our keyboard, we can actually bring this, fight it down. And now we don't need to use the mod wheel in order to hear the LFO's effect. Ok, so now we can clearly hear the LFO affecting the filters cutoff. Now if we look at the LFO's section, we can see that these different wave shapes here. So at the moment we're listening to a triangle shape where the LFO is going up and down. But we have some different waveforms here. So if we click this first button here, we can see we've got a sawtooth shape here that gives us a more plucky kind of a sound. So this is a forward sawtooth. There's also a backward sawtooth, or sometimes called a ramp up, and almost gives us the reverse kind of sound, like a sucking sound. We've already listened to the triangle. There is also a square. And this gives us a very abrupt on and off sort of a sound. Okay? And another list deep square wave. Also send back to the triangle wave. So as well as these different wave forms for the LFO, we have the right and we can control the right with the slide here. So again, we can go from slower right here to the left to a faster right here to the right. I'll bring this up as we're playing. So this is great for those sort of low wobbly dubstep baselines if we play this a little bit lower. Okay, so changing the right there, it gives us an interesting sound. And of course you could automate this and logic to habit changing over time. Now, the right here, if we want it to be in time with our music, we could turn on this Sync button here. So now that the right isn't musical divisions, and I can actually change the right here and we'll hear that in time with the actual tempo of logic. Now the LFO can also affect the shape of the pulse width. So if we come here and look at the pulse width square y, if I'll sit oscillator one here to a square wave and I'll sit the mixed dot slide all the way up to oscillate a one. So we just hit the Cell Slider. You'd notice that here what the shape dial, we can have the LFO controlled shape. Now this is basically doing the same thing as moving this dial between a standard square wave and, and much thinner pulse wave. And I'll sit this doll somewhere in the middle. And we can hear as I increase the amount of LFO, we can hear the movement in the sound. Now, when we bring this to the streams, that almost sounds like the sounds cutting out. So I'll say it this back a little bit. And of course we could change that right if we wanted to. So here we can get a really nice thick sound, even just with one oscillator. And again, if I was to bring an oscillator number two and also set that to pulse width modulation. We'll get an even thicker tone. Let's turn that down to negative 12 semitones. So now we're getting a really thick tone using the LFO to affect the pulse width modulation. Okay, so that's an overview of the LFO. In the next lesson, we'll look at the vibrato. 11. Vibrato: In this movie, we're going to look at the vibrato section and retrieve synth. Vibratos and musical term that signals will apply to add some more expression to the performance. Now, I'm going to come here to the factory default and recall the default settings. So we're starting from a sort of blank canvas as it were. And notice that next to the LFO we have a vibrant o section. So this vibrant and control really is just another LFO that's connected directly to the pitch of the oscillator is. Now just like the iPhone. There's a slide here that is connected by default to the mod wheel. If we bring this down, now, we don't need to use the mod wheel in order to hear the results of the broad brush I. Coming here to the oscillator section, we can see that there is a vibrato dial here, and it's actually already turned up. So if I was to bring this down, now, if I play a note, we won't hear any vibrato. As I increase this dial will hit more and more vibrato. Now, generally this is supposed to be used fairly subtly, but you can also, as you can hear it, use it, great sorrow and a fakes will sound a fates. So I will just increase the Vibrio just a little bit. Okay, so coming here to the vibrato section, pretty much exactly the same controls as the LFO, except it's a fainting, In this case the pitch so we could change the waveform type. So again, all sorts of interesting sarin sounds to be had there. And we can change the right here. Now we'll actually turn the thing off and we can increase or decrease it. So that's the byproduct control. And that affects the pitch of the oscillator. 12. Oscillator Sync: In this movie, we're going to look at the sync mode in retro synth. Now, sync or oscillators sink is an effect that will find in many old analog style synthesizes. So if we change this from the analog mode to the sync mode by clicking this button here. We'll notice that a couple of these controls change here on the oscillator section. Now we've got a dedicated nob here for the sink amount. And we'll also notice that this changed from shape modulation to sink modulation. Now, the way that this works is basically it's trying to synchronize the waveforms from oscillator to oscillate a one now will only really here the effect of the sync on oscillator two. So if I sit the slider here on the mixed dial two all the way to oscillate a two. So we just hear oscillator two. Now, if I was to increase the sink amount, we'll hear more of that sink. So we can hear that as we change the sink, more harmonics are added to the sound. Now, we can control the sink based on the filter envelope or with an LFO. So if I move this doll here towards the LFO, Now we'll hear the LFO controlling the amount of sync. And I'll bring the right at the LFO down a bit. So we get that really nice kinda screaming sound. Now, instead of using the LFO, we can use the filter on blogs. If I turn this old away to the right, now we're actually going to be hearing the effect of the filter envelope. I'm gonna come here to the filter envelope and bring down to the cysteine so that we only xi. So we can actually focus on the decay of the sound. And maybe I'll turn off the filter here for a second. So we get that screaming taught sound that sprite for leads. So that's the sinc function here. Inside of Ray tracing. 