'Sonnet 116' by William Shakespeare Analysis: Short Course | Nina Modak | Skillshare

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'Sonnet 116' by William Shakespeare Analysis: Short Course

teacher avatar Nina Modak

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

10 Lessons (1h 26m)
    • 1. 0 Introduction

    • 2. 1 Historical Context

    • 3. 2 Context About Sonnets

    • 4. 3 Understanding Technical Vocab

    • 5. 4 Identifying Form, Structure & Punctuation

    • 6. 5 quatrain 1 analysis

    • 7. 6 quatrain 2 analysis

    • 8. 7 quatrain 3 analysis

    • 9. 8 rhyming couplet analysis

    • 10. 9 Bye & Thanks for watching!

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About This Class

Shakespeare often presents as language that is too confusing to even start trying to understand, but this doesn't always have to be the case.

Whether you are studying for your school or university exams, or just picking up Shakespeare's sonnet out of interest, in this course I take you through a simple process to understand what Shakespeare is saying.

In this course we cover:

  • The context of the time
  • About Shakespeare and his life
  • Basics of sonnets and their construction
  • Technical vocabulary (definitions, how to use and more!)
  • Line-by-line-analysis of the sonnet
  • Live whiteboard so you can see poem analysis in real time

Who is this course for?

  • Students studying Shakespeare and Sonnet 116
  • Anyone interested in learning more about Sonnet 116

Meet Your Teacher

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Nina Modak


Hello, I'm Nina.

 I have been a private tutor since graduating from university in 2014. My academic career began at an international secondary school, I took the International Baccalaureate with Higher Level English, History and Visual Arts and my extended essay discussed whether the church is a building or it’s people.

After a gap year, during which I worked for a charity and travelled in India and Europe, I attended the University of Manchester. Upon completion I was awarded a 2:1 in the Study of Religions & Theology.

Tutoring is a personal passion. I enjoy teaching; diving into academic study and showing students how rich it can be. We tackle challenging material unravelling its intricacies then analysing its ideas. The techniques I teach my students... See full profile

