Step-by-step Spreadsheets for Absolute Beginners | Kathleen Farley | Skillshare

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Step-by-step Spreadsheets for Absolute Beginners

teacher avatar Kathleen Farley, Robobunnyattack!

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

17 Lessons (2h 2m)
    • 1. Welcome

    • 2. Why are spreadsheets so awesome

    • 3. What you need to get started

    • 4. Choose your weapon Free alternatives to Microsoft Excel

    • 5. Project overview 5 song CD recording budget

    • 6. Meet your spreadsheet

    • 7. Data entry tips and tricks

    • 8. Thinking ahead Building a flexible template

    • 9. Calculations Don't do the math

    • 10. Formulas Magic recipes

    • 11. Tips and tricks for writing formulas

    • 12. Functions Uber formulas

    • 13. Subtraction in action Are we going to break even

    • 14. Playing with numbers Tweaking our budget

    • 15. Bonus round Splitting the proceeds

    • 16. Choosing the right spreadsheet file format

    • 17. Hooked on spreadsheets What's next

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About This Class

Are you mystified by Microsoft Excel? Feeling intimidated by spreadsheets? Want to really learn how to use a spreadsheet properly, but have no idea where to start?

In this fun and friendly course, suitable for absolute beginners, we'll use a real-world example to practice spreadsheet navigation, data entry tips and tricks, calculations, formulas, and more.

We'll focus on WHY and HOW things work in spreadsheets –– so you can develop an intuitive understanding of how to use ANY spreadsheet software.

By the end of this course, you'll be able to use Microsoft Excel or any other spreadsheet software application with confidence!

Spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft Excel have replaced paper-based systems throughout the business world. Initially developed for accounting and bookkeeping tasks, they're also used extensively to organize and store tabular lists.

In these tutorials, I'll demonstrate each step using LibreOffice, a free and open-source office productivity suite. You can apply these skills in your preferred spreadsheet application program, such as Microsoft Excel, LibreOffice, or OpenOffice.


  • In this course, we'll use a real-world example to practice spreadsheet navigation, data entry tips and tricks, calculations, formulas, and more
  • We'll focus on WHY and HOW things work in spreadsheets –– so you can develop an intuitive understanding of how to use ANY spreadsheet software
  • By the end of this course, you'll be able to use spreadsheet software with confidence!


  • Beginner-level users with little or no experience using Microsoft Excel (or any spreadsheet software)
  • Students seeking to strengthen their data management skills
  • Learners of all ages who want to REALLY understand how to use spreadsheets –– not just memorize a series of steps!


  • A computer (Windows, Mac, or Linux)
  • Rudimentary computer skills (using a mouse, opening and saving files)
  • Any spreadsheet software, such as Microsoft Excel, LibreOffice, or OpenOffice
  • Basic grade-school level math comprehension
  • A desire to learn!

Meet Your Teacher

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Kathleen Farley



Kathleen Farley is a computer geek, teacher, learner, vinyl junkie, hockey fan, and recovering non-profit executive. Occasionally she breaks (and fixes) computers. Not necessarily in that order.

Kathleen produces technology training videos under the moniker Robobunnyattack!

The Montreal-born technologist trained as an audio engineer before moving to Hamilton, Canada in 2007. She now runs Maisonneuve Music, a Hamilton-based independent record label.

Kathleen teaches technology and management skills at a music industry school in Toronto, Canada. She's also the co-founder of Audiohackr, a startup that helps indie musicians, producers, and DIY labels make the most of technology.