13. Global settings: Next we're going to look at some of the global controls that we have, the retro synth. And we can access these through the Settings button down the bottom right. So if I click the Settings button, that's gonna open up the section here where we've got there is different global settings that are faked the entire sinth. We can sit up different controllers here, such as the mod wheel after touch or velocity to change various different parameters, such as the filter cutoff or the wave shape or LFSR, right? So That's great for a performance type situation. And we've got these global settings here on the left, which is what I want to focus on. Now, first up, we've got the voice detuning now is actually somebody shooting on here at the moment. And you'll hear this, especially if I play a chord. There's a kind of rich sort of movement in the sound. If I sit the voice detuning to 0, it sounds a little bit more static. As I increased the voice detuning will here, that we get more oscillators and they're being detuned a bit like a course fate in order to create a richer sound. Now if we increase this too much, it sounds like it's Adam tunes. So you'll have to find the sort of amount of detuned That sounds good to you. Maybe a little bit less. Okay, there's also a stereo spread. And at the moment this is sit all the way up to one, which is the maximum amount. And what that means is that those extra voices that are being detuned spread around the stereo field. Now you'll only hear this if you're listening on headphones or a good pair of stereo speakers. So this gives us a lot of stereo motion to the sound. If I was to bring this down to 0, we'll notice that there's basically no stereo spread to the south and it's completely mono. And as I increase this will hear more stereos breed. The voice decking. We can have two voices for voices, ICT voices, or we can turn that off. Now, Voices, the number of possible sounds will oscillate as we can here. At the same time, at the moment this is set to 16, so I can play up to 16 different notes on my keyboard. That's the maximum amount. We can decrease that to say two voices. Now I can only play two notes at a time. If I try and play a third node. The first node i applied is cutoff. We can even sit this to basically one voice and that is mono. And Mano basically means you can only play one note at a time. So if I try and play code, we're going to hear one note. Now there's another sitting here called legato, which is very similar to Mano in that you can only play one note at a time. However, this will affect the glide that we'll look at next. I'll leave it on legato here. Now, we can also transpose the whole instrument up or down. An octave or two octaves is a fine June control way we could change if it was slightly out of tune, would say another instrument like a guitar, we could tune the overall synth. And you can also play it with the pitch bean range. So when I use the pitch pinwheel to being denote, we can bend that note up and down by default two semitones, but we could increase or decrease that. So I could say maybe five semi-tones, or even 12 semitones, which would be one octave. You can go up to two octaves. So those are the global controls in retro synth. 14. Glide: In this video, we're going to look at the glide section. This is sometimes called portmanteau on some other synthesizes. Now we need to turn glide on with this button here. When you turn on glide, instead of changing abruptly from one pitch to another, it's going to slide or glide up from one pitch to another. And that's determined based on the amount of time here. So notice that if I turn glide off and I play two notes, one after the other, It's just playing one note pitch than the Evernote pitch. But if I turn on glide, we'll hear a little bit of a slideUp to those pitches. Now, the Time Dial here determines how long it's gonna take to glide from one note to the next. So if I increase this a little bit, now you can hear that gliding up to these different pitches. We can have this really long. Now, glide is one of those things that's actually affected by the number of voices. So if we come back to the settings here and sit this bank under the voices to Mano, Knaflic comeback to the glide. It's going to lie between every single note I play. Whereas if I was to change the settings to legato, then it's only going to light up the notes when I'm overlapping notes, when I play overlap notes. So if I play separate notes, Notice that the pitch is not gliding up. But if I overlap these two notes, now we can hear that glide. I'll say the spec to Mano for now. Okay, there's different glide modes here at the moment this is hit to all oscillators. What's affecting both the oscillators and the sine level. If we come here, we could choose just oscillate U1 and the sign, which is, remember this other sign wife here on the amp section. Or we could have just oscillate a two. So now it's on a gliding between oscillator to an oscillator. One is not gliding. Or this mode here, that's called a pose, which is really interesting. So one notes can glide up and the other notes going to glide down. So we have a really long time here. We could get a really interesting kind of riser effect. So that's the glide section here and retrenchment. 15. Example Seq Bass: Okay, so now we know what all the controls do in this analogue synths section. Let's have a look at some examples. The first type of sound I'm going to make is a classic sequenced by sound. And this is great for standard sort of ice lines and also good for any plucky type sounds. So I'm going to start off by setting this back to the default sound, which is a good starting point. And I actually want to only hear one oscillator for this sound. So I'm going to drag the slider here on the mixer all the way up to oscillate a one. And I'm going to change the waveform to a square wave here. Just adds a bit more thickness. So now the main part of the sound is all about shaping the tone of the sound of the filter with the envelope. So if we come here to the filling station and there is actually already some of the envelope controlling the filter cutoff. And I can increase that here. This also works in tandem with the filter cutoff and the resonance. So if I bring that cutoff down a little bit and maybe bring the reason it's up a little bit. We can hear that envelope fitting the cutoff. Now, turning to the filter envelope down the bottom here, what I wanna do is to create a more plucky sound is bring the sustain all the way down. So that's this little dot here. And if we decrease this all the way down, now we'll really here at the attack and the decay. And that's getting pretty close to what I want. So we can hear that we've got a very fast attack. We could even bring that to 0 for the attack. So it sounds instantaneously as soon as you play a note. And then we've got the decay, in this case is hit to about 520 