Syllable Stress in American English | Sheila Lebedenko | Skillshare

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Syllable Stress in American English

teacher avatar Sheila Lebedenko, accent reduction coach

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (1h 52m)
    • 1. Intro to Word Stress (or Syllable Stress)

      1:12
    • 2. Word Stress noun and verb Part 2

      16:45
    • 3. Phrasal Verbs and Nouns Part 3

      4:41
    • 4. Abbreviations, numbers, names, places Part 4

      7:39
    • 5. Prefixes part 5

      9:14
    • 6. Neutral Suffixes Part 6

      6:57
    • 7. Stress one vowel to left part 7

      19:48
    • 8. Stress 2 syllables to left Part 8 finished

      10:19
    • 9. Suffixes that hold stress part 9

      7:39
    • 10. Suffix Changing Exercise Part 10

      9:44
    • 11. Dropped Syllables Part 11

      4:13
    • 12. Lala practice part 12

      6:04
    • 13. Word stress humor review part 13

      7:59
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About This Class

This class will teach you American English word stress, or syllable stress.  Learn the rhythm inside words.  You will learn:

  • How and when to create primary, secondary and reduced stress.  
  • How to relax and stretch out appropriate syllables.  
  • Rules for stressing nouns, verbs, and phrasal verbs
  • Rules for stressing abbreviations, numbers, and names
  • Rules for stressing prefixes and various types of suffixes.  

The course includes several review methods to tap into different ways of learning.  You can follow along with the written lesson files provided (under Class Project)  Also practice with the repetition audio files, located under Class Project, to build muscle memory.  Repeat exactly what you hear in the recording. Once you have mastered the rhythm of words, leap into the rhythm of sentences by taking "The Rhythm of English: Sentence Stress."   You can even get live feedback and correction by attending the instructor's monthly free office hours on Zoom.  Find the instructor and her other offerings at www.smooth-english.com

