Study Smart: A Masterclass on How to Study for Exams More Effectively | MicroPharm | Skillshare

Study Smart: A Masterclass on How to Study for Exams More Effectively

MicroPharm, Antimicrobial Pharmacist and Lecturer

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15 Lessons (42m)
    • 1. Study Smart: Introduction

      2:09
    • 2. Location, Location, Location

      0:42
    • 3. Stay Focused

      1:46
    • 4. The Pomodoro Technique

      1:06
    • 5. Always Plan Ahead

      1:03
    • 6. The Evidence Behind Re-Reading

      7:02
    • 7. The Evidence Behind Highlighting

      4:19
    • 8. The Evidence Behind Summarisation and Note-Taking

      3:43
    • 9. The Power of Active Recall | Practice Testing

      5:16
    • 10. How Do I Use Active Recall?

      2:15
    • 11. The Ebbinghaus Epiphany

      1:43
    • 12. How to Improve Memory Retention

      3:27
    • 13. The Memory Palace Technique

      3:20
    • 14. How to Study for 8 Hours a Day

      4:21
    • 15. How to Improve Productivity by Planting Trees

      1:52
14 students are watching this class

About This Class

Hi All,

I am an Antimicrobial Pharmacist and Teacher working in the United Kingdom,

One thing I have struggled with, as well as the students I teach, is knowing how to effectively revise for examinations!

I have put together a series of videos looking at the evidence behind different study methods and what I have found works for me :-) 

Enjoy!

