Start making books! Basic, soft-cover bookbinding structures | Kat From MeowMeowKapow | Skillshare

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Start making books! Basic, soft-cover bookbinding structures

teacher avatar Kat From MeowMeowKapow, Hello, friends!

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

8 Lessons (35m)
    • 1. Introduction: What are we doing here?

    • 2. Toolkit: What tools you'll need for this class

    • 3. How to fold perfectly - the accordion book

    • 4. Maze book - mastering the zig zag

    • 5. Slot and Tab book!

    • 6. Single pamphlet stitch book - our first time sewing

    • 7. Japanese stab binding - beautiful and decorative stitches

    • 8. We did it!! Congratulations!!

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About This Class

This course is going to run you through some basic bookbinding techniques so we can make simple, soft-cover books together.  We’ll talk about the tools you need and where to find them, some simple no-sew books like the maze book and a slot and tab book, and we’ll learn some basic bookbinding stitches such as the pamphlet stitch, and Japanese stab-binding.  Each lesson will focus on just one bookbinding method so you can easily revisit the particular method you’d like a refresher on, and all of the tools needed for any of these books will be listed in the basic toolkit video, so you’ll know exactly what you need in order to be prepared.

This course is ideal for anyone, including beginners and children above the age of 7, and all the skills and tools you’ll need are presented in a way that allow the growth from the first book to the last seem logical.

If you're looking for a good place to start, tools-wise, here's a decent set of bookbinding tools that fit well with this course!  Some of the tools are not EXACTLY what I use, but should be suitable (For instance, I often use a regular craft/xacto knife while working but this kit includes a slightly different but still excellent knife).  HOWEVER.  It does not include a metal ruler and I highly recommend purchasing, specifically, a metal ruler.

Here's a set of metal rulers in different sizes that should be very helpful!   

This exacto knife set comes with multiple replacement blades and is more sturdy than the knife in the previously mentioned kit

The black paper trimmer I use to make cutting paper easier is here:

And here's a self-healing cutting mat to use as a work surface if you don't already have one!

A note of encouragement!  I've gotten a bit of feedback about the slot and tab book; that it seems to be the most difficult of the structures demonstrated to really understand.  HOWEVER, the feedback has also been that if you can master the slot and tab book, literally every other structure in the course will feel easy to tackle in comparison.  If you're feeling lost on this book, it may be okay to skip to next one in the class-I don't want you to feel overwhelmed by it!  This should be fun, not frustrating!

If you'd like to follow me on social media, or check out the video for the book that sent me down this whole skillshare path, you can find all of my links here:

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Kat From MeowMeowKapow

Hello, friends!


Hello, I'm Kat.