Meet Your Teacher

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Sheila Lebedenko

accent reduction coach

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Transcripts

1. Intro to Word Stress (or Syllable Stress): Hi, I'm Sheila Lebedenko, an accent reduction coach here in Silicon Valley. Well, what most fascinates students most is the rhythm of English. One syllable will be more stretched out and energetic, while the next syllable will be more minimized and It'll be quieter. However, before we can learn to make rhythm in a whole sentence, we need to learn how to make rhythm within a word- called word stress. Word stress means, do I say in stay bill it y? Or do I say instability? Some suffixes are neutral, meaning they do not affect the stress of the word. An example is heard. If we say adult we stress the second syllable. And when we say adulthood we still stress the second syllable. Let's get started. 2. Word Stress noun and verb Part 2 : to study word stress, we must understand that many words are made up of more than one syllable. A syllable is a unit of pronunciation that has only one vowel sound. The vowel sounds are related to a E I O and U. All syllables, in a word, are not of equal importance. This is different from many other languages. Some syllables will be louder, held longer and have higher pitch than other syllables in the word. Here's an example. Roses has two syllables rose. The first syllable has one vowel o. The second syllable is has one vowel e. Don't treat the two syllables equally. Only one will be stressed for two syllable now owns. We usually stress the first syllable roses, not roses. Violets not vie. Let's honey, not honey. Well, if a word has only one syllable like word, the stress is easy. You have no choices, but we will look a rules for determining stress and words that have more than one syllable now owns and adjectives now owns, and adjectives usually receive first syllable stress. If they're two syllable words, Rabbit blossom permit addict conduct Pretty. I noticed that you might use part of your face to help you achieve the stress on the first syllable. So watch my eyebrows when I say these words, my I Rose will go up on the first syllable. You don't have to do that, but it's an observation, and sometimes it could be useful. Rabbit blossom Permit addict conduct Pretty. We also have two or three word noun is called compound Downs. We always stress the first word in such a compound noun parking lot. Credit card bookmark, football database notice. I did not say database. I said Database Database. Try having your finger go up with the pit database, laptop, baseball bat, bedroom furniture. So when I said bedroom furniture, I had a lot of energy on the word bed bad. And then on room I relaxed bedroom bedroom. So what I find with non native speakers whom I teach is that they don't know how to relax on the syllables that we don't stress. They have too much energy put forth on the word room. When we say bedroom, they'll say Bad room. That's too much energy. You need time to relax. We relax in between stresses. Bedroom. Very relaxing, falling down on the word room bedroom furniture. Example sentences. The woman has a credit card, So I stressed the word woman on the first syllable and credit card on the first syllable of the first word in credit card notice again. How I go up on what? And I go up on credit and then I relax right after it. The woman has a credit card. The woman has a credit card. Put sunglasses on your checklist, try to repeat after me. And after you watch this lesson, you can use the repetition audio in the downloadable section to further practice thes sentences. Practice makes perfect. The Russian needs a green card, so the work card was much lower than green. A green card up down energy. Relax a green card. The Russian needs a green card. The bus driver bought a plane ticket. Now you can use your hands to stress these words and to stress the stressed syllables. The bus driver bought a plane ticket. The football coach gave me his cell phone number. In this sentence, we have very long compound words. Each of those compound words consists of three parts. The football coach. I stress foot the most because it is the first word. The football coach. I relax on ball and coach the football coach. The football coach gave me his cell phone number. The football coach gave me his cell phone number. Cell has a lot more energy than the word phone, and Numb has more energy than Burr. Cell phone number. Cell phone number. So it's like having high, low, medium, low cell phone number. Repeat after me as you follow the red arrows up and down. The woman has a credit card. Put sunglasses on your checklist. The Russian needs a green card. The bus driver bought a plane ticket. The football coach gave me his cell phone number. Now practice these more in the repetition audio in the downloadable section of the course. What about verbs? If you have a two syllable verbs, we often stress it on the second syllable. So it's exactly the opposite of a noun permit. When I say the word permit as a verb, I go like this permit like I'm flicking something because all of the energy happens after the flick permit, and the first part is super fast permit. I don't spend any time on Per, and I don't spend any of my energy on it. All of my energy is conserved for the second syllable because it's a verb permit. But if the same word becomes a noun, I'll do the opposite permit. Now I stress Per and I relax on Mitt Permit Addict conducts Let's look at the word conduct now. When this word is a noun, it's pronounced conduct, and I make a big mouth on the c o N con. It's a different valets, A short Oh, my tongue goes to the bottom of my mouth, and it's very energetic conduct. But when I make this world a verb that c o. N is no longer con, it gets reduced to come. I open my mouth less and make a short U vowel instead. Conducts conduct very fast on the first syllable. Conducts conduct lots of energy on the second syllable. Let's look at the words side by side so you can really feel the difference. Conduct conduct, conduct conduct prevents Notice that I don't say free events. We don't need to be that clear on pre again. We need to learn how to relax. Pre becomes product. We change that long E to a Schwab or a short you, uh, it's the most common vowel in English because we use it in almost every word on the reduced syllables. And it's very easy to say your tongue is super relaxed in the middle of your mouth and your mouth is halfway open. Uh, in fact, Americans use this sound. Ah, when they're thinking, um not sure. Ah, that's our easy relaxing vowel, and you'll use it in prevent in the process. It's super fast and super relaxed. Trump, prevent, Discuss demand notice. I don't say demand. That would be equally stressing both syllables, which would