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1. 0 Introduction: Hello and welcome to this course on sonnet 116 by William Shakespeare. My name is Nina mode Jack, and I'm the founder of Kodak tutoring. In this course, we are going to be doing a deep dive into sonnet 116. We're going to be analyzing the language, the imagery. We're gonna be looking at context, and also how Shakespeare incorporates all of this into this perm and what it means about love. What is Shakespeare trying to tell us about love? If you are studying sonnet 116 for schoolwork, This is definitely something that you'll find useful, especially if you're studying a Levels of this poem is included in the pre 1900 poetry anthology. So we'll go through everything you need to know to give you a starting point to start analyzing, and some examples and activities to help you understand the poem better. Okay, without further ado, let's get straight on with the course. 2. 1 Historical Context: So before we begin analyzing sonnet 106 C, we're just going to learn a little bit about Shakespeare, about the historical context in which this poem was written. Because when we are looking at poetry, the time period in which a poem is written will influence the language, the content, and also the connotations of the language. It will also influence the form and the structure. And because we are looking at quite an early piece of English literature, this was a time period, it was during the English Renaissance. And Shakespeare is considered someone who really impacted and influenced how English is put together. Because at this point, English really wasn't set in stone with its grammatical structures and how we use language. At this point, there was a huge bourgeois meaning of how literature is formed and how English as a language was put together. So let's start with looking at who William Shakespeare was a bit about him. So, William Shakespeare was born in 1564 and he died in 1616. And he grew up in strophe at Upon Avon, which is in the south of England. He was married in 1582 to a woman called and halfway, and she actually was eight years older than him. So during them married, they had three children. And who knows? We don't know if it was a happy marriage necessarily, but Shakespeare did go a to London during his career and he wrote a lot of plays there. Now, focusing on the sonnet itself, it is believed that Shakespeare wrote a lot of his poetry during the plague, and this was when most of the theaters were closed. So he had a lot of free time. He wasn't putting on any of his plays. And his sonnets were written later in his career. One of the interesting things with Shakespeare is that because of his service to literature later in his career, he was granted a coat of arms, so in 1594. So this is a, you know, 20 years before he died. So he was in the prime of his career. And he was basically this was promoting Shakespeare and his descendants from commoner to gentry status. So this made him a much more important person in society wasn't just a regular guy during the early Nace onto them before they're an English Renaissance, artists were not well-respected. A wasn't like in Europe where they were NO called upon by kings and queens and kind of the type of celebrity that didn't happen until later in the English remains on. So perhaps you could argue that this is a time, and I believe this is during Elizabeth first reins off the top of my head. I can't remember exactly, but I believe Elizabeth, the first was raining at this point. Yes, I believe marry the first had been taken off the throne by this point, is just showing that Shakespeare really did have an impact. Now. During this period, Shakespeare wrote a 154 sonnets, and they will publish together in a book in 1609. So it's not just solid 11 six, which we are looking at today, wasn't just on its own. It is within a whole anthology, a whole collection, a whole book of poems. So it has a place and we can think about, well, what place does it have? What significance does it have to the sonnets as a whole? And do we need to understand the sonnets either side of it? To understand sonnet 11, six, there'll be something for you to think about. So a little bit more about the historical content text. So Shakespeare was around during the late 15 hundreds to early 16 hundreds. And during this time, what's interesting is that the life expectancy was about 40 years now that is incredibly short in comparison to what we're used to now. I mean, life expectancies like 80. But at 40 years old, you are a grandparent, potentially even a great grandparent. And the sad thing was that due to the health, due to what we knew about science back in this period of 15 hundreds, early 16 hundreds. Sanitation, medicine, it was very, it was not developed. So one in five children under ten years died. That was the expected. But because of this renaissance, meaning rebirth in French, and was also a time of great invention. So not only was literature, art, sculpture, architect, architecture developing a lot, but also one of the significant point in the history of England was in 1609, there were explorations across the sea, and in particular, the first of the English East India Company ships arrived in India in 1609. And that was quite a big thing. Its, you know, England is developing its traveling, it's moving. So here, renaissance period throughout Europe and it wasn't just England that was having a Renaissance. England is a bit late to the party, however, it was the whole of Europe and Renaissance means rebirth, as I mentioned, it's French for rebirth, meaning and awakening of our culture, architecture and an exploration of human themes such as love, honor, beauty. And there was a push, there was a development. Different writers were challenging ideas. That's what it means by exploration. So they were thinking, well, what is love, what is on, what is beauty? And they, Shakespeare is interesting because in his sonnets, he kind of moves away from the Petrarchan sonnet. And he develops from Thomas Wyatt sonnet. And that makes it his own. And he's developing and looking at different things. So it's not just pure Ideal loved, but he's also going to investigate these ideas of adultery, fornication. He's going to look at jealousy and lost as well. He's going to look at the dynamics between men and women. He's going to look at what is beauty. 3. 2 Context About Sonnets: So as I mentioned, the sonnets have a specific structure. That's what makes them sonnets. So we're going to look at what is a sonnet and how is it organized. Now, a sonnet is known as a little song of love. So looking at Lovell, What does that mean? And here you've got some of my notes from one of my lessons with my students so we can think of, we brainstormed what, what does loving campus really could be? Family, love, friendship, romance. In this particular sonnet, I want you to think about, well, what is the love that Shakespeare is describing is a ideal of Izzy, unrequited love, unattainable love. Has it got something to do with adultery? What is he describing? How is he describing it? The word sonnet actually derives from an Italian word called sonata, meaning little song. And it is little, it is in the 13th century, the sonnet signified upon with the specific structure it still does today, but in the 13th century. So this is the, earlier than Shakespeare's. It was 14 lines. Strict rhyme scheme was ABAB, CDCD, EF, EF, GG. It had a rhythmic structure. Via iambic pentameter. Ten syllables alternating stress and unstress stands or sorry, by