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1. Introduction: What are we doing here?: Hello, friends. It's cat from Yamaha. Kapow! This course is going to run you through some basic bookbinding techniques so we can make simple, soft cover books together. We'll talk about the tools you need and where to find them. Some simple no so books like the Mays book and a slot in Tabuk, and we'll learn some basic bookbinding stitches, such as the pamphlet Stitch and Japanese Stab binding. Each lesson will focus on just one book, binding methods, so you can easily revisit the particular method you'd like a refresher on. And all of the tools needed for any of these books will be listed in the Basic Toolkit video. So know exactly what you need in order to be prepared. Thank you so much for taking this course with me. I'd love to hear what feedback you have on these lessons so we can make the next ones even more fun and informative. If you'd like to find out more about me and the work I do, I can be found on multiple Internet platforms such as instagram, YouTube and etc. Until I see you next time, I wish you peace, love and waxed linen thread by 2. Toolkit: What tools you'll need for this class: before we start making any of the books in this course will need to get some tools together . You can use any paper you'd like, so I'll leave the paper selection up to you. But I often recommend that for a first book or a practice book, it's most convenient to just use basic printer paper so long as it's readily available for you. Aside from the paper, the other tools will need are a self healing cutting Matt, preferably at least 11 by 17 and with grid lines a pencil. I prefer mechanical, but any will dio a pair of scissors, a bone folder there called bone folders because they're made of actual bone. But you can buy synthetic ones as well. Synthetic ones usually aren't as weighty, so it takes more pressure to get a good fold, and they often leave behind a glossy nous when used As a result, we need a utility knife or hobby knife and all for making holes with a metal ruler and or key stock. Key stock is like a metal ruler, except that rather than having markings along the sides toe let you read individual measurements, the key stock itself is a piece of metal made in a specific measurement. They come in all different set sizes and are not required if you can't find them or already have a metal ruler. But having them around is certainly very convenient. We'll need waxed linen thread or linen thread, and some bees wax. It can come in any colors that you like bookbinding, needles and some scrap paper. Again, I'm just using regular printer paper. An optional supply that I find often helps make the process quicker is a paper trimmer, but it's not required as you can absolutely cut all your paper by hand. Another optional supply that I found useful toe have is a container of some sort to keep all your bookbinding supplies together in. I use this clear carrying case so it's easy to transport, but you could just as easily keep your supplies together in a cardboard box or oversized Tupperware binder. Clips are also pretty handy, so I'd recommend having a few of those around, but they're not strictly necessary. All of these tools can be found online through websites like amazon dot com, or tell us online dot com with ships internationally. But if you're in the US you can pick up some of these items and craft stores such as Michael's or a Seymour, though it can sometimes be tricky to find the all waxed linen thread, bookbinding, Needles, Bone folder and key stock. Key stock can sometimes be found at hardware stores, though I've made sure to include links for some basic supplies and supply kits from Amazon . To get you started, though, feel free to use what's easily available to you. Just make sure that your ruler is definitely metal, since we'll be using it to cut against in a plastic one would get shredded by the knife. 3. How to fold perfectly - the accordion book: It may not seem like it at first, but one of the most important foundations of bookbinding is being able to fold paper cleanly and accurately. If you've ever seen a book with papers folded completely and evenly, you'll very quickly understand the importance of a good fold here. We're going to start with a book that is nothing but fold an accordion book, But we're also going to talk about my favorite way to fold single pages, first of all, to fold a single page. I prefer to match up the two corners that end up touching as a result of the fold and, using those corners tow line up the side between them and make sure it's completely straightened even once those corners are lined up. And I'm satisfied that the edges even I take my bone folder and start from fairly close to the hand that is holding the paper still on push it outwards towards the middle of the seam . Doing this pushing your bone folder towards where the fold will eventually form helps to prevent a situation you may have experienced before where you start to fold a piece of paper, but the fold isn't quite right somehow. So you have to make a second fold. If you start your bone folder from the corners, it's very likely that the paper will either slip out of alignment or you'll start forcing a fold that slightly off center. So I like to make sure that the center is the first thing that's accurately defined. Everything else just falls into place afterwards. It may seem a bit awkward at