Songwriting: Write Pro Standard Lyrics | Eve Williams | Skillshare

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Songwriting: Write Pro Standard Lyrics

teacher avatar Eve Williams, Music: Information and Inspiration

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

22 Lessons (1h 45m)
    • 1. Lyrics intro

      2:32
    • 2. Wireframing: Avoid Rookie Mistakes and Create a Story Progression

      4:50
    • 3. Story Progression: Example Folsom Prison Blues

      10:18
    • 4. Story Progression: Example Chandelier

      5:46
    • 5. Lyrical Economy: Example Big Yellow Taxi

      4:16
    • 6. Lyrical Economy: Example Jolene

      5:31
    • 7. Show Don't Tell: Example She's Leaving Home

      3:50
    • 8. Show Don't Tell: Example Feel It Coming

      3:44
    • 9. Metaphor: Example Hotel California

      5:39
    • 10. Metaphor: Example Deep River

      2:02
    • 11. Intertextual Writing

      3:20
    • 12. The Right Language

      4:18
    • 13. Lyrical Hooks

      8:13
    • 14. Songforms and Lyric Writing

      8:25
    • 15. Over to You: Rewrite One of Your Lyrics

      4:45
    • 16. Two Lyrics on the Same Theme

      3:42
    • 17. Write Lyrics to This Tune

      4:26
    • 18. Declutter a Lyric

      1:26
    • 19. Using Google to Write Lyrics

      3:05
    • 20. Write a Pay Off Line

      1:14
    • 21. Bonus: How to Become a Pro Songwriter by People Who've Done It

      11:26
    • 22. Getting Feedback

      2:03
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About This Class

As an A&R rep at a music licensing company, I listened to many songs every week. Of those that are nearly there but not quite, it's the lyrics that often pose a problem: lyrics without a story, or too much cliché or no consistent theme. It's a myth that pop lyrics are meaningless. Pro songwriters spend alot of time on lyrics.

In those course you will learn how to craft lyrics like a professional songwriter and what errors to avoid. Specifically, we will look at 

  • Wireframing: constructing a story progression to your lyrics

  • 'Show, Don't Tell': the use of imagery

  • Metaphor

  • Intertextual Writing: taking inspiration from other works of art without ripping them off

  • Using the right language for your song's audience

The course begins by looking at some very effective lyrics, then asks you to craft your own. There are video and text exercises to complete and you will have a chance to get my feedback on your lyrics or to post them for group feedback which may just help you find cowriters!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Eve Williams

Music: Information and Inspiration

Teacher

I'm Eve Williams MMus, professional singer and songwriter. I've been teaching music and music business topics since 2005.

_______________________________________________________________________________

Eve Williams is a singer and songwriter from Co. Down in Northern Ireland.  Eve’s songs have been played in several countries since 2012, including USA, UK (including BBC airplay), Germany, Ireland and the Philippines. As an artist she has performed at several international festivals including Celtic Connections in Glasgow (broadcast live), YouBloom Dublin and Urbankelt in London. She has completed a successful UK tour in 2016. 

 

