Storyboarding for Film or Animation | Siobhan Twomey | Skillshare

Storyboarding for Film or Animation

Siobhan Twomey, Artist, Illustrator, Instructor

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23 Lessons (1h 50m) View My Notes
    • 1. Learn to Storyboard for Film or Animation

    • 2. Introduction

    • 3. What you Need to Get Started

    • 4. Storyboard Templates

    • 5. Shots and Scenes

    • 6. My Top 7 Tips for Drawing

    • 7. Drawing Characters and Scenes

    • 8. Drawing Basic Male Figures

    • 9. Drawing Basic Female Figures

    • 10. How to Draw in Perspective

    • 11. Camera Angles

    • 12. Overview of the Process

    • 13. Blocking Out a Sequence

    • 14. Drawing Thumbnails

    • 15. Refining

    • 16. Thumbnailing Part 2

    • 17. Refining Part 2

    • 18. Introduction to Visual Language

    • 19. Principles of Composition

    • 20. Storytelling Shots - the POV

    • 21. The 180 Degree Rule

    • 22. Camera Moves

    • 23. Wrap Up

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About This Class

This class is an introduction to the art of drawing storyboards for Film, TV, or Animation.

It covers everything you need to know to about the creative process of Storyboarding for Film or Animation. You will learn concrete skills such as how to draw characters, how to draw in perspective, what camera angles and shots to use for your scripts, and how to make your shots and scenes flow together.

As a Storyboard Artist you get to draw the film, shot for shot. It's by far the most creative job in the whole production process. Whether you are interested in gaming, animation, sketching, comic books or filmmaking, the concepts and techniques in this course will get you started on the road to professional success. You can begin to build a portfoliofrom right within the course, or you can start storyboarding your own projects now to a professional standard. I've packed this course with only the most relevant and detailed material. I've distilled everything I've learnt in my 15 years as an animation and film professional into each lesson.