milliseconds. You could play with us and have a shorter sound or a longer sound. But I think around 500 sounds pretty good here. So this sounds, sounds particularly good if you're playing lots of fast notes. And I can actually give an example here. If I add a media fake TEA, such as the arpeggiator. And now if I hold down a few notes, we can hit days out basic sequence by sound. And of course you can play around with the filter cutoff. And the reason it's you could change the talk that filter. So we could try a different type of filter like this lush fat one. And there's out basic sound. So don't forget when you come up with a good sound to come here and save it. So I'm gonna say Save As. And I'm going to save this under ice. Sorry, retro sinth. And I will call this sequence base. So now I can reach the sound whenever I want. 16. Example wobble bass: In this video, we'll look at another type of bass sound, the wobble base. And this is become associated with genres such as dubstep. Now again, I'm going to start off with the default per. So recall that fault preset. And I actually want to hear both of the oscillators here. So we'll leave the mix dial in the middle. And I'm going to change the wave shapes to a square wave here. So say both oscillators to a square wave. Okay? Now, if we come to the settings here, This is a byte sound. So I don't want to be able to play chords. So I'm going to change the voices to either mono or Legato. I might changes to legato. That means that I can only really play one note at a time. Ok? Now, the main part of this sound here, I want to detour in these two oscillators. So if we come here to oscillate at two and change the since we can get a more detuned sound. Going across that quite a bit, say ten seats. And that gives us a really thick sort of tone. Okay? We could even if we want to hear, changed the voice, Detune a bit more. Ok, that sounded good. So I'll close this Settings window up. Okay, I want to come to the low-pass filter here. And I'll actually change this from the lush sitting to the lush fat sitting again. That means that the fat means that if we increase the resonance, we're not going to lose any of the base with the filter. So what I wanna do is control the filter here, the LFO. So I'll actually turn down the envelope dial here to 0. And I'll turn up the LFO amount. And now we'll hear the LFO starting to wobble the filter. Now this is not working correctly because if I look in my LFO section, we can see that again, the LFO is being control the amount of the LFO's controlled with the modulation wheel. So if I bring the slide down to the bottom, then we don't need to use the modulation wheel to introduce the LFO. So now if I bring up the LFO dial and the fill section will hear that wobble. And we can bring this up maybe a little over halfway. Okay, so now we're starting to hear that wobbly sort of sound. And we could change the right here, are actually turn the sync on. So it's going to be in tomato music. And also their right to 1 eighth. Okay, now we can also play with the cut-off and resonance. If I increase the resonance little bit and maybe bring that cutoff down and maybe increase the LFO amount or treat decrease it. Now we're starting to get that Walpole's handling them after. Now we could add a little bit more white and sub harmonics by increasing the sine level here. And that's going to add, allow a sinewave underneath a wobble base. Now, you'll probably only hear this on headphones or with a good set of speakers with plenty of base. Okay, so that's the basic tone. We could also add a little bit of glide. So if I turn on glide here and maybe increase the time. Now when we glide up between different notes, will get their interesting pitch slide. Okay, so let's go ahead and save this patch. Save As, and I will call this wobble base. Now, just to finish up the sound of edited a couple of beat loops. And I've edited a couple of effects to our BY sound. And I've also automated the LFO, right? So the speed of the wobble is changing. 17. Example sync lead: The last example I'm going to show you is a sink lead sound. So I'm going to switch over from analog to this sync method here. And because it's a laid sound, I don't wanna play codes. So if I click on the Settings button, I'm going to change the number of voices to Mano or legato. I'll change that to legato from here. And I can close up the settings. So I'm actually gonna sit both of the aisle slide is here to the square wave because I think this sounds a little bit with a square wave. And we should actually already here, some oscillate is sink. Now we can increase the amount of sink here. And the main part of the sound is that I want to be able to control that sync with the filter envelope. So I'm going to increase this dial here to increase the amount of filter envelope controlling that sync. Now, it's all about shaping this envelope here. So if we come to the filter envelope, I wanna sit the sustained down to 0 and maybe have a slightly longer attack. Somewhere around day sounds pretty good. Now, a lot of the frequencies are being filtered out with the filters. So I'll bring up the filter cutoff little bit. And that's getting pretty close to the sound that I want. Now we could also turn on glide and bizarre sink lead. This sounds good with a little bit of delay. 18. Wavetable Theory: In this video, we're going to look at the wave table mode in retro synth. Now the first thing to say about wave tables is that it's a type of digital synthesis. Up until now, everything we've been looking at, there's been an emulation of standard subtractive analogue synthesisers. But now we're moving into the realm of digital synthesis, so it'll sound very different. The very first wave table synthesizer was the PPG wave, created by Wolfgang palm in the early eighties. And the basic theory of wave temple synthesis is that instead of working with a single waveform like a sawtooth or a square wave. What we're actually doing is we're using a wave table. And a wave table is a series of single cycle waveforms. They could be things like sine waves or square waves, or much more complex shapes. And these waveforms are spliced together to form a larger wave table. Then the idea is that you can scan through this wave table to create evolving sounds. And this really vastly expands the scope of sounds that you should create. Now, here inside of retrenchment, we need to change this to the table view. So if we click up here on table, notice that the whole interface changes and it's actually blue to represent the PPG Wave. So here we've got a similar layout to our analog layout without oscillators, filters, LFOs, envelopes, et cetera. But what's mainly different here and where all the magic happens is in the oscillator section. And we're going to look at that in the next video. 