 Eve holds a Master of Music in Songwriting from Bath Spa University. In 2015 Nashville Songwriters Associ... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Lyrics intro: Hello and welcome to this course on lyric writing. My name is Eve Williams and I'm a commercial songwriter and that means that I actually make my living out of writing songs. And I used to also work in a and R, which is artists and repertoire of music licensing company. So it was my job to listen to the songs that were sent in and choose which ones would be signed. And quite often when a song wasn't sustainable, but it was nearly there. The problem was the lyrics. It's a complete myth that the lyrics and pop music be nothing. Actually commercial songwriter spent a long time crafting lyrics, making sure they've got exactly the right word in exactly the right place. I'm making sure they've got a story that's going to appeal to people. So I'm hopefully going to use some of that experience to help you to craft really great lyrics. So if you're aiming for publishing deal or you've been writing for some time and just want to up your game when it comes to Lyrics. If you find writing lyrics challenging or if you're new to songwriting and you're just starting out, this course is going to help you. So the first thing we're gonna do is we're going to look at some really well-known lyrics, very, very effective lyrics, and analyze what it is that making them effective. And we're going to look at avoiding recognize mistakes. Which is things like having a song that basically has no story, that has no progression from a to B, that's maybe slightly cliched or where the lyrics don't scan or don't really convey what you're trying to say very well. So that's what we'll do in the first section. Looking at some great lyrics avoiding mistakes. And then when we go into the second section, it's going to be over to you and there will be guided exercises in the second section for you to complete. Now, you can choose to do all of the exercises or you can choose to do just those that you think are going to be most useful to you. But I do recommend, you know, giving each one of them a go. You might like some of them better than others. And you can then send them to me for feedback, or you can post them into the question and answer section of this course and get feedback from me and from other students. And that might be a great way to find co writers, speaking of which we're going to look at correcting and collaboration towards the end of the course. And we're going to look at whether or not it's possible to make a living a purely as a lyricist with art being an old Rhine songwriter without writing the music as well. So I hope you're excited to get going and let's far ahead. 2. Wireframing: Avoid Rookie Mistakes and Create a Story Progression: Okay, Now we're going to look at the concept of wireframing. And wireframing is a little way of working that's going to help you avoid some of the rookie mistakes that lyric letters can make. So some of those rookie errors include writing songs that have no story. I work in an R for a music licensing company and I'm sent songs all the time. The basically just repeat the same concept and every verse with the character stays in the same circumstances throughout the song. In essence, a song is a story. Now, if you were making a movie, you'd have to ours tell a story. A songwriter's, we only have a byte 3.5 minutes, but there's still should be a clear beginning, middle and end. Writing words that don't scan. For example, when DO instead of window. Really famous example of this buyin, a really all inspiring lyric writer, Oscar Hammerstein the second he wrote in the song, something wonderful. You'll always go along DE phantom when he's wrong instead of defense, because we don't say def and we say defend. So then the singer has to try and write. Using too many words. Too many words will clutter your chain on be distracting to the listener. Not using clear enough images in the imagery gets confused and descending into cliche, which we never want to date. So let's look at wireframing and how it can help us avoid these errors. Okay, I've come up with a title for a song and it's called gate goddess Nia haven't actually written this song, but it's been something that I've been mulling over in my mind. So I've written a little flow chart here of the progression of my song and what's going to happen in each burst at the beginning of the song and verse 1, I'm going to set up the story. So there's a girl at this boy's quite entity, but she's an all white gouache. He's not. So he can't get her attention. That's the main theme of the song, but in the first, first 1, I'm setting it up. I'm going to describe this girl and I'm going to let the guy who's singing it tell us what it is that he likes about her. Maybe it's because she's a very passionate person, takes 10 to pay. Maybe she's got red hair and he really likes that. So it's setting up the story and the first verse, the chorus. If you're writing in a song form where there is a chorus, because of course not all songs have a chorus, but usually they do. The course gives the main thrust of the song, the real point. So in my song that happens to be that the singer of the song is really into this girl. But because he's not a gate can sell if he can't get her to notice him. So that's what we're saying in the Course. Inverse t, we want to move somewhere else. You want to carry things, all of it. So the singer starts to think of all the things he could do to make the scar like him. Really geeky things because that's the theme of the song. So he could travel to totter. Again. He could learn to speak Elvish, either quantifiers and Darren, either with date, just some