first if you've never folded paper this way, but it becomes very easy with practice and, more importantly, remains accurate, even if you really get into the zone and start to power through folding stacks of paper. The second method for folding were discussing. Here is for when you have a piece of paper that needs to have more than one full done in a single piece of paper. If you choose to build an accordion book by lining up the top and bottom corners as though they're reaching a flat edge, it's totally possible to have the full lineup accurately. But slight variations in the way the paper might have been cut may hinder your efforts, plus the fact that when we're folding our paper, there isn't exactly a flat edge on that side to line up with can make it a bit difficult to truly keep centered. Thus, we need to use one single edge as the aligning edge for the entire fold, so that at very least, there will always be one edge that is completely perfect for this method. Decide where the bottom right corner of the paper is. I prefer to market with a B so I can always find it, even if I flip the paper around. I also prefer to use the bottom edge rather than a top, because it's easier to see from your perspective. And it's somewhat discreet if you forget to erase your mark later on. Because the entire single piece of paper is going to be one giant zigzag, we won't have to corners to line up and work from instead line of the bottom edge of the paper on your work surface, with the bottom edge of the paper being folded similar to what we did with a single sheet. Fold. Move your bone folder from close to the hand, holding the paper steady towards the folded edge. This time, though, we'll be starting our seem at the corner being formed rather than reaching up to the center of the sheet as long as the edge that you lined up doesn't shift in the process, you should successfully have created a perfect 90 degree angle between the original edge and you're folded edge Folding additional pleats is done much in the same way, but it may be wise to mark where each of those seems will be by using your bone folder to create a score and make deciphering where to fold a bit less difficult. Even if you only mark a small spot on the bed image, you'll be helping yourself out a lot. From there, it's just a matter of zigzagging your folds back and forth until you're out of paper. Just be careful to make sure that no fold is made that will cover the zigzags made because this really works best if each fold is exposed rather than being hidden by a fold that suddenly goes from the back of the stack all the way over the seams. There are plenty of books structures that use this as a base, but on its own, this simple piece of paper has been transformed into what is technically a book, not as an accordion book for how it's shaped mirrors the bellows oven accordion. You can add a cover or jazz it up, but but that's something we can say for a future less on hardcover books. Next up will continue with our folds in zigzags by making one of my favorite simple books Amaze book. This one does require a bit of cutting, but it's still one of the fastest book structures I've ever made, and they're great for taking on the go for paintings or notes or impromptu journals. If you use this tutorial to make a project, I'd love it if you'd share it with me. I can be found on various Internet locations and truly would be happy to hear from you. 4. Maze book - mastering the zig zag: The Maze book is absolutely one of my favorite bookbinding structures because it's so simple and quick to make, requires almost no materials at all and looks much more like what you'd expect a book to look like than the accordion book but has secret twists and turns, the twists and turns or what give this book it's name, since it winds around around much like a labyrinth, I use May's books for a lot of things, like making multiple lists on the go sketchbooks and using a scrap notebooks for swatches or ideas. A lot of my travel water color palettes have one tied to them, since they could be made at any size from any paper, including watercolor paper. All you need to be able to do to make this book is cut unfold by now. We're all masters of folding, so this should be a breeze. If you want to be precise in your cuts, you can use your hobby knife and metal ruler. But I've quickly whipped these up before just using a pair of scissors and usually just is good. Start by folding your paper in half one way and then in half the other way. There should be a big plus sign in the middle of your paper as a result, making four rectangles in your paper from their fold, each edge in towards the centre of its respective side. I'm just using the middle fold is a guide for where the edge should line up, much like we did when we matched up the quarters for a single sheet of paper folds at the end of it. There should be 16 rectangles. You could do more folds or less folds for this book. Feel free to experiment. The real magic is in the cutting of the paper. To cut a maze booked properly, you need to alternate which side you cut all the way to the edge of on mine. I'm marking it so you can see what I mean a bit better. Each cut will go from one edge and stop right as the last box is formed. Then the next line in the paper you will cut all the way from the opposite edge until it reaches the corner of the last fold. In this way, you will end up with sort of staggered cuts in your