19. Wavetable Oscillators: So here I am in logic and we've got retro isn't open in the wave table mode. Now before we change anything, let's just have a listen to the default sound. We can here. It's very different from our analog type sounds. It's very digital. Now, if we look here at the oscillator section, which is where all the magic happens. Instead of having these different waveforms, we have got two dials that suddenly say shape. And these are where we can load up different wave tables. Now in order to just hear the wave tables, I'm going to temporarily turn off the filter by clicking this button here. And if I want to listen to just oscillate a one, I'll drag the mixed slider all the way up to the top. So we just listened to oscillate a one. And what I'm gonna do is turn this dial and what it's gonna do is scan through this wave table. So let's have a listen. So we can hear. It's a very different sound to our analog oscillators. There's lots of different wave tables that we can load up here. At the moment, we're just using the default table. But if we click on this drop-down menu and come here under factory, These are all the ones that ship with logic. And we've got all sorts of different wave table sounds on here. So let's try something else like for example, some vowel sounds. Or let's try something different. Something like some glossy sounds. This could be quite good for an evolving pad. So as we can here, just with a single oscillator, there's a vast sort of range of sounds that we can create. And of course, there's two different oscillate is here. So if I was to use the slider here and put this in the middle. So we can also hear oscillator to now they are using the same wave table. But you'll notice that oscillator two can be tuned in semitones, or it can be tuned in cents. So we could slightly detuned oscillator to, in relation to oscillator one to get that nice thick course he sound. Okay, so plenty of stuff we can do there. That's a quick look at the oscillator section. In the next video, we'll look at how we can create movement through our wave table. 20. Modulating the Wavetable Shape: Okay, following on from our last video, in this one, we're going to look at adding some movement or motion to our wife tables. So the way that we can do that is through this modulation knob here. Now at the moment it's right at 12 o'clock, meaning that there's no modulation at all. That we can turn this to the left to add some LFO movement, or to the right to add some filter envelope movement. Now, I'll start with the filter envelope. So if I turn this all the way to the right, it's not going to be using this filter envelope to be scanning through the waveform. And by the way, notice that this actually works in conjunction with where these dials are here for the wave table. So if I've got these at 12 o'clock in there, right in the middle of that wave table. So I've got both of these at 12 o'clock. Now if we come to the filter envelope, what I'll do is turn down the sustain and maybe have a slightly longer decay. And let's have a listen here. So now every time I hit a key will hear that change. Maybe I'll make that a little bit faster. Okay, so that's using the filter envelope. And of course we could change the settings like the attack and the decay. But next I want to try out the LFO. And this is just a great way to add ongoing cyclical motion. So if we turn this dial all the way to the left, we're now using the LFO. Now if I come to the LFO, just like without analogue synth, the depth of the LFO is routed to the modulation wheel on your physical keyboard. So if we turn this slider down, it's no longer using the modulation wheel, and we should be able to hear. It's scanning through using the LFO. Now that's a little bit fast. So if I come here to the right of the LFO, we can change this right? They might get a bit slower. I can slow still. Now you may need to play with the date Theia, so we'll come back to this shape Nupedia. And if we bring this down a little bit, we can try and find a nice sweet spot. Of course, we've got different LFO waveforms here. And that's how we can add motion to our wave tables and create a wide variety of evolving sounds. 21. Custom Wavetables: In this video, we're gonna look at retro sensibility to import custom wave tables. Now, this was a feature that was introduced in logic tin 0.1. so you need to be using Tim 0.1 or lighter. Now, what this means is instead of just using the default factory wave tables that come with retro synth, you can actually load in any audio file you want and convert that into a wave table. Now, this is actually really powerful feature that you'll find in other synthesisers like serum. And this adds a whole world of other scope of sounds you can generate. Now, for best results, try and work with a fairly short sound that is continuous and is pretty much at one fixed pitch. If you load in a whole song or something like this, you're probably not going to get great results. So this could be anything, could be an instrument like a float or a guitar. It could be a voice. In this case, I'm using this recording here that I made true apples speech synthesis feature here. And let's just have a listen to that song. So we can hear it saying sonic Safari. And now I can drag this either directly from my hard drive, from the desktop or from the browser window here. So I'm simply going to drag this straight into this wave table section here where the oscillators are. And that's going to load this up as a custom wife title. And it tells me here, the new wave table contains 14 waveforms. So I'll click okay, essentially what that means is that it's generated 14 different wave forms out of that recording. And it's going to morph between them with this shaped dial. Now, if I sit this modulation to know modulation, and we can now manually play to the shape. And of course we could use something like the LFO to Ed's emotion here. So notice it doesn't sound exactly like the original recording, but it maintains some of the character of the original recording. And the great thing is this cannot be played like any other slide I've pitched up and down the keyboard. We can play codes. And oldest just came from an original recording. So as you can see, it opens up a lot of scope here. Being able to bring in your own custom wife titles. 