the 13th century. So this is the structure that Shakespeare is following. And these, this structure, we call it an English sonnet because the Italian sonnets have a slightly different structure. But it's called a Shakespearean sonnet, not because Shakespeare developed the sauna. Actually. The first known English sonnet were written by Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard. So we're gonna be looking at as Sir Thomas wires on it in another course. But it was named after Shakespeare because he was the most famous. And this is probably to do with the fact that he became a famous playwright up to you to do some of your own resetting and make up your own mind about that. But traditionally, they're written in iambic pentameter. We're going to talk about what that means. And they have three quatrains and a rhyming couplet. But talking about Shakespeare sonnet and the book of sonnets that he wrote. So here's focus in the sonnets was the nature of love, loving relationships and love in relation to time. His first 126 actually addressed a young man who speculated to have been his patron perhaps. And during these first 126 sonnets, he was urging him to marry, to have children. The speaker is telling of his love for this young man and also perhaps criticizing him for preferring a rival poet. Now the rest of the sonnet address a woman known as dark lady. And although Shakespeare's feelings towards the, the young man seem to be clear, his feelings towards the Dark Lady are ambiguous. And scholars have not found any historical evidence to suggest that these were real people. But there is speculation to deal with the young man. In, in these sonnets, Shakespeare challenged the traditional sonnet, the traditional theme of love, and he ignores different themes that are associated with love. Perhaps even those themes that are not as nice to think about lust, lysogeny, infidelity. These the other aspects and perhaps consequences of love or feeling more than love for all the hole. As we know, hormones that are going on when you feel love or lost. As the case may be. 4. 3 Understanding Technical Vocab: So in order to analyze Sonnet 106, we're going to learn a little bit of technical vocabulary before we begin, because this will help us accurately describe poetic techniques in the poem. And don't worry if you've never heard of these techniques. Are these attack this technical vocabulary before? We are going to be using it quite regularly in our analysis of poetry. And we'll go through. So if you want to write this down, please do to make a little note so that you remember and then you can start building it into your analysis. You can write it down in your notes if you're analyzing the poems, dot using it when you're speaking. And then eventually within a week, a couple weeks of using this vocabulary when you are describing perms, you'll start to remember it straightaway. So first up we've got enjambment, or you can use it as an jammed. Thus, the past tense of the verb in German is a noun. So in Jianmin is when there is no, not final punctuation at the end of a line and the meaning runs over to the next. So the first line of Sonic 116 starts with, let me not the marriage of true minds, and it carries on to admit impediments. So the sentence is, well, it's, you've got a sentence in, it carries on past the line. Now, when we think about this and why it might be important, we thinking, Well, why would you not make the line full stop? Or maybe the poet wants to continue the flow of the thought that's going through the, the line he wants to continue until the next. And sometimes poets use whole three or four or five or six lines, and that's one sentence. And it, it seems counter-intuitive. A poem is written in lines and stanzas. But we still need to pay attention to sentence structure. Because although there is meaning in a line and there's a specific reason why a PRT will stop aligned where he he or she does. It is also equally important to notice, well, why do they keep the sentence going across lines? Perhaps the cut of a full stop in the middle of a line which is called a caesura. It is a natural pause in the middle of the line rather than having a break. So this could be a full stop comma colon or semicolon. You can think, well, why have they got a pause there? And more final pause? Just a breath. What does it do to the meaning? What does it do to the centers? What does it do to the sound that it makes? Because we've got to remember that a poem is meant to be performed to an audience, is not just meant to be read in your head. And actually sometimes poems make more sense when they are read aloud because you get the rhythm much more easily when you're speaking because it is based, iambic pentameter is based on the natural way we speak. Okay, our third piece of technical vocabulary is a quatrain, which is a stanza or four lines. Or it could just be four lines. So we can have a standard that is four lines, in our case, specially with alternating rhyme in a sonnet, but we could also have a set of four lines. So in a sonnet, you will find four lines next to each other that make a quatrain. And we don't have a break, as in a separation of the stanzas, stanzas in a sonnet, Olin, four lines. Then we've got a rhyming couplet, which are the two lines which RIME, they're next to each other. Perhaps line 12 rhyme or lines 56. Rhyme. Okay, a little bit more technical vocabulary because this is about describing the rhythm of a sonnet, the rhythmic structure. So poetic meter is the rhythmical structure of a poem. And a rhythmical structure is made up of a sequence of feet. Feet is basically a bunch of syllables. And a syllable is a unit of pronunciation with a vowel. So for example, a syllable is just a sound. So remember when you were really little and your learning to sound out words. So I've got an example here. So can one syllable, pencil is two syllables, piano is three syllables. So if you think about, well, how would you sound something out? You're sounding out the syllables. So we are looking at in the rhythmic structure of the PRM, the poetic meter of the poem. We're looking at how many feet are there now? And I am, is a foot with two syllables. So if we had two, pencil, would be one. I am one foot with two syllables. Can piano. Can piano is two ions because it's four syllables. Now, specifically with an IM, It is an unstressed stressed syllable. So what does this mean? So I've got on the screen here it says datum. And that is one ion with one foot with two syllables. And as you can see through the fact that I've got a lowercase and uppercase. The stress is on the second syllable, the dum, da, dum. And then when you have iambic pentameter, so pent means five. So iambic pentameter literally translate as five pairs of IM feet. So five pairs of two syllables with weekend strong. So unstressed, unstressed, syllabic positions. And it means that there will be five pairs of syllables, which means there are ten syllables in the entire line, and this could be one word or two words to be strapped across. So we're going to look at the structure in a sonnet of 116 as we go. So actually, now we are going to read Sonnet one 16. 5. 