paper. Then, when you start to fold it. You want to zig zag the folds back and forth, much like we did with the accordion book. The part that seems to get a little confusing is when we get to our corners, because up until that point we've just been folding back and forth and back and forth. But what do you do when you have to make a turn? Just like with the accordion book, you never want to fold the paper in a way that will cover the bends in the page. So always make sure that your creases air exposed and you'll be just fine. Keep following this pattern until you get to the end and Walla, you're amazed book is done. What's nice about this is that you can easily use both the front and the back side of each page. But there are also certain sections of the book where you can actually open the page up whiter and get a larger surface to explore what we use it for. That's totally up to you. So to review the entire process for this book is fold your paper in half, half again and then have each of those haves If you're following my folds and you're not sure whether or not you've done it right, count the boxes to make sure there are 16 of them. Cut along most of the length of one side, stopping when you get to the first corner of the last formed rectangle. Then do this step again, alternating sides as you go until your paper is basically one big zigzag. Fold your paper along. The exist increases taking care not to ever cover those folds when you reach a corner. I like to use my bone folder one last time to press down the folds on the finished book to help make the whole thing stay more evenly folded. Then just enjoy the book. Like I said, feel free to experiment with the number of folds in your book because as long as you have that zigzag cutting pattern, it will work. The's are especially nice to make when you use huge paper, but any size will work. I just wouldn't recommend using a piece of paper smaller than maybe about six inches by four inches, because when it gets that small, it's a little hard to fold as well as a little harder to write or drawn afterwards, and that's it. Our next project is going to be a slot in Tabuk that also only requires cutting and folding and is the last of the no so books of this course. 5. Slot and Tab book!: a Slaton Tab book is called such because it's held together by a series of slots and tabs. There's no glue and no sewing, but it does require folding and cutting. Therefore, the tools we need for this project are paper, a bone folder. Ah, hobby knife and a metal ruler could be done with pretty much any size of paper, though I wouldn't recommend using something especially thick because it does make it more difficult to fold, as well as to insert into the cuts that secure the pages. I tried making one with some watercolor paper once, and it was pretty much impossible to assemble for my demo book. I'm using some printer paper that I've cut down to two inch by four inch strips. You can use as many pieces of paper as you want, as long as you have a minimum of two pieces total. I wouldn't recommend using more than maybe a dozen total pages in your chosen size, but this book can theoretically be made with an infinite amount of paper. If you just happen to have an infinity is worth of it lying around to start, fold each of your pieces in half so that there's a crease in the center, just like we did in our folding class. I'm lining up the two corners and the edge between them in order to get as precise a fold as possible. After you finished that step, separate your stack of papers in half. If you have an even number of sheets than this is easy. And if you have an odd number, that's totally fine. It's OK if one pile has one extra piece toe help keep track of our piles in case they get mixed up in the bottom right corner of every piece from one pile, right, A little s in pencil for slot and in the bottom right corner of every piece from the other pile. Right T for tab. Once all your sheets are folded and marked, you'll want to measure the length of the folded edge and divide it by four because my edges two inches long, 1/4 of that would be half a niche. The first time I made this book, I stuck exactly to my 1/4 measurements, and it turned out to be a bit of a mistake because the way that this book is built. You need to have a little bit of wiggle room for the sheets to fit inside one another, you'll see what I mean in a bit. For the tab pile, take one piece of paper and mark along the spine. The 1/4 measurements that you calculated one going from the top towards the center and one going from the bottom towards the center. We don't need to take note of the other 2/4 of measurements for the tab page. Since we're only cutting slits along the top and bottom, we then need to account for the thickness of the paper itself in our measurements. So if you want to be precise, you could measure the thickness of two pieces of paper together and add that towards the center of your spine. For me, I find it's just easier to sort of add a smidge more and not worry too much about being precise. So just at a small amount, more space, making sure to make that additional move towards the centre of the page rather than towards the edge. What we're going to do with these measurements is cut from the outside edge to the mark, so There will be two cuts from the top and bottom, but there will be a space in the center that's still connected for the S. Pile the slot pile. Take one folded