1. Learn to Storyboard for Film or Animation: Hi there, my name should warn, I'm an artist and an animation professional. This is my skill share class on learning how to storyboard fulfill or animation. I have over 15 years experience working in the animation industry. And I'm really passionate about sharing everything that I know about the creative process of storyboarding. So this class is for complete beginners. If you're at all interested in film or animation, in script rising, or even gaming. If you want to learn how to effectively storyboard any idea or concept in this class is definitely for you. By the end of this class, not only will you have a complete understanding of the entire storyboarding process, but you'll also have a whole range of professional looking portfolio pieces. If you want to show your work to a studio and possibly land a storyboarding job. So I divided the whole class into three main sections. The first section is gonna deal with drawing, specifically how to draw for storyboards and animation. And I'll also give you some tips for learning how to draw and how to ramp up your drawing skills fast. Then the next section is all about the actual process of boarding a script from start to finish, you will get to work on an actual script that I wrote specifically for you. We're going to look at the script together. I'll teach you how to break it down into shots. And then how to thumbnail your shot choices and draw a cleaned up board. Then you'll have a chance to do it yourself and send me your thumbnails revision and also your final work. And in the third section, I'm gonna teach you a lot more than just drawing. I'm gonna teach you visual language, how to create good compositions in your panels. I'll teach you certain rules of composition, like the rule of thirds or symmetry. And I'll also explain why they work and when to break those rules. Then I'll unpack specific shots that are what I call storytelling shots. I'll also explain concepts such as the 180 degree rule and will look moving camera shots and how to use them. So once you join me in this class, I'm available to answer any questions that you have during the class and after us. I'm also here to look at your class project and to give you detailed personalized feedback on your work. So I hope you're ready to upgrade your skills to learn this amazing and creative process and to take your first steps towards becoming a storyboard artist. I'll see you in class. 2. Introduction: welcome to the course on story boarding. I'm so glad that you enrolled and I can't wait to share with you everything that I know about the grazier process on story boarding. So in this introductory video, I wanted to explain the different types of boards because not all boards are the same across different media. I've chosen to focus for the most part on story boarding for animation because that's the most inclusive type off storyboard that there is. But it's really important to know that the concepts and the techniques that I talk about apply to film as well. So given that animation storyboards are made up off the most detail approach, what you learn in this course about cinematography, about editing and visual language is that absolute fundamentals for story boarding for live action film. So first of all, let me explain exactly. Wash a storyboard is a storyboard is a series of drawings that visualize is the action of a script so that the director can actually see the flow of shots and sequences and make big directing decisions before a huge amount of money is spent. It's almost like editing the film before the film was shot. You can think of it as essentially a hand drawn version off. The final film on a storyboard is also a blueprint for the entire production team. So everybody else who works on a production once a storyboard, is locked and signed off. They'll know exactly what's happening in every scene. Exactly how many characters props are needed on where everything takes place. But the distinction between a live action storyboard and an animation storyboard needs a bit more unpacking. So in a live action film, you'll generally mostly be story boarding forward the big, heavy action sequences like car chases or fight scenes, any kind of sequence or part of the film where the production team need to know how the actions gonna play out in terms, off camera moves and placement locations on In live action film you generally don't need to storyboard for acting poses you storyboard in order to block the characters out. Within each scene, you're generally not directing their acting. Where is in an animation storyboard? That's exactly what you're doing. You have to be able to pose out your characters in each scene and and in each panel you essentially have to storyboard everything in a script. So, for example, in an animated film, Your storyboard, how a character enters the room, how that character walks around on, interact with within the room and even how he exits. The reason you do this is so that the animators will know how long their animation needs to be and how many poses they need to animate. But all of this will make much more sense once we actually get into story boarding our own script. And I'll explain panel by panel, what you need to do and what your considerations are. Before we get started, though, there's one last thing I want to talk about. I just wanted to mention that you don't have to be really good at drawing to get into story Boarding. Your drawing skills will definitely come with time and with practice. And in this course I'm gonna actually show you some techniques and some tips to get your drawing up to speed and to ramp up your drawing skills fast. So let's jump right into it up next. I'll explain exactly what you need for this course, and I'll also go over some of the resource is and downloads that have left for you 3. What you Need to Get Started: So in terms of equipment for story boarding, you can actually get started with just a pencil and a piece paper. That's all you really need to jot down your ideas for your shots and your scenes. Most are just do their culminating on paper, and I'll be talking a lot more about the process off some nailing later on. But I just wanted you to know for now that if you've only got access to a pencil and paper or your sketchbook, that's actually totally fine to get started with for now. But just keep in mind that at some point you will want to scan your hand drawn images or your hand drawn storyboards into the computer so that you've got a digital file that you can email off to your client. Or even if you wanted to work on those drawings in voter shop. So at that point you'll need a scanner to properly scan your your artwork on. If you've got any questions about that, then just let me know I'll help you out and give me some advice about how to do that. So for the scores, I'm actually going to be drawing directly in voter shop. You can follow along with me if you've got Photoshopped. Or if you wanted to draw in another digital software, that's totally fine. And I also use a welcome tablets and a stylus. There are a lot off options out there for drawing digitally, and if you take a look around the Internet, you'll find quite a few free options. One free option that I really love is order desks. Sketchbook. The really great application to draw in very nice texture, little brushes that looks like pans or and pencils on so you can check that out. But if you want to go fully professional routes, Andi download something like storyboard pro, for example, that might tune boom Andi. It is specifically geared towards storyboards. It has a ton off features that are professional grade and really geared towards making your story wards seamless and automated. So once you get into story boarding and you're comfortable with your skill level, I definitely recommend investing in this package. For this course, though, we're just learning the fundamentals of story boarding on. I'm probably going to stick with drawing and photo shopped. For the most part. If you are working digitally. You do need a drawing tablet. So look into options for one of those. If you don't already have one on, as I always say, you don't have to start out with the really expect expensive top of the range tablet. There are quite a few options that are very affordable for beginners. Personally, I'm using a Wacom Angeles probe. But I've been working at this now for about 15 years. So to me it's well worth the investment. However, if you just want to test it out, then by all means, check out one of the cheaper options online and get a drawing tablet that you can start with. Start drawing with right away. In this course, I'm gonna be doing most of my drawings here in a photo shop. What I normally uses just standard storyboard tempted like this. I've left a whole bunch of these templates for you in the resource folder. So checked emergency which ones you like to work in. If you're gonna be working with this template, I would recommend that you do like one or one of two things. Either set this layer to multiply, which means then that you condone make your drawings underneath this layer and they'll come through Or just simply lock the Slayer and make sure that all your drawings go on top off this locked layer. The idea is that you can't really draw on this layer since it's not transparent. Um, so in case you accidentally save over it, then you won't have the template again to work from now if your photo shop window or workspace when you open a pro shop. If it doesn't look exactly like this, don't worry. Basically, the photo shop interface is very customizable. You can drag pals out, closed, um, minimize them. And if there's any window that you see on my it interface that you don't have, all you have to do is go up here to window and find the one that you're looking for, say, layers. That's the most important one. I think you'd wanna have click on that, and it will appear otherwise. If you do have any questions regarding voter shop or working digitally in any way at the start of the course, just send me a message and I'll clarify, do my best to clear things up for you. 4. Storyboard Templates: in this video, I'm going to show you some sample board so you can get an idea of how a storyboard is set up. There can be a lot of technical details that go into a storyboard, so it's good to know from the outset. But these are You don't have to worry too much about sort of numbering and sequencing at this point, but it's good to know when you start of what goes where on a storyboard temple. This layered here is the standard typical format for animation storyboards with three panels laid out here like this, a few lines of text below. But you might also see storyboards that look something like this with the panel is going down the side and the text on the right. These air typically used a live action or for adverts or games on. For the purposes of this course, I'm going to stick with the animation set up, so let's have a look at this template. Basically, this panel here is where you're going to draw all of the action from here on out. This frame is your primary tool for expression on everything that you will be drawing or visualizing in your head that you've picked up from your personal reading off. The script has to fish into this frame. You can think of this frame as both the final screen. That's the viewers will watch the movie on and also think of it as the camera angle that's filming the action. So, as I said, these lines on here are reserved for any dialogue or action notes. The director might write in some notes down here or any special effects that need to occur in the shot. Those notes will also be put in down here. Onda. Up here, you can fill in the production details like the name off the show, the scene number, the panel number. Things like that. If you are using software such a storyboard pro, for example, a lot of this information like seed shot sequence. It's all automated. Andi. You set it up at the start of your story boarding process, and it's a little update as you go along, which is really, really useful because once you do start adding in drawings or taking drawings out, your um, your numbering might get messed up very easily, and that can be a bit of a headache to have to go back in and change, but we will address those issues down the line. This video, I really just wanted to give you the intro to what the layout of a storyboard looks like, what it's all about, the technicalities of it, just so that you know what goes where in the next few videos we're going to focus on drawing, specifically drawing for animation and drawing for storyboards. 