See full profile

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1. Welcome: Hi there. My name is Kathleen from Robo bunny attack dot com. And I want to thank you for joining me in my step by step spreadsheets for absolute beginners. Course I want to. First of all, just explain who this course is. Fourth, this course really is for absolute beginners. Okay, if you have previous spreadsheet experience, if you feel pretty confident with spreadsheets, this course is probably not for you. I'd like you to encourage looking at some of the more advanced spreadsheets courses that are out there. But if you have never used spreadsheets before, ever, ever, ever. Or maybe you've used pressures before. But you felt totally, totally confused then this is the course for you. Okay, we start at ground zero. Okay? And we talk about, um, what spreadsheets air for, Why they're so awesome. Or rather, why? I think they're so awesome. And we walk through step by step, a project, a simple budget project where I'm gonna help you set things up really, really well. And I want to make sure that you understand all the core concepts behind spreadsheets. Okay. Even though it's a step by step course I do. I want to make sure that you understand the fundamentals. Okay, behind everything. As opposed to just clicking on where I tell you to click. Ok, So even though I'm gonna walk through things step by step, I'm really gonna focus on making sure that you understand those core concepts. So that's my philosophy behind teaching spreadsheets. Um, so this is for absolute beginners. Okay, If you've never touched a spreadsheet before in your life, you're in the right place. If you've touched. If you worked with spreadsheets before and been thoroughly confused, you're in the right place. Okay, Um, I want you to feel comfortable. Contact me if you've got any questions. Because I know that particularly when you're an absolute beginner, you might have some questions that maybe I didn't cover in the course. You can reach me. Okay. I am reachable via my website. You can actually go to my website at Rupert bunny attack dot com. You can click on the contact me button down here, and you can reach me down here. I've got my email address right here Is Kathleen at robo bunny attack dot com. Or you can just send me a message using the contact form right here. I'm happy to answer your questions. Okay, So if you do have questions, please feel free to reach out to me. Okay? Other than that, I wish you the best of luck. The nice thing about doing these video courses that you can pause and you can play it back over and over again as many times as you want to. And I'll never get tired of repeating the same thing over and over again. Likewise, if you feel that I'm moving too slowly, feel free to just skip ahead. Okay, That's totally fine. Just find the right pace for yourself. I wish you all the best of luck. Okay? I hope that you have fun learning all about spreadsheets. I think it's a really a worthwhile thing to learn. And so I congratulate you for taking the champ, taking the the time to learn all about this. And I apologize. My cats are making a racket in the background. Hopefully, they won't for the rest of this course. Thanks so much for joining me. And I'll see you in the next video. 2. Why are spreadsheets so awesome: before we get started, I want to take a second and talk about why I think spreadsheets are so awesome. Now, Rest assured, if you are dying to dive into spreadsheets and you don't want to hear me talk about why spreadsheets or several awesome, you can safely skip this video and you're not gonna miss anything essential, I promise you. So go ahead and do that if you need to. But, um, I think spreadsheets are really, really awesome, and it's kind of a weird thing to say it's not because I'm a huge geek and they'll even though I'm kind of Emma geek, it's not because of that. It's actually because I actually think that spreadsheets are really awesome. They let you offload that boring administrative calculation. All that kind of really, really boring work. It lets you offload all of that to a computer, okay, and when you awful, because here's the thing. We're not really good calculations. Human beings are not that good at doing calculations. They're certainly not going to doing calculations in their head. Okay, I mean, unless you are an actual human calculator which actually was a thing in like the 19th and early 20th century. Believe it or not, that actually was a real thing. But but for most normal people were not really good at keeping all this information in their heads were not good at doing calculation and math in our heads. And we're not good at organizing lots of kind of lots of data in our head. We're not really that great at it. Computers, on the other hand, are super super good at that. Okay, and spreadsheets in particular are one of the easiest tools that we can use to get a computer to organize stuff for us. Okay, um, the trick is just learning getting through that learning curve so that you could learn how to use a spreadsheet effectively. What are we good at? The computers aren't good at. We are good at creativity and a major imagination and all that fun stuff. And plus the that's kind of the fun stuff, too, right? Like that's that's the stuff that we enjoy doing. So my philosophy is this. Why not have a computer do all the stuff we're not good at, like the boring administrative calculation work and use our brains for more the fun stuff right Fun? Well, woman not too much fun, but like like, you know, all the fun. Kind of the creativity and problem solving stuff and all that stuff that makes us human. Okay, human computers cannot do that, but we can do that. And so let's focus on doing that now. The reason I love spreadsheets has been a spreadsheet, sir. Just a great mechanism to allow us to take advantage of what computers are good at and at the same time focus our energies as humans on the stuff that we're good at, which is imagination. And I know that sounds kind of weird, right, because we think most people think of spreadsheets is being like this. You know, this one of the most boring business applications there is. But I don't see it that way. I see spreadsheets. It's actually being incredibly empowering. And I hope I really hope that by the end of this course you do, too. So that's my goal. It's a very lofty goal, I admit. But I hope that I hope that you feel the same way by the end of this course. So that's it. That's the end of my lecture on why I think spreadsheets air so awesome. In the next lecture in the lecture, in the next video, I'm gonna talk. About what? What you need to get started. Okay, in learning spreadsheets, what you need to get started and what you need to be able to be successful in this course. And they were going to take it from there. We're gonna die right into learning how to use spreadsheets. So thank you so much for him sitting to this. I hope that this was helpful to you and I will catch you in the next video. 3. What you need to get started: So what do you need to get started? There are five things that you'll need. In order to successfully complete this course, I'm gonna go through each of them step by step. Number one is and maybe this is obvious, but you're going to need a computer, laptop or desktop computer. Doesn't matter. Ah, Windows, PC or Lennix again? Doesn't matter. Okay? I happen to be using a Mac computer and I'll be doing a lot of my demos on this computer. But if you have a PC and I know most of you Dio, that's perfectly fine. So don't worry about that. As long as you've got a computer and you're comfortable using it, that's going to be fine. Don't worry. Even if it's an older computer, that is totally fine. OK, Number two, you're gonna need some very basic computer skills and I mean basic. Okay, you need to be comfortable knowing how to use a mouse. Okay, I think that goes without saying, but I'm just I'm just gonna mention that you also need to know how to open and save files in your computer. So here I am. I'm just opening up the sample budget right here. And you need to be able to be comfortable if you know, saving things, knowing where to find things, that sort of thing. Okay. Nothing really, really complicated. All right, Number three. I do need you, honey, to make sure that you understand basic math. And by basic math, I mean, super, super simple math, adding, subtracting multiplication division, that sort of thing. Um, rest assure you don't have to do the math in your head. That is. You know, that's not the point. In fact, the point of us learning how to use spreadsheets so we don't have to do the math in her head. But we should understand what it is that we're asking the spreadsheet to do. So I'm sort of moving with the assumption that you understand at least that elementary school level math So adding, subtracting, multiplication and division, that sort of thing. Um, four. Number four. You need some sort of spreadsheet software. Um, and most of you probably already have Microsoft Excel installed on your computer. That will be fantastic. That'll work. Fine. If you don't have excel. No problem. OK? And in fact, in the next video, I'm going to actually walk through some free alternatives to Microsoft Excel just in case you don't have excel, I'm gonna talk to you about some other software that you can use instead of excel that will do exactly the same thing. And in fact, I will be demonstrating the majority of the all the steps on my computer using a free alternative to Microsoft Excel. My my feeling is, I just really want to make sure that these skills are as accessible to people as possible. And you shouldn't have to spend a ton of money to to be able to learn how to use spreadsheets. So check that out in the next video. Look, look for some free alternatives to Microsoft. Excel in that next video, Um, number five. And this is the most important thing you need to have a desire to learn, right? Maybe you need to learn how to use spreadsheets for work or for school. But trust me, this actually respect Cesaire actually really, really handy and other context to, And I hope that you're excited about learning them because I sure I'm excited about teaching them. So that's it. Number five things that you need, you need a computer. You need some super basic computer skills. You need some basic math understanding. Ah, you need some sort of spreadsheet software. And I sure hope that you're excited about learning this. Okay, um, so that's it for now. In the next video, I'm gonna walk through some of those free alternatives to Microsoft Excel, and then we'll be ready to get started. So I'll see you then. 4. Choose your weapon Free alternatives to Microsoft Excel: all right, So let's talk about spreadsheet software. What's the most commonly used spreadsheet software currently? And I'd have to say that that would probably be Microsoft Excel. Microsoft Excel is actually part of the Microsoft Office suite, which is a kind of a sweet or a package of, um, applications or software applications that are all sort of office productivity software. You might have heard of Microsoft Word Okay or Microsoft Power Point as well. To those air to other programs that are typically included in that suite. Many people have Microsoft Office installed on their computer. It's not a free program. You do have to pay for it, but a lot of people have it because it is really, really popular. Almost certainly, if you work in some sort of a business environment, it's almost guaranteed. The probably have Microsoft Office as well as access to you know, all the included Microsoft Word and Microsoft excel on your computer at work. That's that really tends to be the norm in a lot of work places. Not everywhere, but very, very commonly used. Now, if you have Microsoft Excel already installed in your computer, then you're certainly good to go for this course, and that's great. It's great piece of software. I have nothing against it whatsoever. I also recognize, however, that not everybody can afford to run out and buy, you know, a piece of software just so they could learn spreadsheets. And and that's fine, because you shouldn't have to. Okay, And what I'm going to do is I would talk to you a little bit about some of the free alternatives to Microsoft excel that have the same functionality okay on and that you can install on your computer or you can have access to, certainly as a learning tool and quite possibly, is a really good productivity tool for yourself too. So, um, I encourage you to have a look at some of these options and choose something that's appropriate for you. The first option going talk to you about is a free and open source program called Libre Office. I'm gonna pull up my applications folder right here and here will see its labor office. It's a it's sort of kind of the open source answer to Microsoft office. I'm gonna go ahead and get it started right now, and it is available for Mac computers for Windows based computers as well as for linens computer. So it is cross platform compatible. And so it doesn't matter what kind of what kind of computer you have. You'll be able to download and install Libre office for free. It's a very good piece of software. OK, I've been using it for years now as my main ah word processor and spreadsheet and presentation package, and it is really, really good. I'm actually quite surprised how great it is, particularly considering that it's a free program and that that's just terrific. So the way that you would access that is you would go to the website liberal office dot org's, and you would simply download it from there for free. It's a very quick install. Here's one thing I'll mention about Labour Office liberal. You might already have Microsoft Excel installed in your computer, and that's fine. But you might want to give this a try, particularly if you happen to have an older computer limber office is known as a somewhat of a lightweight program and and please about by what I mean by law. Lightweight is not lightweight and functionality, but lightweight in terms of its demands on your computer. Okay, in terms of how much memory it takes, how Maney processing resource is that sort of thing. It's a really well built program, and it doesn't tend to take up a Zeman E resource is this is really good. If you happen to have an older computer. Okay, an older computer, this maybe not quite as powerful some of the newer computers you might find that your computer has an easier time running a piece of software like Libre office, as opposed to the full blown latest and greatest version of Microsoft office. There's exceptions, okay to everything, of course, but I just wanted to let you know about that. I'm actually the computer I'm working on right now is actually bit of an older computer. And for that reason I'm running Labour office on here and I'll be doing most of my demos using Libre office. Um, and the nice thing, though, about this, is that Ah, the spreadsheet functionality, okay. And certainly the way that you write formulas and functions and all that stuff is identical , okay, across most spreadsheet applications. And that's what we're going to be focusing on in this course is that core functionality, right? So, even though even if I demonstrate something in Labour Office, you will be able to turn around and do this in whatever spreadsheet program you want to use , whether it's Labour Office or Microsoft Excel, or any of the other options I'm gonna talk to you about. So speaking of these other options, I want to show you a few other options. This is a program Libre office is a program that you install on your computer, but there are some Web application versions of spreadsheet programs that are available as well to, and I want to tell you about that. What is a Web app? Web App is simply a program that you don't have to install on your computer, but rather it it runs on the Internet runs through your Web browser. Okay, so you would just use your you would open up your Web browser, you would go to a specific Web page, you would log into an account, and then you would have access to the same functionality. One ah suite of Web applications you might have heard of is Google Drive okay, and this is completely free to use again. I'm really pick on the free stuff. And guess what. If you happen to have a Gmail address, you already have access to all of the Google drive applications. Okay, all you need to do is just go to dr dot google dot com and log in using your regular Gmail address credentials, and it will give you complete access to this entire suite office applications very similar to Microsoft Office or Labour Office. But it's all within your Web browser, okay? And right here we see we can create documents. We can create presentations, we can create spreadsheets is even some other cool functions here. Too little outside the scope of our course right now. But some really, really need things. And so here I've just logged. And here's just a sample spreadsheet I've created and Google and Erin Google Drive. And this looks an awful lot like most spreadsheet applications, doesn't it? Yeah, exactly. It has a lot of the same functions that you will see. Ian, a regular, you know, in in, like a regular computer based ah, just top based version of a spreadsheet application. Um, so it's and it's certainly fine if you want to use something like this to do this course in ? Okay, Um, now, of course, you will need a reliable access to the Internet. You do need an Internet connection because you are doing this online. One of the neat things about this, though, is that you're not tied to a particular computer. So if you want to start your course on one computer and then you want to switch to a different computer and kind of keep working on it, you know, on a different computer maybe your work computer or a laptop or a desktop or you just want to search around, you can certainly do that. And you don't have to worry about moving your files around cause everything is in the cloud . Okay, so this is a really cool option, and I encourage you to check this out. Another option is actually made by Microsoft. OK, Microsoft actually has a suite of office Web apps that are free to access, and they're old browser based, a swell just like the Google APS thing. And here I am. What you need to do is you need to have a sky drive account, and so you can sign up for a free sky drive US cut sky drive account. And likewise, you can use this to create were documents, excel documents, power point presentations, all sorts of cool things like that. And here I have opened up just a plain, you know, sample Excel, Web app, spread sheet. And you know, this looks an awful lot like a spread shoot, you know, right, like you've got all the grids, the columns, the