4 Identifying Form, Structure & Punctuation: Now we are going to read sonnet 11 six. And have a think about what is Shakespeare trying to say about love? What kind of love is he talking about? I want you to keep these questions in mind when you're reading. So sonnet 116, Let me not to the marriage of true minds admit impediments. Love is not love which alters when it alteration finds or bends with the remover to remove. Oh, no, it isn't ever fixed mark that looks on Tempest in is Never shaken. It is the start of every wondering bark whose worths unknown, although his height be taken, loves not love's, love's not times full though. Rosie lips and cheeks. Within his bending SQL campus come love altars not with his brief hours and weeks, but bears it out even to the edge of du. If this B error and upon me proved I never writ nor No man ever loved. So what I want you to do now is have another reader, the PRM heavy thing, wall. What do you make of the perm so far? And if you have no idea entirely, that is absolutely fine. Because some, I find that when I'm analyzing poetry, sometimes i have no idea what it's saying the first time I read it. And actually that's the point. Poetry is meant to be re-read. It's not meant to be re-read, read once and an understood. That's not, that's not why poetry works. Because there were so many layers of meaning within a poem. You have to read it a number of times to understand, to find all these different intricacies within the language. And that's what makes it so unbelievably clever. And that's why we keep reading these poems that are really old. I mean, this poem is hundreds of years older than all of us. But yet, we keep reading. And have a think. If you have no idea about meaning, have a look at the rhyme scheme. Can you match up which lines rhyme? Which are the quatrains, which is the rhyming couplet. And can you identify any Angelman and Caesar's within the line? Okay. Now you've had a quick look at on the screen I have identified and I've also written some line numbers as well. So the 1510 and line numbers. And if we look at the screen, the first four lines, a quatrain, one, lines at five to eight. Trained two lines, nine to 12, or quartering three. And the last two lines are the rhyming couplets. And let's have a look at the end. So how do we identify the rhyme scheme? We are looking at the end words, which ones rhyme. So here I've actually highlighted in different colors so we can see which ones rhyme. I've also written out the rhyme scheme for you. So let's go through this. So quatrain one. So lines 13 rhyme, so alternate lines, rhymes, we've got Minds and finds. And then 24, Love remove. I know they're not quite rhyming, but within the RIME schema, basically rhyming enough. Fish Shakespeare. Then in quatrain to with what Mark and bog, shaken and taken quatrain and three cheeks, we come due again, not an exact, but it works enough. Then we have the rhyming couplet proved. Loved. Again, not exact, but it rhymes enough. So the rhyme scheme is ABAB CDCD, E, F, E, F, G, D. And these refer to the lines which rhyme with each other with the same type of rhyme. And actually one of my students was like, well, why do we use this as weird? And to use these letters to identify which lines rhyme. It helps us describe the rhyme screen really quickly. So if you're writing an essay or describing it and anything that's written, you don't have to say line 13, Rhine then 2457, and then six and then eight, you can just list. And the the understanding is that you are putting the lines in order and you're just listing the rhyme scheme. Then we look at the punctuation, so the caesura and the enjambment. So maybe you've noticed line one. So let me not the marriage of true minds admit impediments. So we have an enjambment at the end of that line to, to carry on this meaning, we're going to analyze what that means when we go into the poem itself. Maybe you've noticed that there's caesura in the middle of line two. At the end of each quatrain, we have a full stop, so we do not have an enjambment at the end of each quarter. A, what could that mean? Y. Y is shakespeare. Keeping these lines together and I believe looking at it, do we have any other full stops in the middle of the quarter? And I know we have a full stop online to cut trim one. But then there's two sentences in quarter one, but I believe apart from the exclamation mark at the beginning of quartering too, we mostly have one sentence in the both the either other quatrains. And then the rhyming couplet is one sentence as well, just with a comma at the end of the line 13 before we end. So we can, when we're looking at the understanding of the perm and looking at the language and the imagery, want to think, well, how does the form, how does the structure, so the form is the fact that it's a sonnet. The structure is three quatrain, rhyming couplet. It's got iambic pentameter and the structure is, the form has a specific structure that needs to follow to be able to stay in that form. And the punctuation is, we're thinking, well how do these all work together? And when you want to do your analysis of your poem, when you're writing for an exam or a piece of coursework, you want to build in all these aspects and fit tell how do they work together in order to inform meaning. So now let's go over to the perm and we're going to do an analysis together. I am going to put on the board the perm and we're going to look at it. Probably quatrain by quatrain and then rhyming couplet, maybe even separately of lines. I haven't decided yet. Okay, so let's go over to the next video and we are going to look at language and imagery more closely. 6. 5 quatrain 1 analysis: So now we're going to be analyzing the language and imagery in the poem. And what I've got on the screen here is quatrain one. So these are lines one to four. Just so we remember. Okay, so let's, let's go into the language here. And if you want to follow me with this, feel free to pause the video here. Go print out a copy of sonnet 116. You can find all over the internet. And so let me notch to the marriage of true minds admit impediments. So the best way to go about doing this is actually thinking about definitions. So we let, looking here what marriage, marriage is, union. Just think about synonyms. What do you know? Joining of two people. Go ideas of love. And then what about true? Now, you want to think, you don't want to assume that you know what things are talking about. Because again, context is important. Context is different. But true. What does true mean? We still rely on our understanding of words because the connotations haven't changed dramatically. They may be slightly different, but we can still think, what significance does it have to true? So real, truthful and minds well, our thinking. And then impediments, does anybody have a thing to if you have heard the word impediments before. So impediments means restrictions, something that will stop you. Barrier is another word. And if we're just looking so I am taking this as 1.5 lines, lines one to the middle of line two because that is one sentence. As you have noticed probably in the last video. There is a jump here. And then we have caesura that's spelled with a, C, E, S, QRA. And we think, well, what's the point of this? But what I wanted to come back to now that we've done a few definitions. Oh, what a bound. Let me know that it's not very good. You can't see it. Let me not. So y has Shakespeare put a negative? Let me not to the marriage of true minds admit impediments. So let me, I don't want to admit or think about what is admit. Let the Union, the joining of these real truthful people minds that there are barriers. Let me not agree or show. And also what's interesting about impediment is now, if you think about the marriage ceremonies and this has to do with the context. Let's, let's put context in blue and go up here. So impediments is a word that's used in the marriage