be very un American. The D becomes duh, which again is a Schwab or a short you that super common Val. I told you about demands, but we grow very big on man's demand. It's very stretched out, so you have a short syllable and a stretched out syllable demand. There's some words that can be either a noun or verb, yet they don't change the stress. Let's look at some of those. You just have to memorize them. Copy, honor market measure. Those words sound the same. Whether they're a noun or a verb, go to the downloadable section to find more examples of such words. Example sentences In each of these sentences, they'll be two words that are very similar, but one is a noun and one is a verb, so they'll have the opposite stress. Try to make sure you see and feel in here the contrast between those two words. The addict is addicted to cocaine, so addicts is a noun and stressed on the first syllable. But addicted is a verb and stressed on the second syllable. Now cocaine is an irregular. Now it's a noun, but we stress the second syllable. So we need to be aware of those types of words. You just need to memorize them. Repeat after me. The addicts is addicted to cocaine. Remember to practice these sentences again after this lesson, using the repetition audio in the downloadable section. This permit permits you to camp here. Have you sample the sample? Now? The word sample doesn't change. Whether it's a noun or a verb, you always stress the first syllable. Listen again. Have you sampled the sample? Now? You might feel like sample went up at the end, but that's because it's a yes, no question. Let's change it to a sentence. Please sample the sample. Yeah, they were both stressed on the first syllable. Please study the study. Please study the study. Now Notice that when I say study the second syllable, which is a why. And it's a long A sound is very quiet and it's low energy, but it is still a long e. I cannot change. Study to study. That's incomplete. It still needs to be a long E. It'll just be quieter and done with less energy. Study Study Please study the study. Repeat after me. Have you discussed the problem and exchanged your thoughts? Have you discussed the problem and exchanged your thoughts? 3. Phrasal Verbs and Nouns Part 3: Now let's look at phrase Alvar verbs. Americans love phrase, all verbs, their idioms where you have two words put together. The first is a verb, and the 2nd 1 looks like a proposition, like in on Out off. But it's actually called a particle, and those particles are pretty important. And the stress. We don't want to ignore them. Look over, pick out, turned down, rip off. Let on. We also have phrase all now owns, which come from phrase Alvar verbs, but with a phrase all noun. We will stress the first word more than the second word. Cut off. Work out, turn off. Let's look at phrase. Will verbs and phrases announce and sentences noticed the contrast ing stress pattern between the verb and the noun and each sentence and imitate after man. His body odor was a turn off. It turns me off. His body odor was a turn off. It turns me off. Of course, I wouldn't actually say that sentence because it's very repetitive, but I'm showing you two different ways to use the idiom dramatically as a noun or a verb, and notice how it's pronounced differently. I took the car in for a tune up. I took the car in for a tune up. The mechanic looked at the engine and tuned it up. Notice how my pitch went up a lot on the word up. At the end of that sentence, the mechanic looked at the engine and tuned it up. The salesman ripped me off. The salesman ripped me off. Notice the word salesman. It's not an idiom, but it's very interesting how the word man gets reduced to Munn because it's a compound down and we focus on sales, not man. So it's not salesman, it's salesman, and mine is very low energy. Now, when I teach students face to face, they often have a hard time learning how to say salesman, with just the right amount of energy on sales. We go up and on Monday we go like this. Munn. It's just super relaxing. Salesmen don't overdo the energy. The salesman ripped me off. The car was too expensive. It was a rip off. It was a rip off. Ripped me off. Rip off. She wore cutoffs. She wore cutoffs. The other car cut me off. When I tried to change lands, the other car cut me off. She worked. Cut offs. The car cut me off. Go to the gym to work out. Go to the gym to work out. Enjoy your workout. Enjoy your workout to work out your workout. See the downloadable material to get more practice with Faisel verbs and phrases announed. 4. Abbreviations, numbers, names, places Part 4: How do we stress abbreviations in numbers? I often find that my students are not very comprehensible when they tell me an abbreviation , and there's a lot of abbreviations at work and in the tech industry. So we need to clear up how you say those abbreviations, abbreviations and numbers receive stress on the last syllable. So one common error is to kind of die out of energy by the time you get to the end of a sentence or the end of a word. But that's absolutely the opposite of what you want to do in American English. You can't die out of energy by the last syllable or the last word or the last idea. It's actually the last word in the sentence that's the most important. So let's try stressing the last letter in each of these abbreviations M b A. So it's not M B A M B A. No, it's MBA. Definitely more energy on the A m b A. And notice how all the letters are linked together. Add a why between B and A for a smooth transition between vowels. M b a U C l a U C L A. Add a why Between the C and L for a smooth transition u c l a html It's TML at a wide between the t and M for a smooth transition html us us out of w between you and s for a smooth transition. Us r S v p R s v p link are toe s so it sounds like rests R s v p ceo. You have a choice. You can either say CEO and put a why between the sea and the E or you can say CEO and only put a y between the E and the O and the O at the end of CEO is very lengthened and stretched out and clear So I wouldn't say CEO. I say CEO s s I s s I s s I let's try some numbers. So if I'm going to give my phone number, I want to make sure people can understand it. It's hard to memorize 10 digits only hearing it once, so you need to make it easy for people. I grew up my phone number into three parts and I stress the last number in each part. So let's pretend this is my phone number for a weight. 244 2235 Again for a weight. 244 2235 How about dates? 