rose, that sort of thing and a lot of the same functionality that you will see in the full blown version of Excel that you would normally install on your computer. So this is another option, and again, because it's Web based, you can access it from any computer that's connected to the Web, so you don't have to be on the same computer all the time. You could, just as long as you remember your logging information, your user name and your password. You can go to the website to the sky dr dot live dot com website and, you know, log in with your credentials and then access all of your documents in the cloud and then be able to edit them and do all that sort of the same functionality that we're going to talk about. Now I am going to be using light. As I mentioned, I'll be using Libre office to actually, I'm demonstrate most of what I'm doing. Once in a while, I will switch over to these other applications and can show you a few examples of the same thing, you know, but in two slightly different context. But I don't want you to get too hung up on the actual interface, okay? The reason for that is because, you know, it doesn't matter what I teach you now, you know, technology changes. And, you know, a year from now, five years from now, 10 years from now, this interface is going to look different guaranteed. And I know that when you're a learner, when you're a new learner, it can feel, you know, intimidating and a bit frustrating to have all of this stuff change. That's why when when I teach ah, concepts like spreadsheet concepts, I really try to focus on explaining what's happening under the hood, right, giving you a core understanding of what it is that we're doing and why were doing it and my philosophy is that if I teach it to you that way, then you should be able to apply that knowledge in any spreadsheet application you want, whether it's Microsoft, Excel or Libre office or, you know, Google driver or, you know, the Microsoft Web app or any other new technology that might come along any other new spreadsheet program that you might you know you might encounter in the future. So don't get too too hung up on, you know which button do you press exactly. But instead, think about what it is that you're trying to dio and will work through that together. Okay, we're going to kind of build our powers of deduction and figure out how to use spreadsheet programs really intuitively. Okay, without having to rely on, you know, really specific step by step stuff. I hope that makes sense. OK, so there's a few free options. Okay, Libre office. I should also let you know Libre office is free. It's open source, which is a very special kind of freight means at its community based, and there's a community of programmers that works on this, and it's a fantastic program. It is there is a foundation kind of a non profit foundation behind it. And if you want to support them, you can certainly do that. But you don't have to. It's actually a fork of another program called open office dot org's. So once in a while you might find, ah, some references online's maybe some older references to open office, as you know, as as a spreadsheet application. And it's is practically the same thing. Is this just Libre office is just sort of when I consider the updated version of open office or the newer version of open office. Ah, so Libre office is a great option, as are these online. You know, these online Web APS thes are certainly great as well to you can use any of these to get started in learning spreadsheets. Okay, so I hope that that's helpful, and I will leave it at that for now. Ah, coming up soon. We're going to talk about what? What exactly is that they were going to be doing? What? What's our project all about? Um, and I'm really excited to show to get start with you, so I'll see you in that next video 5. Project overview 5 song CD recording budget: Okay, so let's talk about the project that we are going to be doing in this class, slum or fund, actually work on something rather than just learn things out of context. So what we're going to do is we're gonna pretend that we're in a band and that we are recording a five song C D. Ok, um, now I'm gonna show you sort of give you a sneak peek of what we're gonna be working on here . The band's name is the Robo Bunny All Stars. You all part of my band? Okay? And we're gonna be recording just a short five song C d Ah, And because we're on a budget, okay, we want to track our expenses, everything that we're gonna be spending money on as well as our income. And then we want to figure out whether or not we're going to make a profit. And maybe do, ah, profit split, that sort of thing. Now, just because I'm doing this recording budget doesn't mean you have Teoh. Okay, so you have a choice. You can either choose to do this recording budget along with me. Okay? Been basically type everything out as you go and sort of learn as you go or if you have your own project that you would like to sort of use. And this is an example. I encourage you to do that. Okay, I think it's a lot more fun when you do things that you're passionate about. And that's one of the reasons that I'm doing the recording budget because I happen to be passionate about music. And I work with a lot of musicians, so I'm really familiar with that. But, you know, I realized not all of you are musicians, and so this might not be directly relevant to you. If you have another project in mind that you would like to do as your project, that's perfectly fine. I would just suggest that you find a project that has both in income and expenses, anything that you would, you know, want to create a budget for where you want to figure out the stuff you're gonna be spending money on as well as how are you going to be making money. Okay, so maybe I don't know. Maybe you've got, like, a small craft business, and you'd like to kind of track your income and your expenses, you know, maybe something like that. If you can't think of anything, that's perfectly fine. Just, you know, you can certainly copy this recording budget project and and you'll learn a lot from that. That's no problem. And Tom OK, so that's what we're going to be doing again if you any project with income and expenses is going to do. And the reason I like to do this budget project is because it gives us an opportunity to try out a whole bunch of different tools that are really, really useful when it comes to using spreadsheets. So it's a It's a great kind of first step into learning how to use spreadsheets. M Plus is a lot of fun. I kind of like to pretend that I'm a rock star sometimes and think that, you know, I'm actually recording the CD. I don't I'm not a rock star, a tall, but it's nice to pretend it isn't it? Okay, so that's what we're going to be doing. Um, so let's get started 6. Meet your spreadsheet: All right, then. So let's get started. The first thing I want to do is I'd like to start up a new spreadsheet, which is going to create a new spreadsheet here. I would like to start off by just introducing you to some of the terminology I'm gonna be using in this course. And there's not a lot. OK, but there's a few key terms that I really want to make sure that we get straight. Ah, from the get go. So when we're talking about spreadsheets, Okay. Ah, you're probably probably used to seeing this this this grid. Okay, um and so if you started up a new spreadsheet, you'll see this grid. If we look at it in our Google spreadsheet again, a grid and then right here, same thing grid. What have you noticed about this grit? Okay, you probably noticed that there are. They all have in common. They have these letters up the top and they have these numbers along the side here. And these air actually really important. This is how we identify Ah, the different elements on our spreadsheet. Specifically these vertical lines. OK, we call these columns, all right? Nothing too crazy about that. And each column is identified with a letter. So if I talked about column D, I'm talking about this column right here. Likewise, these horizontal lines are all, uh, identified with numbers, okay? And these horizontal lines, we call them Rose, so each row is identified with the number. So if I click right here right now, I've just highlighted the row 11 right here. All right? So nothing too complicated so far, right? Let's keep going. Thes individual boxes. You notice that I'm just clicking around right now, and I'm just selecting different boxes. If I put if I just select this box right here that we need a way toe, actually identify this box. This box right right here, by the way, is called a cell. OK, eso if I talk about this particular cell right here, I need some way to identify it and will notice that the cell happens to be located in column E. And it's in row five. And so therefore, we can call this cell e five, OK, and you probably noticed right here you might have noticed that there's a little name box and every spreadsheet application will typically have someplace where if you just click in a cell, they'll be some sort of notifications to what the name of that cell is. But it's pretty easy to figure it out. You just look at the column name and then you referenced the road name right here. And then you can say, Ah, this this cell name is called C five. All right. Not too hard so far, right? What does this remind you off? You know what this reminds me of? It reminds me of Battleship. Did you ever play the game battleship? I remember I used to play that when I was a kid. I don't know if you remember, there was a commercial build. Milton Bradley had this commercial in the 19 seventies. It was this funny commercial where there were these fancy dressed people at the opera and there were these two guys playing battleship. Anyway, you should look it up on YouTube. It's a really cute commercial, and at the end, you goes, You'll sunk my battleship. Anyway, the reason I bring this up is you know, when you play battleship, that's how you identify where you're shooting. You know where where you're actually you know, sending your missiles right. And so you would say, you know, C five and then the other person would say, Hit. And then you say D five the other person was a miss or whatever. So here's the thing If you know how to play Battleship, you know, like your 85% of the way there when it comes to spreadsheets, because the big thing about spirit cheeses knowing how to identify these cells properly and you might be thinking I why is that? Trust me As we move on in this course, I I will bring this back. This will come back. This this ability to identify different cells is gonna be an essential skill. And so the nice thing is, it's not too hard to do, right. And if you want to practice, just pull out an old battleship game and start practicing and and so you'll get super good at that. So there we go. What do we learn? So far? We learned about columns. Okay, which are the vertical lines here? We learned about rose, which are those horizontal lines, and we learned how to identify individual cells. Okay, um, that's not too difficult so far. Right? All right. One last thing I'm going to mention before we move on to actually starting to put information into our spreadsheet. Is this area down here? I want to point something out here. Spreadsheets, by the way. We talk about spreadsheets, but in reality, each spreadsheet can actually have multiple sheets inside it. Okay, Um and so right here by default, most spreadsheets will just have one sheet. Okay, that's the 1st 1 You can see it right here. But if I click this little plus sign down here, suddenly I can create a new sheet. And I could just keep creating more if I want to. And I don't want actually here. If I just want to, Um I'm just going to spread this out here so I can see I've got four sheets here, and I could just toggle between them, and right now it looks like I'm Nothing seems to be changing, but let me just put this on here so you can see you know, when this is sheet to and this is sheet three getting the hang of this. Right. Okay. I'm just doing this to demonstrate that these air all indeed different sheets, okay. And we're just toddling between them. So just think of them as four different pieces of paper kind of stacked on top of each other. Now, the reason this is important is that typically when you get into more complex spreadsheets , they will have a very often you will have multiple sheets within one spreadsheet. We can actually rename these. Okay, Um and in order to do that, in this case, I'm just going to right click and I will just click rename sheet, okay? And I can go ahead and rename this. You know, uh, let's say I call this budget, OK? And then, you know, I could move this around. I can rename things at will. And let's take a look at what it looks like in some of these other programs. I'm in the Microsoft Excel Web app. And sure enough there sheet one right here on looking for some sort of a plus sign so that I can add mawr and looks like there's one right here. I'll click that. And sure enough, I can create new sheets like this, and I can just toggle between them just by clicking on them. If I wanted to actually edit the name of it, I can right click and I can click rename. And that allows me to rename them like that. Okay, let's take a look seed if it doesn't work the same way in Google spreadsheets. Ah, looks like there's a plus member. We're looking for that plus sign and that allows us to add a sheet. And so we can do that, and ADM. Or And we can toggle between them and in this case is a little drop down menu. And look at that. Sure enough, I can rename that. So this is fairly intuitive used. I want you now to go to your spreadsheet program and find out how you can add different sheets to your spreadsheet. Okay, we call these sheets, or sometimes you call them worksheets. A swell to you might see that terminology, and I'd like you actually know practice renaming them. Okay, And while you're at it, figure out maybe you could try to figure out how to delete these extra sheets. I'll say you've added an extra sheet, and you're like, I don't want that, Yeah, they'll always be some sort of a delete function. And, you know, usually your software will give you some sort of helpful tip like, Hey, are you sure you want to delete this? Because when you delete a sheet, it's it's pretty permanent here. Literally Think of it is like you are throwing that piece of paper into the garbage. Ah, so let's switch over here, and I'm gonna right click and sure enough, delete. And then they're saying, Hey, you can't undo this. Yes, All right. No problem. Um, how you feeling about this? Pretty good. So far, right? All right. So I'd like to make sure that you should be able to insert. Alright, insert delete and rename sheets. Um, I'm gonna delete that. Yes. Are you sure? Yeah. By the way, you can actually typically move these around just by dragging them to Okay, I can do that. Ups. There we go. Um, but we don't really have to. We're not going to do too much of that. In fact, we're not gonna make a crazy multi sheet spreadsheet. Um, in this project, I'm just going to be using two different sheets, so I'm just gonna go ahead and delete this sheet right here. but I wanted to make sure you knew about that. You understood about the concept of having different sheets in your spreadsheet. Okay, so I won't leave it at that for now. But that's really that that those are the fundamental pieces of the spreadsheet I want you to know about right now. Basically, the columns, the rose know how to identify individual cells. Remember battleships. Okay. And you go ahead practice, you know, go. You consider Go play battleships. Okay. That'll be the That will be your your practice. All right. And make sure you know how to create and manipulate different sheets like that, and that's it. In the next video, we're actually going to start entering some data in our spreadsheet. We're going to start building our our very first spreadsheet together. All right, then. I will see you in that video 7. Data entry tips and tricks: All right, so let's get started. First things first. We need to start putting some information into our spread sheet. So let's start thinking about what it is that we're doing. As I mentioned in a previous screen cast, we are going to be doing a brought a budget for a five song CD recordings. So let's go ahead and put that put that at the top here just as a little title. So I'm going to see my band's name is the Robo Bunny. All stars. There we go. And we're gonna be doing a five song CD recording budget. Okay, so I'm just gonna have just type that in. We're not gonna worry about any formatting or anything like that. We'll talk about that later. I'm just gonna hit, return or enter, and then I'm just gonna move down here, tow line three or two, Row three, and let's start just listing. A few things are going to start by writing expenses because we have to write down all the stuff we're going to spend money on. Okay, I'm just gonna move down a little bit here, and I'm gonna put income. Okay? Don't worry too. Too much about exactly which line you're putting the songs. I'm gonna teach you how you can move those things around. Okay, so we're gonna list all their expenses, and then we're gonna realist all of our income. Now, I want to start this by just saying that this isn't really a budget in class. All right, um, I'm gonna walk through creating this budget, but it's really as a mechanism to show you how spreadsheets work. Okay, Some of the budget items or some of the budget numbers that I put in here are going to be a little silly. Um, and so please don't think that this is, strictly speaking, an accurate recording budget. Um, but we're just having fun with it, okay, But the actual skills that you're gonna learn in terms of how to use the spreadsheet, the technical part of it, that's that's what I want you to focus on. Okay. In the meantime, let's have a little bit of fun with this. What I like to do when I mean, whenever I'm thinking about budgeting, I just like to do a brain dump of everything I'm gonna have to spend money on. Okay, I'm not gonna worry too. Too much right now. Boat Exactly what those numbers are. I'm just gonna do a brain dump of everything that I know I'm gonna have to spend money on in order to do this CD recording budget. Okay, so the first thing I know I'm gonna have to do is and probably have to rent a recording studio to track. Okay? Or to record Ah, the bed tracks in the overdubs. That's basically the main, you know, musical instrument parts that I want to have on my five song CD. And so I'm gonna go ahead and put tracking days. That's just kind of musician. Speak for recording, you know, days in a recording studio. And this is going to be for both bed tracks and overdubs bed