Transcripts

1. Study Smart: Introduction: When was the last time someone explained to you the evidence base behind different study techniques and how to study effectively. For example, my name is Yasser Arm, a senior lecturer in clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice. I'm also a specialist Antimicrobial pharmacists in second care. I've been studying as an undergraduate student for five years and as a postgraduate student for two years. During my undergraduate studies, I realized that I was never taught how to truly study before an exam. As a postgraduate student, I started looking into evidence based techniques on how to study for an exam, and I realized I was ineffective the entire time. This class will provide you with all the information I wish I had when I was an undergraduate student. One paper in 1989. Safer that psychologist have been looking at the effectiveness off study methods for the past 100 years. Nevertheless, some of the more effective study methods are still under utilise, and some of the ineffective study methods are still widely utilized. Paper hypothesized that the reason for this is that teachers rarely sift through all the information on how to study more effectively in order to deliver that material before students and hope of this class is to save you from going through all that information and making a concise class to show you evidence based methods to study for an exam. I conducted a poll on INSTAGRAM and 66% off the followers off. The microphone account stated that they either use re reading, highlighting or note taking in order to study for exams. Thes three methods have shown to be the least effective when it comes to studying for an exam, however, they're still widely utilized. After going through all the research papers and the evidence behind the study methods, I want to go through how you can apply this for your own studies so the class will be split into two parts. The first part would be looking at the evidence base, and the second part will be looking at how you can apply the evidence base to your current practice. Alongside this, I want to give you some tips on how I effectively studied for exams. I hope you find these videos useful, and I hope there's a lot to take away for your own studies 2. Location, Location, Location: before we go through the evidence base behind different study methods, let's focus on some simple tips that you can do to increase the amount of time you study, work in a place where there's the least amount of distractions or require the least from you. Also find a place that works for you, which sounds like common sense but work in a place that works for you. You don't need to work in a quiet place if you work better in a place that has background noise and also create a routine. So try to stick to these places throughout your state time, and by sticking to these places, you can increase the amount of time you study by spending less time focusing on where you're going to study. 3. Stay Focused: So before we start going into different study methods less look at some simple tips to allow us to stay focused when we're advising. So one thing that I would endorse is the stay focused extension. It's a free extension for Google Chrome, and what he allows you to do is it allows you to block any website that prevents you from study. So I used to do the opposite with this. What I used to do is I used to block every single website except for those I allow and those that I allowed what only the websites I would require for studying. In fact, I went asked so far as to block Google so I wouldn't even use ghoul because I waste a lot of time in that process and I only pick all the websites that I require. So I'd make a thorough list of all the websites I may need while I'm revising, and then I will only focus on those throughout the day. You can also have fixed limits of how much you'd use a particular website outside of your list of websites. The other thing is simple ways off. Using up limits on your phone, so that limits their mouth. Your time you spend on social media on your phone, for example, other things I would do is just keep my phone entirely away from me during a study method. Andi, I'd keep it in a place where it's so far as to reach that phone that I wouldn't go out my way to get my phone. 4. The Pomodoro Technique: So I'm going to speak to you about the Pomodoro technique and this is a brilliant way to increase productivity and object. You look at how much studying you complete in an entire day. So the way it works is you have 25 minutes tops. So you set a timer for 25 minutes. And once you have completed 25 minutes worth of wet, you reward yourself with a five minute break. Within those 25 minutes, you cannot use your phone and you can not go on anything that is not considered wet. So you reward yourself with a five minute break and once you've completed that, you get back to the next 15 minutes. What? Once you do four of these starts, you then reward yourself with one long break, which is a 30 minute break, and you can consistently do this throughout the day and also look at the total at the end of the day. So you know exactly how much work you've completed within a given day. And it's a brilliant way to increase your productivity because you challenge yourself every day 5. Always Plan Ahead: So one tip that I would say that's very helpful is to never start a study session without making a plan. Sometimes I have this expectation that I'm going to complete so much in the day without making a plan. But making a plan allows you to know whether or not you're meeting your goal for that particular day and I break my day into hourly chunks and within these out of chunks, I'd have expectations for Pomodoro sessions within these out any chance and I have had have expectations for when I'd be taking my break. So I know whether or not I'm meeting those targets and I also have a total Pomodoro target for the entire day. So I can objectively look at how much work I've completed within that 24 hour period. And he can see me calculating how many Pomodoro recessions have done within that day, 6. The Evidence Behind Re-Reading: So let's look at the evidence base behind re reading, and we're going to be looking at. Danowski is paper in 2013. So what does this paper define as re reading? It's re studying the text material again after initial reading and fastball. Let's say re reading is extremely popular there. Several studies that indicate that students I prefer re reading as an option for studying the content material. So here are several papers that have found that students use re reading as a way to study their content material. And there's one paper off these papers that reference in particular, it's the carrier people from 2000 and three. Now the curry of people looked at students that setting psychology and found that, in fact, 65% off. Those students stated that they re read in order to land their content material. Another paper, the copy paper from 2000 and nine, looked at those in elite universities and, interestingly enough, the's students in elite universities. 