5. Shots and Scenes: So I'm going to elaborate a little bit further now on the terminology off shots, scenes, sequences and panels because it can get a little bit confusing. And I want to explain the main difference between live action and animation storyboards. Before we move into the next part of the course, I'm aware that this might be getting a bit too technical, too early. Really. I want to focus on place, the emphasis more on getting you comfortable drawing stuff before you get caught up in technical aspect. But it is good to talk about these things now just so that there's no confusion and Urata least aware off the main differences. So when it comes to talking about scenes and shots on a storyboard templates, you need to know that there is a difference between live action boards on animation boards . If you're working in I've Action, and by that I mean a feature film or a short film with actors, not an animation to production, then you're dating with scenes and shots. So a scene is where the action will take place during like a specific duration off time and in a specific location, and when you go to another location. That's a new scene, and within that seed you're gonna have all of your different shots that describe the action that takes place in that scene. So if we take a look at this scene, this is all one scene. But each of these panels represents a different shots or a different camera angle. Andi in a live action film, those would be called Shots within the scene. So let me take a quick look at an animation storyboard. So this is the one that I'm using for this course and will get to see me working on this a little bit later on. But essentially an animation. You have one sequence that's made up of scenes, so an animation, the terms are used differently. Instead of having a scene that's made up of shots, you have a sequence that's made up of scenes as animators. We just use the word seen to mean a camera shot or a camera set up. But for example, this is one sequence where this character here climbs out. He's been digging in the ground, any crimes over, and he's really angry. Well, this is made up of two scenes on this scene here has two panels so showing him standing beside the hole in the ground and scratching his head and getting really angry. And then you have a cut to it. Different camera angles, which is a close up Andi. That's a new scene. So just to sum up a panel contains your drawing. In animation, a scene refers to the camera angle or the type of shot on a sequence refers to the duration of time or the location for Dash. Um, action is taking place in I've action. A shot refers to the camera angle or the type of shot that's being used on the scene. It refers to the location or the duration of time. 6. My Top 7 Tips for Drawing: before we dive deep into the world of story, Boarding care might top seven tips for how to draw when it comes to animation in general, on storyboard in particular, my first hip is always warm up when you sit down to start drawing just a few minutes of warming up will help you a lot to loosen up on, get drawing fast. The whole idea is that you need to be able to draw your ideas on paper very quickly. So he's warm ups are great, simply draw lines and circles, but keep it going and aim to fill a whole page with circles or a whole page with lines. The second tip is to draw rough. This is another one. That's not immediately what you might think off when it comes to drawing, but I always encourage people to try and keep your initial drawings as rough as possible. This will help you obviously, to draw loose and fast, but you won't get bogged down in details and start to lose your way when ther tip is using grid. I'll be explaining perspective grid in much more detail later on in this course. But just be aware that by simply adding a horizon line. And then these radiation lines from a central point can instantly give your drawings a great composition and context. Plus, it will eventually help you to draw in perfect perspective, so it's good to get used to using this group right away. Number four Keep your face is simple, even if you are working with details model. She's for characters. You can draw heads using a simple circle or oval shape and indicate the eyes and the nose like this. So you basically draw a line under center to indicate the nose and then a line across this that will indicate where the eyes are. And once you have this in place, you can actually use this to really effectively show which way the head is turning. But I was having to get into details of the features. To Face Number five is a little about the eyes. The eyes are going to be one of the most expressive features of your character, so know what your hand is gonna work to convey emotion, For example, normalize are usually drawn like this. We usually just see the lower half the people, but not the top. If you wanted to draw angry eyes, you obviously would have the eyebrows scowling downwards like this surprised or frightened eyes. You usually see the whole pupil, maybe for frightened eyes you can just angle. It's going upwards. So there are a bunch of short hands for eyes and get to know them and practiced rolling your eyes for my sixth step. It's all about the mouth shapes. There are a lot of standard mouth shapes and animation that convey letters and very, very widely used when it comes to dialogue. And you want your characters to be seen to be staying a certain line, so get to know mouth shapes. These are just a couple for you. You don't have to get to detailed at all growing in the teeth and all of that, just one or two lines will correctly Andi effectively market your mouth shapes. My final tip is for drawing hands. Another people will skip over drawing hands or kind of avoid drawing them, because they can be quite complicated. But you can keep it very simple by just drawing a block to represent the part of the hand and then the 45 fingers whatever you want. A really good sort of professional insider tip is to make sure that you don't have the fingers all looking the exact same. Try to vary their positions. A little bit of your ever are drawing hands. It just gives a lot of life in a lot of character to the hands. So that's it. Those are my top tips through drawing an animation on story boarding in particular, I encourage you to kind of time. Take time out right now and practice some of these tips that I've gone through, and I'd love to see any of your drawings. If you want to share them with me or with anybody else in the course, feel free to post them in the discussion board. 7. Drawing Characters and Scenes: the next. Few videos in this course are going to tackle sort of basic principles off drawing simple characters and scenes. It's just to give you a few pointers and to get you started. In case you know you are thinking that your drawing skills aren't upto scratch, you'll quickly see you don't have to draw details, scenes or characters at this point. I hope you're enjoying the course so far on that you've had a bit of an introduction to the art of story boarding in the last few videos on please. I just want to say, Don't hesitate to send me a message if there's anything that's unclear or or if you've got questions of any kind Sami a message and I'll definitely help you out on also a quick knows . I just want to mention before I forget that if you are enjoying the course on if you do or if you do have any feedback, please do leave a review. All right. So far I've been emphasizing drawing rough, and part of the reason for this is to get your drawings and your ideas down fast and furious. The other reason is that the more gestural your drawing style, the more expressive it is. And that's ultimately your goal. When you're drawing characters you want, have your characters to be expressive and dynamic and have life. Now, a standard starting point when you're drawing characters is to start with gestural line or what's called a line of action. A line of action is basically a line that goes from the head to the toes off the character . It tells you immediately the direction that the character is leaning in on the sort of gesture of the pose that he's taking, and it describes basically the whole post in one line. So you start out as I'm doing here, just draw a line of action, and then on top of that, start building up the pose by adding the head and the limbs. The line of action definitely helps to give dynamic qualities to your characters. Whenever you want to push, oppose further and get more energy out of us, just try to push the line of action. So So you've got a character punching somebody like this, Um, sort of drawing like this. You can push the pose from the line of action and then you get something like this in store boarding, especially some nailing. You can get away with drawing stick figures until you're more comfortable drawing characters on model. And there are a number of shorthand techniques for characters. For example, round head Square shaped body easily signifies a male character or, you know, triangle shapes for female characters. In the next lesson, though, I'll get into more anatomical drawing on, go a bit deeper with that and show you some pointers for effectively drawing people. When it comes to drawing a scene, you can also keep it very rough and loose. Andi, even if you wanted to, you could just block in areas of shading to sort of, um, delineate the scene. Were characters are standing bear in mind for story boarding. You don't need to be to draw fully finished layouts or background art, especially in animation. The most important thing is getting the energy and the dynamic quality of the poses between characters that that needs to be spot on. So I would say work on that more than working on drawing up very nice backgrounds and detailed street scenes or things like that 8. Drawing Basic Male Figures: most likely when your story boarding for a studio, you'll be given very detailed model sheets. A model she's is essentially a diagram off the characters that you're gonna be working within your storyboards in case you don't. In case you want to put some storyboards together with characters off your own inside of them, I want to show you in this class exactly how you can draw realistic looking human figures. So in this video, I'll talk about the male drawing a realistic male figure on in the next video, we'll look at how to do the same thing, the same kind of construction for a female figure. It started with the heads. So the first thing you want to do is just really likely draw in a circular shape or is close to circular as you can get it. And then from the sides, just draw lines coming down maybe slightly going inwards like this. Andi squaring off at the bottom two for the bottom of the chin. Now I just want to point out that the biggest difference between male and female faces or heads are obviously the jaws. So on a male head, the job will be a lot square on on the femur head, which will get in the next video. You'll see it's a lot more softer and more tapered to draw the eyes, which I'm in a place over here about halfway down. I don't want to get too detailed. Like I said, all of these are pretty much just construction lines. I'm just trying to place features up the face on to this drawing, so I'm just gonna make very rough marks. A good way to draw eyes is just to literally draw the upper lid and the people. And then about halfway down from there is the nose and halfway between the nose and chin, the line off the most. Sometimes you can get away with dress drawing the line of the mouth and a tiny little line , which is finish off the eyes underneath like this to indicate the lower lip. So there you pretty much got your features in the right place. Now this might not look like an exciting character might look a bit bland, but once you know where the features of the face go, then you can pretty much adapt to different characters and two different emotions within a character. So it's all about getting your proportions right. And these sort of steps of these construction lines really really help you. Now that I've put in the hair, you can see exactly how the eyes are in the right place. I'm gonna push this guy over here and just do a couple more eso If you were to draw the head, say, from the side or from the 3/4 view, um, the eyes are still you place them around the bottom edge of this circle and then you could draw the nose to give you a good indication of where you want to go with the chin, draw the mouth. And again, you want to be able to make the jawline a bit squarer. So nice and angular on that indicates line back there will indicate the back of the neck and then, if you like, go back in on defined the eyes. Hey, uh, move this guy over here and I'll just do one more, uh, lets you have this guy turn facing the other way. So once you get used to this, you can really block in things much, much quicker. Andi, just put a few lines down to show you where the direction of the head is. Tilting the jawline, the nose and the mouth and sometimes in story boarding, um, you don't need to get too much more detail than that. A song as you Kenbrell a little bit of dynamic quality into your line work and infuse your character with a bit of life. You don't have to draw detail portrait, hyper realistic looking drawings for storyboards. This this is a really good technique. Okay, so