tracks. That's everything you record at Wyness, including the drums and the and the base in the overdubs air. All that extra stuff that you add on later, Ron and I'm not gonna worry about anything in terms of formatting. And he like that again. We're just focusing on doing that brain dump. Let's hire a session musician. That's something we should do. I know we're a good man, but you know, once in a while you have to hire a really hot session musician to make your CD really awesome. So let's, uh there's only two s. Is there a session musician and my session musician is going to be ah, playing? What instruments should they play? I know. Let's have them play the pheromone. Do you know what a Thurman is? I should actually I should actually provide a link to a Thurman Thurman is a really cool, weird instrument. And so let's ah, let's let's hire a pheromone player for our our our recording. Okay, um, and the Thurman players only gonna play on three songs. I'm gonna make a little note here that they're only playing on three songs out of the five songs. Okay, I'm gonna hire producer producers going to sort of keep everybody on track and sort of give us overall musical direction. Um, and usually producers happen to charge per song. Some producers charge differently, but this one charges per song. So I'm just gonna put that a little note per song. Uh, next, I'm gonna have to hire a mixing engineer. Okay. Mixing. That's basically the person who takes all those tracks, puts them together in the right quantities and and makes things sound really awesome. Typically, you're mixing engineers charges per song, so I'll just make a little note there to the mixing is going to be per song. Um, I'm gonna have to hire while we're gonna be pressing CDs. And I want the artwork to be really, really awesome. So we're gonna have to hire a graphic designer. Okay, so let's put graphic designer, and they're going to be doing the CD, artwork and layout because I really suck. When it comes to graphic designs, I'm gonna hire somebody else to do that. Okay, so I've put that in, by the way, I'm just typing this stuff in and using. If you're wondering, I'm just typing stuff in, and either you're using the tab key to tab over to the next cell. Or you can also use the return key to tab downwards pair to move downwards. Um, and then finally, finally Oh, look, we seem to be running out of space here. Um, So here's where I'm going to show you how to insert a rose. One of your first tricks. We're going to learn about doing or data entry and actually adding information to a spreadsheet. If you ever want to insert a row okay into a spreadsheet, all you need to do is just hover your mouse over here. The numbers where the rows are than the row numbers, right? Click on that. And then they will always be something that pops up until you have an option to insert a row on again. Whether you're doing this in Libre office or Excel, there will always be some sort of option to do this. Even the Web applications air like this, too. So all you need to do again is you just hover over wherever you want to insert the roads. So let's say I want to add a row between row eight and nine right there. So I'm just gonna go one row below. I'm going to right click. I'm gonna click Insert row and look, it just added one row there for me. So isn't that fantastic? All right, so there's your first trick that you just learned. So what do I want to write here? Um, what am I missing? Oh, manufacturing. We have to press. RCD is we're gonna have to pay for that. So let's put manufacturing. Okay. Um all right. I think that's all I can think of that we're going to spend money on for now again. Remember, this isn't a budgeting class, okay? This is just a We're just going through this as an exercise. So So this will be good enough for now. Um, income. You just think about how we're gonna make money from our CD. Okay. Well, um, I would say that Let's pretend the word band that plays, you know, live quite a bit, So I'd expect that there be they'll be will be selling a lot of CDs at our shows at our live shows. We call that off the stage sales. Okay, off the stage sales. Um, what else? I must not worry about the numbers right now. Again, we're just doing a brained. Um uh, well, we might wanna have our local retailers sell some CDs, so let's make a line here for local retail sales. Just handy to have these all separated out so we can have better estimates. Um, you might want to do some mail order, maybe mail order through our website. Oh, speaking of web, will probably be some digital downloads. A lot of people will download things digitally now. And sometimes people will download singles, and sometimes people will download the entire CD, so I'll put full C D. Ok. Um and so a digital download could be either via, you know, Amazon or iTunes or band camp or any of those services that provide digital downloads for music. Okay. Are we forgetting anything? Um, you know what? I think we could probably do some presales eso, but I'd like to put this up here. I'd like to add a line between or a row here between Rose 11 and 12. And so to remember how to do that right, We right click. OK, and then we go in certain rose on. We're just going to be able to add an extra row right here. So I'd like to add some presales, Okay. And that's basically CDs that are sold before they're available. Sort of, um, usually at a discount. And it's a wayto raise funds in order to be able to finance all this stuff up here. Um, what else should we do? How about a crowdfunding campaign that seems to be really popular? these days, a lot of independent musicians tend to do crowdfunding campaigns where they get their fans , just sort of donate some money to help them make some some make music or make make a CD and and usually they'll be perks that go along with that. So So, um, let's out a crowdfunding campaign to here. So again, I'm going to right click, and I'm going to insert Roques. I'd like to put this right up at the top right here. I'm gonna write crowdfunding campaign. I don't know how much money I'm gonna raise through my crowdfunding campaign, but we'll figure that out later, okay? Did we catch everything? Is this everything I'm going to meet? Making money off of off of? Let's see. Crowdfunding campaign presales off the stage sales, local retail sales, mail order, digital download. Wow, I think that's a lot. Okay, um, that looks good for now. But now we should probably talk about doing a little bit of formatting. Okay? And so now want to show you some tricks? Okay, for doing this, one of the things you probably notice is that a lot of these are overlapping over the edges of these cells, and that's that might be bugging. It's kind of bugging me a little bit. I would like to We can actually resize thes cells, okay to fit the extent of this, But And so the way that you would do that is you would just hover over the division between the two, the two columns, and you would just drag that over. Well, that's one way of doing it. But can I show you an even cooler way of doing it? All right, um, this is something that when I show my students this usually they get pretty impressed. It's kind of a neat trick if you hover your mouse, but all over the line between the two columns, okay? And the here, the column that we want to expand to kind of fit the contents here is a If you just hover your cursor over here, you could probably remote over here. You'll notice how my mouse turns into that little symbol. A little kind of cross symbol right there. Watch what happens when you double click instead of drag. Okay. I'm going to double click right now and see what happened there. Yeah, it auto fits to fit the width of the largest, you know, piece of text that's in here. So in this case, it it is auto fit to fit this title right here. Isn't that beautiful? So that's a really handy trick. And that's basically what makes the difference between doing, you know, doing things the long way and doing things kind of the short. Ah, fast way, the quick, fast way. And so that's that's a cool trick that I use all the time. It's gonna make you really fast at, um, setting up spreadsheets when you get into the habit of doing that. Okay, So, um, what else is there anything else we should do right now? I think that's a good start. OK, in the next video, we're gonna talk about using our heads, using our imagination and creativity to sort of make some key decisions about how we're gonna use this spreadsheet, and that's that's where the fun part comes in. So I'll see you then. 8. Thinking ahead Building a flexible template: All right. So welcome. Back in the last video, we just got started with some basic down entry, and I showed you a couple tricks for adding extra rose as well as auto fitting these columns to fit your text. Now comes the fun part. And earlier, I think in an earlier screen cast, I talked about how using spreadsheets allows you to save your brain for creative work. And here's an example of that creative work and work with me here. What we have to do right now is we have to sort of imagine the future possibilities. In other words, what is it exactly that we want to do with this budget? Okay. And I'm thinking ahead, um, and I'm thinking I'm imagining that I probably want to use this budget to figure out what I can and can't afford. In other words, I want to sort of answer some questions about what? The expenses. You know what sort of how I should limit or my expenses or what sort of income I should shoot for? Because remember, I haven't actually done this yet. This is something I'm planning for. I want to make sure I can afford it. And I want to make sure that I don't go over budget. Um and so I'm going to wanna have some flexibility in this in this particular budget, okay? And this is really important. It's kind of a subtle but important point to remember is that when you're building, whether it's a budget or any sort of a spreadsheet template, you want to build the most flexible template possible. Okay, Spreadsheets are incredibly good at this. They're incredibly good at giving you fantastic flexibility, but only if you think about it beforehand. And if you set it up correctly, and what you need in order to be able to do that is you need a little bit of imagination. You just need to think ahead to, like, what are the possible ways I might want to use this and, you know, how can I make sure that I build the most flexible tool possible? Now, the good news is, is that this gets easier with time. Okay, The more experience you have doing this, the easier this is gonna come to you. And the more you're gonna be able to imagine those possibilities, let me give you an example of what I mean right now. Okay, now you're thinking OK, so we've listed all their expenses here. We've listed all of our income. You're probably thinking all right, time to put some numbers in here, right? Like we're gonna start saying tracking days, going to spend x dollars such a musician or spend X dollars double blind. You're gonna start listing all of the costs right here in column B and yes, you could do that. That is totally possible to do that. Okay, but that is going to specie somewhat limiting when it comes to us trying to make some, you know, some choices later on down the road when we're trying to be, you know, used this this template in a more flexible manner. And hopefully this will become more obvious as we go on. Okay, what I'm thinking because I've done this before a few times before, and I know from experience what's something that's actually really useful toe have to build a little bit more flexibility by adding things like quantity column and a cost per and then having you know, a total call him over here. Um, by the way, this is probably something You're very used to seeing you pricing invoices formatted this way. Or, you know, maybe you've seen other budgets formatted this way as well. The reason we do it, we do it this way is because this goes us the flexibility later on to change some of these numbers and then have the spreadsheet re calculate things for us automatically. Now, if this is if this makes perfect sense Fantastic. Okay. You're well on your way to becoming a spreadsheet expert. That's terrific. If you're still a little hazy on this, don't worry, OK? Just hang on for the ride. Trust me as we move on. And as we see the spreadsheet in action, it's going to start to come together for you is going to start to make a lot of sense, OK? So because of the type of budget than I am building here, I've decided I'm going to add a quantity column here in column B. I'm gonna add a cost per column. What? I'm going to dio as I'm going to put the cost per unit and the unit's gonna depend, right? I mean, this is this is really going to put depend on According to the type of budget that you're doing in this case, this might be this will be the number of days versus this is you know, the unit will be songs, you know, it will walk through this in order, so don't worry. So the cost, you know, the unit's gonna depend. The quantity is going to be right here and then we'll worry about the math later. OK, let's not worry about the math right now, So let's start filling in some of this information. Okay? Um, the first thing here is I'm going to be doing some tracking days, a recording studio. And let's say I found a recording studio. The charges. 600 and $50 per day. Okay, so I'm gonna put the number 650 here, cause that's the cost per day. And the quantity here would be the number of days that I think I'm going to need in terms of, you know, for recording this particular CD. So let's say, because I want to do a really good job of this, let's say we decide to take five full days. Okay? T record are our CDR five song CD. You might think That's actually an awful lot of time in that kind of industry. Standard spending, you know, one day per song, on average, in a recording studio. If you really want to do things really, really well, so But again, don't worry. This isn't a budget in class. This is just giving you an example. So I've got five days at $650 per day. Um, next, I'm gonna hire my pheromone player. Let's say I have decided to hire a Thurman player. I've looked in the Thurman Player directory, and I found a really fantastic Thurman player who charges. Ah, let's say they charge, you know. Ah, let's say they charged $200 per song. Okay, because you know, you got to be really, really skilled to be a pheromone player. So let's pretend that they charge $200 per song. I happen toe. Want them? I want the Thurman player to play on three songs, so I'm gonna put the quantity three. All right, Good stuff. Um, let's talk about a producer. All right, Let's say the producer our producer charges per song. We happen to be doing a five song CDs. I'm gonna be putting quantity will be five right there. And let's say I've found a producer who charges $350 per song. Okay, Next, let's talk about a mixing. Okay? Mixing are mixed. Engineer again. They're mixed Engineers. Very, very often are mixed. Engineers will charge per song. Okay, Um and so let's say I found a mix engineer that charges $300 per song. Okay, so I'll go ahead and put that there. And the quantity again will be five. Because we're doing five songs now. I just realized Here is I did this. Oh, I've for gotten an expense category, okay? And I sort of did this on purpose because I wanted to show you again. I wanted to have a little bit of practice and how we add things back in. Okay. And so here's an example. Where again, what are we gonna dio? Yeah, we're going to right click here. We're gonna do insert Rose. I don't want to add an extra thing in here. An extra line in this case, one I need to do is I need to add what's called mastering. This is a mastering process. This is basically preparing your final songs for manufacturing. This is a very important thing. Can't believe I forgot that. Okay, so usually a mastering engineer again will charge per song. So I'm just going to type that in and again because we're charging person. That's gonna be five songs. Ah, typical cost for mastering, Engineer. Let's say they're gonna be charging me $120 per song. Okay, graphic designer. All right. So what should we spend? Well, I really want to make sure that our graphic design is super super duper awesome. So I'm going to go all out. I'm gonna find somebody who hopefully can do it. For how much should I should I budget for that? Oh, let's see if we can find someone who could do it for $500. Okay. I really wanted to be super good. I could probably spend way more than that, but, you know, I don't want to go to too crazy. Um, what's my quantity here? Well, in this case, the graphic designers just doing one job right there, doing the one job of preparing all the city artwork and layout. So I'm just gonna put the number one right there. Okay, We're almost there. Next manufacturing. Okay, well, let's think about this. How many CDs? Air. We're going to get made. Well, let's say I I'm really excited about this. I want to get 1000 CDs press. I'll put 1000 units right here, and I happen to find a manufacturing place that will manufacture my CDs at a dollar 40 each . So I'm just gonna put a dollar 40 right there. Okay, So one of the things you probably notice right here is that quantities look. Okay, Those numbers air fine. But the's numbers right here, the cost per when you think about costs, you think about, you know, dollars, right? Dollars and cents, that sort of thing. I think about currency and would really like this to be formatted correctly. So here's, you know, a second tip when it comes to formatting your data, Your information. All right. Um, and there's different ways for doing this. If I right click and signed here, there will be. And this this will be the same in most software applications or most spreadsheet applications. They should be some sort of an option to format cells. Okay, so in this case if I go to format cells, if I click through on that, that would give me the option to format it using, you know, whatever currency formatting or whatever. But can I show you and even, ah, shortcut to this right up here? You happen to notice that there's a button is a button Ah, that looks like a pile of money. It just makes me laugh that there's this button here with pile money. This is the currency number format. If I click on this, it will just automatically reform at that to the correct number. Hasn't changed the information in there hasn't actually changed the data. The raw data is still the number 650 but now it looks like currency. And that's what we're used to seeing, right? It looks like numbers like like numbers that are, you know, numbers of dollars. And so that's great. Now do I have to do that? You have to click individually and do that. No, you can actually