84% of these students indicated that they read re read to land the election material. So let's look at the results from a study that was conducted in 1968 regarding re reading, students were expected to complete a final close test, and this compared students that did not re read the text at Wal. Those that we read it once, twice and those that we read it four times and it was either 1500 Web text or hurts. I have a number of 50 Web text. What they found was that students that reread the content four times performed better than those that did not read it at all. And this is something that you'd expect. But then it's essentially, if we're getting results like this, would this work in an environment where you're expected to re read academic material for an example? So now there are many papers where psychologists try to look at the results and see why people were performing better when they were re reading a particular text. And a lot of these studies looked at test, such as close tests, where people need to fill in the gaps within those tests. And what they concluded was that there have been reports off greater improvement in the brain's ability to record main ideas rather than recalling details. And this is a general accepted sense off what they found from re reading. Whether or not this relates to you performing better in exam is something that was not essentially examined, and that was not the purpose off the studies. Another factor that plays a big role in your ability to recall information is the time of you initially reading attacks and the time off you re reading the test. Now this essentially is called Must reading vs Space Reading. And there's a study that looked into this in 2000 and eight. And this study essentially looked at students that re read a text immediately. Students that re read a text after four days and students that re read a text after 3.5 weeks. What they found was the students that re read a text after four days performed the best where the students that re read the text after 3.5 weeks performed very similarly than those that reread immediately, indicating that re reading closer to the time of the initial read will improve your ability to memorize the information that you're reading. And the psychologist that looked into these studies indicated that when it comes to re reading these texts. It should be space out. And this is very similar to the approach we take with space repetition, which is something that we will focus on later on in the course now. This study, conducted in 2012 is the game changer because it looks at re studying compared to another study method which was practiced testing now. What may looked at was the grades on course exams covering items that are presented for practice testing presented for restudy and not presented during online learning activities that students completed for course points. And what they concluded was the students that conducted practice. Testing performed far better than the students that restudied. The students that we studied perform better with them, those with no practice at all, which is what you'd expect. But the most important point is that students that completed practice testing performed approximately 10% better than those that reset it and also performed better with questions that were completely new. Now what done, Loski concluded in his paper in 2013 was that given that reading is the study tech that students most commonly report using, it's ironic that no experimental research has assessed its impact on learning in educational contexts. While you could argue that the topics used was similar to that off educational contexts, none of the studies have involved material taken from actual course content. And that's crucially important because how can we know it is a good way to study if we don't have the evidence behind this? The paper concluded that one advantage every reading is that students require no training at all and if they are going to read its best YouTube after a moderate delay period rather than immediately after the initial reading. But the most important point is the point at the end. However, in head to head comparisons off learning techniques, re reading has not fared well against some of the more effective techniques discussed here . For example, direct comparisons are re reading to elaborate interrogation. Self explanation and practice testing have consistently shown re reading to be on inferior technique for promoting landing. So to conclude, Danowski stated in 2013 that based on the available evidence, we rate re reading as having low utility, although it's relatively economical with respect to time demands and training requirements . Compared to other leading techniques, it is typically much less effective. The relative disadvantage of re reading to other techniques is the largest strike against re reading and is the factor that weighed most heavily in our decision to assign it as rating off low utility. 7. The Evidence Behind Highlighting: So the next learning method we're going to speak about is highlighting. Highlighting is a very popular technique. The students who used to advise and the reason why he uses to revise from questioning is the fact that simple to use it doesn't require any training on how to conduct the leading method. And also it doesn't require much time beyond what you're already spending to read the material. Now the question to ask here is if a technique is this easy, does it actually help students to land? And this is what several studies were looking at to determine whether or not it's more effective than of the learning methods. So a study conducted in 1974 looked at three different groups of undergraduates, and they were expected to read an 8000 word account. And then they were expected to conduct a test one week following on from reading this account. Now there are three groups, one was highlighting group one of the control group and one was a passive highlighting group, meaning they used the text