piece and do the exact opposite. Add your extra little bit of wiggle room. Going from the center towards the edge is so the space in the centre will be larger than the space on the top and bottom. When we cut that line, there will be an opening in the center of the spine, but the top and bottom edges will still be connected. This should be the opposite of the town piece in that the entire section that we ignored on the tab paper should now be cut open, whereas the edges should still be connected. I've drawn a little diagram that I hope helps make this a little better understood, but it's OK if it takes a few times before you find measurements that work for you. I've certainly had to adjust before to to test whether or not your measurements work. Take your tea piece of paper curling into a sort of see shape so that the tabs aren't in the way anymore. An insert will now curled paper into the slot of the S paper. If they fit together nicely with enough room that you feel you'd be able to add another T paper, then you've done it correctly. I like toe. Wiggle them around a bit and make sure the fit is snug enough to be secure, but not so loose that the pieces may move out of alignment on their own. Don't worry if it feels a bit awkward or difficult to get them to fit together. With these first test papers, I usually find that the 1st 1 is the hardest to make work. But every other one afterwards is a little easier. Make any adjustments you may need and then use these pieces as templates or jigs for the remaining pieces of paper. One way that you could do this is by laying down the already cut piece on top of an uncut one and using the existing cuts as guides for your blade. What I like to do is just stack all the papers from one pile on top of another, so the spines are facing the same direction and then use the cut lines of the test piece to market dot on the spine and cut it against a ruler. Afterwards, however you choose to duplicate these cuts is fine by me. Just make sure to stick with those measurements that you test it because it's kind of a pain to have to go back and do twice the work by fixing each piece of paper if they don't fit together initially. After all your pieces air cut time for assembly. If you're two piles of slots and tabs are uneven. Start your book with whichever pile has one extra connected them together like we did for practice and continue in an alternating pattern. Which means that if the first piece was a tab piece, the next should be a slot, which should have a tab, then put into it, which then should be put into a slot and so on and so forth because it may get a little confusing, which pieces next in the pattern. The easiest way to regain your bearings is to always make sure that the spine of the book is uncovered. There's been more than one occasion where I've tried to add a page in the middle of the book because I didn't make sure that I was working from the end of the book rather than the center. If you just make sure that all of the folded spines of your book or visible then you can more easily tell what type the last pages so you'll know what you need to add next. If you're having a bit of difficulty connecting the slot in tab pieces, I found the easiest way to insert tabs into slots is to sort of pop one side of the slot up and then slide the tab in along the side. That isn't popped up. If you try to just push the tabs in as though you're shooting a basketball directly into the hoop without hitting the backboard, rather than sliding it along the ground like a hockey puck into the net, then it'll feel a bit more difficult and cumbersome if you find even easier way to do it. Though I am all ears keep doing this over and over again so that all of the pages you want to be connected are You can certainly make a cover for this book by using some decorated paper cut exactly the same way as or inside sheets are and connecting them. Justus, though they were yet another slot or tab paper. Just keep in mind that if the material you're working with us a bit stiff, it will likely crease and get a bit ugly if they're tab pieces rather than slot pieces. Having to curve those tab sides and really does put them at risk of actually folding. - I always finish up by running my bone folder along the book to help really crispen up those creases. Each of the books we've done so far have relied heavily on precise folding and cutting, but they've all been manageable as long as you make sure that you never cover up the spine while folding or assembling and the slot and Tabuk is no exception. I'd love to see how your projects come along and encourage you to get creative with decoration. Once you feel comfortable, the next structure will be tackling is a single Pamphlets ditch book, which will be the first of the two sewn books discussed in this course. It's a fairly straightforward structure that doesn't involve complicated folding and rarely risks having its spine hidden. Hope you've got your book binding you to let the ready 6. Single pamphlet stitch book - our first time sewing: the project in this lesson is for a single pamphlet stitch binding and is actually the reason that I started my skill share classes in the first place. You may notice that unlike the other projects so far in this course, the pages of this book are not blank. It was originally created for a video on my YouTube channel, where, and I made a small storybook, and it turns out that's something people are