1999 2007. For places and people, we want to stress the last word. So we stress someone's last name. Judy Jones, So I wouldn't say Judy Jones. And I wouldn't say Judy Jones, I say Judy Jones, Donald Trump. Donald Trump noticed that the pitch in my voice went a little higher on the word Trump. Donald Trump, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson, Freddie Mercury, Freddie Mercury. What if the name is not an American name? What if your name is Wei Ping Joe and you're Chinese? You may have one way to say it in Chinese, but Americans will have a hard time understanding your name if you don't follow the rules of stress that we have in English. So you may need to change the way you say your name. So her name would be Wei Ping. Joe Wei Ping Joe. Now a Japanese person might want to say Ta moko Nagasaki. That would be a little harder for an American to process because it doesn't have our usual rhythm So if I say that Japanese name in English, it will sound like this to Moco. Nagasaki, to Milko, Nagasaki. Now that might not be how you say it in Japanese, but it will be a lot easier for Americans to process and remember and understand your name . If you say it with that rhythm, how about places we stress the last word in a place? San Francisco So it's not San Francisco. It's San Francisco, North Carolina, North Carolina, West Virginia, West Virginia, Brighton Beach, Brighton Beach. Get more practice with the word stress of abbreviations, numbers, names and places in the downloadable section. 5. Prefixes part 5: Now it's like it prefixes. When you have a prefix in front of a noun, you usually stress the first syllable, the prefix. And when you have a prefix in front of a verb, we usually stress the second syllable. These renowned expert expert ex ERT ex ERT exile. So there's a lot more energy on the X than on the second part of the word when these air now owns exile forecast Forethought, Outcry, outlook outburst. So make sure you don't say outburst. That's too much energy. I'm burst. You need to relax. Sunburst out! Burst! Outburst! Overlook Overflow! Underdog Underwriter, Update upright Refill. Repeat permit. Pervert Product project Mischief misprint. Concert contest, complex compound object Subject. Subway! Now, even though I said subway and I reduced the way, I still have to complete the way I have to have a full, long A It'll just be quieter, lower pitch and less energetic. So I cannot say subway. I didn't finish the A. You need to finish the A subway detail. Decrease discount This course access addict. Okay, those were examples of prefixed noun combinations. So now let's look at prefix verb combinations where we stress the second part of the word because it's a verb. We will not stress the prefix now oversleep overdue. Don't overdo it or you'll get tired. Understand? I understand you. Your rhythm is good. Undertake, outlive. Perform. Outperform. You want to outperform your competitors. Rewrite. We do. Let's look at some example sentences that have prefixed noun and prefix verb combinations. I ordered a refill, so the waiter refilled my glass. We had refill and we had refill. They're the opposite. I ordered a refill, so the waiter refilled my glass. We produce good products, produce products. We produce good products. The company profits are increasing. The increase should continue. The company. Profits are increasing. The increase should continue. The new project is projected to succeed. The new project is projected to succeed Project project. The new project is projected to succeed. The toilet overflowed. The overflow will be cleaned up. The toilet overflowed. The overflow will be cleaned up. Overflowed. Overflow Noticed that unclean DUP I stressed up because that's a phrase. Will verb. The overflow will be cleaned up. Let's look at reflexive pronouns now. I'll even admit that reflects of pronouns. Don't really make sense to me in terms of how we stress them. So I don't say myself. I say myself, you would think that you would stress my or your or his or her, but no, we always stress self himself, herself myself. Now the word myself is tricky because you'll try to reduce the word mind and focus on self . But you can't completely reduce my You still have to have the long I sound in my we cannot say myself. Make sure you keep the my. It'll just be lower pitch and quieter myself yourself. So noticed that your gets reduced to your but my did not get reduced to my yourself myself themselves. I'll do it myself. I'll do it myself. Do it yourself. She'll do it herself. I noticed that in the word herself. I didn't really say that. H We don't need to say that h on pronouns like he his her in the middle of a sentence or even at the end of a sentence. She'll do it herself. They'll do it themselves. We'll do it ourselves. We'll do it ourselves 6. Neutral Suffixes Part 6: some Suffolk says air neutral, meaning they do not affect the stress of the word. An example is hood. If we say adult, we stress the second syllable, and when we say adulthood, we still stress the second syllable. We just tack on hood to the original word, and it doesn't change the word adult at all adulthood. Remember to lower and energy on the Suffolk. Six adulthood. It is not adult hood. It is adulthood. Child childhood effort, effortless home homeless friend. Friendship event. Eventful, open opening. Self selfish, sudden, suddenly happy happiness. Accomplish accomplishment. Addition. Additional develop developer. I noticed that it is not developer. It is developer. The first syllable and develop is just the duh. Develop. Develop developer bird birdlike. Other otherwise wide Wyden except acceptable King Kingdom fun. Funny now when I say funny, that second syllable has to be a complete long E, but it will be less energetic, quieter in lower pitch. Funny, you can't say funny. It has to be funny. The same goes for fuzzy, frizzy example. Sentences. After childhood, a child enters adulthood. After childhood, a child enters adulthood. Something that requires no effort is effortless notice. I don't say effort Less, I say effortless less is very low energy. Effortless. Something that requires no effort is effortless. A good friend understands friendship. A good friend understands friendship. If a day is full of events, it is eventful. If a day is full of events, it is eventful. My schedule is open. I have an opening for you. My schedule is open. I have an opening for you. If I think only of myself. I am selfish. If I think only of myself, I am selfish. The thing that you accomplish is called an accomplishment. The thing that you accomplish is called an accomplishment. He acts like a cat. His behavior is catlike. 