22. Example motion Pad: In this video, we're going to have a look at creating an evolving pad sound. And this is the sort of sound that wave titled synthesis really excels at. So to begin with, I'm going to race it will recall the default patch. And this is going to actually be using the analogue synth engine. So I'm gonna click over here on the table to bring up the wife title mode. And what I might do here is load up a wave table. Now, of course, you can experiment with all the different wave tables. And here I'm gonna come here under the factory tables and choose this one here called organ waves. And this will roughly sound like, you know, some different organ tones. Okay, so I'll sit Both of these shapes to the middle. So they both roughly in the middle of the wave table. And I might add some detuning here to oscillate it. Number two, that save and see it sounds pretty good. And that gives us this nice sort of rich tone. Now, I might bring up, turn off the filter, fan out just so we can listen to the oscillators. Now, pad sounds really sort of generally sound good if they're nice and thick and wide. So if I come into my settings here, I can maybe play with the voice Detune a little bit and add a little bit more detune to create a wide sort of sound. There we go. Around 0.4 sounds pretty good. Okay, now to add some motion here too are sound. And I'm going to use the LFO. So let's turn the dial here to the left for the shape so that we are now using the LFO to move through these wife titles. I'll also come to the LFO section and bring down the slide folded modulation wheel. So now we're just hearing the LFO directly controlling the shape. Now, obviously that's a bit too fast, so bring this right way down. Ok, somebody around, they Sounds good. Now you could try sinking this, but I'm going to leave it as is. You could try some different LFOs shapes, but I'm going to leave it here on the triangle, so it's just going back and forth. Okay, so that's the Royal tone. Now, let's have a listen to the amplitude envelope because a big part of the pad sound is that it's going to slow attack and a slow release. So it fades in and fades out. So I'm going to come here to the attack and increased the attack quite a bit up to about one or two seconds. Let's try that. Two seconds. Okay, so now it's fighting in and we can increase the release as well, roughly the same amount. Okay, so now when we pay play towards they all sort of blended in with each other. Maybe I'll bring down that released just little bit. There we go. Okay, now to add a bit more movement to the sound, I'm going to turn the fields back home. And I might set this to a different type of filter here, I might try a low-pass 12 db creamy filter. You can experiment with this. And I want to control the filter cutoff using an envelope. So I'll increase this envelope amount. And now we're going to be using the filter envelope to open up the filter cutoff. So I'm going to come here to the filter envelope and I'll bring the sustained down maybe to about halfway and I'll increase the attack. So it's going to bring the filter up when I first play in art. That will hear this little bit better if we increased some resonance and maybe bring the filter cutoff down initially. Here we got in the filter envelope. Okay, so now we've got a nice sort of pad sound. I might also add some affix by turning on the fixation here and sitting it to course. And let's play with the mix and the right. Now this sort of sound sounds great with little bit of reverb as well. So if I just come here to my audio effects and all that up, spice designer. And I'll try maybe a lodge Plate Reverb. Let's try this one here. Big plight. And there's a nice glossy pad sound. 23. Example vowel lead: In this example, we're going to create a sort of vowel like lead sound. Now, I'm going to start off by recalling the default preset, which again by default is set to the analog mode. So let's click over here and change this to the wave table mode. And we're actually not going to need the filter for this one. So I'm going to turn off the filter altogether. Of course, you can always experiment with adding the filter afterwards. Now, I'm gonna come here and change the wave table to under the factory settings. One of these vowel sounds here, and there's one that I quite like equaled vowels Digi, and that's a fairly sort of digital, harsh kind of a sound that sounds quite good here. So if we just have a listen to this, so I'm gonna play this fairly low on the keyboard. Ok. And I might come here and see it. Both of these shape dials to roughly to the middle. And of course we want to add some motion here. So in this case, I'm going to use the filter envelope. So if we turn the filter envelope all the way up here with the shape dial. Now we're using the filter envelope to scan through the wife title shape. If we come to our filter envelope, I'll turn to sustain down and play around with the decay and the tech. Ok, it sounds quite good, which can also play around with the amount this shape modulation dial. The actual shite in the wave table itself. Now, I'm going to slightly detuned, oscillate a two from oscillator one to add a bit more width. So now we've gotta think a sound. And I'm going to come into the settings here. And because this is supposed to be a lead sound, I don't want to be able to play court. So if we come here and change the number of voices to Mano, then that way we can't really create any cords. It's just going to play one note. Okay? So this would sound quite good with a little bit of glide as well. So if we turn on the glide and maybe increase the time little bit, now, it's going to glide up between the different pitches of notes that we play. Ok, that sounded good. I think this would benefit with some effects. So I'm going to turn on the affixed section here and I'll leave it on flanger. What I want to have as a sort of metallic type of sweeping sound here. So if we play with the mix and the right, Let's have listened. And there is our bow leads out. 24. FM Theory: In this chapter, we're going to talk about frequency modulation synthesis or FM synthesis. Now, if him synthesis was originally invented by Jonathan channeling in the 19 seventies. But the very first synthesizer that came out to the public that used FM synthesis was the aha dx seven, which basically defined the sound of the 19 seventies. And it made they sort of cheesy pop piano sounds and bowel sounds that a, you know, kind of associated with FM