really geeky things he could do. So then I could either finish that verse with the idea that he could do all this and she's still might not notice him. I could stick the idea into a bridge, or if you're British and middle it. A bridge incidentally on a song should both musically and lyrically take us somewhere different for little while. And then we come back to the chorus, which repeats the man theme of the song. Okay, so adding on the course, which is the man point and say your can't get the gate goddess to notice him because he isn't a geek himself. Why? This gives me a plan of a clear progression of my song where it's going to go. After that, I have to find the actual words. So a little exercise that I like to do, and everybody works differently is say I took the words gate goddess OR gate and typed into Google Images and just look at all the pictures that come up if I picked one that I really liked. And in the notebook I just jotted down all the words and phrases that came to me when I looked at that picture. Then after doing that, I pick the ones that really stand like the ones I think are really going to work. And I go to want to fit them into this framework somewhere. But also they're going to have to be contained in a way that actually tells a story. So if you would like to, if you've got an idea that your mulling over in your head, it would be great if you could put together your own wireframe and just see what comes out of that and where your song goes. Of course, a wireframe can always be changed. At any point. It's not setting something in stone, but it gives you something to work too. 3. Story Progression: Example Folsom Prison Blues: So following on from the idea of wireframing and creating a story progression, Let's look at a well-known song that has an amazing story progression. And that is Folsom Prison Blues by Johnny Cash. Now you may be saying to yourself, if you know this song, but surely at the start of the song he's in prison. And at the end of the song he's in prison. So hires their progression. Well, that's have a little look at that. I hear the trend of Kammen, it's rolling ride the band. And I ain't seen the sunshine since I don't know well, and so really grit opening lines that tell us this guy is locked up on, He's not happy about it. So then he describes where he is, He's infos and present, and time keeps dragging on. And this sets up a kind of grit metaphor in the song. The trend is moving and the guy's not able to move. He has to stay in one place while the people on the train our fray and are able to keep rolling on. So then we find light, how he got there. So that's a great progression. The situation is set up in verse one and verse 2 describes the situation a little bit more, gives us the information about high. The situation came a bite. When I was just a baby, my mama told me, son, always be a good boy. Don't ever play with guns on all time classic line. Everybody knows I shot a man in Reno just to watch him die. That is just a complete killer line. So again, we have this image going of the whistle blowing from the trend, the movement, and I hang my hat and cry. So it expands on the emotional state that we've kind of gas dot in the first verse because I hadn't seen the sunshine says, I don't know when time keeps dragging on that sort of hints. That is mental state. Isn't that great? And then, you know, by V2, I hang my hat on cried. So now here we go somewhere else again. We've seen the prisoner's mental state and his physical state, what's happening in his life? Nih, we say hi, he imagines the state of the people on the Turin. I bet there's rich folks aiding and a fancy dining car. How does it know that the folks are rich or what the dining car is like? This is pure imagination. He's imagining a situation which is completely opposite to his own. They're probably drinking coffee and smoking big scars. My I know I had it coming. I know I can't be afraid, a little bit of remorse there. So referring back to his own situation is own life story. But those people keep them moving and that's what tortures me. This is the whole point. This is what's being described by the trend image, the papal keeping moving and he count. So we've got to verse 3 before we get to the rail emotional point of the song. And then we have unemotional conclusion. Well, if they freed me from this present, so if he got what he wanted, what he streaming off, if that railroad trend was mine, I bet I'd move it on a little farther down the line. So this is what ultimately he wants. Far from close and prism, that's where I wanted to stay and I'd let that load and some whistle blow my blues away. So the Wessel of the trend comes to represent his dream of being free. Although he said in the breast before, I know I can't be free, but he's not going to leave go of the dream of being free. So that's the emotional conclusion of the song. And it's actually quite a powerful emotional conclusion, is not just accepting his lifelong incarceration, he's still going to drain and it tends to bay. And there's a lot of studies that suggest to us that listeners tend to Warm to more empowered characters in a song. So the fact that this guy isn't saying, I have to stop dreaming, it's never going to happen. You know that it's not ending and a Dian gateway could be. And I'm not saying it definitely has part of the popularity of this song, really well-crafted lyric. It made from a to B to C today, something different in every bar swell. But yet following on, there's like a sequence like here. We can say, people keep moving. That's what tortures May. And then he makes it even planner. And the last person gives us a conclusion. Consistent imagery, the Hawaii three lyrics that scan really well with