interested in learning how to dio. We will not be discussing how to lay out your images on your pages and make sure that they appear in the right order once your book is bound. But that's something I complain, a future course for if you're interested today, we'll just be learning how to make the physical structure itself. For this course, we will need pretty much all of the tools in our tool kit, and it's the first course where we will be sewing if you do not have waxed linen thread but have linen thread in a block of beeswax, all you need to do in order to wax the threat is to run the threat along the wax a few times, waxed thread tends to be a bit stronger, move through the binding a bit smoother and is less likely to tangle. It's also less likely to snap either itself or cut through the paper of your book. You can certainly just so using a NWA axed thread. But my recommendation is to use the waxed, at least to start with until you get a feel for what you do or don't like. First things first, like our slot in Tabuk, cut your pages to their desired size and fold them in half. While you can theoretically make a slot in Tabuk with all of the paper in your house, I would strongly recommend only making a pamphlet stitch book with an absolute maximum of 10 pages total. Because the book starts to become a bit misshapen on the edges. After about six pages after they're all folded, slight each of the pages into each other so that all of their seems are nestled into one another. Think of it's sort of like layers of skin on onion. This will become what is known as a signature. Next, we need to determine where the holes were going to use for this book, need to be placed. We need an uneven number of holes for this book, so a minimum of three holes will work, but it feels a little more sturdy with about five if you're working with something that's about six inches by four inches, like I am, the holes their closest to the top and bottom edges also need to be at absolute minimum, 1/4 inch away from the edge so they don't risk ripping through the entire book, though it's even safer to make that gap half an inch. Take a scrap piece of paper that is the same height as your book and folded in half market with the spaces you want your holes to be in and use your all to punch through those markings. This is what is called a jig, which is essentially just a template. They're great to label and keep once you're finished a project, so you don't need to make these measurements again in the future, line your dig up inside of the center of your signature and use your all to puncture all of the pieces of paper at the same time. You can do this with each piece of paper individually if you'd like to take your time, which is what I did here. But it's definitely easier to just go for them all at once and just as effective, make sure that you're all does go all the way through to the outside of the outermost page , since we'll need to be able to pass our needle through all of the layers. One sewing, once all your holes are punched will need to thread her needle because our threat will be going across the length of our books. Spine twice. The easiest way to measure how much that you'll need total is to measure your thread three times the length of the spine, so we'll have plenty of space to attach the needle securely, as well as tie a knot comfortably at the end. We are not going to double over our threat for this like you often might do for sewing fabrics. So we need to make sure to secure our single piece of thread to our needle without making a Not that won't easily pass through our holes to do so past the thread through the eye of the needle until about an inch or two of your threat is out the other side. Then use your fingernails to pinch a spot in that short thread flat, if you can, to give yourself a bigger surface to aim for and then stab that pinched space with the pointy end of your needle. What should happen is that you should now have pierced the thread with the needle. And if you pull on that short tail, continuing the needle through it entirely, your needles should become secured on the threat. Nike. And so using the single thread without a large not the weave of our sewing pattern is essentially going to be over under over under. I'm going to start sewing from the outside edge because I've chosen to keep our finishing not visible since. I think it's cute. But if you start sewing from the inside, your finishing not will not be visible from the outside. Keeping that in mind, start at the center hole of your spine. I'm inserting it from the outside towards the inside and pulling the thread until they're still about two inches of length hanging outside. Make sure it's enough thread that you feel you'd comfortably be able to make a not with it at the end. Since we're now inside the book, I'll be taking my needle and going to the next hole in a row. You can either use the whole above or the whole below the center you just emerged from. It really doesn't matter, since it will be exactly the same. Either way, you'll need to go through that whole from the inside of the book to the outside. Then go to the next hole in the row. And so your needle from the outside to the inside. If you're using five holes like I did, you should now be at the one that is on the corner edge and your needle should be inside the book. Now go back through the previous hole with one that is between the whole on the edge and the