select the entire column. Okay, click this button and it will format everything in here as currency for you automatically. Isn't that great? Okay, what's really need now is that as I start to write, let's say I I I put a number in here. It's going to automatically format it accordingly to because we selected the entire column . Okay, um so isn't that cool? All right, I'm just gonna delete that for the time being. Now, if you don't have that button, okay, that that number, format button and most most programs most pressured applications will have some button that does that you can Also. Here's another thing you can do you can right click. I can click on the actual the top of the column. I can, right click. And again, you're looking for some sort of formatting options so I could format cells and then I get a little option. And again, this this box might look different depending on what program you're using. But as long as you are looking to format and you're looking for currency and then there will be some option that you can select there and you can just go ahead and click. OK, don't get too overwhelmed by all the choices you know, particularly really big programs like like Microsoft excel in even just hurting Nixon Libre office will often have a lot of options available. And to a beginner, it can seem really, really overwhelming. Don't be overwhelmed. Okay? It's totally okay. Um, but just make sure that you know how to change the format for things, because that's gonna make things. Ah, lot simpler for you. Okay. All right, let's keep going with this. All right? We want to keep putting this putting in some information. I'm just going to re type this quantity cost per and total. Okay, let's spell that right. Let's figure how we're gonna make money. Okay, Let's let's make some money here. So, um, let's skip the crowdfunding campaign for right now. Let's talk about presales. Okay. Well, how many CDs do I think I'm going to sell in advance? This'd where I'm gonna estimate that I cells. I've got a pretty good online following, so I'm gonna estimated to sell about 180 CDs in advance, and I'm going to sell them at Let's see, it's a five song CD. It's not technically a full CD. It's more what we would call an e p Um Ah, Pre sale. Good price. A good pre sale price would maybe be $5. Okay, that's a really nice low price. Really, Really want to encourage people to buy the CD in advance? Okay, next off the stage sales. Once we actually have the CDs in our hands and we're going to be playing and clubs and live venues, we're gonna be selling them off the stage. I'd like to offer them. Also, I would like to offer those CDs at at a fairly low price. So let's let's keep the price at $5. Those people, because they bothered to come out to see us at a show, they probably already paid a cover charge. How many were going to sell their? Well, this is where I have some high hopes because I know our band the Robot Bunny Attack All Stars. We We have a great life following the late great live acts, so I'm anticipating we're going to sell. Let's say we're going to sell 400. No, let's say 430. Who now? 4000 and 30. 400 30. Okay, 430 records. There we go. We'll sell 430 CDs at live shows. I feel pretty confident about that. Okay, Local retail sales are. We should be able to sell a few from local retailers again. You know, our local retailers have been really supportive. Let's put 120 there. Now we're gonna probably have toe mark up the price a little bit, Let's say $6 then obviously the retailers will probably mark that up a little bit more, too. But that's fine. So let's say $6 here. Mail order. That's probably marked up a little bit more to and by mail order, though I don't expect to do a lot via mail order. Not a lot of mail order CD sales nowadays. But let's put 70 there. Okay. Ah, digital downloads. Okay, again, we've got that strong online following. A lot of people are buying singles are downloading MP threes online? Um, I feel pretty confident. That will sell a lot. Let's say 500. No, you know what? Let's say 5 50 I think that'd be great. And how much is that gonna be? Each well, let's just keep it at an even dollar, OK? I know that you know iTunes this, you know, 99 cents or whatever and let's just keep it in a dollar for now, just keep it nice and simple. And the full CD. Let's give people an option. If they buy the full C D. Let's make it a little bit cheaper for them. Let's make it $4 and by the full CD I mean, it's a digital download, so it's not quite as good as having the full CD package in your hand. Let's make that a $4 download and let's I anticipate we'll get about, let's say, 260 downloads for the full CD. Boy, Oh, boy, are you seeing here? I sure am glad I don't have to do this math because I don't know about you, but I would not be able to figure out what you know. I could probably figure that I would. All right, that's 550 bucks. But this? Yeah, and I can't do that math my head. Nor should you have Teoh as the whole point of using a spreadsheet just so we don't have to do the math in her head. Yea, all right. Finally crowdfunding campaign. This is like a big fundraising campaign we're going to do. Let's be bold. I think that we can raise $3500 via our crowdfunding campaign. What's the quantity here? Well, that's just one. I'm just gonna consider that one campaign, and overall, we're gonna make $3500 from this one crowdfunding campaign again. Remember, it's not a budgeting class. Whether or not these numbers air realistic or sort of beside the point, right. We're just using this as an example for our spreadsheet. Okay, fantastic. Well, we've put all of this information here. Okay, we've put quantities on, we've got cost per, and we can edit thes later on if we need to, But this is a great start. In the next video, we're going to start to learn how to put our are actual spreadsheet toe work to start doing the math for us so that we don't have to do that math. All right, So I will catch you in that video 9. Calculations Don't do the math: Okay, welcome back. So in the last video we went, and we put in all of our estimated costs and quantities in our recording budget. Now, now it's time to put our spreadsheet to work. But first of all, before we do that, I want to review some really basic stuff. I want to talk to you about calculations and how calculations were done in a spreadsheet. And so in order to do that, I'm actually going to switch over to this other worksheet over here so I can show you a few examples. Okay, We are going to talk about some basic math. Okay? Don't worry. You're not gonna have to do the math, but we're just going to talk about some basic math here. Um, calculations are very, very easy for computers to do. Maybe not so easy for us, but really easy for computers to do. But we need to know how to enter those that information, or we need to know how to enter those commands into the computer into the spreadsheet. All right. Fortunately, it makes it It's really, really easy. The number one thing you have to remember is you need to remember what symbol. You have to type in order to signal to the spreadsheet. Hey, I'm about to give you a calculation to do. I'm gonna ask you to do a calculation, and that symbol is the equal sign. So what we do whenever we want to tell the spreadsheet? Hey, I want you to do some math for me. We have to start by typing the equal sign. So I'm gonna go ahead and start that right here. In fact, what I'm gonna do is I'm just gonna give an example right here. I'm gonna put an example so, addition, example, Okay? And I'm going to just go ahead and resize that so it re size is OK. And then right here, I'm going to give an example of an addition. Calculation. I'm going to start by just typing the equal sign now, as soon as you type that equal sign. All right. The spreadsheet kind of shifts gears and goes, Oh, you're not just giving me down anymore. You want me to do a calculation and it gets ready. I'll kind of like to think of the spreadsheet is getting kind of excited, right? Spreadsheets like All right, we're gonna do some math. Yea, remember, Spread. She likes to do math. Okay. They're kind of weird that way. All right, so we've put on the equal sign. Now all we need to do is we need to tell the spreadsheet what numbers we want to. Ah, we want to do the math with, and we're just one. We're just going to start with a simple addition. Example. Okay, Now, first rule is we're not gonna put any spaces in here, okay? We're going to keep things really nice and simple. Let's say we just wanted to get the spreadsheet to add Ah, the number four. Okay, lips the better. Move my cursor out of the way. The number four. And then we're just gonna put the plus sign, okay? And then let's just add the number. Let the number eight okay. So, I mean, I know how to do this. My head for prostate is gonna be 12. But let's see if the computer could do it. So I'm just I've just put in equals four plus eight. Now. I'm gonna hit the enter of the return key and look at that. Have figured it out for us 12 now. I want to show you something. Let's click once on this cell, okay? On B one, and we'll see something interesting here because now we start to see you might have noticed here that we have input line up here, but then we have the cell. The cell number is different. Okay? And this should kind of give you this is your first clue as to what's going on under the hood in your spreadsheet. Okay. And again, this will be the same whether you're doing Microsoft Excel or Google spreadsheets or Libre office or whatever. This is the same thing. Your cell OK will always show the results of whatever calculation that you've given it to Dio. Whereas the input line right up here, okay. Shows you the formula, if you will, or the calculation of the instructions that you gave to the spreadsheet in order to get that. Now you might be asking yourself Well, what if I change my mind? What if I don't want four plus eight? What if I want for plus seven? Okay, well, there's a couple ways to edit that. You can either click right in the input line, okay? And then just change this. Okay, Another thing you could do is you can just double click inside here and double clicking inside a cell will open up that input line so that you can actually make your edits in there. Maybe will change that to four plus six and will hit. Enter. Okay, so that's how that works. Let's try a couple of other examples, because, um and I know if this seems easy to you, that's great. That's actually awesome, because this means the rest of this is probably gonna be really easy for you to. So let's go ahead and do that subtraction. Let's do some subtraction examples. Okay. And here I'm just gonna double click that to make that auto size. Let's do subtraction. Example. What's the first Us? What's the first thing I need to type in here? I need to type in equal sign. That's right. And let's say we wanted to subtract. Let's say we want to do 20 minus three. Okay, so we're just gonna type 20 minus three, and then we're just gonna hit return. There we go. Got the answer for us. Awesome. If we wanted to take a look and edit that maybe we want to change that to 19 minus three. We can do that, Okay? And I'm just hitting. Enter at the end of this very important that you hit either enter or tab to get out of there. Okay, so let's see. Attraction example. Let's do all Let's step it up a notch. Let's do a multiplication example. Oh, there we go. Once again, I'm going to double click there and let's just do what we start with. We start with the equal sign. Let's do three times for now. What do I do? What is the time symbol in a spreadsheet? And this is where you can't just do an ax. Okay, you need to use the Asterix or the star symbol, and that is shift eight. That's usually just shift eight. That will give you the little Asterix or star symbol, and that is the computer symbol for multiplication. So three times when we say three times for all right. So let's go ahead and hit that and 12. That gave us the correct answer. Fantastic. I know we're not asking it to do terribly fancy math, but that's fine. Just an example. Finally, let's do a division example. So division example right here once again is going to start with that equal sign. And what do we want to decide? Divide. Okay, how about we do 12 divided by three. And exactly how do we do? Divided. There's no divided by key on my keyboard. So how am I going to do that? I'm gonna use the slash key. And that is the slash key that is directly to the left of your right hand shift key. Okay, It's right underneath. Typically on most keyboards. It'll be right underneath. E. It'll be on the same key as them. The question Marquis. Okay, Um, so that is the key that you want. And so what do we say? 12 divided by 3 12 divided by three. And that if I hit, enter will give me the correct answer for All right. So we now know how to do calculations so that we don't ever have to to math again in a spreadsheet. The spreadsheet is going to do the math for us in the next screen cast. I'm gonna show you how you can apply that in our budget by using formulas and formulas. There is just basically combining what you know about calculations as well as what you know about identifying cells. Okay, remember, Battleship and putting that together to create these formulas to get the spreadsheet to do the hard work for you. And that's what we're going to do in the next screen Castle. I will see you then. 10. Formulas Magic recipes: right. So now that we know all about calculations and getting are spread, she to do calculations, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division for us, let's go back to our budget. And let's look at how we can apply what we've just learned. OK, well, we've just learned that we can actually get the spreadsheet to do the math for us, which is awesome, because I don't have to do five times $650 in my head. Okay, so what are we going to do here? Well, let's start by just writing the calculation that we've been that that will solve this for us. So what do I have to take first have to type the equal sign, right? And then what you gonna do now? You Are you tempted to write five times 6 50? Okay, you might be tempted to do that. And if I hit enter, that certainly will give us the correct answer. Okay, why don't I go ahead and while I'm here, I'm gonna reform at this to be currency format. How do I do that? I've selected the entire column. I'm just going to click this number for meant number, format, currency button right up here. Okay, so I've done that, and that calculation technically is correct. But what happens if I decide to change this? What happens if I decide? You know, we have to spend an extra day in the in the studio. I could change this to six, but then it doesn't change this number over here and have to go in here and manually edit that. And that's kind of useless, right? Like that's the whole point of getting the spreadsheet to do the work is so that we can, you know, we can really minimize the number of edits that we have to make here if we want to change some of these numbers. And so again, this is where your imagination is an essential part of being able to use spray cheats efficiently, inappropriately, right? You need to think ahead to, like, what might I want to do with this? Likewise. What if I found a cheaper studio, or what If I decided to go to a more expensive studio? I won't want to change these numbers. So even though this gives us the right answer, okay, it's not really going to be the most efficient way to do this. And this is where I'm gonna delete this right now. This is where we can think about using calculations in combination toe war with what we know about identifying cell names. Okay, so identifying individual cells watch what I mean here. I'm gonna go ahead and start. I'm going to start. But as if I'm gonna great a calculation, I'm going to start by putting that equal sign in there. But now, instead of actually typing the number five, what do you think? What happened? If instead I told the spreadsheet Hey, I'm gonna not give you the number five. Instead, I'm going to give you the name of a cell. And I want you to look up what goes into what's in that cell and then and then do the multiplication on that. See what we're doing there, getting the spreadsheet to do the work, OK, so always think I hadn't think about how can I get the spreadsheet to do the work in this case, what's the name of the cell that contains this? Number five right here. Remember your battleship, right? It's called be fun for before, so I'm gonna go ahead and type in B four. OK, trust me, this is gonna work now. Just this. If I'm doing a regular calculation, I'm going to do shift age to give us out. Asterix are the star symbol right there. And now do I have to do well, I'm not gonna type out $650 because remember, that could change. Okay, Instead, we're gonna do is I'm gonna tell the spreadsheet. Hey, gold got the value, Go get the number amount or that. The number that's inside that stored inside that See four cell right there. So I'm gonna type C four, okay. And the nice thing about this is that you don't have to worry about whether it's upper case or lower case. When you're typing it in, you just type it in the way That's convenient for you. OK, so I'm just looking. What we've done here, we've just written our first formula. I bet you didn't even realize up. Yes, we've just written her first formula. I I love the I love to call these, like magic recipes that that are are that you can build to make your spreadsheet do all the grunt work for you. So We've just written our first formula. And when I hit return, what do you think's gonna happen? Yeah, the spread. She's going to do this calculation for us going to go in, get those values and do the calculations. We're gonna go ahead and hit return. And sure enough, it came up with same number 32 50. Okay, we know that's correct from before. But look what we can do now if I change this to four days and then I hit Enter. Look, it automatically updated that, and I didn't have do any other edits. And that's because we wrote an awesome formula. Okay, I'm gonna change that. Back to five. Back up to their congratulations. You just wrote your first formula, and that wasn't too hard, was it? No. Because you, you know, you know how to do multiplication calculations, All right? And you know how to identify individual cells. And so all you did was you just replace those numbers with the cell names. And here's our formula right up here. We can read it in the input line equals before time C four. Here's the answer right there. Boom. All that is so awesome. Okay, I want you to practice that I But I think you've already got the hang of it. That's terrific. In the next screen cast, I'm going to show you some tricks to make that even easier and faster to input as well as I'm gonna make it. I'm gonna show you some really cool tricks on how to repeat the same calculation over and over again without having to type anything at all. Just really, really cool. So I will see you in that next screen cast. 11. Tips and tricks for writing formulas: All right. So welcome. Back in the last video, you wrote your very, very first formula awesome. And our formula was right here. Okay. Are Formula was be four times C four. Let's talk about some shortcuts for doing next. Wrote that out manually. But, you know, there's actually many, much, much easier ways to do that. Let me show you the first trick. Okay, um, let's do the same thing down here. We need to multiply three times. 