the chain. Just not great way to craft a lyric. So let's look at a really great example of story and idea progression from it's fairly recent song and not a chandelier by CIA, which is actually a really amazing lyric. It's also quite a long lyric, as you can see here. So if you want to pause this video and read through this lyric, that would be great. You could also pull up the song on Spotify or YouTube. It has a great video with it. So party girls don't get heart. Amazing. First line, it's setting up the theme of the song and it's setting up the character really well. Can't feel anything. When will I learn? I push it down, push it died. I'm the one for a good time, call phones blowing up, bringing my doorbell. I feel the love failed the lab. So it's using the kind of language which would be appropriate for the target audience of this song. But what this first section has done has set up this character and what it is she's doing. She's eye on the time partying, trying to suppress something that she fails. So 123123, drink. Repeating that. So that's a great kind of action we're seeing are talking about the drinks. It's, it's giving us further idea about the character through him back till I lose count. So I'm going to swing from the chandelier. I ran to the chorus from the chandelier, I go to live like tomorrow doesn't exist. Like it doesn't exist. So use of repetition, which is also really common in commercial music. I'm going to fly like a bird through the night. Feel my tears as they dry. I'm gonna swing from the chandelier, from the chandelier. So in other words, I'm just going to party and try and forget everything. That's the main theme of the song. And it comes in, in the chorus. This song is not a standard structure at NIH, has this kind of post-course going on. I'm holding on for dear life. That's really moving part the line. It's almost saying, I might actually hanging by a thread here. So that has progressed from the start of the song, went party girls don't get heart. She's saying, I'm I've find way to avoid failing all these things. And he or she's really feeling it. I'm holding on for dear life. Looked on, quote, open my eyes, keep my glass filled until morning like because I'm just holding on for tonight. I can only get through the moment. I can't get any farther. This is someone who really is and desperation. And we have the repetition there that sums up not quite meeting, message night. Party girls don't get hearts and this is a bite. Her phone ringing, her doorbell, ringing, her feeling the love. Compare that to the second bars. Sun is up. I'm a mass. So as a party girl, she would they fund the night there and probably really dressed up, sun is up. I'm a mass and I'm a mass really sums up where she has gotta get out and I got to run from this. So she's still wanting to get away from the situation, but not by partying, by running. So her situation is actually getting worse and worse. Here comes the Shem, here comes the shim. The next morning she's hit by this horrible feeling of shame. So there's a progression there. Things have actually got worse rather than better. Then it repeats the 123123 drink, but in a different context. So she's not drinking at a party to forget things. She's not drinking because she feels a sense of shame and that's obviously a little worrying. Then it repeats. They chorus on post chorus. That gave us the main theme of the cell. I'm gonna swing from the chandelier, such a big party, bold image there from the chandelier. I'm going to live like tomorrow doesn't exist. Like it doesn't exist. Tomorrow doesn't exist. That's like a statement of depression by rather than being out at a party. And again, the whole I'm holding on for dear life. What looked on, what opened my eyes, You know, what? We start to be a bit concerned about this character, I think. And then the end of the song really does tie it up. It doesn't seem like a conclusion. When you listen to the song, it sounds like it's just repeating the one line and fanning ICT, which doesn't seem like a solid emotional conclusion. But in a way it is. I'm just holding on for tonight. But i've I've only got the inner resources to get me through one light on for tonight, on for tonight. So everything is about this. One moment. I'm just cleaning on by the skin of my teeth there. I'm just hanging on. And so the work tonight, as the last word on the song, what is going to happen to the scarves and I issue going to drink yourself into oblivion. Is she going to find some help? We're left wondering, well, is there going to be a turning point for this girl or is this lifestyle maybe going to killer? So this may at first, because it uses so much repetition and the lyric not seem to have a lot of progression, but there definitely is a progression in the song. So I would advise you to read this lyric. And every time you see somewhere where her situation's changed or a new idea or a new failing is added in to underline that. Also this is a great song to study from the point of view of the imagery of the swinging from the chandelier and the very bold emotional statements such as 123123 drink. I'm just holding all for tonight. You know, there are places in the song was she actually says Help me. So two things to do with the song. Making a note of where progression happens. Making a note of the big images and the powerful emotional statements. 