synthesis. However, it's had a bit of resurgence in recent times and it's great for making more modern bass sounds and harsh laid sounds. So it's a very digital type of synthesis. So what is if M synthesis? Well, it's essentially modulating the frequency of one oscillate it with another oscillator. Now we've actually already looked at a form of FM synthesis before using vibrato. And we already discussed that vibrato is basically changing the pitch or the frequency of an oscillator. So here I'm just using the factory default setting and I'm in the analog mode here. And if I sit my mix all the way to oscillate, to actually we'll just hear oscillated 2D now. If M synthesizes didn't actually originally had filters, so I'll just turn off the filter for now. And I'm going to start with a simple waveform. So I'll see it oscillate a two to a triangle wave form because traditional even synthesizes actually only work with sinewaves. Now there's not actually a sine wave here in this analog section, but a, a triangle wave is fairly close in that it doesn't contain too many harmonics. So it sounds like this. Okay, not very interesting, but I'm gonna add some vibrato. Now, if I come to this Vibrio section, and again, I'm going to turn down the slide here so that we're not controlling the vibrato with the modulation wheel. And now we can increase the amount of I brought out with this knob here. Ok, so usually this is used fairly subtly to just create a slight sort of pitch wobbling like this. But you can hear when we increase this really high, we'll get more of a siren like sound or some sort of sci-fi sound. Now, if we come to the vibrato section here, which is essentially an LFO that's controlling the pitch. I'm going to sync off here and play with the right. So normally this would be quite slow. So it can hear that. And as we increase the right, we're going to hear something kind of interesting. At a certain point. You don't really hear the pitch sweeping up and down. You start here, more distinct harmonics added to the sound. So we're actually with a very fast vibrato. We're essentially adding more harmonics to the sound. And this is the basis of FM synthesis. And of course, you should play with different waveforms, different amounts of vibrato. Of course, on a proper infimum synthesizer, it's a lot more complicated. Typically, you're working not with one oscillator, but in stayed with several. And in FM speak, oscillators are called operators. So on the dx seven, there were actually six different operators that we're all sine waves. And these could be configured into different configurations or algorithms. And this created a very wide pallet of sound. Now Retro sent only has two operators or oscillators, if you will. And let's have a look at those in the next video. 25. FM operators: So let's have a closer look at Richardson's. If im operators. Starting off here with the factory default. I'm going to come over and click on the button to go to the FEM mode. And here we'll see a very different looking into phi with a callous game that's very reminiscent of the Omaha dx even. Now, you'll notice that here in the oscillated section, the controls are very different from analog or wave table. Now I will actually turn off the filter here with this PAL button so we can just hear the oscillators. Now, notice that we don't actually have just standard waveforms here like square wave, so a waves or wave tables. Instead, we've got two different oscillators here that a cold, the modulator, and the carrier. Now this is terminology that you'll find in FM synthesis. So we can actually change between them here using this slider. We can listen to just the modulator will just the carrier. And what do I have to do is start off by turning all these other slide is down. So we can listen to the carrier. And that's simply a sinewave. Notice it's very pure tone. It's just the fundamental frequency, just one frequency and no harmonics. Or we could listen to the modulator, which is close to a sine wave. Now, generally, you would only hear the carrier. So when you're sort of creating if the carrier is the actual operator that you'll hear. And the modulating is actually used to modulate the pitch or the frequency of the carrier. So I'll leave this all the way down. So we just hearing the carrier and we want to actually start adding some frequency modulation. We can do that with this if m slide here. Now, at the moment, with this all the way down, there is no frequency modulation. So it just sounds like a pure sine wave. But as we increase the slide, we're adding more frequency modulation from the modulation oscillator. And that's again, just like a very fast vibrato that's changing the pitch of the carrier. So you can hear as we increase that if M slider, we adding more frequency modulation. Now, there's a lot of other controls here. For example, we've got the harmonic. Now the harmonic is actually changing the pitch of the modulate up. I'll slider. So if I turn the slider up, so we're here in the modulator and I play with the harmonic slider, will actually hear the pitch of the modulator change. Okay? You'll notice it's not changing in semi-tones. It sounds kind of insurance and that's because it's actually going through the harmonic series. So if you're just using this harmonic slider, you'll tend to get harmonious sounds. Now, there's also an enharmonic slider where we'll start to hear that we get some OS harmonious harmonics. And we can here that's giving us slightly sort of the tuned sound there. And finally, we've got the shape. Now the shape actually changes the waveform of the modulator. So at the moment, the modulate, it is basically just a sine wave. As I increase the shape slider, it's going to change the shape of the oscillator. And we'll hear it's adding more harmonics. And all the way to the top we can hear it sounds fairly similar to something like a sawtooth wave. It's more sort of buzzy. Now. Alternate down again and let's bring the slider down. So we're just hearing the carrier. Now. This will actually have a big difference changing these other settings when we're actually using the modulator to frequency, much like the carrier. So I'll turn up the frequency modulation dial, so maybe about halfway. And now if we play with these other sliders, will here that we get a quite a range of sounds. So I'll start with the harmonic slide out. Remember this is changing the pitch of the modulator oscillator. And we're actually not hearing that, but we're hearing it's a fit on this carrier operator. So you can hear that we