now I'm going to just quickly run through basic, basic and national meat for drawing a full figure off a male character. And this is for somewhat realistic looking male character. I just want to give you a general anatomical references that you can use. The 1st 1 I wanna show you is you just basically draw the torso can draw it like this like a square or a rectangle. Sorry, I should say you could draw it like a rectangle that's the upper torso and then the pelvis . If you want to block out like this kind of a square shape, you've pretty much got the core of the figure down. And then the legs can be normal complicated than two cylindrical objects coming down similarly, the same with the arms. So they're really good thing about breaking the in the thean nationally, up into cylindrical shapes or into square shapes like this is that it helps you to see how the figure is built, how the figure fits together and how it moves. And it will really help your drawings to make it look realistic and in proportion. So taking that a little bit further, I'm gonna quickly plus in a rough drawing off, standing figure out over on the side. Based on these anatomical markers, I always like to put in the shoulder so that I know how wide the figures shoulders need to be. Generally, I don't do them wide enough. I'm going to keep it simple for the torso. Just a shape like this. The arms coming down the elbow of the arms should actually be where the waste is. If you check on your on yourself, you'll see that your elbow comes to about your waist, so that's a nice marker toe have when you're drawing, and then just make sure that you make legs a long enough so think in terms of blocks and generalized easy shapes to work with, because you can always go in afterwards and had details on even erase out. You're undergoing completely once you've built it up. But it's really nice to be able to get the proportions correct by using this kind of system . Our view things, uh, rectangles, cylindrical shapes, circles just to just to get the construction lines down. 9. Drawing Basic Female Figures: So for female heads again, start with a circle. I think I'll just put a central line down the middle like this just to give myself an idea of where I need to go. And that's my halfway line. So but there's the bottom of the chin, so lines coming down the side and tapering in gente and we'll give you the sides of the face. And then you can go in and pluck out the eyes again, getting getting too detailed. Although it's very hard not to get sucked into doing details at this point, I kind of tend to want to draw the details of the eyes a lot here and really, this is just a about staying rough and loose. I'm getting the features down where they're meant to be one of the problems with drawing like this. I just want to point out I'm doing this as a demo, but you should be aware that it's never great to just draw out of your head. It it's much better to always have a reference now. Unfortunately, I don't have a reference, but if I would encourage you to search for reference online and just try to copy the images that you find Andi learn how to draw that way. It's a really good practice. Okay, So I can make any adjustments that I want now to the sides of the face. I'm gonna just correct this line. It's coming in a bit too thin, making the chin a bit too pointy. But that is generally how you would place down the features of the face for female character. Okay? And then you can put the ears and the hair in like this. I might just go into been a little bit and fix up the eyes. They're jumping out at me as being a little bit too weird. Um, a good thing to do is you can lower the capacity of the layer that you're working on, add a new layer above it and then come in over that and start to refine the details when you're drawing female eyes. Uh, a nice approach is to draw the upper lid quite dark, onda heavy and leave the lower lid Super super light. Even very understated, but a darker operated to find the I very well. Once you worked around the whole face. Andi, don't all of the adjustments that you need to in changing it up. Then you can just get rid of the under drawing, um, deleted or hide the under drawing layer. Andi, you'll have a nice clean finish layer on top on. That's a very basic approach to drawing female heads. Okay, so to draw the full figure off female character every first people break it down into the basic shapes. When you start out, you draw ahead as a circular or oval shape. The tour so can be broken down, as I said before into the rib cage and the pelvis. Then that will ensure you've got enough space within the midsection off the character, um, so that everything is in proportion. So get that right, and then the rest. The legs are easy, just cylindrical shapes going down. Break those shapes up with the knee and that the ankle and then the same with the arms. Very simple cylindrical shape to the elbow and then down to the wrist. And that's the best shorthand that I know of. Federal, full figure off a female character, and I hope that it's useful to you. If there's anything that's unclear, do let me know. But once you get a handle on these proportions and drawing in this way, any other character will be very easy to do. And you can actually even abstract from this even Mawr and make things more stylized and more cartoony if you want to. But knowing the very basic a Nationally is going to be really, really useful for drawing characters. 10. How to Draw in Perspective: in this video, I'm going to show you how you can make sure that your drawings are always correct in perspective. Once you know how to work with the perspective grid, you'll never draw in correct perspective again. It's really useful for helping you to compose interesting and detail shots. The basic concept of perspective is that the horizon line that you always drawing first is actually the island of the camera. So say, for example, that you set up a camera here and you're capturing a scene that has two trees. Just like this says this is how you would see it from the side, and this is how you would see it in the perspective. You the scene looks like this with one tree in front and the other one far away in the distance. So in this example, it's pretty much a horizon line that's at eye level. I would say that the horizon lines probably in the middle of the frame here, but you can also have the camera at different heights, and so if I just copy this scene and drag it down and I'll show you exactly what I mean, I'm gonna take the camera. How sh Well, I'm gonna take the camera and just tilt it. So's up. It's looking down from above, almost like a bird's eye view what's known as a high angle. So here you're looking down, really on the trees on your perspective grid. For your perspective, drawing would look a little bit like this. The front tree. We'll show you way more foliage on. You'll barely see the trunk beneath it, sort of tapering down towards the end to the ground. I'm going to copy this down again and show you if you had the same scene set up, but with a very low angle, your camera would be down almost at the ground looking up almost like a worm's eye view. And in this instance, what you would see in your frame is something a little bit like this. Now my joints are very, very rough, but I'm just trying to give you an idea of how you can change the horizon line in any given drawing simply by changing the camera angle. This becomes very useful later on, when you're trying to use camera angles and shots to underscore the narrative, and I'll be talking a little bit more about that when I get into composition on storytelling shots. But basically a low angle will imply that the point of view is from a very small diminish of place looking up but things around a set of very, very big. So this is what that drawing would look like from a low angle. So I can just plus it or I'll just throw in a with the different color, the difference horizon lines, and you can see what I mean. This is the standard horizon line in this drawing. The horizon line is nearly almost at the top of the frame, which means that the objects of them then seen we're looking down on them on with a very low horizon line like this. We're looking up at any objects in the scene. Okay, that's the general concept. But I want to show you very good exercise to start practicing, drawing in perspective, working with the perspective grid, either in one point perspective or two point perspective. And it's really all about just getting comfortable and familiar withdrawing blocks and shapes on this grid. So here's how you set yourself up to do something like that draw a horizon line across the center of the page. If you want to work on a standard one point perspective grid like this, and from one single point on the horizon line, just draw straight lines radiating out From that point in photo shop, you can hold on shift. Uh, when you draw a straight line, I tap on one point. Hold on shift and tap on the second point, and that creates a straight line. Then what you do is you draw parallel lines pretty much moving from that horizon line towards you. So this is your perspective grid on. What you can do is more the way I like to work as I'll drop the capacity of this layer down , come over to the layer stack and drag capacity down. Then you can knock that layer and creation. You layer above it, and this is where you can start drawing and then just start drawing blocks and squares rectangles on the scripted. A handy tip is to draw in your base first, then draw your lines, going up to where the full height off the box or rectangle, and then join those sides up to form the top of the box. You can also have a box that's above the horizon line altogether, and you get the idea. You've probably done this a 1,000,000 times anyway, but I wanted to point out that it's really good practice and you'll see how it can apply to a scene later on when I draw a background scene for you. Um, but I would highly recommend using this way to just warm up and get used to drawing in perspective until it becomes second nature. Now, if you wanted to do a drawing with two point perspective, it can be a little bit more tricky. This is how you go about doing that. I'm gonna use a standard arise in line again across the middle, ish off the page. And then you met Mark or two points on this line for two point perspective. It's actually good to have them as far apart as you can so that things don't get squashed on your going to draw radiating lines for each of these points. So this part is a little bit laborious and time consuming. You have to spend quite a bit of time setting up the grid, and now in this situation, you don't have to draw parallel lines coming towards you because because there are two vanishing points. Each of those lines formed a grid itself. And so you're drawing blocks that are basically in 3/4 of perspective. If I can put it like dash, so you're not looking straight onto the box from the front of this year's kind of looking at it from the side. So you see both sides off the square or the rectangle, and again, just work with this grade. Start to fill up the whole page, trying to as many boxes or rectangles as you can. You might find this really fascinating or completely boring. But either way, if you commit to working with this with the grid like this, you're drawing will definitely improve. I guarantee years. So let me show you a very rough, very quick way of how that might apply in your storyboards. I'm not going to get to details. Discourse isn't specifically geared towards teaching you how to draw layouts by layouts. I mean fully rendered backgrounds, blind drawings For a storyboard artist, you rarely need to do that. All you need to do is be able to confidently uncomfortably drawer scene where a character or characters are interacting. So say, for example, I want to draw that street seed from our made up script, the Western that that I've left for you. So say I wanted to draw the street where the sort of cowboys walking down the street something like that. Um, here's how you could very quickly and easily sketched out in in a storyboard format. Okay, lightly and loosely just block in some perspective grid lines like this. I'm going to bring the opacity down so it doesn't interfere with my drawing too much because this is more or less the thumbnail. And then on top of that, I can just very easily sketch in buildings that are incomplete perspective. And it gives the impression that we're on a street on over here. Maybe I'll put in the silhouette of the cowboy kind of coming in from screen rice. If I turn off the grid now, you can see how it works really well. Everything looked realistically in perspective with each other. Everything matches up, the drawing goes open to the distance and you get a sense of the scene in perspective. Okay, so that's a very quick of round up of how to draw in perspective. Andi, let me know if you've got any questions after this. After this, I want to move into the process off story boarding and tackle the script on show you how you might just start jotting down thumbnail ideas and moving through a script in an orderly fashion. 