4. Story Progression: Example Chandelier: So let's look at a really great example of story and idea progression from a fairly recent song and not as chandelier by CIA, which is actually a really amazing lyric. It's also quite a long lyric, as you can see here. So if you want to pause this video and read through this lyric, that would be great. You could also pull up the song on Spotify or YouTube. It has a great video with it. So party girls don't get heart. Amazing first-line at setting up the theme of the song. And it's setting up the character really well. Can't feel anything. When will I learn? I push it. Don patient died. And the one for a good time, call phones blowing up, bringing my doorbell, I feel the love failed the lab. So it's using the kind of language which would be appropriate for the target audience of this song. But what this first section has done has set up this character and what it is she's doing. She's eye on the time part in trying to suppress something that she fails. So 123123, drink. Repeating that. So that's a great kind of action we're seeing are talking about the drinks. It's, it's giving us further idea about the character through him back till I lose count. So I'm going to swing from the chandelier and I ran to the course. The shadows layer, I'm going to live like tomorrow doesn't exist. Like it doesn't exist. So use of repetition, which is also really common in commercial music. I'm going to fly like a bird through the night. Feel my tears as they dry. I'm gonna swing from the chandelier, from the chandelier. So in other words, I'm just going to party and try and forget everything. That's the main theme of the song. And it comes out in the chorus law. This song is not a standard structure at night, has this kind of post-course going on? I'm holding on for dear life. That's really moving part the line. It's almost saying, I might actually hanging by a thread here. So that has progressed from the start of the song when party girls don't get heart. She's saying, I'm, I've find way to avoid failing all these things. And he or she's really feeling it. I'm holding on for dear life. Won't look, Don won't open my eyes. Keep my glass filled until morning light because I'm just holding on for tonight. I can only get through the moment. I can't get any farther. This is someone who really is and desperation. And we have the repetition there that sums up not quite meeting message NIH. Party girls don't get heart and this is a bite. Her phone, her wringing her door bell ringing, her feeling the love. Compare that to the second bars. Sun is up, I'm a mass. So it was a party girl. She would be fun than ICT there and probably really dressed up some is up. I'm a mass and I'm a mass really sums up where she has got to get out and I got to run from this. So she's still wanting to get away from the situation, but not by partying, by running. So her situation is actually getting worse and worse. Here comes the Shem, here comes the sham. So the next morning she's hit by this horrible feeling of shame. So there's a progression there. Things have actually got worse rather than better. Then it repeats the 123123 drink, but in a different context. So she's not drinking at a party to forget things. She's not drinking because she feels a sense of shame and that's obviously a little worrying. Then it repeats the chorus on post chorus that gave us the main theme of the song. I'm gonna swing from the chandelier, such a big party, bold image there from the chandelier. I'm going to live like tomorrow doesn't exist. Like it doesn't exist. Tomorrow doesn't exist. That's like a statement of depression Nye rather than the heart being out at a party. And again, the whole I'm holding on for dear life would look, Don would open my eyes, you know, where we start to be a bit concerned about this character, I think. And then the end of the song really does tie it up. It doesn't seem like a conclusion. When you listen to the song, it sounds like it's just repeating the one line and fanning ICT, which doesn't seem like a solid emotional conclusion. But in a way it is. I'm just holding on for tonight. But i've I've only got the inner resources to get me through it one night on for tonight, on for tonight. So everything is about this one moment. I'm just cleaning on by the skin of my teeth there. I'm just hanging on. And so the work tonight. As the last word in the song, what is going to happen to this girl's night? Ishi going to drink yourself into oblivion? Is she going to find some help? We're left wondering, well, is there going to be a turning point for this girl or is this lifestyle, you know, maybe going to killer? So this may at first, because it uses so much repetition and the lyric not seem to have a lot of progression, but there definitely is a progression in the song. So I would advise you to read this lyric. And every time you see somewhere where her situation's changed or a new idea or a new failing is added in to underline that. Also this is a great song to study from the point of view of the imagery of the swing from the chandelier and the very bold emotional statements such as 123123 drank. I'm just holding all for tonight. You know, there are places in the song was she actually says Help me. So two things to do with the song. Making a note of where progression happens. Making a note of the big images and the powerful emotional statements. 