7. Stress one vowel to left part 7: Now let's talk about Suffolk SE's that move stress to the left suffixes air endings that are put on words such as concentrate versus concentration. The endings determined the stress suffixes that ends with I A I O I E I U endings. I call it an I V Suffolk. Six. We stress one syllable to the left or one vowel to the left in artificial. The Suffolk says I A l stress one vowel to the left fish artificial. I love this rule because I haven't found any exceptions to it. Artificial Now artificial has four syllables are the fish Shaw. So what often happens when we have four syllables is that we'll have another syllable that has secondary stress, not the primary stress but secondary stress. So in this case, our primary stress is on F. I see now because of the rule of alternating stress, where we stress every other syllable in English. We will not stress the third syllable to the left, which is the I. That's just it super fast, but we'll give secondary stress to a R T. So Air T will be medium volume, medium pitch height, so it's gonna look like this medium low, high, low artificial artificial. Repeat after me credential potential musician. So in potential, we reduce the 02 a. Schwab. We didn't say potential. We said potential, but in musician we don't say position. We do keep the you along You musician, librarian, politician Now politician is another four syllable word, so it will have a secondary stress. So again, we have medium, low, high low politician Because the p o l has secondary stress, we don't reduce the 02 a. Schwab. We keep it a short Oh politician Convenience with convenience we can easily see how CEO in is Unstrung Est and therefore we have to reduce the short Oh, too short you. So it's not convenience, its convenience. We start out very small, very low energy and we shoot up to the ve convenience, convenience deficient. So in deficient we do not say deficient. That d is not really d. It is just, uh, again it's a Schwab were a short you very fast, very low energy. Save all your energy for fish. It's efficient, sufficient opinion. So I don't say opinion. I reduce the 02 because we stress the syllable next to it Pen opinion? Occasional. So an occasional the oh, at the beginning is reduced A savior energy for C. A s occasional vocational. So here the vo does stay along. Oh, but it's a very quiet, short and low energy vocational. Save your energy for the c a Que vocational Delicious. Don't say delicious. It's just the delicious stretch out the L. I. C, which sounds like lish delicious. So we'll do the same thing with any kind of UV Suffolk. So, for example, you a l it's pronounced cool, so they'll be a little w linking the you in the A pool again. Stress one syllable to the left of cool sexual actual visual unusual. Notice how I stretch out the you in the primary stress syllable. Usual. Unusual habitual. I noticed that when we say this word is a noun, it's habit. But when I change it to an adjective, its habitual the h a at the beginning, just pick him, huh? Super simple and quick, habitual intellectual. This is a word that sounds very different when it's written in other grammar forms. For example, intelligent. When we say intelligent, we stress t e l l. So the tea is very clear, intelligent, but in intellectual we stress the E C T. So the t e l Alice Unstrung est and we don't even say the tea intellectual. One exception would be a cruel us and Lewis are also stressed One syllable to the left heel us or you owe us. This is not pronounced. Yes, it's just pronounced us again. Stress one syllable to the left. Courageous. Now, when courageous is a noun, we stress the first syllable and it's pronounced courage. But here we stress the second syllable. So the cur is much quieter. Courageous. Make sure you stretch out age and courageous continuous. Now the U. S ending is pronounced us and you do want to put a w toe link the u to the o US us. But you'll stress one syllable to the left of that You so well. Stress 10 continuous conspicuous. Next we have graph E now graph e is actually pronounced gruff e again stress one syllable to the left of graffiti biography. Make sure you go up in pitch on that. Oh, and make it a full short Oh, biography, Geography. Make sure that why, at the end of graffiti is a complete long E. It'll be low pitch, but it's still a long E geography. Don't say geography. Next we have I see or I C. A. L pronounced IQ for vehicle again stress one syllable to the left of it, or ical Atlantic Pacific. Now the verb for Pacific would be pacify. And in pacify, the P A is very clear. But when we change its Pacific with an icy ending, the P A just becomes almost nothing Pacific specific. If you made this a verb, it would be specify, and the S P E. C would be very clear with a short East bests. But here it's just spot spot specific, comical notice that I don't say comical. I'm not trying to yell at you. We don't want to be yelling at people, so we don't Onley usar volume to stress. So it's not comical. It's comical. I keep calm, but I go up in pitch comical. Logical. This rule, unfortunately, has a lot of exceptions. So here's a few that I found Arabic. If we follow the rules, it would be a ray Bic, but that's not how we pronounce it. It's Arabic Catholic, but Let's pretend it's a noun Catholicism's. Then we stress that short. Oh, fall Catholicism's and then the sea A becomes it's realistic cut. But when it's an adjective, it's Catholic Catholic Catholicism's. Here's a really common word that's an exception. Politics. It's not politic. Six. According to the rule, it would be politic so, but we pronounce it politics. It's an exception. The next Suffolk's is if he really or itchy stress one syllable to the left of the I justify terrify so the why if the very end of the word is a long I, we don't reduce that long I. But it's quieter and low pitched, terrify testifying, so I wouldn't say testify. Now I have to much energy on the last syllable. It should be testifying primarily, you can say primarily, but often with these adverbs, we don't need to pronounce that I you do need to spell it with the I. So don't omit that in your spelling, but we don't need to say that I primarily necessarily temporarily ability now with these i t. Y endings, and we have a lot of words with I T Y endings in English. The I T. Y. Is pronounced I d Why a very fast e g. So don't say ability. That's too much. T It's just ability facility. Notice how the FAA is not pronounced fat. It's just for a very quick and easy low energy. Save your energy for Sil facility stability. If this were an adjective, it would be stable, and we would spend a long time stretching out that a. But when it's a noun, we reduce that it stability. Next, we have a L or O us. Usually we stress one syllable to the left, but it really depends very specifically on the spelling. Overzealous, tremendous, momentous. So sometimes we stress two syllables toe left of oh, us. But it depends on the spelling and all of these previous words. I stress one syllable to the left because of the specific spelling. Let's look at that carefully. In this spelling rule, V means vowel V C means val continent, so you will stress one vow to the left of the O. U s or a l suffix. If the spelling to the left of it is not the V C, ivy or UV, so in over zealous, the vowel to the left of o U S