sort of sweeping through the different harmonics there. If we come to the enharmonic slider and increase, that will get us sort of slightly detuned, discordant sound. So this could be good for sound effects or anything that you want to sound a bit discordant. Now, sometimes I find that if you wanted to add a little bit of movement, because just as it is, it can sound a bit static. If you add just a small amount of enharmonic, just the very smallest amount, which is zero-zero point seven. It'll just add a little bit of motion so that doesn't have quite so static. So here that slight detuning, it's a little bit like detuning two oscillators from each other. Okay? And finally I'll bring that back down and finally will come to the shape slider. And again, this is changing the actual waveform of the modulator operator and we're going to hear its effect on the carrier. And of course, you can have a blend of the carrier and the modulator. So you can hit both of them. And you can see with all of these controls, we can get a very wide pallet of sound. 26. FM modulation: In this video, we're going to add some motion to our FEM sounds. So I'll start off by recalling the default patch. And I'll switch over to the if m mode here. Now, the starting sound doesn't sound very good, and it's probably not a really good starting point. So what am I do is make some settings and saved my own initialize patch, which will be a good starting point for any sound I want to create myself. So first up all turn off the filter because typically when I'm making If M sounds that I actually don't like using the filter because the original, if him synthesisers didn't have one. Of course, you can always add filter afterwards, but I'm also going to bring these slide is down here. Because again, that's just going to be a good starting points. So we just only hearing the carrier wave form and there is no frequency modulation going on. So it should just sound like a standard sine wave. Okay, so that's a good starting point and I'm going to come up here and save this. And I'm going to call this if m, init or initial. And that's just going to always be a good starting point anytime I want to create a if him sound. Okay, great. So here we're going to add some motion and we're going to use this modulation dial here. Now, you can see that we can either use the LFO or we could use the filter envelope. And we can have that controlling either the frequency modulation or the harmonic slider. So I'll leave this here on the if m at the moment the switch. And let's try dialing in some the LFO. So we'll play the sound and I'll turn this dial towards the LFO. Now again, if I come to the LFO settings and bring the model will slide down, we'll hear that as we increase this dial. And again, if I come to the LFO, I can maybe bring the right down so it's a bit slower. Okay, so there were adding modulation to the frequency modulation slideUp with the LFO. We could also use a filter envelope. So I'll turn this all the way to the right. So now we'll be using the filter envelope to control the FEM amount. So if we come here to the filter envelope and again, I'm going to bring the sustained down. And let's just have Listen to that. Okay, so that's giving us a kind of percussive sound. Or we could increase the attack. And then we can actually hear that swelling up. Now, instead of controlling the FM amount slider here, we could change this to all the way to the right. So we are now using the filter envelope or the LFO to control the harmonics slider. Let's have a listen to that. I'll make this envelope a little bit longer in the decay. Now that's fairly subtle. I could actually, if I wanted to hear a little bit better, increase the harmonic slide up. So you can hear this some movement there. I could also use the LFO. And instead of controlling just the FEM, all the harmonic slider, we could see the switch to the middle. So it's controlling both. Let's have a listen to that. So we can hear that's adding quite a lot of movement to the sound. Now, these other slide is inharmonic and shape. We can't directly modulate in retro isn't. But of course, you could use automation and logic to have those changing over time as well if you wanted. There's also a vibrato control here, just like we'd find in any other one of these analog or sink modes. So that's looking at adding modulation using the LFO or the filter envelope. 27. Example Deep House Bass: In this example, we're going to create a spiky if m by sound. Now, this sort of a bass sound was used a lot and techno tracks in the nineties. And it's having a bit of a resurgence in genres like deep house. So let's start off here. I'm going to load up our net preset that we made earlier on. So we've just got a good starting point. And what we're hearing is just the carrier, no modulator and no filter. And this is just a sine wave. I'm playing this quite low down the keyboard since it's a bass sound. Now you might notice at the very start of the sound that you hear a little pop, especially if you're in headphones, you'll be able to hear this. So you might notice a little click or a little pop at the start. And that's created with the attack here of the amplifier envelope, of the amplitude envelope. So if I set this to 0 milliseconds here, will hear that even more. Because he had a little ticket the start. So to get rid of that, I'm simply going to increase the attack amount up to about two milliseconds or so, and that'll just get rid of that little ticket, the start. Okay. Now, moving on to our fm, the whole basis of this patch is just using a simple envelope to control the amount of FM. So I'm going to make sure that this switch is it all the way to the left so that we're just going to be modulating the FM amount here. And then I'm going to increase, turn this dial to the right. So we're using the filter envelope to modulate this if m amount slider. And now we're starting to hear that kind of attack at the start. We're adding some harmonics at the start and that's dropping off. Now, if we come to the filter envelope, we can shape this. I'll start by bringing the sustain all the way down. And we can also play with the decay to have a shorter sound or a slightly longer. So I'm gonna stick somewhere around here and about 520 milliseconds. So we could also slightly increased that attack if we're hearing a bit of a click there. Okay, that's pretty close. Now we can just fine tune this filter envelope amount. Now because this is a bass sound, I want to make sure that I can't play any cords. So we'll come here to the settings. And I'm going to set the number of voices to mono so we can only play one note at a time. Also, when I'm gonna be in here, I'm going to turn the voice detuned down to 0 and the stereo spread down to 0. And also the voice stacking to off so that we don't have any unison detuned voices. Everything's just Mano and with no detuning. And that's what you want for a solid base sound. So there is our FEM, deep house by sound. 