5. Lyrical Economy: Example Big Yellow Taxi: In this section, we're going to look at the concept of lyrical economy. In other words, not using too many words. If you use too many words, it can make your song side collectors. And it can also take your chain off course. Really great example of lyrical economy. And that's Joni Mitchell's big yellow taxi. I'm sure you all know this song, but there's a link to it in the resources for this section. So if you take the lyrics to big yellow taxi and you copy and paste them into where to undo a word count. There's only 228 words and the song, in fact, in a standard size 12 font size, it really doesn't take up much space on the page. If you've got a song which in a standard type size as going onto 23 pages, that could be an indication that something's gone a little bit wrong. Their commercial songs generally fit on one page. Okay, Let's look at the first verse. They paved paradise, put up a parking lot with a pink hotel, a boutique, and a swinging hotspot. They paved paradise. The very first line. Absolutely amazing. The end. So few words we've already got this really complex idea of niche are being destroyed and concrete it over. Also, there's the great alliteration there, pave paradise put up a parking lot. Notice there isn't even an AMD put up a parking lot. There is no wired here. That isn't essential. The pink hotel, again, that's the P alliteration, but also it sounds really gaudy. A boutique and a swinging hotspots. So if you think it's paradises as nature, something really disastrous has happened here. So the first verse and hardly any words sets up a really, really great complex thing. Don't always seem to go that you don't know what you've got till it's gone. They pave paradise, put up a parking lot. So notice he doesn't say doesn't it always seems to be the case that you don't appreciate the things you have until they've disappeared. Because that would be crazy within a song. It wouldn't scan at all. We want to keep the syllable client doesn't know I second verse. I know we talked earlier about high. We don't want to just repeat the same idea, verse after verse. And it may at first glance look like this is repeating the same idea, but actually it's taking it even further because in the first verse, they've paved paradise. They've destroyed nature. In the second verse is even worse. They're not charging people to go and see the trees that used to be there. So we're at A1, worst situation. A tray museum, just grit, grit use of phrasing because that is actually completely horrifying. And then of course we repeats the man Thabo, the song doted always seem to go that you don't know what you got till it's gone. They pave paradise, put up a parking lot. Now she's getting personally angry at the situation. Hay farmer, farmer put away that DDT die, Give me spot. So my apples and leave me the birds and the bass plays. So the spots and the apples, the birds in the base. That's really in stark contrast to the paved paradise. The idea of concrete in the parking lot. That makes quite a powerful contrast. Again, so few words to convey this complex idea. Don't it always seem to go that you don't know what you've got till it's gone. They pave paradise, put up a parking lot. Nye, get ready for the curve ball. This is the entire point of the song. This is the true story. This is what she's really upset about. That last night I heard the screen door slam and a big yellow taxi took away my old man. It's not even a filovirus, it's just two lines. And this is what she's really upset about. This is the thing that she had that she didn't appreciate until it was gone. So curveball right at the end. Hardly any words. Big impact. Don't it always seem to go that you don't know what you've got till it's gone. An IB. Understand that a little bit better. Why she fails that? They pave paradise, put up a parking lot, grit, grit, lyric writing. 6. Lyrical Economy: Example Jolene: And go to quickly give you another example of lyrical economy of a song where every words is there for a reason. And that is the famous Joe lane by this lady Dolly Parton. So when we see this song all the screen, if you compare it to see us chandelier for example, it's not really taking up that much room on. I put it in a slightly bigger font size as well. So Jolene, Jolene, Jolene Jolene, well, there's lyrical economy because it's really only using one word, but the repetition of that one where it has a lot of impact. I mean, everybody knows the title of this song. You can tell the title of this song from the first-line. I'm begging all of you, please don't take my man. So setting up what the song is all about. This character is bagging of another woman. Don't steal my mom. I don't personally like that as a lyrical fame. That's just a personal thing you might. But I think the Dolly Parton still pose off making this character likable because there is a certain school of thought that says decimal part characters don't create empathy for an audience spot. You know, this song obviously was a huge hit. So clearly it did. Again, Jolene, Jolene. Jolene Jolene, Please don't take him just because you can so just because you can don't do it on a whim, every word here has been carefully thought about. I'm begging all of you not I would really like Kunal to take my man. I'm begging all of you. Powerful emotional word. Your beauty is beyond, compare beauty and beyond got the grids, alliteration there. So something really special about this woman. Very poetic district, descriptive language hair with Fleming locks of auburn hair with Ivory skin and eyes of emerald green. Now we're talking about lyrical economy. So why couldn't she just say, you've got great hair and you've got great skin. Well, the flaming locks is actually giving you an idea of this person of a, as a bit of a firebrand personality. It does something to describe the character and the Ivory skin rather than just pale skin. The eyes of emerald green is building an idea of this woman as being something sort of other worldly supernatural, something the other character can't aspire to being like. So H descriptive word. And there is really there for a purpose. Your smile is like a breath of swaying. Your smile is like a breath of spring. Your voice is soft like summer ran and I cannot compete with you, Joe Layton. So that's the whole emotional core coming up here. I cannot compete with you. Again, we've got the alliteration, which