200 right here. So what I'm gonna do is I'm still going to start with that equal sign type the equal sign in there, and ah, last time we actually typed out the cell name. In this case, the cell name is be five. We could certainly type out. Be five. But what if we don't feel like typing? What if we're feeling kind of lazy? We don't actually need to type. We could just click once on the actual cell. I'm gonna show you gonna click on B five once and look what happened. It just showed up automatically right here in the cell that I'm starting to write my formula in. Awesome. All right, So now what? I'm gonna do is I'm gonna do shift eight to give that that star that Asterix symbol in there. Next thing I want to do is I want to multiply by what? By C five right here. And so, yeah, I could type C five. Or I could just click once right here in the cool and is just automatically pops that in there for me right there. Isn't that neat? So let's say I want to apply that I'm done writing my formula. All I need to do now is just click the return button and boom, it figured it out for us. And yes, I guess three times, $200 a $600. I suppose we could figure that out. But the whole point of this, though, is that we want the spreadsheet to do the work. All right, so there's a slightly faster way of in putting your formulas into your spreadsheet. Now, you might think All right, this is great. I'm gonna go ahead and input my formulas in the rest of my spreadsheet, and I'm good to go. No, quite so fast. I'm gonna show you an even faster the way to do it. and you're gonna love me for this. In fact, I'm so confident. It's faster. I'm gonna delete this. We're gonna start all over and to show you right now what I would normally dio whenever I want to repeat kind of the same type of formula over and over again. And this is the same. This is the case we have right here. Right? What we want to do here is in every case, on every one of these lines, I want to repeat the same formula. Okay, I want to do this times this, okay. Except the only who's gonna change is going to be the road number. Okay? So rather than doing this individually, guess what you can do. There's actually built in function within all spreadsheets. All spreadsheets work the same way Where if you actually click once on the cell, that contains the formula that you want to repeat, Okay, the for me that contains that pattern that you want to repeat. If you click once on that, you will typically have down here, you'll notice that they'll be a little extra square that's popping out there. Okay, this will be very similar in in all spreadsheet applications. If you hover over that, you'll notice that your cursor will change. It will change from an arrow to something that looks more like a crosshairs. Okay, if you click and hold. Okay. I'm holding my menaced rate now and then if you drag that down to see what's happening there, it's kind of drawing that that square around If I let go now. Whoa. What just happened there? Okay, well, what just happened there? Is that the spreadsheet recognized? Oh, you probably want to repeat that pattern. And so look, if I click on these, okay, let's take a look. I'm gonna click on this one right here. And then if I look at my the input line right up here I see with says, be eight times, see a which is exactly what I want. If I click right here, we see that this says B six times C six. Isn't that cool? It saved you a bunch of work. All you had to do was click. You just write the formula Once you click and hold and drag it down. Why don't I show that to you again? I'm going to go down here. You need to just the same thing. Just for some practice, I'll go ahead and go equals and I'll click there to put that be 13. I want the ass tricks right here for the multiplication sign. I'm gonna click once. Right here. We've just written this formula out. Awesome. I'm confident that that's what I want to multiply. I want to multiply be 13 times beef and by C 13. So I will click. Return now or enter. Okay, So here's the pattern I want to repeat all the way down here. What should I dio? I've I've selected this particular this this cell right here by clicking on it just once. Okay. Don't double click. You just single click. It's highlighted. And I get this little kind of dangly box down here. I'm going to hover over here until I get my cross hairs and gonna click and hold. I'm gonna drag that down and let it go and look at all that Boy, am I ever glad that I did not have to figure out $430 times $5? Well, I guess for some people, that might be easy to figure out. It's not easy for me. I'm not great at that kind of math, all right? It did all of that for us. Wow, That s super super cool. Isn't that awesome? We basically figured out how Teoh add all of that stuff or how did create all of those formulas very, very quickly. If we had had to write those out, you'd probably still be typing them out right now. And so we just did that in a super super fast way. And this is looking really, really good, isn't it? Hey, I'm excited. OK, next. Next, in the next video, I'm going to show you kind of a neat trick. That sort of goes beyond just normal formulas. And you're probably wondering, what is that? It's what I call uber formulas. OK, in other words, I'm gonna introduce you to the concept off functions. Don't worry. It's not scary tall. It's actually really, really handy. And you're gonna love it. I promise. Okay. So I we'll see you in the next video 12. Functions Uber formulas: All right. So welcome. Back in the last video, we learned all sorts of neat tips and tricks on how to write formulas really, really quickly. Now, what I want to do is I want to talk to you about the next step. I want to talk to you about what I call uber formulas. In other words, what I what? What is known as functions in spreadsheets? Okay, um And in order to explain what the usefulness of functions I'm gonna give you, I'm gonna walk through a little example here of what happens when we start to do some calculations that are a little bit more complex than just these normal, normal kind of calculations. Let's let's give us Let's start with an easy example here. Let's say I wanted to add up this column of numbers right here. Okay. I'm just gonna add a total row right here. And let's say I wanted to add up all the numbers that air within here. And if I asked you to do that, knowing what you know about formulas, what would you do? Okay, I think about this. Well, if you remember, Okay. The first thing you price start with this, That equal sign, and you'd be right. Yeah. You're gonna write that equal sign and then if I want, If you want to add up all of those, that's just simple. That's just a simple addition formula. So do you think you can do this? You can go be one, and then we'll do Plus and then be too. And we could keep going right there and then before and so all we've done is we've just added extra values in there. But that's perfectly fine. There's nothing wrong with that. And so do you think this will work? Well, let's hit the return key. And yes. Okay, So it added up that series of numbers correctly 42. Okay, so problem solved, right? Is that pretty easy? All right. Well, what if I had given you a list that was way bigger than this? What if I'd give you a given you a list that had 100 rose or 1000 rows? Would you do the same thing? Would you go click plus click plus click plus click? Yeah, I would probably not be quite so practical at that point. Right. So you're thinking, um, okay, so maybe in this case of formula is not such a great idea. Maybe I need a different tool. Okay, um let me show you something else that happens. OK, um let me another problem with this is let's say I'd for gotten to include a number and hear what if I decided to going to do insert row here and let's say I wanted to add an extra number and here let's add the number 10 right here, OK? And if I hit return, I fully expect this to be added to this number down here. But clearly it has not right. And that's just because the spreadsheet didn't know that you added that extra number there or as far as the spreadsheets concerned, all you want to dad up was just be one plus b three plus before plus B five. And so that's no good either. So we see that in this case, using a formula is going to be not quite what we want, Okay, It's not quite flexible. Enough of the solution are to Teoh add up this entire column of numbers reliably. And so what I want to do now is I wanna introduce a new tool called Functions. And, um, if the word functions is scaring you if you're if you've got flashbacks to high school math and you're starting to panic, please don't panic, OK? It's not nearly going to be. It's not gonna be very hard. It all in fact, functions are just another tool to make it really, really easy for you to get answers from your information from the numbers from the data that is on your spreadsheet. Um, before we dive into a really simple function example, I want to talk to you about the syntax of functions, of writing functions and all that means is just this is the way we write functions. Remember how we went through the syntax of writing calculations, which is just equals and then something plus something etcetera. Okay, well, let's actually talk about the syntax for writing functions. To do this, I'm actually going to switch over to just a plain text editor here to ah word document a text document here just so that we can kind of focus on just what goes into writing a function okay. And at its heart functions air really, really easy to write their very, very simple. The first thing we're gonna do is like the formulas we're gonna right The equal sign. That's the very, very first thing we need to do next. Okay, And remember, we're not putting any spaces in here. Don't be putting spaces in here, okay? We're just, you know, think economy. Okay, What we're gonna do now is we're gonna type the name of the function and the neat thing about learning these functions. And trust me, there's hundreds and hundreds of not thousands of different functions available. Um, and you don't have to know all the names of the functions, Okay? There's just gonna be a handful of functions that that's to begin with you're going to use on a regular basis. But then the great thing is, is that once you know, the names of functions went to come familiar with those. They are, for the most part, sort of universal across spreadsheet applications, air across most spreadsheet applications. Certainly any functions that you will learn about in labor office. You will be able to use in excel and vice versa. Okay, So most spreadsheet programs all use the same functions. Certainly the common functions are all exactly the same. And that that is really cool. The name of the function, you're just gonna type out the name of the function. And again, it could be upper case or lower case for this. For the time being, I'm just going to start by typing in uppercase. There's no function called name. I'm just typing out name as an example. Okay, Do you write the name of the function and then again right away without any space. Now, what you're gonna do is you're going to do a bracket. You can open that bracket up and then in sign here, you're gonna put some stuff. I'll talk a little bit about what goes inside there, and then you're going to close the bracket. That's all the function is. Okay, this is really at its core. That's all of function. Looks like it's equals. And then there's the name of the function. Okay. And then there's opening closing brackets, and then you're gonna put some information in here. What are you gonna put inside here? Well, that depends. You could put some number values. You could put some cell values. OK. There's a number of different options in here. If you decide that you could just put a number value like 34. Okay, that's a possibility you might put. Ah, couple. You might put a cell like maybe before a cell name. Um, sometimes you're gonna put to sell names. Maybe you'll do be four comma C three. OK, you might put two cells or here's another example. You might want to put a cell range, okay. And what a cell ranges. It's just an indication to the spreadsheet. I want you to apply this function to all of the cells that air between these two cells. In other words, if I put a cell range of B, let's start with B one two, okay? And look, I'm gonna put a colon right here to indicate that we're writing a range to be 15 than what that is is This range here represents all of thesis cells that are located between B one all the way up to and including B 15. So there's 15 cells in there that it's including and ah, function is basically when I said, applying of function, all it is that is taking whatever this function is, okay, it's going to do it toe whatever's inside here. Okay, so that's enough, OK, it's It's I would just want to make sure we know the syntax. It's much easier to understand when we actually do it in practice. So let's try an example. I'm gonna start by just deleting what's inside here. We're going to write our first function. We're going to write what I think is the most commonly used function of very, very useful function called the some function. And all the some function does is that it sums up whatever it is that you give it. Okay, So in this case, if we wrote some instead of name, okay, if we wrote some, all we're doing is we're asking the spreadsheet. Hey, give me the sum. In other words, add up all of the values that are between in this range between B one and B 15. All right, Is that starting to make more sense? Let's see it in actions. Go back here and let's go ahead and start writing our first functioning gonna go equal sign and I'm gonna type some. Okay, this time I did in the lower case, because remember, upper case or lower case doesn't matter without any spaces. I'm going to open up my bracket. And what am I gonna do here? I'm going to start with the first cell in my range. So at the very, very top here, I'll start be one and that I'm going to do a colon to indicate that I want a range that I want to add up. OK, And then the very last one here is what it is. Be five. So I'm gonna put be five, and then I have to close the bracket. And so now I've correctly written this function. This function is saying to the spreadsheet, Hey, I want you to take everything that is between B one and B five. All the values that are inside there on I want you to sum them up together. Okay? So let's see what happens when I hit enter. All right, it's out of them up to 52. And that's correct. Right? And look, we can read up here in the input line. We can see the function right up here some B one to B five, and it's added all that up correctly. And do you see how handy this is? Because now. Okay, Now, if we had a spreadsheet that was 100 lines long, 100 rose long, you wouldn't have to go. Cook, cook, click, click. All you need to do is just write a function that said equals some B one to B 100 or whatever it happens to be or be 1000 even if you're spread. She was that long. And the spread she would know to go in and add up all of the values between all of their and that entire range. So this is a really flexible tool. You start to realize how this is actually even more handy in some of these formulas. All right, let me show you one last thing. Let's say we wanted to add yet and there's another line I'm going to right click on. I'm gonna go insert row and let's say I decided to add five. I'm gonna have the number five in here watch what happens down here. I put five and a hit enter, and it automatically added that. Why? Because it's smart enough to realize Oh, this is inside that range that you told me about. So you probably want to include, okay, That's how the some function works. Different functions that do different things will do will work differently. But some That's pretty obvious, right? You want to sum up everything that's inside that range makes sense that it would figure out . Hey, you probably want to include that. All right? Pretty cool. OK, so now let's put this in practice in our budget, and I think you can see what's going. What we want to do here is we want to have some sub totals, right? We probably don't add up all these numbers, so let's go ahead, and I'm gonna add an extra row in here. I'm gonna go in certain row. I'm gonna type right here. I'm going to say sub total expenses. Okay, So sub total expenses and I want to add up all those members inside there. So how am I going to do that? I'm going to use the some function, right. So let's go ahead and go equals. And then what am I gonna do? We gonna type some, and then I'm going to start with the open bracket. And then can you guess what we could do? Yes, we can type out d four But if I just click on that, it just puts it in there automatically. For me, there's a nice shortcut that Well, we knew about beforehand that we can apply in this case. Now it's do colon and then weaken. Just what's the last value? What's the last cell in this range? We want this entire range starting up here, ending right here. We're going to click on de 10. Right? And they were gonna close that. And so now we've written a nice little function here that tells their spreadsheet Hey, add up or some up all the values that are between D four and D Ted. All right, that looks good. Let's hit. Enter. And there we go. It's out of that all up for us. Okay, cool. Let's do the same thing down here. Let's go. Sub total income. Okay. We want to figure out how much income we have fingers crossed that we're not gonna lose money here. Um, let me show you before we Actually, we could write the soaks. We know how to write out our function, But now that we've actually learned how to write them out, I'm gonna go ahead and tell you another secret. The some function because it's such a popular function because it's so frequently used. Almost every spreadsheet that I ever run across has a shortcut button that will automatically input the some function for you. And that shortcut button is gonna look like the sigma button