hole in the center. You should have passed your needle through this hole a total of two times at this point, rather than following this pattern and going through the middle whole again, we're going to skip the middle hole and go through the piercing on the other side of it. This will allow us to eventually finish back where we started, so we'll be able to tie that finishing. Not so. We should have skipped that middle hole from the outside and gone through the whole on the opposite side of the center, ending up on the inside of the book. Follow the pattern and now go up from the inside to the outside of the next hole in the row , the last one nearest the edge. You know, then, like we did before, go back down through the hole next to it, and our last step is to pull the needle from the inside of the book up through the centre space that air sowing started with because of the piece of thread suspended over the center hole is longer and looser than the other pieces. I like to have my needle emerge on the opposite side of the suspended thread from the tail that is already sticking out of the hole. That way, when we tire finishing, not that longer piece of thread will be trapped inside or not securing it more closely and tightly to the spine. All you need to do now is Thai square knot and snip off the excess. It's a bit difficult to show with this thin thread, but it's usually described by saying right over left, then left over right. A square knot is much more secure than a regular double, not as a double knot is likely to loosen. Unravel after we snip off the excess thread right. I also like to run my bone folder over the finished book to Crispen up the spine. Here's the whole sowing method once more, just for clarity, way, way and you're done. The most complicated thing about this, I think, is the sewing pattern. Just remember that it's essentially over under over under, and as long as you skip that center hole and leapfrog to the one on the other side, you should be all right. Once you get the hang of it, it's easy to make a stack of these in a couple of hours from start to finish. Our last book in this course combines all the skills we've learned up to this point. But there's a slight difference between the sewing we learned in this pamphlet Stitch versus the Japanese stab, minding 7. Japanese stab binding - beautiful and decorative stitches: The Japanese stab binding technique is called as such, because in order to punch the holes needed for the sewing, you have to mercilessly stab your paper within all. It's also, as the name might suggest, based on Japanese binding methods. This book is a little odd in that traditionally, the folded edge of the paper is not used for the spine like most books, but rather the exposed edge. I had to think about why this might be for a bit, but I have a theory. When I was originally taught to make this structure, we specifically used thin calligraphy or rice paper, which is essentially as transparent as tracing paper. If you were to make a book with tracing paper and have things written on it, what you put on each page would ultimately show through it to the other side. So if you fold your paper and ensure that each pace can only be used one sided, it seems a bit more practical. For this book. However, I'll be using printer paper. Yes, I know what a shock. And since printer paper isn't transparent, I'll be letting the folded edges become the spine so I can write freely on each side of the paper. To change things up a bit, though, I'll be using card stock as cover paper. For this. You can use any kind of paper for this book. Thicker, thin, though I personally prefer to you slightly thicker paper for the front and back cover just to give it a bit of rigidity. And so it looks pretty for this book. We need all the tools in our arsenal, so get your full kit at the ready. Since my cover paper is the same size as the paper for the inside sheets of my book already , I'm just going to fold them in half and use them as is. Please feel free to use whatever size paper you'd like and trust. By now, you're confident in how to fold in half. Unlike the Pamphlets Ditch book that we did in our last class, we will not be nestling, are folded sheets into one another to make a signature, instead will be stacking them on top of one another in a pile for mine. Since I want to be able to write on either side of each piece of paper, I'll be making the side with the folded edges. Be our spine, however, for my cover pages, since I don't need to be able to write inside of them, I'll be having the folded edge of the cover page be the exposed edge. Since it'll give it even more rigidity, you can arrange your pages in whichever direction you like. This is just what I've chosen to dio. To make it easier to keep the entire block of paper together for piercing holes I've chosen to use, um, Binder clips is a temporary way of securing them all together. This is a book where I like to use that key stock I talked about in our toolkit video, since it's easier than actually measuring, but you can absolutely use your ruler. Instead, we need to make sure that the holes we make are no less than half an inch away from any given edge. So draw a parallel line from the spine that is half an inch away from the edge. Then you need to make a point that is half an inch away from the top and half an inch away from the bottom. On that same line, this is where two of our holes will go for the rest of