e. Look at the e and everything in between the e and the O. U s You have e a l e a. L is actually V V C or Val Val Continent. Therefore, we're going to stress one syllable toe the left because it it's not a V C. It's a V v c. So it's pronounced overzealous, so in tremendous the vowel and syllable before Oh, us is e N D e and e is vowel continent, continent because there's two continents were going to stress that syllable Onley one to the left of the Suffolk's Tremendous In the word momentous look at the E to the left of the O. U S. Everything after the e is e n t t e n t is vowel continent, continent or vcc. Therefore, we will stress the e n t momentous the same with tremendous looked to the left of O u s You have e n d e n d is vowel continent, continent. So we will stress the e nd tremendous. But if the word were say principle, we would stress two syllables to the left because I p is just a vowel in one continent principal. Look at the vowel to the left of the Suffolk's and everything between that vowel in the Suffolk six. In principle, I look at the eye and also the p I p is val continent or V C. The same with continual. I look at the U to the left of the Suffolk. Six eu is all by itself. It's just a vowel. These are both combinations that we don't stress. Now we need to stress two syllables to the left principle and continual the next Suffolk six. We will also stress one syllable to the left. Mm, I am, um maximum minimum optimum. Also. Why? I s I s pronounced assists. Analysis Paralysis. Next we have meter. Now meter is pronounced Mitter. When it's the suffix barometer, you really need to go up in pitch on that. Oh, and make it a short oh, barometer. So it is not borrow emitter or bar ometer. That bar becomes but but barometer kilometer speedometer. Wow. I even reduce speed to spit speedometer diameter. Some exceptions are decimate. Er we don't say this emitter. Sorry. It's Desam eater. Also millimeter. Finally, let's look at the suffix it of we also stress again one syllable to the left. Positive competitive Because I'm not stressing CEO m. I. Reduce it to see, um, come competitive sensitive. Did I tell you that it of is pronounced with a D, not a t. So it's not it's of It's just it of fugitive example sentences he wrote about his tremendous efforts in his autobiography, The Politician understood politics but lacked sufficient data. The courageous mechanic wanted to become a musician. 8. Stress 2 syllables to left Part 8 finished: now we're going to study. Suffolk's is where we stress two syllables to the left of the Suffolk. 6 80 e endings separate. Now we can also say separate. In both cases, I stress S E P, which is two syllables to the left of 80. I se separate when it's an adjective and separate when it's a verb. So the Suffolk exchanges pronunciation. It's it when it's an adjective or eight with a long A, when it's a verb. Separate, separate, obstinate alternate alternate alternate alternate estimate, estimate, estimate estimate. Duplicate, duplicate, appropriate. Appropriate Graduate Graduate Aggregate aggregate. Next, we have the U. T. E. Ending also stressed two syllables to the left. Resolute malamute. Absolute constitute destitute electrocute. Institute persecute. Some exceptions include attribute and telecommute. Next, we have a C Y again stressed two syllables to the left. Accuracy adequacy, literacy, delicacy, candidacy, celibacy, Ecstasy. There's a lot of exceptions to this rule, so pay attention in aristocracy. An aristocracy. I only stressed one syllable to the left of a C Y bureaucracy democracy, so it's not Democrat. See, it's democracy conspiracy again. This is an exception because it's only one syllable to the left conspiracy diplomacy supremacy with a R Y suffixes will also stress two syllables to the left. Ordinary military. The key with this a R y is to get it really low in your chest. Airy. Don't keep up high military. Don't do that military, so you get lower by sinking into your chest. Military To sink into your chest, you need to relax your throat. Ah, airy necessary. Let's talk about the pronunciation of area. So in the dictionary, it says short a technically that would sound like necessary. While Americans don't really say sorry, we make it more like Siri. So it's closer to a long A than a short A probably necessary. Don't try to make it like a short a actuary adversary. A very cautionary, customary culinary. Some examples would be anniversary, where we stress only one syllables of the left or complementary. Okay, next we have graph. Now. This is different from Gruff E, which we had in a different lesson with graffiti. We stressed only one syllable to the left, but with graph, you'll stress two syllables to the left autograph. That's a little different from biography, right where we don't say Biograph biography, but we say biography, but here we just say autograph. We don't stress that. Oh, paragraph photograph. This is a really fun word because it changes a lot when we change the Suffolk six. So we have a photograph photographer, photography, photographic. All those different suffixes give us a little bit different stress. But here we have photograph holograph. Next we have I s c o r i z e endings. So again, stress two syllables to the left. Advertise. Keep that I z e ending really low and in your chest eyes It's all voiced so it's very low Eyes advertise, modernize, Penalize. Make sure you don't change the i Z e ending to an I s sound so it's not penalize. It's penalize lots of the Okay. Finally, we have the A l in o us endings with a different spelling than we had in the previous lesson. This time, if the spelling in the syllable before the Suffolk's is V or V C or two vowels in a row, we will stress two vowels to the left, Arduous so in arduous. The syllable before the Suffolk's is just a you. So because there's no continents after it, not two continents we're going to not stress that syllable we will stress to to the left. So will stress the a r D arduous, prosperous. Now the ER is just a val in one continent, so we will stress to the left of that prosperous Hey, but pretend the word is prosperity with an I t. Y ending. Then we would stress the ER prosperity principal. We stress the first syllable principal continuous and continuous. There's a you all by itself before the Suffolk. So we skipped that and we stress to the left of it. That's how we get continuous de maniacal. I stress the I in this word, and that's separate from the A that is all by itself. Don't stress it. De maniacal for two Otis monotonous, circuitous example sentences. If they duplicated the papers, there must be a duplicate. The husband and wife separated. Now they live in separate houses. She graduated from Harvard. Now she's a college graduate 9. Suffixes that hold stress part 9 : Okay. The last two lessons were a little bit stressful. You