ceremony in the vows. And it says, if any of you know, causes just impediment why these two persons should not be joined together in holy matrimony. So this isn't a church wedding as well. It tell me if any reasons, if anyone knows of any reasons why these two people should not be joined in holy matrimony. So he has this idea that marriage is holy. And it's, it's kind of invoking this idea of charge, marriage, a promise, a vow. And he does not. The speaker of the poem, we refer to poetry, the person speaking rather than narrator, Like in prose, in fiction, novels, we speak in poetry, so to speak. It does not want to. And we got a negative sees like don't let me I don't want to say that there are challenges. So the union of people, people who are really in love. And he keeps us on one sentence and then he breaks it with say Zora, love is not love. The here he carries on. The negative. Love is not love which alters when it alteration, finds or bends with the remover to remove the here what he's doing is we are getting as kind of definition of love. But we're getting a definition of love from the negative. It's what it is not. And that's important, I think because, why would we speak in the negative? Y would shake me. Start with the negative. What significance does not have the meaning of the poem to how we read it. I, I mean, I think in a way it's surprising because when we usually talk about things, if someone said, what does it mean when we were thinking, well what it is not, we think, well what is it? And here it's almost in my own interpretation. Looking at bowl. First, we need to say what it is not before we can really give what it is. Because sometimes when you find it hard to define something in love is an abstract concept. It is hard to describe. So it's telling us, well, it shouldn't do this. Real true love does not do this. So what does it do? It alters when it alteration finds all bend with the remover to remove. And now we're going to notice. So some things, structural, altars on an alteration finds and bandwidth the remove to remove. So one is a more technical vocabulary we can to learn is something called figura epistemological. Now this is a fancy word. Two words. If I can get my pen to work at him and logic. And that means when we have words from the same root. For example, we can have boast and boastful. We could have value and valuable. And what we've got here is we've got two examples of figure etymological and we need to think, Well, why? Why did Shakespeare US figure etymological here? What the significance? Well, you could say that it's emphasizing a point. And also because the word, the sound, the rhythm of a is quite nicely. It rolls off the tongue a bit more. It. And also it was interesting he, he's using different forms of the words. We've got a verb here, and we put a noun here. We've got a, we've got a noun, sorry, and then a verb. Except this is a person. And this is f thing, which alters when it alteration finds. What does that mean? Well, it means alters means to change edit. And an alteration is the thing that has changed is the aspect of something that has trained. So what Shakespeare saying about love? Well, he's saying that love is not love. Which alters when it alteration finds, which means change. When it finds change, it doesn't adapt itself. When it meets something that's different or bends. So it doesn't flex. For example. It doesn't flex. It's an N1. And the idea is the connotations to this. When something bends, if you think about something that bends, Think about a piece of elastic that well, that stretches it back, can bend around something. We move around something. A cable will bend. If you hold the stick and you try and bend it will, it's going to break his strong. So I think the connotations of it is that if something bends, perhaps it's weak. And if we're thinking about something like love, he, Shakespeare's trying to identify what is love through what it is not, then it does not bend. It does not bend. It is not weak, it stays true. And here we can think about true minds. Because you can also think will, if something bends its weak, Does that mean it's physical, meaning untrustworthy? And then we've got remover to remove or bends with the remover to remove. So it can't be taken away by someone or something, cannot be removed. It won't let an outside force take it. Z is the sum of the connotations that we can think up. Because when something bends, it changes. And that's what love is should not do. So if we look at the pieces of how, oh, just before I do look at the piece as a whole, just want to highlight one more thing. Which is, we have love is not love. So we have here, so figura etymologically is what are words from the same root. So alters an alteration remover move. But here we have some repetition. And we need to think, well, why do we have repetition? How is it different to figure at melodic? What's the do? And again, I think this has to do with emphasis, love is not love. If we're looking at ifs, if he alters when it alteration finds or if it bends with the removal of ET is not love. We've got a definition of what love is not on. I think Shakespeare is trying to emphasize that through the repetition, it cannot be water tea is if it does these things, it must stay true. And Shakespeare doesn't want to admit challenges. He doesn't want to let them know that there are challenges. And have a think. Do you agree so far with this idea that Shakespeare is putting forward? Would you not? What do you agree with? Why? How do you think Shakespeare is doing with his description of love and his investigation? 7. 6 quatrain 2 analysis: Now we're going to look at quatrain too, and this is lines five to eight. So here at the beginning of quatrain too, we have a shift in tone, which just through these first three letters, these first two words. Now depending on perhaps which version of the PRM you've read online or that you've been given. This could be a an expert declamation mark and or it could be a semicolon. So in the version I've got here, now we need to go to the original manuscript to see what Shakespeare put and how to emphasize. But even if you didn't have an exclamation mark or semi code on, you just had some sort of punctuation. The ONE NO is a change in tone. It's shifting. Our argument, or Shakespeare's argument is speaker's argument. When he, when he's speaking of his argument, talking about well what love is not. So in the first quarter is talks about love is not something that changes or moves, is not something that can be removed. Oh no. And now we're looking at or what is love. And here you can see it is. So we have gone into the positive, gone into positives I, rather than what love is not what love is. And we can start to looking at some imagery in this. So we've got, if we read through, oh no, it is an ever fixed mocks his office piece of imagery that looks on tempest and is never shake. And so he's description of this ever fixed marks. Eat e is the star. Every wondering bark who's worth on known although his height be taken. So here we've got imagery about what is love it is an ever fixed market, is a star. So let's look at what these are. So in ever fixed Mark is. Now, you may have noticed we've got a little bit of nautical imagery here. And actually before we talk about ever fixed marks, we're going to identify these different nautical imagery. So let's go through whatever fixed mark we've got Tempest. We've got a wondering bog. And when we thinking about, or how is it nautical imagery? Well, let me just write