is reminiscent of big yellow taxi, that alliteration used to reinforce an important point in the song. He talks about you and asleep. There's nothing I can do to keep from crying when he calls your name drilling. All very, very straightforward, uncluttered, scamming. Well, I can easily understand how you could easily take my man. You could easily take him. It would be nothing to you. But you don't know what he means to me, Jolene. So then it starts to become a little bit more about the bomb and that relationship. Although you kind of can't help but thinking, if this amount is so grids, Why does she have to warn off to other women? So again, we repeat the chorus, Jolene, Jolene, Jolene Jolene, I'm bagging of you. Please don't take my man. It's very punchy and beg you please don't take my man. Jolene. Jolene. Jolene Jolene, Please don't take him just because you can very punchy, very to the point. You can have your choice of man, but I could never love again. He's the only one for me, Jolene. So it's just a game to you. You're just doing it just because you can. But to me it would be ruining my whole life. That's basically in essence what she's saying to this woman. I had to have this talk with you. My happiness depends on you. Well, oh there, but the cost short and snappy that line is, and the whole song and this woman's whole feature. There's a lot of emotional things hinging on this, my happiness depends on you. Very important line, very short line. And at the end of the last course she says, Please don't take him even though you can. So she could take him. It would be possible for her to have this man. So how much does he love? They, the character who's singing is something you've got to ask. So there's a lot of emotional complexity and the song in this triangle between the three characters, what does the guy feel about Jolene? Because she could easily have him? What does she feel? What does he fail? A bite? His partner, because clearly he's his attention has been easy to get. Four Jolene, this woman, you know, what has driven or to the point where it says talking in his sleep as part of that. But what has made her go away and have this conversation and sort of humble herself and a way to have this conversation. There's a lot of emotional complexity described and short sharp, punchy phrases. My happiness depends on you. I could never love again. He's the only one for me. To the point. Using lyrical economy. 7. Show Don't Tell: Example She's Leaving Home: In this section, we're going to look at the lyrical concept of show. Don't tell. In other words, using imagery. We don't want to write things like then you died. Oh hi, I cried. I have actually heard that Sung. We want to tell a story and a subtle way so that it has more emotional impact. A great example of show don't tell if she's leaving home by The Beatles. And there's a little link here to somewhere where you can find the song. And also there's a link in the resources section of the lyric section of this course. Let's look at the larynx and what gives them the huge emotional impact that they have. Wednesday morning at five o'clock as the day begins. So really early in the morning, silently closing her bedroom door, leaving the note that she hoped would say more. So we're not being told. Here's a girl who's running away from home. Her running away from home. Her escape is being described. It's really early in the morning. She's closing her doors quietly. She can so it was not quick anyone up. She's leaving a note. She goes downstairs to the kitchen, the clutching her handkerchief, grit image there. She's probably really nervous and that's why she's clutching her handkerchief. But it doesn't actually say that it shows us turning the back door K stepping outside, she is free. So basically what the song is doing is describing the actions of the girl rather than just telling us how she fails in a sort of unsubtle way. Then the chorus gives us the point of view of the parents that she is leaving home on that we have the we gave her most of our lives, sacrificed most of our lives. So instead of coming out and saying her parents are controlling, her parents are difficult. Whatever object of you want to use, we're actually being shown. We've got a demonstration of why she has problems at home. Second verse, the wife gets up, their mother gets up and finds out that she's gone. So we have her mother getting into her address and going with a father snoring, picking up the ladder and then this beautiful, beautiful line standing alone at the top of the stairs. Just a really lovely image of shock and loneliness. So really continuing with the method that's been set up in the first verse of describing the action. And that she breaks down and cries, data, your baby's gone. Why would she treated us so thoughtless Lee, Hi, could she do this to me? So, you know, we're seeing the story from the other side. Then repeat of the chorus. Interesting beginning to the final virus, Friday morning at nine o'clock. So we compare that to Wednesday morning at five o'clock. She's far away. So she's made or escape wet indicate the appointment she made mating a band for the motor trip. And we think what's going on there. And then the chorus, but the words are slightly different. What did we do that was wrong. We didn't know it was wrong. That's probably the issue. And she's having fun. Fun is the one thing that money can't buy. Something inside that was always denied for so many years. Bye-bye. And only at that point does it give us an actual emotional description of their emotional world? So really what this song is doing is describing a complex emotional same through a series of images. Leaving the ladder, closing the door, turning the key, stepping