right here to see this little , you know, if you remember. But this is the sigma signed or the Sigma letter. The Greek letter sigma. OK, do you see that? It looks kind of like a crazy capital. Eat this button right here. If you see this in a spreadsheet, Okay, What that is is a function button. And if if I hover over this in this case, this is a shortcut. That's just going to add a some function right here. All you need to do to use it is you just need to position your cursor. You just need to select the cell that is adjacent to okay right next to a series of numbers and watch What happens when I click this button? Click this button once and look. It wrote the whole thing and you're thinking, How did it know that spread the spreadsheets? Pretty good spreadsheets are pretty smart this way. Well, it knew that you wanted the some function, because in this case, that's that's how this is set up to do so just automatic put equal some and then the range it looked at what numbers are closest to the cell that you had selected and it just pre selected that entire range figuring that Oh, you probably don't want include the word total in there. And it just pre selected that for you. Isn't that cool? Very, very handy. If you weren't happy, you could always just cancel that and type it in, you know, manually. And that's why I wanted I started by showing it to you manually because I wanted to make sure that you knew how they were actually constructed. OK, it's one thing. Shortcuts are great, but you really need to understand what's happening behind them in order to be able to use them effectively. But in this case, this is perfect. So let's say yeah, I want that. So I'm gonna go ahead and hit return and what I'm not gonna hit return. I'm sorry about that when you use that, but in what you need to do is you need to use the accept button. So again, in this case, it's that little blue arrow. It's usually going to be right next to the actual some function button. And if it's not, a blue arrow's gonna look like something like a green check mark or something like that. You're basically saying, Yes, this looks good. I accept what you have automatically selected for me. I'll go except and it's figured it out for us automatically. Isn't that cool? All right, that is super super cool. Okay, if you I think it's time to take a break in the next screen cast, we're gonna really close to having this dead in the next screen cast. We're going to start talking about using our spreadsheet to find solutions. Okay, because remember, we want to put this spreadsheet toe work for us. Okay? We've built this awesome spreadsheet. Now let's put it to work for us, and that's what we're going to do in the next screen. Castle. I'll see you then. 13. Subtraction in action Are we going to break even: Okay. Welcome back. So this lesson is called subtraction and action. In other words, are we going to break even? Okay. We're going to try to figure out whether or not this project is gonna break even. In other words, will we make money or will we lose money? Okay. And this is where we have the opportunity to use our spreadsheet to find solutions, okay, To get answers to our questions about our project because, you know, we're not just doing this for fun, even though it is super fun. We're doing this, you know, because it's a useful tool on. So what we want to do here is one off. Add a line here that says profit. And let's think, you know, what is profit Will profit is when you take all of your income and u minus your expenses. Okay, If you take all the money you make and you subtract all the money that you had to spend on , whatever is left over, if there's any money left over is going to be your profit. So let's figure this out. So I'm gonna add right here. I'm gonna add I'm gonna write a little formula here that's gonna figure this out for me, okay? And so how do I go about doing that? Can you figure it out? OK, well, what's the first thing I need to type here? I need to type the equal sign. That's right. OK, so now what I have to do if I want to actually take my income minus expenses. I've got my sub total of income right here in cell D 21 on. I've got my sub total of expenses in cell D 11. So what should I dio way? I can actually just go ahead and put d 21 which is this one right here. And then I'm gonna use This is a calculation. Just a simple for me. I'm gonna go minus getting and do the minus sign, and then right up here is going to be de 11 right? 11 So d 21 minus d 11 and then I'm gonna hit Enter in. Oh, no. What happened? Well, it looks like we've lost money, and that's no good at all. I don't want to be $320 in the hole after all this work, and so that's really too bad when seen known as what your spreadsheet is doing. Your spreadsheet. Actually, many spreadsheet programs will do this. Well, typically, kind of tell you, Ah, either visually through colors or with this minus sign, Or sometimes it'll be in brackets or sometimes a combination of that. It tells you Hey, this is a negative number, okay? And so this isn't any good a tall, So we're gonna have to fix this. And fortunately, because we created a really flexible budget of flexible template for a budget, we're going to be able to use that flexibility to find some answers, just kind of experiment and try to figure out how we can actually break even. Okay? And that's what we're going to do in the next video. So I'll let you kind of practice that. And in the next video, we're going to start tweaking and playing with the numbers so that we can find a way to break even. Okay, so I'll see you in that video 14. Playing with numbers Tweaking our budget: so welcome back in the last video, we discovered to our great disappointment that we're not making money on on our awesome CD recording. So there goes my rock star lifestyle. But wait, it's okay. I built a really great spreadsheet. And so now I can use a spreadsheet to start altering these numbers to figure out what do I have to do to make sure that we we will even if we don't make money, at least that we don't lose money. Okay. And so this is because we built this spreadsheet. Really? Really well, now we can start doing different things. We can talk about changing some of these individual values. Let's say let's start with Let's start with this Thurman player. Okay? Since I started working on this budget, I really I met, I met somebody who's a Thurman player. And this they're gon player told me that he only charges $100 a song. So what am I gonna do here? I'm gonna go ahead and change this to 100 okay? And so look, I've done this and look what happened. Everything automatically updates for us. Do you see that? I just had to change one number right here. This one number right here. And I was able to just do without one thing and everything automatically updated. Imagine if you had to do that by hand. What a pain that would be. And it would be so much information for you to have to keep track of. Remember, we're no good at math in our heads. And we're also not very good at keeping track of tons of information are ahead. So we let the spreadsheet do that for us, so that super right? Okay, fantastic. What else can we do? Well, the other thing that I discovered is that this graphic designer here, um, I don't think I'm gonna be able to afford $500 for a graphic designer. I have a friend who is really, really good with graphic design, and she's offered to do it for $350. So I'm going to change that to $350 that alters a few things, Okay. And so you could play around with these different numbers and, you know, let's say that you were working on your own budget. You could play around with the quantities and the cost per depending. Right? Maybe we decide that. Oh, you know what? Maybe we get away with just four days in the recording studio. Instead, we'll just make sure that people are really, really, really prepared and are ready to do their work. So I've made some changes there. I've kind of adjusted, you know? And so now I know. Okay, we only have four days in the recording studio. We're going to go with that cheaper Thurman player. Um, we're going to also go with my friend is going to do the graphic design for $350. And so now let's scroll down and see what we have. Oh, look at that. Suddenly we've made a profit, right? And so that's cool. We were just able to find just by doing using our spreadsheet and by tweaking the numbers I'm playing with, the numbers were able to experiment with a few different things. In fact, we're making so much extra money now, maybe we can go back to having, you know, five days in the studio. Maybe we don't have to sacrifice that fifth day and you can look back here and see we're still in the black. Okay, so this hopefully you're starting to realize what a useful tool this is for you to help you make some decisions. Okay? Prettily, when you're working with budgets now, this might not. Next time you make a spreadsheet of might not be a budget. It might be something else. But if you build your spreadsheet appropriately, if you have the imagination to think ahead as to how you might want to use a spreadsheet, then that'll give you the flexibility to give you the power later on to just be able to play with the numbers and get answers faster. Okay? And that is where spreadsheets really really shine. That's why spreadsheets air so handy. And, you know, we've done all the work we've done all the hard work we wrote all their formulas would put all this stuff in. Now you need to do is just edit individual numbers and you can start getting answers for yourself. So that is super super cool. I'm gonna leave this as is for now. You can go ahead and play with this some, or if you wanted to start changing if you If you thought you know Maybe you make more money or less money in your crowdfunding campaign. Or maybe you think you'll sell more see to use or fewer CDs. Or maybe you want to change the cost. You know the price for your CD. Go ahead and play around with that and see how things change. I'm gonna leave it out, as is for now. And then we're gonna leave it toe one mawr. Last bonus, Ram. We're gonna I'm gonna come up with a challenge for you, and we're going to see if you can use the knowledge used everything that you've learned so far to solve this challenge. Okay, so I'll see you in the next video. 15. Bonus round Splitting the proceeds: Welcome back. Okay. In the last video, I promised you a challenge. And so here's the challenge. Okay. We've determined after doing are are tweaking and everything. We determined that after, you know, we finish recording and release a CD, and based on what we expect weaken cell, we're gonna end up with a profit of $130. It's not a lot, but let's just say that that that's what it is. We're going to come up with a profit of $130. You It's hard work to be a musician. OK, so now what I'd like to ask you is this What would you do if I asked you to tell me? Okay, um, how much of a profit is that going to be if we split that amongst all the band members and you the first thing you pry asking me as well? All right, Kathleen, how many band members are there? And let's let me How about I tell you that there are five band members, Okay, So what could you do? What, What formula or what? What tool would you use, um, to figure out what the prophet is per band member. Okay, so I'm gonna start off. I'm just gonna right here profit per band member. OK, there we go. And let's start by figuring this out. All right? So we're probably going to use a formal. Well, we're definitely gonna use a calculation, that's for sure. Um and so I suppose we could just go into a start a calculation. We're gonna do the equal sign. And I suppose you could just type, you know, I said, it's it's $130 profit, and then maybe we're going to do we're gonna do division, right? You're gonna say profit per band member. And I told you their five band members I could do that, right? Is that what you decided to dio? Well, there's probably more flexible way to do it. You could instead go this right d 23 divided by five. You could certainly do that. And here we see each band member is gonna have a whopping $26 to take home. So I guess enough for a pizza or something. Um All right. So is that what you did? Did you do D 23 divided by five? Well, that's one way of approaching it. Okay. What if I What if we decide to add an extra band member? Okay. Ah, that what we're gonna do? We're gonna have to edit this. We have to edit this. Let's say we've got an extra band member. Now we have six band members, and then now we're gonna have to edit this every single time. How about if we think that we might have to edit that? Why don't we actually add an extra line? Why don't we go insert Rose? And then we say number of fan members whips ago Spell that right? Band members. Okay, remember, this is about using your imagination. There's no right or wrong answer here. But if you use your imagination, if you think ahead, you can actually end up saving yourself an awful lot of time and effort down the road. So number of band members let's put the number of band members in there. Let's go back to five lips and we don't want that. Who? We don't want that to be a dollar number. Do we know? So let's actually change that format and we want to change the formats. It's not $5. We just wanted to be plain old number. Just a plain old number. Okay, so I'll click that. OK, there we go. All right. Still would have worked, but bothers me to see that Assad has currency. OK, so now what we're gonna do is let's rewrite this. I'll delete this all together and let's rewrite this formula. What you gonna do now? You're going to do equals, right? We're going to do, yeah. See if we use the cell references. This builds the most flexible template possible. So d 23 divided by this number. Right here. Right. We'll go ahead and hit. Enter and we get the same answer. But now you know, whenever are the number of band members changes? Let's say, you know, let's say the the keyboard player decides to drop out. Now we're down to four members. We can change that right there, and it automatically changes that for us. There we go. There's the answer to our little Challenger Little bonus round challenge of splitting the proceeds. Okay, so now you know how to do that. You also know that probably getting into a band is probably not a very lucrative endeavor. Based on this budget? Certainly. Okay, so that's it for this budget. We're going to start wrapping up now. The next screen cast, we're gonna talk about choosing the right file format to save this in. Probably noticed. I did a very bad thing. I haven't actually saved this yet, and that's terrible. You should never, ever do that. Always save is you go. And so the next screen cast we're gonna talk about what are the different file formats that are available to us in screen when we're doing spreadsheets and which one should we use under different circumstances? So I'll see you in that screen cast. 16. Choosing the right spreadsheet file format: Okay, so welcome back. Finally, we've wrapped up our budget. But what we need to do now is we need to talk about the different spreadsheet file formats that are available for us. And you really shouldn't skip this video. I know it seems kind of boring to talk about file formats, but trust me, it's gonna be really useful information. Um, so let's start by saving our our document here. This is the spreadsheet I've been using in labor office. I'm gonna go ahead and go to file, and I'm going to start. I'm gonna go save as okay, I'm gonna skip this default to begin with. I'm going to skip right ahead to what is probably going to be the most commonly used format , which is going to be this x l s X format. In other words, this is the Microsoft Excel Ah, format. It's it says Microsoft Excel 2007 slash 2010 XML might not say exactly the same thing in your spreadsheet, but nonetheless, that final that the last sort of the Suffolk sor the extension back here is gonna be X l s acts. I'm gonna go ahead and say this on my desktop, and I'm going to give it a name of, um, Robo bunny budget. Okay? And I'm gonna go ahead and save this. Now, let's say that And of course, when I'm because I'm using Labour Office and because Libre office doesn't natively or doesn't automatically save it doesn't save it to that format by default. It's asking me, Hey, did you Are you sure you want to use this? And yes, I absolutely want to use this. That's perfectly fine. OK, we don't worry about that. So I've gone ahead, and I've saved this as on X l s X format file, and this is great. This is a great format to use, particularly because this will allow me to share this spreadsheet with other people who might not be using Labour Office. Okay, because most people are using liber office. Most people, particularly business situations, air using excel. And so this allows me the flexibility being able to save in two different formats so that other people can use this file even if they're not using liber office. Okay. And that is awesome. All right, when I close that and we'll see right here, that was our sample budget. We don't want this one Robo bunny budget. That's the one that we just saved. Let's go ahead and open that. Okay? I'm gonna open this up in labor office. There it is. Okay, fantastic. So it saves. Certainly an X l s X format. Now, let's take a look at the other formats that are available to us. I'm gonna go back to file, and I'm going to go again. I'm gonna go save as I don't want to show you something else you might have noticed down here, there's an X l s format, okay? And the only difference is is that it doesn't have that extra X at the end. And you might be wondering, Well, what's the difference between these? It also says Microsoft Excel right here. This is an older version of the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet file. And you might be thinking, Oh, it's older. I don't want to use it, But it's actually very useful to know about this because the problem with the later version the newer version, which is that X l s X file, is that older versions of Excel cannot open this and by older versions, I'm talking about really older versions. Like if you had a version of 2003 XL, which I know seems ancient at this point. But, you know, some people have old software are still in their computers view in an old version of Excel . You wouldn't be able to open this XLs X fire. Okay, It's not backwards compatible. Whereas X L s files can be opened by both old versions of Excel as well as new versions of Excel. Now you know, I have to admit the longer I used to talk to my students about this because a couple years ago was actually kind of a big deal. But a lot of people were still using older versions of Excel. Now not so much, many, many people have later versions of