this here. An ever fixed mark is something that is used to guide ships. That landmark. And a land mark is fixed. It's, it's not moving. So in this case, it could be, for example, a lighthouse. A lighthouse is positioned at the edge of a cliff. It shines a light. So if we're looking at what it does. It is, it can be a reference point and guide to ships. And if you think about, I mean, we've got this idea of nighttime actually in darkness because if you're looking at tempest, so a Tempest for thinking about definitions is a storm. And if when the stars come out, they come out at night. So we've got these connotations here of darkness. You can't see. Because especially during this period. So we're looking at the 15 hundreds late 15 hundreds of I mean, we didn't have electricity at this point, less electricity came much, much later. So Langton's were candles. But here is love. It is an ever fixed market is something that does not change. So ever fixed. So fixed doesn't move. And it's a guide to doesn't move. It's a point of reference. And what it's saying is love is this point of reference guide. So here we've got this i, what is love while we're looking at this idea of it is, it's constant. It doesn't change. And perhaps even shines, a light. Doesn't move. This is what love is which put my little heart. It looks on tempest and is Never shaken. So even so, it's, tempest is a storm. So if we think probably characteristics of a storm, we thinking, well, a storm, it can be scary, frightening. There's turmoil. You know, the wind, wind is blowing, rain is pouring. It is not something that is pleasant. It's not nice. I mean, if you've ever gone out in the rain, in a storm and the wind is blowing and you've got your umbrella uterus trying to really fail. If you've, especially if you've got a walk uphill to war and the rain and wind coming towards you. That's not a pleasant experience because you're gonna get wet, you're going to get cold, and then you just gotta keep pushing. And sometimes the wind can be so strong that it pushes you. But here, what Shakespeare saying is, love is Never shaken. It cannot, the storm cannot move it. It's not going to disrupt it. And I think I mean, I think actually thinking about it in it's if this quatrains relation to two, the first quatrain where we talked about what love is not. It doesn't bend, it doesn't change while he's carrying on this idea. And in a way using a metaphor to say, well, love is never fixed market. It's this point, this guy, this reference point that is solid and it won't be disrupted by storms that come. Because if you talk about life relationships, you can refer to those challenges in life that come your way, whether that is personal, professional, and if you're in school, you know those challenges that come up. Maybe it's with people, maybe it's coursework, maybe it's something that you don't know how to handle. Those are the storms of life. And what Shakespeare saying, well, love is not disrupted by these storms, these challenges. And instead it is a star. And actually the interesting thing he carries on this nautical imagery, to talk about stars will, because stars were how sailors navigated at nighttime. And, um, today, sailors can navigate by the stars is still, it is a time old tradition. And as we looked at in our context, it was the point that England was starting. They had more ships and they were starting to explore the world and really go out and, and, uh, go further afield. It wasn't just round the English coast, it was over to India. I mean, maybe they were going to have to Africa, the Arab states, you know, there was a lot more movement, international movement. At this time. People were traveling between Europe, Central Europe and England. And what Shakespeare saying, well, love is like a star. And this is similar to an ever fixed Mach because stars don't move. They stay the same. So the constant, they are guide, they tend move. And they are something by which you can navigate. Something for direction. And then we're looking at wondering parks are wondering bark is interesting because originally when I was analyzing this just on my own to get a sense of the poem before I started teaching. And I actually originally thought the bark while Bach, what words do we know is similar to bark? Well, you think of a tree, the bark of a tree. So actually this is not the origin of the word. The origin of the word Bach comes from Bach and teen or sooner Bach and team, which can be spelled with a QU or a k. And a sooner Bach, is a huge ship. And ships at that time were made of wood, but it is a huge ship with at least three masts. And these large ships were used as warships, as merchant ships. They were the ones that would travel through the seas. And again, if we're thinking about this nautical imagery, we have a Bach. Is a ship, a large ship, say three plus masts. And if you don't know what a master's amassed is the big wooden pole that sticks out of the ship. The hello the ship, the actual body of the ship holds the sales. So these ships were huge. You'd have many hundreds of people working on these ships. But, uh, wondering box to a traveling, we get this idea of it's moving through the seas. There. It's on a journey, a moving traveling ship and in, in, when it's moving through the water. And remember we did, they didn't have satellite navigation at that point. There was no internet. They had to use the stars, they had to use maps, and they were still developing maps at that time. They were still having to use a compass and they were using something called a sextant to help them navigate. This is also where if you are interested in maths, navigation is when they would use trigonometry. So sine, cosine and tangent, it would help them work out. Are they going in the right direction and how to get to their journeys end? But here we've got this idea of a moving ship and the stars of their love is a start every wondering box, or perhaps a wondering. Bach in this case, is a person who is traveling through life perhaps. And then we've got this last line whose worths unknown. Although his height be taken, is worths unknown. Whose height be taken? So this is carrying on this idea of the stars. And at this time, during the Elizabethan era, they didn't know how stars were made. They have no idea about how, you know, what it was made up of. We know a lot more about the solar system now than they ever did. But they also use the angle of elevation above the horizon to help them measure a ship's latitudes or where they were on the pat on the planet. So this idea of height, they didn't understand the worth the value of a star, but they definitely knew a was valuable and that they needed it to navigate by. And although his height be taken so that we could measure the height. And one last thing that I want to mention is this idea of it is start to every wondering, why would it we thus star rather than a star? Perhaps, if we're thinking about love, this idea of love. I mean, in this poem so far, Shakespeare is looking at what our definition of love. And during this time period, ideas of love were influenced by Plato and new Platonists looking at war, how, what is this idea of transcendental love, this ideal love. Perhaps if the star, so one of the stars in the sky that they use to navigate by the ISIL can always be found is the North Star. So perhaps, I mean, we don't know for sure, but I would speculate. Is it the north star? Is the star, it's the bright star in the sky that you can navigate by. So maybe love is like this north star. It can always be found. It can always be something that a person, someone living in going through the campus of life they can hold to love. And love is something that always, is, always constant is ideal form of love. Now whether it is achievable, that's up to you to decide. But we're thinking, will is this ideal love in Shakespeare's opinion? And if Shakespeare is using this metaphor, how does it help us understand what Shakespeare meant, what his idea of Love was, and what it represented. How is he presenting love? And in my opinion, I feel like he's putting it kinda on a pedestal. He's looking at it and saying this is something that we need to look towards as an ideal, something to aspire to. But also, as we'll see in the rhyming couplet, he makes quite a statement. Because he's talking about, well, this is true love, this is ideal love and we must, in a way, I think when we look at the running club, will go into this in more detail. Perhaps with this is what we've got to aspire to. 8. 