had to keep moving to the left, but now we're gonna look at suffixes that keep the stress on the Suffolk. Six. These are Suffolk's is that hold stress? E employees. You really need to spend some time on the E at the end. Employees Trainee to T Absentee Nominee Refugee There's quite a few exceptions that I found coffee toffee Yankee Pedigree Committee, but it's still a pretty good rule. There's a lot of words that end in E where the stress is put on the E. Next we have e er pioneer, so it's pioneer. Make sure you go up on the ear, but of course, if it's at the end of a sentence, you'll come down again. So it's Pioneer volunteer engineer. I've met a lot of engineers in Silicon Valley that say that they are engineers so they don't have the stress, right. It's engineer mountaineer career. Next, we have E S C, which is pronounced Eazy E's Japanese Chinese. So if you're from China, you're not Chinese. You're Chinese legalese stymies. Now we have some French endings. They come from the French language, but they're very popular in English. EQ. Unique. Make sure you stress eat unique boutique technique. Oblique physique, antique and e t t e cigarette. So it's not cigarette that cigarette. You stress that at ending cassette silhouette because that Burnett, some exceptions would be omelet or palate. The next Suffolk's, which is still French, is esque. Stress that Suffolk's picturesque burlesque in Arabesque Next we have, oh, stress that oh suffix bamboo kangaroo to stress it noticed that I'm really stretching it out. Who hold it a little while. Shampoo Tattoo Yahoo. An exception is igloo. Next we have S or ISS will stress that ending to reminisce. Convalesce, acquiesce, Effervescence coalesced. Finally, let's look at the O n ending. Stress it balloon So the word starts with ball. But we don't say ball loon. We just say Balloon cartoon Saloon, Lagoon Cocoon, Monsoon, Typhoon Afternoon Baboon, Macaroon, raccoon. One exception is honeymoon. A couple more suffixes. A D E will stress the A D ending brigade. Notice I stretch out Gayed Brigade Blockade Stockade Arcade, Cascade Parade, Serenade, Grenade, lemonade. Some exceptions would be a decade marmalade. Rent again marinade for the suffixes that hold stress. Let's look at Air A i r e affair millionaire Billionaire questionnaire. Now, to really stretch out this air Suffolk's you're gonna have to have a good are, which is hard for a lot of people learning English. You really need to pull the tongue backwards in your mouth like you're gonna swallow it. You need to feel that the sides of your tongue are touching the inside edges of your top teeth. The top molars air like I'm gonna swallow my tongue. Millionaire questionnaire An exception would be solitaire. Example Sentences. The engineer was Chinese. The Japanese man has a unique tattoo. The volunteers help the refugees. He had a career writing cartoons. 10. Suffix Changing Exercise Part 10: Let's do a Suffolk's changing exercise. You'll see a list of related words. Decide where the stress should be. Based on the previous lessons you've taken with me. Then listen and watch for the correct answer. So this is like a quiz. How well do you remember your Suffolk's rules? Where does the stress go? Pay attention to the Suffolk six system. Systemic, Systematic. Se them with me system. Systemic, systematic, human, humanly humanitarian, humanistic, humane, human, humanly humanitarian. Humanistic human fantasy. Fantastic Fantasia fantasize fantasy. Fantastic Fantasia fantasize, adapt adaptable adaptation, Adaptability, adapt adaptable Adaptation, Adaptability Fluent influence. Influential fluent influence. Influential poem. Poetic poetry poem. Poetic poetry Prior priority. Prioritize fryer Priority. Prioritize. Recognize recognition. Cognizant cognition. Recognize recognition. Cognizant cognition, Captive captivity Capture. Capture a ble captivate captivating captive ation Captive captivity. Capture. Capture a ble captivate captivating captive ation rial. Realistic realism. Reality Really rial. Realistic realism, reality. Really. Participate, participation, participant. Participate. Participation participants. Symbol symbolic symbolize symbolism. Symbol. Symbolic. Symbolize symbolism. Okay, let's get you to speak a little bit. How would you answer these questions that use the words in our previous stuff? Exchanging exercise after each question, pause the video and try to answer the question. Then you can listen to my answer. Tell me about how the product you make is adaptable or has adaptations. Perhaps you write software that is adapted or adaptable to different clients, so one client needs something a certain way. But then you change that aspect of the program for another client. So maybe your program has many adaptations for different clients. Tell me about influential people in your industry. Bill Gates, Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg These are all influential people in the tech industry. They've had a lot of influence on technology. Tell me about people who have received recognition in your company. The sales team with the highest sales volume has received recognition. My company recognizes the team for its great contribution. Tell me about animals at the zoo using the word captive Zoo Animals are captured in the wild and forced to live in captivity, but their beauty captivates zoo patrons. What's important in your life? How do you prioritize things for me? Family, friends, spirituality, health, fitness, finances, thes air, all priorities. I prioritize family and health over finances 11. Dropped Syllables Part 11: Now let's learn about drop syllables. Sometimes we drop an entire syllable in a word. When did we do that? We'll drop a Val in the following situation. Drop a vow after a stressed vowel, plus one or two continents and before in R or L, and an unstrung vowel. That's a messy looking equation. But it works watch this evening, so we don't need to say evening. I don't need that second E. It's just evening because I have a stressed vowel e one constant V and then the. Either we drop and then I have the letter in and another unstrung esta vowel in the I N G. Evening camera. Natural favorite. So I don't have to say favorite, I can just say Favorite. This will help your overall rhythm traveler different. Numerous. Several company aspirin interest temperature. Repeat after me. Notice how the first vowel in each word is stressed. The second vowel in each word is dropped and crossed out by the red line, and the third vowel in each word is reduced. Repeat after me. Evening camera. Natural favorite traveler. Different. Numerous. Let's try some more words. Notice how there are always one or two continents after the first stressed vowel, and that the continent after the drop vowel is always in or are it could also be out. Repeat after me. Several company aspirin Interest temperature. Example. Sentences If you have a temperature taken. Aspirin. What's your favorite brand of cameras? The company has several branches. The world traveller went to many different countries. He spent his evening primarily with his counselor. You can't accidentally receive a doctoral degree. It takes a lot of work for more examples of words with drop syllable, see that downloadable? 