that other groups within the highlight and group had highlighted . Now what they found within this was that the overall results showed that the highlighting groups did not outperformed the control group on the final test, and this result was echoed in martial literature. Following on from this this was the general accepted theory moving on from this. But there are a few reasons why students did not perform that well, and this is what I'll go through within the next portion of this video. They're several studies that looked into the results from this study, and what the latest said he's found was that students were performing better with questions that contained content from which they highlighted where they were performing. Worse was the sections off the text of which they didn't highlight. And what Hunt called this in 1995 was the isolation effect on what the isolation effect is is that when there is a word that's unique to its less distinct counterparts, it stands out. For example, if I said desk chair bed cow, you are more likely to remember the word cow. Now what's happening here is it's a basic cognitive phenomenon that the word that pops out is a word that's record, and that's essentially what we're doing when we are highlighting text our brain records the information that's highlighted, and we may suffer in the portions that are not highlighted. So alongside the study, several studies concluded that consistent with this expectation, number of studies have shown that reading mark text promotes later memory for the marked material. Students are more likely to remember things that the experiment highlighted or underlined in the text in 2013. Danowski concluded that highlighting and underlining has low utility in most situations that they examine students, and with most of their participants highlighting, did little to boost their performance. It may help when the student already has the knowledge needed to highlight more effectively or when techs are difficult. But it may actually help performance on higher level tasks that require inference. Making future research should be aimed at teaching students how to highlight more effectively, given that students are likely to continue this popular technique despite its relative ineffectiveness. So Danowski is conceding that despite all the evidence against the effectiveness of highlighting, it will still carry on. So we need to teach students how to use it more effectively 8. The Evidence Behind Summarisation and Note-Taking: let's go through the evidence base behind summary ization or note taking, so students are often expected to memorize a large amount of material. And of course, because of this, students tend to summarize or make notes with these notes. They try to identify what's important, what isn't important and to get a general gist off. The information provided. Now this poses some questions to see whether or not it's effective and whether or not students have the ability to identify what is important. So I said he conducted in 1979 took a look at this. So this study had five groups, two of the group's what either summarizing or note taking. One of the groups had copied the text word for what, and one of the groups was left searching, and their last group was a control group that only read the text they wanted, read a 2000 Web text and haven't examined the end. And what they found from this study, as you can see from the graph, is those that are summarizing and note taking performed much better in the immediate test as well as the delayed test. And they performed much better than those that copied the text word for word indicating that those the effective at summarizing a text in order to explain it would perform better than those without copy it. We head for wet. They also performed a lot better than control group, indicating that summarizing and note taking was an effective way to retain information, and it helps identify and organized the main points within a text. However, a lot off, the latest studies did not support the information that was produced from this initial study in 1979 a lot. This latest studies found that students performed very similar than the control groups. One study, in particular in 2000 and 11 looked at students within a control group as well suited. Summarizing the text and the information in this study was very important because there was no difference. But there was another thing that they found. They found that those that were summarizing the text 64% gave the correct definition off what they were studying, meaning that a lot of students did not find the main points or actually had some inaccuracies in this memorization. Another thing is that there was a high variation with the summaries. So only those who are good at some rising performed better. So within this paper, the conclusion waas that on the available evidence, summary ization was rated as low utility. This was because it was an effective learning, structurally, for only those who already skilled at summarising, and this would require extensive training, one that the majority of students will not have. This makes it less feasible. The other difficulty is we don't know in which types of learning summary ization actually helps. So the conclusion was made that summarizing and note taking are low in terms off their usefulness when it comes to studying for an exam. 9. The Power of Active Recall | Practice Testing: So now we're going to speak about one of the most effective ways to study, and this is called active recall or practice testing. Danowski stated in 2013 that testing is likely viewed by many students as an undesirable necessity of education, and we suspect that most students would prefer to take as few tests as possible. So we hate taking tests. And the reason for this, Donati stated, was that because a lot of the test that we take our some motive and this means they count towards education. So because off this high stakes situation, we hate testing. But this is really unfortunate, and the reason why it's so unfortunate is because it's one of the best ways to land. About a 1909 stated that it's one of the most effective ways to study and 100 years were research agrees with Abbott statement from 1909 The other factor about active recall in practice testing is it can be broadly applied to many different learning situations. So there's several studies that support the use of practice testing, and they have stated that enhances learning and retention. Now, the other factor to distinguish here is that practice testing here does not