7 quatrain 3 analysis: Now we're going to be looking at quatrains three, which is lines nine to 12. Ok? So traditionally, if we're thinking about the influence of the sonnet history, the development of a sauna in England. This is the point where we have a, what's called a vault, meaning a shift or turn. And it's traditionally with line nine. So the beginning of quarter in three, as we know, it starts with line nine. And the shift in the, all the change is to do with a change in what theme, perhaps changing ideas. Let's have a look at. Is this a change? Is this evolved? What change happens? Say, let's make a note about Volta, and I'm gonna put that in a question mark in brackets to make us think what is it? So let's have a rates are loves not times fool the rosy Lipson cheeks within his bending sequels campus come. Level two is not with his brief hours and weeks, bears it out even to the edge of doom. So here what we've got, what's interesting is that we have a return to what love is not. So let's look at what is love not, well, love is not times, fool. And one, we're looking through this. I want you to think about what, how is love and time personified? In this quatrain? Say personification is when you give human characteristics for an enactment object or an abstract idea. When it's to do with whether it's called pathetic fallacy, which is often found in Charles Dickins his work. So this is slightly different because we're not looking at whether specifically so personification. So how is love and time personified? Well, we've gone back to the negative, as we've mentioned. And here, maybe it could be a voltage because the quatrain before talking about what love is. So love is not times full. And what's interesting during this time, a fool in the courts of the kings was someone who was adjusted gesture. They would live in up the court. They would provide entertainment. And what's also interesting was that they were in quite a unique position. Some scholars believe that they actually held quite an important role in court. Because like the comedians off today, they would put in a funny way the things that the king was doing. But also can warn of potential problems, but in a funny way. So it's not well, it is a risky position to be in. But they had a function. So love is not full. So we're saying that love is not suggest a gesture or a joker. And then we've got love is being personified here, there, whereas ellipse and cheeks. So you're thinking about all love human characteristics. And if someone has Rosie lips and cheeks, they're attractive. Because, well, if someone has blue lips or in cheeks, you're thinking, well the incredibly calm potentially on, they're on the verge of death. But if they Rosie Lipton shaped, they've got life. So full of life. So here, love their rosy Lipson cheek within his bending sickles campus come in, I'll think, Who is this? Well, I'll tell you. It's time. We got this idea through this about what is time bending sequels campus come. So who does this relate to? And then in third line, Love altars, not with his, his, again time, brief hours and weeks, but bears it out even to the edge of du. So we're going to think what is due. So we know that time has a bending SQL campus come. So who is this related to? Well, a cycle in this idea during the late 15 hundreds below 1500, probably in 1600. Time is personified and has links to very close links to the Grim Reaper. So we think about the picture of the grim reaper GPA. He has his black cloak. It's this idea, as you can see on the third line, third line 11, in this quatrain, brief hours and weeks and this idea that death is coming. A brief, brief hours and weeks. It's coming. And at this time, so what is a cycle? It is also known as a psi. So the grim reaper usually is characterized in pictures as having a signal or a sign. And this is actually a real thing. So it looks like a large thick with a curved blade on the end and is traditionally used by farmers to cut grass in the fields. So it's a farming tool. And then the grim reaper is also characterized by using a, by having a compass or a time P such that clock. Now campuses can be used to tell time, tell latitude. So actually, with carrying on the nautical theme, if I remember correctly, sailors could use that compass to help them work out time, date, something to do with the latitude or there are using. So we mentioned measuring the stars of this horizon to the stars and the liquid, figure out where they are. And I think this is also to do with time as well. Because if you know what time it is, you can work out longitude, latitude. So if any of you do math or any oh, sail ships are all boats or anything like that. You have more information of the if I can put some on later, in some later videos, I will need to learn a bit more before I talk about it. So what is also suggests it is perhaps that this idea of the compass, because with a compass or a clock, you have hands that move round. So this could also be an idea and extend this idea of the arc of a circle is created by aside. So a psi is used and it goes kind of in a semi-circle going around a person is as you're using it to cut grass. And then if we're thinking about the, these combine techniques the unearth a poet uses. So we've got these, this imagery of death coming. But then we also have alliteration. We've got compass come. So it's sharp, C sounds. It's not soft. Within his bending SQL campus comets almost you must say it quite fast with a lot of emphasis. And it, if death is coming, it's kinda go. It also could signify the sound of a clock ticking is times passing. So again, bringing emphasis is it's coming. It's coming. Then if you look at love altars not. So again, we're carrying on the negative and say what love is not. And there, and here we've got repetition from the first quatrain. And I believe of the top of my head, it is. Line three, love alters Nazi. Here we've got repetition. Not with his brief hours and weeks. So what Shakespeare saying, what the speaker is saying is that love doesn't change even though the hours, the weeks are imminent ending they coming, death is coming off to you. Time. Time being personified. As the grim reaper. It chases after you love does not change. And he sang lead brief, time is brief. Time is short. And then the sentence doesn't stop here, so the ends of the lines. So you got the first part of this idea loves not time is full. There's ellipse and cheeks within his bending SQL. Come, we put a semicolon here, so we take a slightly longer pause then a comma. And we've got a slightly different