28. Example FM Pad: In this example, I'm going to make an if im pad. So let's start off by loading up at him and it press it we credit earlier. And this could get a little bit loud. So I'll actually come to the volume dial and bring this down to about negative 16 or so. At the moment we're just leads to a sine wave. So the first thing I wanna do is increase the modulation amount and alternatives to the right. So we are using the filter envelope. I'll turn this all the way to the right. And now we're using the filter envelope to control this if him slider. So that's going to introduce harmonics. If we count to our filter envelope, I'm going to bring the sustained down all the way down to the bottom. So we're not having any sustain. And I'm going to have a really slow attack and a slow decay. So actually no values that are going to work here. If we counted the attack, I'm going to type in 3 thousand. And same for the decay. So now what I'm going to get is a really slow attack and a slow decay. Let's have a listen to that. Okay, that sounds good. I might adjust the release little bit as well. So if we come here to the relay, salt might get about 100 thousand for the release. So when I let go of the note, it takes well-defined out. Now we won't have that very well unless we adjust our amplitude envelope. And I want to have fairly similar settings a2. So I want the volume of the entire sound to fight in as well, since it's a padlock sound. So we'll come here to the attack, and I'll type in 3 thousand for the attack, and again 3 thousand for the decay. And I'll also say that the release to 10000. Notice that I am leaving the sustain here in the text section so I will hear the sound continued to play as I hold the notes down. So let's have a listen to that. Okay, that's getting pretty close. Now, we can play around with some of these other controls here. If I want to add a little bit of subtle movement, I could come to this in harmonics ladder and maybe bring this up to just a very small amount, like seven. That's going to add just a little bit of d tuning so that the sound is, gotta put emotion. I could also play with the harmonics lighter. Bring that up just a little bit. That's going to add the brightness to the sound. And same thing with the shape. We bring out the shape slide. We're going to be adding a little bit more brightness to the sound. That's getting a little bit too bright. We could bring the filter envelope amount down. Okay, that sounds pretty good. We could make this a little bit by coming to the settings and playing with the tune on sprayed. So the spreads already at the maximum value. I'm going to increase the voice, detuned it a little bit. So let's say we said that to about 0.4. And I'll increase the voice decking to full voices so we're adding more unison voices to get a thicker tone. Okay, we could also add some effects here. So if I turn on the effects and add a course of fate, maybe increased the right. Now we've got a pretty nice pads out. Now, this would really benefit again from a bit of reverb. So I'm going to turn on this chromosome here, which is sit to this clean ambient tile. Press it and let's have a listen. So there's that if impaired sound. 29. Example Chiptune Lead: In this example, I'm going to create a sort of 19 nineties chip tunes stall laid sound. A lot of old computers back in the day actually used FM synthesis in the inboard chips. So we're gonna do this by starting off with him and it prints it. So we're just hearing a sine wave. And for this one, I actually only want to hear the modulator. So I'm going to bring the slider all the way up. So we just hearing the modulator normally wouldn't actually here the much lighter, you just have the carrier. So doesn't sound much different at the moment. But what I wanna do here is I want to add some harmonic movement. So I'm going to switch this switchover here so that it's going to be modulating these harmonic slide up. And I'm going to use the LFO. So I'll tune the LFO amount, all the wind velocity at this modulation amount to the LFO. Now if we come to the LFO section, I need to tune down this mod wheel slider. And now we should hear the LFO changing that harmonic. Now, that's not quite what I want. So I'm actually going to turn the sinkhole in here. And let's bring the Right down to about one bar. So we have a much slower modulation here. So I'm gonna change the waveform from this triangle wave to a ramp down wave. Now you can experiment with these other ones, but let's have a listen to this. Actually, this is getting a little bit too loud. So what I'll do is turn the volume down to about negative 16 db. Ok, so now we can hear the pitch dropping down. Okay, so that's cool, but we could make the sound a little bit better by increasing the shite slider. And that's going to add more harmonics. So old way at the top, we're gonna get something closer to a sawtooth wave. There we go. And that's how bisects sound. Now, of course, you could experiment with some of these other settings like the envelopes, but I'll just leave it at that for now. Now this sound would sound really good with a little bit of delay. So I'm just going to turn on the stereo delay here. And let's have a listen. So there's that chip June style laid. 30. Outro: So congratulations. Now you've finished the course. You should have a firm understanding of synthesis bisects. Thank you for taking this course. I hope you've had as much fun as I've had making it. As you can see Apple, it might a very powerful but approachable instrument with retro sinth. And I hope it all makes a bit more sense now. So the next time you are making music, instead of reaching for a preset, try making your own sounds from scratch. You may find that it fits much better with your other parts has its tailor-made. Also, you'll feel a lot more satisfied knowing that you made the sound yourself and that no one else has a sound quite like it. If you want to learn more, keep an eye out for more courses. And you can always visit my YouTube channel at sonic Safari. So have fun exploring retro synth and go make some Olson music. See you later.