mean a specific learning method, but the approach and it also counts to testing yourself in low stakes or no stake situations, meaning that you're not punished for performing badly. And it also encompasses many different types of practice testing. This could be virtual flashcards, completing practice problems or completing questions at the end of a textbook chapter. A study was conducted in 2006 to take a look at this, and groups off students were expected to study a short text, and then they were expected to complete a test one week later. One group had to reset the material, and one other group had to practice test until the test, and what they found was in the actual test one week later. Those in the practice testing group achieved 56% within the test, and those in the research group achieved 42% again indicating that practice testing is more effective than restudy. Another study was conducted in 2008 and what this looked at was two groups of students that will both undergraduate students, and they were expected to look at Swahili and English translations for different words. Those in the re study group had to restarting the material. Those in the practice testing group had to practice test until they recalled the words correctly at least once, and the results from this were astounding. Those in the practice testing group achieved 80% in the test, and those in the research group achieved 36% in the test in 2000 and nine. Carpenter tried to look at the reasons why students that practice tested performed better, and he proposed that testing can enhance retention by triggering elaborately retriever processes. Attempting to retrieve target information involves a search of your long term memory, and this activates related information, and this activation process may then be encoded along with the retrieval target. The way I look at this is you imagine yourself searching for something on Google, and then you click the Web page that you were looking for. But the next time you search with that key wed, the Web page that you look for previously automatically appears so it makes that retriever process easier. So another study conducted by but in 2010 again looked at students that were expected to either re study material or students that are expected to practice tests and use active recall methods. And what they found was that they were testing students on facts and concepts, and students performed better when they practice tested. And the theory behind this was that the fact that they perform better in both realms means they also increases inference, making that ability to use the information you already have, as well as build on information that you read. In some cases, students performed twice as better than those that restudied again, solidifying the fact that active recall is a very, very thorough and good method to study material. Don't Lossy concluded in 2013 that practice testing has high utility. They were impressed with a wide range of different learning materials, where practice testing proved to be more beneficial than other study methods, indicating that it has a broad applicability. Also, it's not particularly time intensive and requires minimal training, and there's several studies that we went through that proved that practice testing is better than re studying the material 10. How Do I Use Active Recall?: So now that we've learned the theory behind Active Recall, I'm going to speak to you about how I use active recall within my undergraduate studies as well in my postgraduate studies. So I'd be doing one of three things. I'd be either reading lecture material watching videos, and I find washing videos a very effective way to land the material I need to learn. But within the videos, there are a lot of questions that come up. So while I'm watching a video rather than making notes, I'd be asking questions that are answered by the video. For example, what is pneumonia? What causes pneumonia? Are they different? Categories of pneumonia are the different types? How do we categorize pneumonia? And I'd be asking all these questions that are being answered within the video, and I write this question bank down. And the important thing to do is to look at how much you record off the information that work you're reading or either watching. So once you've completed that, you can get started with the questions you can see if you have the ability to answer those questions with the knowledge you currently have. If you don't and go back to the lecture material will go back to the video and try to answer the questions with the material. Once you answer the questions, put outside and move onto the next content. And this is when we'll start learning about distributed landing. So the importance about distributed learning is ensuring that you try to recall that information spaced out in an orderly fashion so that you retain that information. A new battle. The Forgetting Cab, which will come across in later content so you can create flashcards. And you can either do this electronically using app such as Anke or make written flashcards , and you start immediately rather than using study methods that are not as effective. Use active recall immediately and use that as your way off writing notes. So therefore, you're challenging yourself from the start of your revision sessions. 11. The Ebbinghaus Epiphany: Let's talk about this cab here. This care is called The Forgetting Calf, and it was created by a German psychologist called Hammond having house in the late 19th century. So in 18 85 having house conducted a series of experiments on himself, and the purpose of these experiments was to look at his ability to memorize information. And what he found after these Siris of experiments is that he did not recall 90% off the information that he initially land. Now, this is very problematic because if you are leading information for the purpose of exam, losing 90% of the information in a week can really impact the results. In that example. The reason why the information from this study was so important and so groundbreaking was due to the fact that it was the first of its kind in 18 85 and Neuroscientist later on supported the claims of Hammond having house. And since then we've been focusing on methods in order to combat this Kev, and that's what the focus will be when we start talking about distributed learning or distributed practice testing. What we also call this is the space repetition method in waters land, new information 12. How to Improve Memory Retention: If I ask you to recall more than 10% off