11. Camera Angles: shots on camera angles are the language of film, and as a storyboard artist there you're building blocks. Every panel that you draw is essentially describing a camera angle, so it's like almost deciding what the camera is going to be filming in this video. I'm gonna get you familiarized with the main shots and angles that you'll come across, and you'll probably know all of them already if you're at all interested in film. So it's something that should come a second. Nature camera angles are often mostly described as being either I level high angle, low angle or what's called Dutch, which basically means tilted on a shot. A camera shot refers to the size of the camera view. The six most common shots are the establishing shot, the wide shot, the long shots and then medium close up or extreme close up. There aren't too many more angles or shots than these on any of the ones that you come across are usually just a variation on one of these. So these last six shots really represent the main storytelling shots in all of cinematic language. So I'm going to look at each one. The establishing shot establishes the scene, so it's very wide. It shows the audience where the action is taking place, and most obviously, most commonly, this shot is used at the beginning of a film. But bear in mind, it can also be used at the beginning. Off a sequence after the establishing shot, you can use the wide shot for re establishing the scene. It's not as sweeping or is ground, but it's wide enough to give general information about where we are for storytelling purposes. On very often, a director will cut back to a wide shot after there's been a succession of close ups. Say, for example, in a dialogue scene. The next four shots are really more oriented towards character than the previous, establishing a wide shot. Think of those 1st 2 shots as specifically referring to the landscape or the geography of the action on and the next four refer to character. So the long shot is a shot that will, if there is a character within it, you will see the head and fish off the characters, using the full length off the character or or however many characters are there. Then, as you move closer in you get the medium shot. The medium shot is literally shows the character from waste to head after the medium shot you have to close up. The close up is probably one of the most important shots in all off film just because it's the one shot that you can use to really focus in on a character. And it helps audience identification, which I will be speaking about much more later on in the course. But just think of it for now. The close up is the head and shoulders of a character. And then, after the close up, you've got the extreme close up, which, as it implies, usually honed in on just one area, like the eyes or features of the face. But you can also have an extreme close up off someone's hand or a detail like that. So later on in this course, I'm will be talking about camera movements, how to indicate camera movements on your storyboards, as well as other shots like over the shoulder shot and point of view shot. But for now, just get to know these six main shots and, of course, the main camera angles, and you'll quickly start to see them. If you're watching film or shows or anything like that, you begin to pick the motion and see how they're used within a context. 12. Overview of the Process: So in this video, I wanted to give you an overview off the process of story boarding. What will you be doing when you're given a script? How do you even start? And how do you progress towards the end? If you're looking at a script from start to finish and you're thinking, How do I storyboard this hours? It can feel a little bit daunting or a little bit overwhelming, so I've actually broken the whole process down into five steps. Step one is you'll be given a script. And if you're not given a script in Europe East, given sort of what's called a treatment on that is just like an overview or a concept or idea for a script. But either way, you'll be starting out with the story in a written form, ash. So Step one is your first. When you're given a script, your first job is to read the script thoroughly. You know, read it through a few times, maybe even four or five times, just to get a really good understanding off the story off them story points Andi or who the characters are. So Step two, you have still not even drawing anything else. Step two. You're probably chatter the director or the producer about the script on Get a sense from them how the film or how the animation is going to play out. This is an important discussion to have, because you'll then know exactly how the director visualize is the sequencing of shots. So then, in Step three, you'll break down the script into beats or sequences and from days your start to block out on some nail your very first sort of general ideas for the storyboard. A beat is really like story point. It's a specific section or moment in the scene or the story you can think of a beach as being one moment. That leads on to another moment, which then becomes the next beat. All right, so when you identify the beats in the story, you can start to identify the different camera angles so you might go from a wide shot Teoh , long shot to a medium shots and into a close up. So in this stage, this is where you will jot down all of these ideas in what's called small thumbnails. A thumbnail is just a very tiny like sketch off the shot that you visualized, and once your thumbnails are approved, you can then dial into the details off each of the sequences and start story boarding and earnest. I'm not step for. That's when you take your thumb nails and flesh them out at more shots in if you need to. Andi make sort of more readable, more legible drawings. Step five is when you're happy with that sequence. Then you can clean it up if you need to and send it off to the director for final approval . It's important to really understand that this five step process applies to taking your script and breaking it down into chunks. So you never really start story boarding a script from Page one right the way through to page 70 or word averages. Break your script down into acts, sequences and scenes, and tackle each one at a time. So once you're storyboard is complete, where does it go? Well, in animation, the pipeline is actually very clear cash. Your story board is taken off toothy editor who sits down with director on. Before any animation is done, they match your storyboard panels up to the audio track. This then becomes an annum attic and Anna Magic is literally a video off your story board. It's very crucial to the pro production process, because it's timed out each scene in the and each panel is given a specific length of time . So this means that the director knows exactly how long each scene is on. Once this is in place, then each state has chopped up and given to the team of animators who use it to time out there. Animation. The background artist will also receive a copy on this whole. Tell them what background to paint. Finally, when the animation on the backgrounds are locked and approved, it all comes back to the editor, who then matches up the animation and the backgrounds to your story board. So now you can see how important the storyboard is to the whole production process. It's used at the beginning. It's used in the middle and is also used at the end off the animation process. You can think of the storyboard, really, as the foundation for the entire film 13. Blocking Out a Sequence: the process of blocking and breaking down a script into sequences enables you to approach your work in small, manageable chunks so that you can work through the whole script easily and efficiently. For the next few lessons, I'll use this sample script that I wrote as an example. It's just a couple of pages off a completely made up script that I wrote but will just use it in order to explore the process off, drawing a storyboard so a script might look to you at first glance like a continuous story unfolding. But as you know, it's actually a series of scenes interior exterior, night day, things like cash. Um, so the best way to break down a script is to identify these scenes and then identified the beats within these scenes as you read through, just mark off each part of the script that feels like a beat in the story. So, for example, let's look at the script. It says the sun is beating down on the score. Stir well, that's one beat, and then a lizard darts in and blah, blah blah. That's another beat. Camera pans. That's the third beat. And then we see Ryan old digging and that's another beast. So we can snow mark up some initial ideas for shots right here. Obviously, Weaken. Start with an establishing shot because we want to show the audience that you know where we are, where the action is taking place. I was in the desert on the son is at high noon things like that. Then we can have maybe a close up of a lizard darting out from under the rock because you're you won't be able to see a lizard on a long a wide shot or a long shot. You could use that to as a starting point for the pan, keeping low to the ground so you could have a camera pan in the parent. The camera pans in the direction, off off screen noises and then possibly at this point, cut wider on. Suddenly, we see that Ronald is digging in a hole in the ground. That's obviously a medium shot. And then I would I think you could cut back to a long shot. When he climbs out and throws a shovel down, he says his line. Maybe to finish it off, you could end sequence on a very on a close up of him shaking his fist. So what I've done there is basically block at the scene in terms of what shots could work to tell this story. These choices are by no means the only choices you could make in terms of camera angles. There are countless combinations that you could go to with sake of this class. This is how I would approach it on a first past. Anyway, let's just keep going. Um, the next scene is exterior town day again. You can start off if you like. With a bit of a wide shots to reestablish where we are. We're in the main street of the town. Andi, the sheriff is walking, crosses the street and walks up the steps of the saloon so that could all actually be in just one wide Shah sh showing him crossing over and going into the saloon there. Then we cut to the interior off the saloon. So you got a couple of options. You could follow the sheriff through the doors on goat, you know, have a panning shot going in, or you could establish the camera already within the saloon Onda, we see him walking in. So I think I'll go with Dash. So go for a Let me write down. What did I say? That was a wide shot. I'm gonna go for a long shot here, him opening the door coming into the salute and you could actually pan. Then as he walks across the saloon over to the bar, if you chose that kind of ah option, it would almost be like the audience was already inside the saloon and watching the action . So it brings three audience rise in. So let's just do panning Shah sh As he walks across to the bar, you could see that these notes are very, uh probably wouldn't make any sense to anybody who just picked up the script and started reading them. But these thumbnails and notes are excellent for getting your ideas down, and they only really need to be able to relate to you and your understanding. Now, this next sequence you're gonna noses is dialogue sequence between the sheriff and the bartender on in film andan animation. There are standards, set ups and standard shots that you can go to for dialogue. One is called a shot reverse shot another is over the shoulder shot on the point of view shot in the next section of videos. I'm going to go much deeper into storytelling shots like the over the shoulder shot and the point of view shot. So to give this section of first pass, I would probably start off with what's called a two shot, which shows both characters in the frame. So it's gonna be medium and it's gonna be a two shot on. And then once the dialogue starts going, I would give each character a single. So, in other words, the camera would just be on one person while he says his line. Andi, then a rigger shot showing the second character saying their line. So that's called a single when you have one person and then you could do an over the shoulder shot. So the dialogue continues on to the next page. So these are all pretty much single mediums or close ups. We could figure that out when we go to actually draw the storyboard, but this last line here is the cue for 1/3 character to enter, so I might cut back to a medium two shot of both characters because will be nice to see them looking off screen on that can que this third character entering and then for Grecians , entrance into the scene, says from the other side of our Grecia appears and walks up to the share. You'd probably want to cut back to a long shot. At that point, he could be. You could have a bit of an over the shoulder of him still in frame and showing her walking up to him. Then it says, she slides a small, valuable pouch, crossed the bar in the direction off Tucker. He puts out his hand and catches it, so that would be a close up. Definitely, because you want to see the object and then her line. That's what you're looking for. Could be. You could have her line coming in over this close up. Or you could cut to a close up of her saying it. Then he says, Trucker opens the poach and empties a small pile of diamonds into his palm. For that last shot, I will go with an extreme close up Andi, that's the end of our sample script, so we've got all of our sequences worked out all of the beats on all of the shots. We've noted them down. The next step is to bring all of these into a bit bored or basically a page of thumbnails on. Just start jotting down visual ideas that we've indicated here. So I'm gonna tackle that in the next video. 