12. Lala practice part 12: Now we're gonna practice word stress from another point of view. We're going to do what I call La LA practice. We're going to turn all of the words into just combinations of law and law in law. La, la, la, la, la, la This is going to teach you to change the energy appropriately. Which syllables should be stretched out and which should be reduced. You only have to say, Law, you don't have to focus on all the other vowels and constant, so it's easier for you to feel the energy changes. How about now? Owns and adjectives two syllable ones where we stress the first syllable like a rabbit. If we translate this tow law in law, it will be Lalla Rabbit Lalla Notice. I opened my mouth a lot on the first law, but not so much on the second law. And I say both of those laws in one breath of Air Lalla. That's how it should be. Repeat after me Lalla. I write law with two A's so you'll stretch it out. I read the second syllable with a you, so you'll reduce it. What about a compound noun like credit card that has three syllables where I stressed the 1st 1 the most. Lalla la la la Now the I T and credit has less stressed than the word card. So you're gonna have stretched out Minimized and Medium Lalla Credit Card Lalla That would also work for parking lot Lalla. Now, how about verbs? Two syllable ones where I stress the second syllable. Lola la la The First Law is very simple, Le and the 2nd 1 is a full law Lola permit you allow. Discuss Lola. Let's try some abbreviations like M B A. So each letter is important. So we're going to have a lot of full laws. But the last one is the most important. So it's n b a la la la u c l a la la la la What about people? Judy Jones la la la la la la again that's going to be medium reduced. Fully stressed La la la. How about those multi syllable words with all of the Suffolk's rules? Let's take a four syllable word like artificial. The first syllable gets secondary stress, and the third syllable is fully stressed, so we have to have medium low, high, low artificial la la la la Lalla Lalla Art official Lalla Lalla How about a three syllable word like potential? Malala, Another four syllable word politician Lalla Lalla Lalla Lalla Politician. Those were words where we stress one vowel to the left. Now let's try the words where we stress two vowels to the left. Estimate Lalla Duplicate la la la advertise la la la How about the Suffolk's? Is that with stress Pioneer La la la Japanese La la la Cigarette la, la la 13. Word stress humor review part 13: Let's review words. Dress with a little bit of humor. The problem with trouble shooting is that trouble shoots back troubleshooting trouble shoots back. Trouble shoots back is a phrase Alvar verb. The problem with trouble shooting is that trouble shoots back. Sure, I'd like to help you out, but which way did you come in? Help you out is a phrase. All verb come in is also a phrase over. The funny part is that help you out has two possible meanings. It could mean to help you literally get out of the building. Or it could mean just to help you. Sure, I'd like to help you out, but which way did you come in? Mark Twain said honesty is the best policy when there's money in it. Honesty comes from the word honest, which is an adjective where we stress the first syllable. When you add the why which is in neutral Suffolk's, it doesn't change the pronunciation of honest Mark, Twain said. Honesty is the best policy when there's money in it, God created war so that Americans could learn geography. Create is a verb, so we stress the second syllable, create geography, has the gruff e ending, so we stress one syllable to the left. Geography stress. Theo There's a joke that Americans don't know geography very well. God created war so that Americans could learn geography. Artificial intelligence is no match for natural stupidity. Artificial has an eye. A Suffolk. So stress one syllable to the left fish. Artificial natural has a drop syllable. Don't say natural to say natural and stupidity has an I. T. Y. Suffolk sex stress. One syllable to the left. Stupidity. Artificial intelligence is no match for natural stupidity. The only substitute for good manners is fast reflexes. Substitute has a U T e suffix stress two syllables to the left. Substitute manners is a noun, so stress the first syllable manners. Reflexes is a noun with a prefix stress. The prefix reflexes. The only substitute for good manners is fast reflexes. The temperature zero degrees today, but it's supposed to be twice as cold tonight. How cold will it be? In temperature? We drop a syllable. Don't say temperature. Just say temperature degrees is a noun, but it ends with an E Suffolk. So we stress that suffix degrees. Tonight. We actually stressed the syllable nights and T O is reduced to tough tonight, the temperature zero degrees today, but it's supposed to be twice as cold tonight. How cold will it be? Did you know that dolphins air so smart that within a few weeks of captivity they train humans to stand on the edge of the pool and throw them fish? Dolphins is a noun, so stress the first syllable. Dolphins Captivity has an I. T. Y Suffolk six. So stress one syllable to the left. Captivity. Humans is a noun, So stress the first syllable. Humans. Did you know that dolphins air so smart that within a few weeks of captivity, they trained humans to stand on the edge of the pool and throw them fish? A bartender is just a pharmacist with a limited inventory. Bartender is a compound noun, so stress the first part, Bartender LTD. Is an adjective. We stress the first syllable of limit, and the E. D. Does not affect the pronunciation. Inventory has an O. R. Y suffix, where we often stress two syllables to the left inventory. A bartender is just a pharmacist with a limited inventory. If it first you don't succeed, redefine success. Succeed is a verb so stressed the second syllable succeed really Stretch that out. Redefine is a verb. Make sure you stress the end of that word. Redefine success is a noun, but this is an irregular noun where we stress the second syllable success. The devil is in the details. Devil in details are both noun, so stress the first syllable. Devil details. The devil is in the details. There's never just one cockroach in the kitchen. Cockroaches, a compound noun. So stress cock Cockroach kitchen is a noun, so stress the first syllable kitchen. There's never just one cockroach in the kitchen.