lecture notes that you learned one month ago, the likelihood is that you struggle. And this is something that German psychologist in the late 19th century looked into. German psychologist called Hammond, having House conducted a series of experiments on himself to look at the rate of memory loss. What he found was, after seven days, he forgot over 90% off his newly acquired knowledge. What was even more important was that he forgot about 40% of the information within the past two days. Hammond, a big house, plotted his results phonograph, and that graph was famously known as the Forgetting Kev. Following on from this initial trial, there were several neuroscientists that supported having a big houses theory. The problem is, if you forget information like this at such a fast rate, how do you prepare for an example? I want to go through a few ways in which we can combat getting, have and would have foreign. It's on the first and most important thing is distributing your landing in a way that combats forgetting. What I mean by this is distributing your signing sessions for particular topic at the Times that you are a Jew to forget the most. Let me give you an example of how I would be this. If I'm learning about community acquired pneumonia, for example, I want to really not content in a way in which I come back for getting care. Once I've initially learned the information, I will revisit the material after one day to come back that initial drop in memory loss and then after one week and after one month that way I'm combating forgetting curve at three different stages, and I'm more likely to remember that information for when I'm being tested on it. Another point that's important is to improve the clarity of the information you're learning . What I mean by this is if you find it difficult to remember in the first place, and you're less likely to remember it once you revisit material, so what you should do is break down the information in a way that you can explain to someone that has no knowledge of that subject area. What I like to do is test that by teaching it to someone who has no knowledge of that subject area, altogether. What I'd also say is to make it more interactive, because people are more likely to learn information if they actively involved in process rather than passively revising evidence suggests that study methods such as re reading, highlighting or no taking have low utility because you're possibly observing that process rather than being actively involved. Therefore, people who adopt thes study methods spend far more time in order to retain the information . Been using other study methods. Testing methods that known as having high you to the T involve practice testing, and this means you continuously test yourself in order to retain the information. Ways in which you can adopt this study technique could be using virtual flash parts, using physical flash cards or constantly asking himself questions about Clinton that you've learned. In essence, the more actively involved you are in that learning process, the more likely you are to remember these memories to summarize the forgetting cab states that we forget 90% off newly acquired information after seven days. Ways in which we can combat this is distributing our landing in a way that combat forgetting care, such as revisiting and content that you've newly acquired after one day, one week, one month. Also, being actively involved in the fusion process means that you're more likely to remember the information for an examination that summarizes how we can combat forgetting. 13. The Memory Palace Technique: remember this technique. The memory products technique is also known as the method of Loki. The memory palace technique is based on the fact that we're good at remembering places we know memory palaces, therefore, metaphor for a place that we know very well or route that we know very well. The memory palace technique is very good for landing abstract information on what I mean by abstract information is information that's difficult to link to each other. That's very common in medical and pharmacy feels. This technique is very useful and is known to be the pillars that hold abstract information together. Right now, it may be very difficult to visualize what I'm talking about, but once we start to go through it in more detail, you'll understand where I'm coming from. In order to do this, I'm going to use an example of my own. You can see if you can create your own memory palace and remember these facts. So Step one is picking a place you know or root, you know. So think of the route that you take for work everyday, for example, on the way to university or pick your bedroom because you know that room very well. Step two now plan out the entire route, for example, the root of you walking into your bedroom or the route you take on the way to at Step three . Now think of a list off fax that you want to memorize. For example, the causes on a certain condition step for this process is known as tagging. So now attack that fact to a particular memory or particular place in that room on that route on the way to work and step five. Exaggerate this demonic. This will allow you to remember easier. So let me use my example and let's see if it works. I'm going to use my bedroom because it's a place I'm very familiar with. So let's say I want to learn four causes of our media memory loss. The four places I'm going to pick for my bedroom are going to be the bed shelf, the window as well as the draw. And these are four prominent aspect off my room that I'll be able to remember Now. I want to stop tagging these memories to the set in aspects off the room so that start doing that. That's first walked into my room, and first thing we see is the bed way to tag the memory off sleep deprivation, associate it with the bed. I'm then going to associate minor head trauma with the shop because if I'm not careful, not my head, and then go to imagine that the winners are in my room and smoke from the neighbors. Barbecue is moving into my room, and this is where smoking is going to be tagged as a member, and the final place in my room is the draw and the drawers where I keep my medication and medication can be a cause of memory loss. So let's go through these four aspects. We've got the bed, the shelf, the windows in the drawer. And let's see if you remember those four aspects because of this many memory palace that you created for me, it was a great way to associate abstract information with these different places within the room. I was able to remember this memory palaces take a lot of time to make, but once you have made this memory palace is very easy to recall our information later on for an examination, try making a memory palace with courses are particular condition, for example, and then you can work your way up to more complex memory palaces. This can be very useful for holding together fax or causes of condition that don't particularly linked together very well. That, in summary, is the memory palace technique. 