the holes. They can go anywhere along that line, and you can have as many as you'd like, But it must be an even number, and it must be at least four in order for the structure toe work. Because the length of my spine is a bit long, I've chosen to use six holes. I also like the look of holes that are close together and spaced apart, so I've made them in groupings of to. The binding of this book will be visible, So think about how you'd like your threat to look against the cover and place your holes accordingly. Once you've figured out where you want your holes, use your all to stab through all the pages at once until you're all goes completely through to the other side. I recommend sort of twisting the all as you push, and I also recommend making sure that you can get a sizable amount of it through as you'll need to be able to pass your threaded needle through each hole three times. I actually ended up not making my holds large enough to start with and had to go back and widen them a bit. So it's not a big deal if they're not spacious enough at first, since you can adjust it later on because of the way this binding is designed, we're essentially going to go up and down the length of our books spine three times. So be sure to measure out about four spines worth of thread. Don't forget to pinch the thread and pierce it with the needle in order to secure it, since we'll be using a single thread again for this. Yeah, just like with our Pamphlet stitch book, I'm going to start finding from the outside and leave a couple of inches sticking out because I want our finishing not to be visible for aesthetic reasons. I'm even going to tie a bow. There are ways to make your not invisible, but we're not going to discuss that in this tutorial. Start from whichever hole you eventually want to be the end hole. Where are not is as long as it's not the top most or bottom most whole. I've chosen my third hole down, but if you're only using four holes total, it's totally fine to use your second hole. We're then going to go around the spine and back down through the same hole. There should now be a loop around the spine. The pattern for this book is essentially over and under, like the pamphlet stitch. But you also need to make sure that you loop the threat around the spine if it hasn't already been done where your needle is. So since we're back through the underside of our book, we now go up through the hole directly below it, loop around the spine and go towards the next hole in the line. Once you get to the corner hole, we actually need to make one loop around the spine, and one loop that goes around the bottom will essentially be making a 90 degree angle with your thread by looping it twice like that. So there will be a little half inch square of paper inside a small thread prison. Now we'll start to make our way back up towards where we came from in an over under threating way. Once you get to a hole where there isn't a loop around the spine, then you'll make a spine loop. But in the meantime, our sewing should be filling in any of the gaps that don't have a threat across them yet, so there should be a continuous line of threat along the front and back of your book. Once we get to the opposite corner will be making another one of those loops around the top of the book, as well as one around the side. Then we'll work our way back towards our first stitch. Once you get back to the original stitch, you'll notice that your threat is on the same side as it was when it started to secure it. We need to take our needle and slide it under and around the existing sewn threads and then make a square not to finish. I decided to take it an extra step and make a double knotted bow. Feel free to do whatever you like with the endings such as, Just do the square knot and snip off the extra or tie beads on the dangly ends or whatever else you can come up with when it's finished, your book should look like this. The stitching is beautiful and somewhat decorative, so I often like to choose a colorful threat as part of the design. You can also experiment with arranging your holes differently to get different effects. And there are variations on this sewing structure that really make the binding itself one of the most beautiful aspect. This is the last book in our course, and I hope that our journey to this end point was a pleasant one for you, just as it was for me. If you have questions about how this binding works or want to share something you discovered, please Dio I'm excited to hear how it went. 8. We did it!! Congratulations!!: Well, that's it. My goal with this class was to have a logical progression from book to book so that you'd have a good foundation of bookbinding skills for when we explore more involved structures. I'd love to know if this felt like a natural and logical progression. As for what to do with all these books, I use them for all sorts of things. Sketchbooks, color swatches, grocery lists, notebooks for classes, bullet journals, all sorts of stuff. What are you planning on using yours for post pictures of your projects to help inspire one another in flight. Your progress and congratulations on making it to the end of the class. You get 4000 super student points and my deepest appreciation for all your hard work. Thanks so much for joining in on this course. I'd love your feedback so we can make the next class even better until I see you. Next time. I wish you peace. Love and perfect folds by