14. Drawing Thumbnails: Now that we've blocked out the first part of the script and identified the shots, it's time to start drawing. So when you first sit down to storyboard a script because you'll be drawing very, very rough, just don't worry at all about making perfect drawings. What we're talking about here is almost stick figures, rough lines on. It's all about keeping it loose and rough at the stage. So the third shop that I identified as an establishing shot, Let's do that. I'm going to drawers. It's got to be a very wide, sweeping view of the whole landscape. I'm gonna come over here and I'm just going to really roughly sketch out some ideas. It's going to be the desert. Typical Western scene. I'm actually I think I'm gonna draw this over the 1st 2 panels that I have here, even though it's not a pan. But I just want to give myself some options. So start I'll do my drawing quite wide. Put in those iconic western sort of motifs of the cactus and the skull and bones in the desert. Um, try to give a sense of depths, Andi. But the sun, obviously high up in the sky, so it's high known it hot on a road. All right, so the next shot is the close up off the lizard, darting out from under Iraq s Oh, that's very straightforward. I don't need to put in too much detail. It's gonna be a lizard, and he's going to run from one rock to the other. That's a rash. That's a nice cut away shot. And now the next shot is going to be a pan along this landscape. So we're going to hear right, holds the character digging offscreen, and then the camera will come to rest on him. So I'll keep keep a medium shop, because when the camera comes to rest in him, we'll see him at burst from about the waist up. Then we move a little bit closer in on Reynolds, still emphasizing the heat of the day and the desert background, he says, thes couple of lines of dialogue. So once that's done, then we can come back to a long shot. The long shot's gonna be him standing up. He has climbed out of the hole on he's standing up, sort of throws the shovel down, frustration beside and maybe have him scratching his heads. We're wiping the sweat off his brows and, like, Dash, there's the shovel. And then after that, we're gonna cut to a close up off him. But I think what I'm going to do first is just draw in another panel. I want to show another pose of him being getting really angry, really frustrated that will lead into the close of a lot better. This is optional, and obviously after your beat board stage or your thumb rating stage, you do go in and add more panels for more detail and flesh out deposes. But you can also do it at this stage as well. So have him standing up going, starting to get really, really angry and then going for the close up his face. I'm just gonna block it out here first in very light. Just very likely get that emotion on his face and he's shaking his fist at the sky. Curse you, Ah, nold of Dash And then I'm gonna go in over that with a darker line again. It's this even going in over this now it's not finalized. Still quite rough. These are my first initial ideas for the script, so they should lead to something. Okay, And that's pretty much the first section done. That first sequence and what will happen now is we will go back into these and start to refine things a bit better. Start to make sure that the flow of shots works on the one posed naturally will lead into the next. 15. Refining : Once you've got feedback from the director on your thumbnails, then it's time to take these rough drawings on Get them looking a bit cleaner, more precise. And this is the opportunity now to flesh out your sequences. And add in anymore joins that if you need to working and software such as voter Shell for storyboard pro actually makes this part of the process quite easy. It's not like you have to double up the workload. I'll show you how you can do it in photo shop. Basically, you grab your rough layer over here on, just copy and paste it into your storyboard templates. Then you can turn the capacity of that layer down and crazy new layer above ish, and on this layer you could draw with them or clean and precise line. Then, really, from here on out, it's pretty much all about just cleaning up your line and drawing the panels in again, much more in much more of a detailed and considered way. Hopefully, on your thumbnail stage you'll have worked out all of the layout issues that that might crop up, so you're not really drawing from scratch, and that's going to be your process for the next while so that you can move through each of these thumbnails and bring them to more fully rendered drawing. I've basically gone back over my some nails, and I've just done this exacting for each page. So I'm not going to go through every single drawing. You get the idea. But what I do want to point out is that I've numbered my pages as I go. So once I've finished, ah, page of drawings. Then I'll come up here and put in C number and panel number so you might have a scene that has 34 or five panels. In other words, it's the same scene, but you're drawing a different poses in each panel. At the top of the page, I'll write down my page number. Andi, I'll just write down the production title. So for this example on just the right sample script now, because this shot is the pan. What we what I'm gonna do is using a red color, so something that'll stand out. I'm gonna indicate on this storyboard that these two panels constitute a pan. So know the words, I'm joining them together on all indications starting point and unending point for the camera pan on name one position A and the second position be if you're working in a studio or for on a professional basis, the specific production that you're working on will likely have a whole set of conventions . Andi parameters that you can work and in terms of your story board. I just wanted to make sure that you have an idea of the whole process and how to number on and finalize your storyboards. 16. Thumbnailing Part 2: in this next video, I want to move on to the second half our script so have gone through the first half and worked at dashed Pull apart. And I want to tackle the second part of this. The main focus of this is the dialogue scene between the bartender and the sheriff. But there is this intra bit where we establish the action. There's taking place in the town. We've got the wide shot that I talked about with the share of crossing the road. I identified that first shot as being a static long shot. I think what I'm gonna do now just to flesh it out a little that is used it can remove and have the sheriff walking from the left hand side of the screen across the street on have the camera move with them as he crosses over the street and goes up to salute. So just quickly sketch out in a sort of a rough idea. Again, I'm some nailing at this point. I'm not going to get into details just gonna block it out as quickly as I can. What I'm thinking about here, really is those classic opening sequences in in Western films where you see the town, it's established as a bustling sort of center of activity ons. Usually there's characters hanging around different areas off the street on. I want to use that notion off the pan can remove going across and following the cat, the main character as he's walking across and walking through this setting. That'll do two things that will show us the location where the action is taking place. But it'll also help us to start to connect with the sheriff, because the camera will be focusing on him, watching his movements, picking him out from the rest of the hustle and bustle of ST on following him as he crosses . That's a nice way to identify him as someone of importance, a character that we're gonna want to identify with or where these gonna want the audience to identify with. So these are really just thoughts and notes that I'm jotting down. As you can see, I'm keeping it really, really loose. Thieves will probably just makes sense to me until I come back in and clean them up like it did before, but for now, I think that's more or less the kind of the layout that I'm thinking off next shot that I'm gonna draw is the shot off the sheriff walking into the bar. He's gonna walk in and woke up to the bar. And what I'm thinking about here is having something of a down shot Andi showing the whole scene from above. So it's almost like we're standing on the balcony. But as I'm blocking this out, I got this idea that what I thought I might do is put in the character of Grecia into this shot for framing. This is great because it instantly frames the share of coming in the door. It shows that somebody else is also looking at this action that's taking place on, so it's a bit intriguing. He's obviously caught someone's attention, and as a viewer, as the audience, we're gonna sort of be intrigued ourselves. It's a great visual cue for the story, so I'm gonna have her standing off like this. My second panel in this shot is just gonna be a very slight action of her walking or screen like screen, right? So she's gonna be exiting and we'll just see her hands sort of trailing along the banister so I really like that idea, but I need to draw it out again. Um, I don't think what I've done there is not really showing the character and office just showing a hand. So let me quickly just copy this down, delete that out and put the character off Grecia. So when we see greater later on, will definitely recognize that it's the same character who was standing up here watching the sheriff entering. Okay, so on their got my other drawing off the hand going along. And then after that, what I'll do is go into that dialogue sequence. So the next section of the script is the dialogue between sheriff on the bartender. For any dialogue sequences like this, we have standard go to shots that we can use their core corresponding shots. And it's just gonna be medium or close ups of each of the character, as they say, their lines too complicated before I move on. I've just had another idea which I want to put into the storyboards. So after this character of Grecia, who we don't know, it's greater. Yes, but she's looking down, watching him watching the share of coming in and then she moves out of the frame. I'm going to put in basically a new a new shot, but it'll be what's called a cutaway. So essentially wanna have, like an angle on the door with her hand just trailing off and closing the door behind her on what this is going to do is Adul Deepen the mystery about this character eso we've seen now that she is somebody that's important because there's obviously something going on. The film wouldn't reveal this to us as an audience unless there was a reason why we should sort of take note. There's some some mystery happening because it's going to be, you know, she's closing the door, so, in a sense, it sets us up for later on. When we do see Greta, we're gonna wonder, can we trust her? Especially from the point of view off the sheriff, because later on, the sheriff is gonna ask her about the diamonds or she's going to reveal that she has the diamonds. But at that point in the story, because we've seen this other sort of element, we've seen these two shots. We're not gonna be 100% sure if we can trust her because there's something shady going on. What this is called is a cash away. That's a really useful filmic device for giving extra information to the viewer. That's not necessarily explicit in the script. So it's not an explicit story point, such as The sheriff walks up to the bar. That's an explicit story point. What I'm doing here is I'm inserting a cutaway that contains or reveals sort of some extra information. But then we know about ahead off the sheriff. I think that's gonna work really well when we get to story. Boarding at this property on feels like there's there some intrigue happening now. Okay, so from here I'll carry on. The next part of the sequence is the dialogue, and I have flush it out on my shot list. I've got medium two shots, single shots, um, the's air standard, corresponding shots for dialogue. So I went ahead and just quickly thumbnail out a few options. I don't need to go through it, I think in detail with you, but you can see that when it comes to cleaning up these thumbnails and boarding it out, I have room to flesh these out if I need to on to put some more character into them. So the last shot there is the bartender looks off screen, right, and that's the cue for Grecia to enter on. I'm going to go for the standard classic Western entrance, where she comes down the stairs and stands at the bar on. Then she'll toss the diamonds, or she'll toss the pouch onto the bar, so that's going to be a close up. I can go in close here, just rough it. This is sort of her hand will come into frame and she'll throw the bag down onto the bar that slides along, and it's going to be grabbed by the sheriff. So I'll keep, keep it as one shot and just then have the sheriff's hand coming in and grabbing us and then jumping ahead. I'm going to go for a close up on Greta's face for her line of dialogue. Which is Is that what you're looking for? Sheriff? I had gone in and Donna close up of the hand up there, but I realized we don't see that until after she says her line, she says. Her line. And then we can have that extreme close up off the diamonds in the sheriff's prompt the palm of his hand. Right? So that's I've thumbnail. Let that whole that second section. Now I'm gonna go back in on flesh that I was first of all, but I'll do it. The stage has put the script away and just look at my shots and see if the whole thing flows. Play out the movie in my head and in the front. Happy enough. I'm gonna go back in and clean them up and put them into my storyboard template. So let's get to that in the next video. 