idea. We're continuing. The speaker is continuing what love is not, but it's a different, it's an extension of the idea with slightly different hands. We, while we've got a semicolon because the ideas are connected, but they're different levels is not with his brief hours and weeks, but bears it out even to the edge of do. So again, we continuing to talk about love. And here is a slight change because we can apart. But even with this challenge, it bears, the owl is stays strong. Even even with the challenge to the edge of do. So du, here we could think about the idea with the end of time. End of time. As in light the world, death. So a personal death for example. But also it, it could be a reference to doomsday is a doomsday is, and a time ended weld. And we think about the history of this. We have a slight reference to religion. And religion was a big part of life during the 15 hundreds and the 16 hundreds. And really up until very recently because actually church and state were separated. Atlas point, the monarch was the head of the church. And at this point, in almost a Protestant country, even though there have been quite a few years of unrest, especially since King Henry eighth in the early 15 hundreds had changed England from a Catholic country to a Protestant country so that he could divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, and Mary, his mistress, and Berlin. So here the edge of the edge of death and individual death, or it could be doomsday, as in the end of time, the end days. And we could think about, well, this is when God, the grim reaper, the angel of death, something. And we can think about, well, why in this final line, this final quatrain, why has power ended with, but it bears out even in the edge of do, we've got a first quatrain talking about what love is not. Then second quarter in talking about what love is. And then we were third quarter and talking again, what love is not bitten this time in relate to time. We're, we've always built up. This peak is built up an argument about a definition of love. And we've kind of come to the penultimate idea. Love altars, not even with the threat of time. The factor that is short, even with death is especially bad, stays strong, stays faithful. It endures even to the very edge of time, whether that be individual or the end of the world. It is, it will endure throughout to the end of time. 9. 8 rhyming couplet analysis: So last but not least, we are going to be looking at the rhyming couplet, which is lines 13 to 14. So these are the final lines of the sonnet, the final lines of the poem. And Shakespeare, as we can see, was influenced by Thomas Wyatt and nutritious dishes that he started putting forward of ending a sonnet rot with us rhyming couplet rather than falling prey trucks style. This is kind of what became the English sonnet needs to end in a rhyming couplet. So let's look at the language. What is Shakespeare's saying? What's the point of the speaker saying? I'm looking at the effect of this shift, perhaps you could say. So if this B error and upon me proved, I never read nor No man ever loved. So let's look at what this means then. Think, well, this is quite a bold statement. Boastful. So let us look at y. So if this be, so, the speaker is saying here is, if I am mistaken, if I made a mistake and upon me proved and proved to me. If evidence can be provided by someone else. I never read. He's saying he's referring back in this hole rhyming couplets. He is he is referring back to his self-referential. If he saying if I'm mistaken, if I have written something wrong in this evidence and evidence is provided needs to prove these wrong ideas. I never wrote about Love, No, no man ever loved. So this is an incredibly bold statement to make. Incredibly. So I never wrote about true love, but nor No man ever loved. So if I am not correct, no man has ever loved that thing. The bold, incredibly, incredibly bold. So he's saying, well, my definition has to be correct. Otherwise, no man has ever love truly. No man has ever loved to what the definition of true love is. And we think, Well, what we think of Shakespeare's, of the speaker's conclusion and also the shift. So in this first three quatrains, he's talks about what love is by its negative and positive, mostly negative. And now we shifted to himself. Now one interesting thing during this time was that there were competition between poets. And as we know, Shakespeare was a playwright as well. Many playwright who also wrote poetry. I mean, it was a very popular form of writing plays at the time. As we know, if you've read a new Shakespeare's plays, much of the language, much of the dialogue is written in iambic pentameter. Quite similar too. The sonnets. And in some of his place he does include sonnets. Just a few, not many. So we can think what contextually, at the time, sonnets were way of men competing with each other, who's the best, who can write the best. So if you had in mind that this is Shakespeare trying to show his prowess, his skill, but writing. With that change your understanding of the sonnet with that change the significance of the meaning perhaps. And is this rhyming couplet at the end a challenge to other poets? But you could also think about it in another way. It is thought that perhaps this sonnet is addressed sweet young man. Now we don't know for sure whether the young man was real personal. Not some assume that it was his patron. The Hesiod. He was dressing here, was in love with a man. And in his sonnets, Shakespeare did investigate different ideas to do with love or different parts of love. So maybe, and this song is 100, Number 116154. So maybe he's exploring, maybe he hasn't given a definition of love in the app is, but is investigated love. Maybe he's got to the point where he needs to go. Well, what is love? I've written all of this. So what is love? And sometimes when you're looking for a definition, you look at what it is not. Before you understand what it is. So think, think, What is the love? What is the definition of love? The Shakespeare is trying to put forward in his sonnet. Do you think he's done not effectively? Can he be challenged? Can he pre-approved wrong? And if he is proved wrong, does not mean men, women as well, but we're just using man in the general plural. In this case. Has anyone ever loved? And does the meaning change? If we are addressing a man rather than a woman? 10. 9 Bye & Thanks for watching!: Thanks for joining me on today's course. I hope you found it useful. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment to get in touch. And remember, poetry is all about rereading. If you don't understand the poem the first time you read it, that's absolutely okay. Just keep going back through. Keep looking at how does the poet use language to convey meaning? Poets are incredibly clever in their use of language and imagery and all the connotations that it can bring up. So to get more information, feel free to do your own research into the context. I've only given you just enough to help us understand the poem, but there's always more that you can keep learning. If you want to know more about how to analyze poetry, essay writing, or even just asked me a question, feel free to go to Murdock tutoring dot co dot UK. I have a bunch of articles. I have some online courses as well there. And somehow 2s to do with the basics of analyzing poetry. And I have a whole blog series on how to write an academic essay. Okay, that's it for today. Thanks for joining me and I hope to see you in the next course by life now.