14. How to Study for 8 Hours a Day: One of the most difficult questions is how to study for a long period of time. For example, how to study for as long as eight to ten hours a day. There is a few tips I have helped me to do this. The first thing I do is prioritize my tasks in order of their difficulty. What I mean by this is the most difficult tasks should be the first thing that you start the day with. The reason for this is for me, when I start my study sessions, I have the highest amount of physical and mental energy are the star of my study sessions. Therefore, I start with the most difficult tasks at the start of the day. And I can complete them prior to doing the easier task later on in the day. The problem with doing simple class earlier on in the day is it gives you this sense of progress. Where you feel like you've done a lot but you actually haven't done much at all. So the most simple thing is to make a list of topics that you have to study for the day. And start with the hardest topics earlier on in your study sessions at the end of the day, this is when your physical and mental energy begins to dissipate. And that's why it's better to do the easier task later on in the day. The second thing I do is I do exercise in the middle of those 30 days. As far as academics are concerned, exercise boosts your ability to learn, as well as improve long-term memory. And read an extract from a study conducted by the University of Texas. And what they stated was that physical activity can have both immediate and long-term benefits on academic performance. Almost immediately after engaging in physical activity, children are better able to concentrate on classroom tasks which can enhance their learning. This study indicates that physical activity cannot only get more out of your study day, but means that you could study for a longer period of time. The other tip I have is napping earlier in the day. There are so many studies that show an improved level of concentration when people. Now, I'll read an extract from a study conducted by nasa about pilots that mapped. It showed that pilots we took a 26 minute nap, reduced their lapses in awareness by 34% compared to those who did not. Moreover, those who not to shoot improvement by 16% in their reaction times. Importantly, their performance stayed consistent through the day and didn't slack at the end of the flight or other night. Again, this shows you the value of having a nap in the middle of your day study sessions. And one thing that I would advise is nothing for about 30 to 40 minutes and limiting it to this amount. The reason for this is you want to avoid going into deep sleep. The other thing I would advise is if you are not paying, cannot at the same time, every day to stabilize your circadian rhythm. Your circadian rhythm is your internal body clock that regulates your sleep and waking cycle. While also advise at what I do is take regular breaks. The best way to do this is using the Pomodoro technique. With the Pomodoro technique, you set a task at hand and you work for 25 minutes. After you've completed that study session, have a five-minute break and then follow that with another 25 minute study session. Do this for, for study sessions, and follow that with a 30 minute long break. I can usually do this for about 12 study sessions before I really get tired. When you get very tired, very large, so you break maybe one or two hours and then you can get back into it wide also advice is if possible, to whack in daylight. This is a very important point and I want to read an extract from a study showing the benefits of wacking in daylight. So in this study, to groups of people had to walk for six hours, either in artificial light or daylight for today's. Compared to the afternoon, people who had daylight was significantly more at the beginning of the evening. And subjects who were exposed to artificial light significantly sleep here at the end of the evening, the data group were found to have better cognitive functions. Functions such as reasoning, memory, and attention that you require to do intense mental work. Again, this highlights the importance of wacking in daylight rather than artificial light. And if it's possible, I find it better to work in daylight rather than artificial lighting. This summarizes how I managed to act for eight to ten hours a day without feeling tired. 15. How to Improve Productivity by Planting Trees: Being productive is a constant struggle for many people. And it's a constant struggle for myself in order to improve productivity. You may have heard of the Pomodoro Technique. The Pomodoro Technique is a popular technique where you set about task and then spent 25 minutes working on that task, followed by a five minute break. After that five minute break, you then work for another 25 minutes and you do this for four sessions. And then you have a long break, which would normally be about 30 minutes. The Pomodoro technique works for a lot of people and it can make you more productive. Is there a way to take this technique to the next level? And the way in which I do this is I used the flora. The flora is a free app. And for every 25 minutes that you spend not using your phone, you plant a virtual tree. The beauty is you can put a donation amount for every 25 minutes you spend. If you break that 25-minute cycle, you then have to donate a set amount to charity. You can set the amount yourself and that money will go towards planting trees. If you fail to spend the amount of time away from your fell. On top of this, I spent two pounds every year towards the floor kaplan. What this means, for every 120 hours I spend away from my phone, I planned a real tree. For me. This Watson's incentive to not use my phone in order to plan real trees. At the same time, I'm pressured to not use my phone because I five breakout session, then I have to donate even more. I said that donation amount to a very high amount to prevent me from using my phone throughout the entire session. And that I found is an effective way in order to improve my productivity.