Excel. It seems to be very, very common. It's very rare now that people can't open XLs X files, but I still feel that probably for the next year or so, it's still important. Tell people about that. Suffice it to say if you see a file that's X l s, you will be able to open it with your version of excel, no matter what, as long as it's there, you know, as long as that the file itself hasn't been corrupted, so we can go ahead and save again. Even though we're in Labour office, we can save and Microsoft Excel format. We can save in that XLs format if we want to. And I'm gonna go ahead and do that. I'm going to click, save on once again, we get this little dialog box, sex acts, asks us to confirm the file format, and that's perfectly fine. We enclose that we see. Hey, there it is right there. There's a ruble buddy budget, and that is an ex l s file. Okay. And that will work as well. Okay, you will have no problems opening that up in any version of excel. Whereas you do need to make sure you have a relatively recent version of Excel to open x l s X files. And here's a nice tip. If you ever get a XLs x file and you happen to have an older version of Excel and you're trying to figure out how to open this cause you can't open it, lever office actually does open all these files is very powerful and so you could just temporarily download Labor Office and open that file in there. So that's kind of a nice little trick to know. All right, let's go back to Labour Office. And speaking of Labour Office, let's go back and I want there's a few more file for months I want to talk to you about. Let's go back and save as. And here's a different file type. This is the first file type that showed up a sort of our default. And this is you might see this once in a while, particularly if you're working with other people who have who are using Libre office or other open source software. You might see the ODS extension. Okay, OD F stands for open document formats. Okay. And this the ODS format is the default format. That Labour Office will save spreadsheets. And if you don't change the defaults, okay, I want to tell you about this. You're probably not going to use this format very often unless I mean for someone like me. If if I'm doing a spreadsheet and I know I'm not gonna have to share the spreadsheet with anyone else and it's just staying on my computer then you know, and I use Labour office for pretty much everything. Now then I will probably I might just save everything in ODS format, not worry about it because it doesn't make a difference. But more often than not, you're gonna be sharing your files, your spreadsheet files with other people, OK? Or you might want to send it toe work or something like that, in which case you don't want to leave in an ODS format. OK, um, some versions of Excel might be able to open that, but some can't. And so you want to be if you want to be as as flexible as possible. If you want your your file to be opened by as many different applications as possible, you're gonna want to stick with one of these to either the Excel XLs X format or the X l ass format right there. But I do want to tell you about the ODS formats simply because it is the default in labor office and we've been using Labour Office so far as as our example. So here's our ODS format file that we just saved. Okay, By the way, all three of these files aside, the format is the same. But the actual content, the numbers, the formulas, everything that we just wrote identical. Okay, the only difference is the computer file format. It has to do with the way things are encoded. All right, let's go back to Labour Office to more file four months I want to talk to you about. Okay, Now, these two file formats, you will probably not use nearly as frequently. Okay, But I do want to make sure that you know about them. Let's go back to file and save as I want to talk to you about this file format called CSP. Now, you might have seen this before. Maybe you have made and you haven't. It's a text format text CSP and see. SV stands for comma separated values. And it's exactly that. Now I'm gonna go ahead and say this in CSE format. It's not a very useful file format for what we've just done right here, which is our budget. Okay, but I'm gonna go ahead and save this. And what is going to tell me? It's going to say hey, Okay. You know, again confirming that I'll go ahead and do that. I'm just gonna go ahead and click. Yes. Okay. And it's giving me a warning. The only all this means is that is telling me that Onley this current work sheet has been saved because I'm CSP can only save one worksheet at a time. And that's perfectly fine for what we're doing right here. Now, if I try to open this, I'm gonna try opening this up in a just a plain text file, okay? To show you what happens in here. And you look at this new go. This is terribly disgusting. I don't like this a tall All it does is that it saves the data in plain text, separated by comments. And you might think, Well, what is the use of that right? In this case, it's not very useful. A tall it saved all the data. But we've lost all the formulas and everything that made this spreadsheet useful. We lost all of that. So for a budget for a kind of a functional spreadsheet like this, this isn't a very useful format for us, but it iss CSP is a very for useful format for something different. It's useful when you are using eyes spreadsheet as a means of storing information. So I'm gonna go ahead and temporarily start a new spreadsheet over here. A new worksheet. And what if you had kind of sort of what? If you're keeping track of all your contacts, Maybe you had something like first name and last name and email address and telephone number. Something like that. And then you said, you know, John Smith and then blah, blah, blah, blah, blah, blah like that. And we have Jane Smith, etcetera, etcetera. OK, Some people will store all of their information that we use the grid form out here to store a bunch of information. Now, this is where the CSC format is. Very, very handy. Because the CSB format is a very portable format. This allows you to very efficiently and effectively export data in and out of applications . Okay. What do I mean by that? Well, let's pretend that this was actually, you know, let's pretend you had tons and tons of records here. Maybe you want to take it. Maybe you want to take this data, all this information and you want to import that into some sort of a contact manager okay, some sort of software that organizes all your contacts for you. Or maybe you want to export that into some sort of system, like some sort of, ah, contact management system or something like that. Then, in that case, saving this particular worksheet as a CSP file makes a lot of sense, because this make sure that gets rid of all the stuff that would normally confuse a contact manager or some other type of software. It gets rid of all the formatting and everything and formulas and anything that would potentially confuse one of those programs. And on Lee transmits the data. So see, SV comma separated values files are very, very useful when you're transferring down it in and out of applications. Okay, you might have that. The flip side of that is he Maybe you have a contact management, some sort of contact manager, and you want to do a backup of all the contacts. Maybe you've got thousands of contacts inside there and you want to do a back of them. Vary a lot of these applications. A lot of the soft of these software programs will allow you to export all of the information and CSB format. And guess what? Just like you can export sheets out of spreadsheets in CSP format. You can also import data into spreadsheets in CSP format as well. And if you you know if, believe it or not, it will actually import everything and then place it all. Place all the data in these boxes really, really nicely organized for you. Um, so that you can then do things that Cuban sort things and do all sorts of cool things. That's a little beyond the scope of this class. Okay, We're really just focused on using, you know, using spreadsheets and learning about formulas and functions and stuff like that. But, you know, if you actually do start getting into more data management were using spreadsheets, you'll discover a lot of really good uses for that. So that's what C. S V form that's all about. Now the last format I want to tell you about is a format that, um, it's probably format you're not going to use to too much. It's the PdF format you might you might be familiar with. Pdf's already Pdf stands for portable document format, and that's basically a sort of a file. That is a non edible file. Okay, so, um, this isn't gonna be very useful. If you want to share your spreadsheet, you want somebody else to have the ability to go in and edit add information to it What it could be useful for for examples. Let's say you were putting together a business plan, Okay? And let's say instead of this being a recording budget, maybe this is kind of an overall budget. Or maybe it's a cash flow analysis or something like that. Then maybe you might want to actually export to pdf. And then you could insert that pdf is in appendix or something in your pdf business plan again, being able to use a you know, pdf's and and edit. PDS is a little outside the scope of this class, but but suffice to say, you can export from many programs. Many spreadsheet applications will allow you to export directly as pdf Labour Office makes it really easy. There's literally a button here that allows you to export directly as pdf, so I can just do that. It will save it as a PdF, and if I close this and if I open this operate here we see right away. Here's my budget. All nice. Or now I can't actually edit this. But, you know, I could go in and I could Maybe I might want to go in and format this a little bit, but this is now ready to print. And I don't have to worry about all those lines. And I could, you know, maybe edit this and put this Pdf inside as an appendix to a business plan or something are final, maybe a financial report or something like that again, a little bit more of an advanced use. But I wanted you to know about that. So those are those five main, um, formats that that we're likely to use. There's a lot of other formats as well, too. But those are the five that I think are the most useful to know about. We've got the to excel formats, which is XLs and XLs X. Okay, you've got that ODS format, which is the default for labour Office, and you're not really gonna use it outside of that. So this really only concerns you if you've got labor Office. If you're using something else, you're not really gonna have to worry about that. See SV again. Not so useful when you're talking about spreadsheets in terms of budgets. Very useful when you're transferring raw data in and out of applications when you're for example, contact information is a really good example there. And finally, PdF, which is really going to be more useful if you want to kind of publish your spreadsheet in some sort of a report format. OK, now Libre office is fantastic because you can important expert in all those different formats, and we'll see here that look, there were all these other formats here. There's tons I didn't even talk about. But we don't have to worry too much about those others were concerned about, Oh, ds XLs X XLs, CSP. And then, if you're wondering where the peak, the Pdf ISS that's just this button right here. Okay, Excel will allow you to export in a whole bunch of different formats as well. Let's take a look at what options we have when we export and out of the Google spreadsheets . Okay, so here's Here's an example. I did the exact same recording budget, the exact same thing, but I put it in our Google spreadsheet. Okay. And by the way, if I click on here, we can see it's the exact same thing. The layout might look a little different to you. These tabs, Earl or these buttons are a bit different, but at the end of the day, it's exactly the same spreadsheet, isn't it? Right? We've got our expenses. We've got our sub totals whose quantity, cost per and all I did here was here. If I click here, we see there's the formula, Okay? And remember, even though we're in a completely different program, same formula, here's the same. Some function. There's at some function right here. Okay, And here were using a subtraction formula to figure out the profit. And then down here, we're doing a division formula to figure out the profit per band members. So this is exactly the same spreadsheet, except that it happens to be done in Google spreadsheet. Now, let's say I wanted to save this. What are my options if I click on file here? I have a few download options and you remember because you're on the web. Your technically, all the changes air being saved on the fly. But if you want to actually download this file to your computer, you have a few options. You have the option of saving as an XLs X file. Okay, which is your Microsoft Excel file? We've already talked about that. And interestingly, Google actually gives you the option to download directly into open document format, which is that ODS format. That's the default format that Labour Office uses. You can export as a pdf document, just like you can in labor office. Okay, you can export in comma separated values. Okay, We already talked about comma separated values. Tap separated values is very similar to the comma separated values, except that instead of being separated by commas, all the data is separated by taps. They're both very, very similar on their used there, used in almost exactly the same situations. I just find that CS fees 10 2 of my experience has been CSP files tend to be more reliable than tab separated files. But you know your mileage may vary. It's not the end of the world. You can also exporting HTML. I don't really like doing that. I don't think it's very useful, but look at that XLs X ODS PDF and CSP is all available. They're the only one that's not available. Here is just the plain old XLs, which is that older Microsoft Excel version. And like I mentioned because, you know, it's an older piece of software, we're starting to see that lesson less now. And pretty soon it's not really going to be that relevant. But for the time being, I just wanted to make sure you knew about it. Now let's switch over to Microsoft Excel Web app in Sky Drive and let's see what options we have here now and here you're a little bit more limited. I'm gonna click over to file and we're going to see here that we can actually weaken, save as okay. And then down here, we can download a copy of this workbook toe our computer. So I'm gonna click the download button and we see here that the Onley option we have and this is the default is just XLs x. Okay, so the Microsoft Excel Web app and Sky drive on Lee gives us the option to download as XLs X, and so we're going to go ahead and do that and I'll just go ahead and save file and I'll click OK, and it just gives us that one format. But XLs sex is a great format is probably going to be the most useful format for us. And we just downloaded that to our computer. Oh, a few. That's an awful lot, right? Well, I hope that that wasn't too boring, but it really is important to know about all those different file formats, cause the last thing you want to do is spend all that time putting together an awesome spreadsheet and then save it in the wrong format and then not have it be useful to you. So those are the file formats that will be useful, most useful for you. And then the next screen cast. I'm gonna talk to you about where you can go from this point forward. How can you extend your knowledge? What are the next kind of logical steps in your learning path when it comes to spreadsheets and and after that point, you'll be able to take it from there. So I will see you in the next video 17. Hooked on spreadsheets What's next: Okay, so welcome back. One of last things I want to make sure to tell you is if you ever need to go back and review any of these concepts, okay? Even sometimes everybody benefits from viewing the basics. I want to tell you, give you a couple resource is the first resource I want to tell you about is in picks. Thean picks dot net website in particular. Ah, this particular page right here in picks dot net slash Calcutta dot html. This is a really great resource. If you ever need a quick reminder of how to do something with Labour Office, Cal or any spreadsheet, really cause all the concepts, the core concepts are all the same. You can always go back and review this. And I love this because it goes through into reviews basic calculations, right, adding, subtracting multi playing, dividing. It also goes through formatting worksheets for many tax formatting cells. And in fact, we really kind of very touched. We touched on formatting very, very briefly. There's probably a lot more that you could learn to eso if you ever wanted to learn about that manipulating data, you know, practicing, moving, copying and pasting tax, adding and deleting columns and rows and and that sort of thing using auto fill. That's something we didn't talk about. But Auto feels a really great tool, and so I recommend you learn about that, and this goes through. And it even talks about some slightly more advanced things, like creating formulas across work worksheets, which I consider a little bit more of an advanced thing. But it's a really useful skill to know how to do. Um, it even goes through and explain some other functions, like the calculating averages and finding the maximum value. I only introduced the some function, but as I mentioned, there's tons of other functions available, and the average function and the max value function is also another really useful function that you'll probably find a lot of use for. So if you ever want to go back and review that or even just extend your skills a little bit , check out this website. I think you'll really enjoy it. It's not video based. It's actually based on pictures, but it's very, very straightforward and fair, very well put together. You'll notice here, too, that there's actually much of others tutorials available to, in addition, Excel tutorials right here and some other things. So check this out when you have a chance is really, really useful. So I hold that that's helpful. Okay, I hope that this is obviously realized. This is just scratching the surface. But I hope that by this point, you have a good core understanding of some of fundamental ways that we can use spreadsheets really effectively, you know, in both the work and ah, life situation. So I hope that's useful to you. And I thank you very, very much for taking the time to take this course. And I wish you all the best of luck in your learning journey, so good luck.