17. Refining Part 2: in this video, I'm gonna walk you through the cleaned off panels that I blocked out in the last video I've gone ahead on drawn them up in the storyboard template because I think you get the idea by now off how to clean up your lines. It's really just a matter off redrawing over your roofs, making sure that the mayor capacity all of your rough drawings is low so that you can see what you're doing. But if any part of this is unclear, or if you think that I've skipped a step, please let me know. Or if you've got any questions at all just posted in the discussion section or send me a quick message. Here's my first page. It's the camera pan showing the share of walking across to the saloon. When I want to do here now is Mark my camera move. So I'm gonna frame up this first shot on the camera bill, then truck out Teoh here. That's my second position, and then it pans along to here, which is my third position and then a small push in this he goes up to the door on. That's my fourth position on the next page. We see him enter on. Then in the second panel, this character here, exit screen, right? And then that's followed by the cash away off her, closing the door behind her. Um, and so we'll have just a beat on that closed door before we cut to the next team, which is the share of at the bar here. The two guys have their exchange going from a medium two shot to a single on, then on over the shoulder shot and then a close up when we hear graduate from off screen. So having the bartender turned his head to look in this direction motivates the cut to then a long shot of greater standing at the bottom of the stairs. Now, this is a good example off how you show point of your shots. So without the bartender looking off screen first, it might be a bit confusing to the audience to suddenly cut to another part of the bar. But by just motivation that cut in this simple way, it's actually perfectly seamless on we know exactly now that the sheriff on the bartender are looking at Greta, then it's the shot of the bag being thrown into the bar, followed by a close up of Greta. As she says, her line. And then our last shot is that extreme close up off there diamonds in the sheriff's hand. I could probably have added another shot onto the end of this just to really tie up the sequence. I was thinking that probably a stronger shock to end on would have been to cut wide again to show the reaction of the sheriff and the bartender, but to have it as an over the shoulder shot from Greta's point of view. But anyway, I think for now I guess I leave it like this since this is the last shot on the script, the last one we planned out on that's that sequence done. I'm gonna leave all of these resource is for you to download, so make sure that you download the Photoshopped piles as well as the script on. Feel free to have a go at boarding at the sequence yourself and maybe experiment with different shots and see if you can come up with a much more exciting or interesting way to tell this very simple story in the next section. of videos. I'm gonna go into visual storytelling. I want to cover some really important points about composition, some technical details about storyboards like the One Asia degree rule. And now that we've got more or less the process under our belts, in terms, off drawing skills and in terms of approaching a script, I think the next section will really make things clear as to how visual language plays such a huge role in story boarding. So I'll see you in the next video. 18. Introduction to Visual Language: so welcome to the last section of the course in this section. I'm going to look at visual language the way I think about it. I see the origin story boarding as being really made up of three components. The 1st 1 is you need to have drawing skills. And as I've shown you, you don't have to be highly skilled draft person. But you do need to be able to draw your ideas so that you can communicate visually. The second component is that you need to have technical knowledge now recovered this in the last section videos. The boarding process is considered a very technical part of filmmaking. You need to know a lot about camera angles, pans, shots, cuts, and you need to know all of the technical details, all the storyboard template. The third component is understanding visual language, and for me, this part really brings the 1st 2 parts together. And it's what makes the whole skill set off aboard artist, fully rounded and complete, so I can't get into visual language in huge detail. In this course, the whole scope of visual language make for about a Siris, of course, is, but I can't introduce you to some of the concepts, and in this video, I just want to introduce you to two concepts. One of sequencing on the other is how you can use the close up for emotional attend intensity. I want to leave aside the use of sound. Obviously, sound is a huge part of them. But because I want to focus only on the visual elements that relate to story boarding, we'll put that aside. For now, Visual language really started to become formulated as a concept or as a as a discipline in its own as far back as the 19 twenties, when people first started experimenting with editing techniques. So in the early days of film, it was discovered that certain sequencing techniques actually really work to tell a visual story on that, the audience quickly made connections without needing to have any further explanation, check out this example. This is based on a Russian film from the 19 twenties. What the filmmaker did was he showed a shot off a man's face, followed by a sharp of a bowl of soup, and he played this film to the audience and without any further information or any dialogue When the audience viewed the sequence, they assumed that this was a story of a hungry man, and they saw his face is actually registering hunger. Then he showed another sequence using the same shot of the man's face, followed by a child in a coffin. On the audience felt such an emotional response to this tragic story. They actually saw the man as suffering grief, even though it was just the exact same shot that he had used before and that the man didn't really move his face at all. This technique is referred to as juxtaposition or montage. It's using one or more shots to evoke an idea or a state of mind. You simply get more information from a sequence of shots than from just one shot alone, and you can get layers of meaning. This forms the basis of our visual language of film, and this, together with editing, is how we make compelling stories. When you add camera angles into this, then those stories can become really powerful on one of the most powerful camera angles that you can use as the close up. For example, if you wanted to convey the idea off fear you could show a character in a posture fear like this, but a much more effective use of visual language would be cut to it, an extreme close up say of the characters, eyes that's so much more effective. If you just show the action or the emotion from our here from a long shot, the audience just will feel objective. They won't feel engaged emotionally, but by moving closer and suddenly the audience feels like they are part of the action. Plus a camera angle that's this close psychologically creates an uncomfortable or intense effect on can therefore heightened the intensity of any scene that you're filming. Just think of that iconic shot from aliens when Ripley has an encounter with the alien. That's an extreme close up, and it really works the first time you see that it's terrifying. So in the next few videos I will take this idea a little bit further. I want to talk about composition and the rule of thirds and how that's used in film making . Then I also want to talk about some of the storytelling shots that are available to us aboard artist that you should get to know on work with. So I'll see you in the next video 19. Principles of Composition: composition is so much more than just being about how you make a strong, aura, well composed image. We really tend to think of a good composition as being just about the pleasing order of elements within a frame. But as a story about artists, you're going to have to take that idea of composition much further and use it to tell the story in a more compelling way rather than just simply illustration the words or the dialogue. Here's what I'm talking about. Let's look at the rule of thirds. I'm sure you come across this before people are always talking about the rule of thirds and you see it everywhere. You're sort of told never to put a subject rise in the center of the frame, you know, use the root of third to put the subject off to the side. People rarely explain why that's important, and here's why. I think it's important or relevant to us. The storyboard artists, the structure off film narrative as we nose is based on a way of telling stories that was developed as far back as the ancient Greeks. Eso That's just to say that it's now pretty much ingrained in us as to how we appreciate and understand and engage with a good story. Now one of the very core things that characterizes this way of telling stories is that a good story has to have conflict. If you think about it. Every film that you've seen in our Western tradition anyway either has overt conflict between characters, or it has inner conflict within the main character, and it's what drives the story. It's at the very heart of every story, and it moves that story along towards resolution. And for the most part we go along with that story about the conflict, were interested in how characters deal with conflict and how they work towards resolving that so that this idea relates to the rule of thirds. Because an image or a shot, which has complete balance and evenness say in a binary sense, really is always going to convey to us stability, slowness, kind of even normality or convention. Where is things within a frame that are slightly off kilter will instantly convey uneasiness or or a dynamic quality than my convey adventure, and they'll especially convey conflict. Visually off culture leans towards a division of thirds Andi. Therefore, in this case, three is better or more interesting than to now. Of course, you can think of examples that go completely against this notion, and one that instantly springs to mind. You're probably thinking of it right now. Is the movies off West Anderson. He will very much place subjects right in the center of the frame. He uses binary setups a lot, but if you think about it, his style really is all about being unique and being very different from the norm. So what he's doing, there's, I think, pointing out that the norm is to visually adhere to the rule of thirds, and he wants to disrupt that by not using the rule of thirds. For the most part, I mean, just to go along with this idea. For the most part, in nearly all the films that you can think of, the rule of thirds plays a huge part because visually, this rule disrupts the spine re harmony and will make a composition more interesting. So to work this into your storyboards, here's an example of how you might do it. If, for example, you got two characters talking and you present this dialogue scene like this, you're essentially conveying in some subconscious way, anyway, that these two characters are equal, that there's an even balance of power in their dynamic. But if you present the same exact scene like this, suddenly you're actually showing the audience that this character is more dominant and more powerful and that he probably has power over this other character. And there are many ways that you can do this. You could present the scene like this or Joan like this. So every time you draw a shot, you need to ask yourself, What's the story point in this shot? What is the underlying dynamic between the two characters and then use the rule of thirds to play with the tension or to push it up it further? If you work in this way, then you'll actually be using composition as a powerful storytelling tool in itself. 20. Storytelling Shots - the POV: the point of view shot is when the camera is showing us something that a character is looking at. It can be a direct shot of the object or the thing that he's looking at. Or it could be an over the shoulder shot which keeps that character still in the frame a little bit, just to emphasize that the character is looking at this thing now. Why is the point of view shot such an important shot? Previously in the last video, when I talked about the rule of thirds, I mentioned that one of the main constructs of storytelling is conflict. All of our stories do have some element of conflict in them, which drives the story forwards the other. All important construct of story is hero identification. This is the notion that for a story to work or to be compelling in any way tow us as an audience. We need to be able to relate to or identify with the main character. So there are two shots in cinema that are used to ensure that this identification is driven home for the audience. The one is the close up and the other is the point of view shot. So the point of view allows us to almost see things from the very viewpoint or through the eyes of the character that then leads us to identify with him or her, or at least see things from his or her point of view. Now I'm saying this as very obvious what thing right now, But in actuality, it's a lot more subtle, and it's even sometimes subconscious. But it's one of the most powerful visual storytelling techniques, and if you think about it, it's probably the one shot that, well, that and the closer for probably the two shots that separates the medium of film from some other art forms, like theater. So to bring it back to animation, though onto story boarding, the point of view shot is very commonly used in dialogue sequences. So if we take a look at the sample script that we've got, the whole dialogue sequence between the sheriff on the barman is really can be played out using point of view shots between each of these characters. So therefore you will use the over the shoulder shot quite a lot, one character says a line and then cut the character that he's looking at, as he says, his line. Things like that. If you're using the point of view shot to show an object that the characters looking at, then when you're boarding that you would always make sure that you show that you set that up first and basically you to do that in the previous frame, you just show his eyes looking off screen in that direction, and then you can cut to the object that he's looking at. 21. The 180 Degree Rule: the one nosy degree rule is actually an essential convention for you to understand. As a storyboard artist, it's something you need to know about from the outset. I'm going to explain its application in the whole story boarding process. In this video, I want to show you what exactly the rulers on. Also, I'm gonna show you how you can break. Essentially, the rule states that a camera has to stay on one side of the action throughout the scene. If, for example, your story boarding a scene with two people talking, startle first just as a rough thumbnail to plot the scene out, start off by drawing an imaginary line in between the two characters in order to maintain continuity and to make sure that all your cuts will flow smoothly throughout the scene. And coherently, you can use any camera set up or any combination of shots that you like, as long as you stay on this side of the line. So this entire area is your safe zone. Another way of putting this which term you might often here is that this will ensure your characters maintain screen side. So the red guy over here will always be on the right hand side of the screen. No matter what the shot is. If you cut to a close up or an over the shoulder shots, he's gonna be on the right on. The blue Guy over here will always be on the left of any shot that you choose. Similarly, an over the shoulder shot or a two shots or anything like Dash. He will be on the left. If you were to insert a cut during the dialogue scene where that was safe from over this angle, then all of a sudden the characters will be switched around in our frame, and the effect will be really jarring to the viewer. The audience will suddenly start asking themselves like hang on to those guys, just switch places, or is it a different time or a different location? This becomes even more important when you have an action sequence like a car chase. So imagine you're shooting the car, moving at speed like this. The screen direction indicates that the car will always be moving from left to right. So obviously, if you cross that line on, have a shot on the other side. The car is suddenly going to appear to be going right to left, which is the opposite direction. But then what if you really do want to get a shock from the other angle? What if you really need to break the line? How can you then break the one Asia degree rule? Well, there are two very simple things that you can do if you do one across the line. One of them is you simply include a shot that actually leads the viewer's eye through a smooth transition. For example, you could just cut back to a wide shot off two people talking, then show one character actually walking across the screen within that wide shot to take up a new position on on the opposite side. Then you can cut back to your close ups with the new A and B position established or the other way could do. It is you could just pan the camera, showing the audience exactly that the screen directions changing and you move from one side of the room to the other. In terms of the born Asia degree rule, it's always a really good idea to sketch out a rough diagram to help you plot your action on your camera angles. Then you can get into the process off boarding in detail and you won't get lost. And you won't get confused about where your Linus it just will really help you to avoid making kind of basic errors. And, of course, like any ruler convention, it is there to be broken or disregard it altogether. And you will definitely see tons of movies where this 1 80 degree rule is broken, like all over the place. What I want to say is, usually it does support the story on its. When that happens, it's don't for a great effect, but sometimes it doesn't support the story. It's not done for effect. It's actually mistake on. In those instances, it's just plain jarring. So whether you want to observe the rule breakers, the most important thing is just have visual clarity on make sure that what you're doing supports the story. Point 22. Camera Moves: in this video, I'm going to go back to our script. Andi. Um, storyboard on. I want to cover some of the technical aspects that you'll use when you're constructing your own boards, and that you'll be called upon as a board artist to put into your work first up moving camera shots. In this script, the action tells us that the camera moves along the ground and then comes to rest at the character of Reinhold. Um, this is usually called a tracking shot. When you start the camera here, I'm moving all the way. Long's. That ends up in a different, different position here, and what you do is you basically indicate the very center of the camera as its starting point drawn arrow like this. On where the camera's gonna end up is your ending point, and usually the convention is that you label the starting shot on the ending shot like shot a and shot be because you don't want to number these. That might get a bit confusing with your numbering, your scenes and your panels. Now, if you were to keep the camera static standing in the same spot, but move it from left to right that's known as a panning shot. So the camera pans left or right. You know, for our purposes, it's pretty much the same thing. You, I think, tracked the difference between tracking shots on panning shots really apply to live action on for animation. Just indicating thes arrows where the camera starts and where it stops is the most important thing to note. And when you do draw a tracking shot or camera pan, you combine two or more panels. Another common shot that you'll be drawing is a lot. Is the zoom or truck in a zoom is when the camera stay static and the lens zooms in closer , whereas a truck in is where the camera is literally pushed from one position closer to the action again. Either way, an animation, it doesn't make a huge difference. Technically speaking, both shots represent the same thing on as a board artist. All you have to do is indicate that you want the camp the action to be focused in on a certain point. In that case, you just draw the whole scene as it is. Show it from its wide. Why just position You named this position a and then you simply draw a rectangle or frame around which part of the scene you want the camera to focus on, and you know that be you could also have a zoo Moshe, which would be the exact same thing. You still would draw the widest angle possible. Put a rectangle around the area of the frame where the action or where the camera will start, and then draw your arrows coming back out to indicate a zoo mouse. 23. Wrap Up: while you've made it to the end of the course. I'm so thrilled that you came this far, and I sincerely hope that you've enjoyed the course and that you've got something useful. Angelis. My intention, really from the very beginning was to share concrete real world skills that can help you on the road to becoming a professional storyboard artist. I've worked in nearly every role in production, and I can tell you of being a board artist is the industry's best kept secret. I think it's the most rewarding and creative role in the crew, so I hope this course has given you some direction. At least. Andi, I hope that you've got work out of it that you can take to the next level to wrap up. Here are my top five takeaways that I think you should have after this course Number one is drawing. The deal will always have a model she's, or something like that to work from if you are story boarding in the studio. And if not, there are a lot of very specific conventions and your hands that you can actually use to draw with four scenes and characters. Your ideas are more important than your drawings. So just don't be afraid to get your ideas down in any way that you can. Your drawing skills will always improve in time. Number two is approached the script in reasonable chunks, break it down into acts and then, like those acts and down into sections of scenes. Andi Breaker seen down into beats. Then start with one C on. Identify your shot list first, then work up the drawing step by step. Always start drawing rough. Number three. Some nailing is the most important part of the whole story boarding process, so get comfortable drawing small postage stamp size drawings off your ideas. These could be Kush and pasted attitude taken up much more easily than finished board panels can number four composition needs to support the story point. So not in every single panel. But I do want you to get into the habit of asking yourself what's the story point of the scene off this section, or even off this act, so that you can create compositions that support that when we're needed. If you do that, your director will love you for us and then my last my last point, I think, is just to say that the remember that P. O. V and the close up tell the story. Thes two shots are character driven shots, so use them well and effectively knowing that you're aimed to get the audience to identify with the character and his or her journey. Then I guess my very last piece of advice is just this. Watch as many films as you can stay visually hungry. You can learn so much from watching films and seeing how other directors have chosen to sequence their shots. You can even do something like watch the opening sequence of your favorite movie and draw it out shop for shocked just to see how they made it. Okay, well, good luck. You're on your way now to being an amazing board artist. I wish you every success on if you took this course simply for the love of film or script driving. Then I hope you've got good information on good perspective on visual storytelling. So please stay in touch on. I hope to see you on my next course.