outside. All those things have much more impact than just writing a song that sad, she felt stifled, she felt suffocated. This is actually really moving songs. So if you want to take a few minutes to listen to it, I'm sure you'll love it. 8. Show Don't Tell: Example Feel It Coming: This is another song rendered emotionally powerful by the use of show. Don't tell the use of imagery, but it's a very different emotion from She's Leaving Home. And that is feel it coming by Sarah Mills. And if you haven't heard this song and it's a wonderful song, feel free to pull it up on Spotify, give it a bit of a spin before we look at the lyrics. This song is an absolutely great example of high to use imagery. So it starts with an amazing image. That's it. I'm all better now I spit up the last of Walt made me heart. So throwing something ICT, purging something from your system, a really unique attention-grabbing image right at the start, I feel light as a feather NIH and other great image. At last I finally know my worth. I thought I'd never learned to be alone. Open all my windows wide. So the window's wide gives us nice liberation. But it's that sense of openness which sort of signifies opening up to other people, opening up to the world, opening up to new experiences. It very, very positive image. I'm letting the light and turn the ringer off the phone, light my orange candles at night. So orange candles, why not like my scented candles at night, light, my indoor candles at night? Well, that vibrant orange color goes with the positive mood of the song. And then the pre-chorus, chorus. And I'm wishing on a new moon, something betters coming. It's coming soon. And he or she moves away from using imagery and makes a bed powerful emotional statements. So I feel it coming, I feel it coming, I feel it coming. Nine, verse 2, one of my favorite images ever. I closed my eyes up on the high, high dive, stretch my arms up to the sky. Endless water is deep below, but somewhere in the air, I'll learn to fly. That's one of my favorite images and a song ever. The idea of jumping off the top diving board. It's all about overcoming fear and starting to be happy. And it's just an amazing image for that. And then it repeats the chorus where we have that big emotional statement again. I feel it coming, I feel it coming, I feel it coming. So in the bridge, she moves away from being quite so image-based until the ads and starts to be a bit more conversational. So easy to complain, but it'll make you in sin. That same retain the impulse to be mane back to an image but, but the grass is 0, so grain after winter wren. So this image is similar to the, all the other images that we've seen. A bite. Things having been quite rough and NIH, they're good again. And then the song adds not big, powerful emotional statement that has repeated, I feel it coming, I feel it coming. I feel like coming. Now I do probably have heard it said, Don't mix your metaphors or don't use a whole lot of different kinds of image from all over the place. And normally I would agree with that. But here, yes, there's the candles, There's the diving board, there's the green grass. There's a lot of imagery that seems to be quite disparate, but it's actually all giving the same message. Things were bad. But I've overcome that and I'm going to be okay. I'm looking forward to what's about to come. So it's all tied together by a consistent thing. Even if it's not a consistent image on, I think it is the use of imagery and the song that makes it a joy to listen to. So the lyrics are attached as a PDF to this video. And there's also a link to a lyric video on YouTube. If you haven't heard the song, I hope you really enjoy it. 9. Metaphor: Example Hotel California: Now we're going to look at one of the oldest literary devices there is, and that is metaphor and silicate metaphor. The song that I chosen as Hotel California, which is on a surface level about a guy who gets really tired during a long drive and stops at this creepy hotel, which is a bit like the shining. But what the song is really abide as drug-taking and getting trapped and sort of celebrity culture that's quite unhealthy and a little bit scary. Now this is quite a long song and I'm not going to read all whether X, but, you know, famous sparse lines on a dark desert highway, Qu wins my hair, warm smile that can lead us rising up through the air. So the first sparse gives this idea of arriving at this kinda slightly creepy hotel, this slightly creepy place which still has some kind of atmosphere that sort of draws the guy ends. So there's words in this first box as shimmering light. It's an almost spiritual image. And I heard the mission bow, and I was thinking to myself, this could be haven't or this could be how? So? That whole idea of celebrity culture living the drain has this veneer of being something that everybody wants, but it can also be Hal, Welcome to the Hotel California. Such a lovely place, such a lovely face, plenty of room at the Hotel California anytime of year. You can find it here. Fine. Well, what is it that they singer as secant? Her mind is Tiffany twisted. She got the Mercedes Benz. Just grit turn a phrase that I use of electroporation. She's got a lot of pretty, pretty boys. She calls France. So we're starting to see they, the kind of thickness of these people heights. There's this sort of unreal list. I'll buy it living in the atmosphere. Some dots to remember, some dance to forget. That really ties in with the whole drugs. They not interesting line in the song. So I called up the captain. Please bring me my wine. He said, We haven't had that spirit to here since 1969. So the character of the captain, That's something much debated. If you look that up on the internet, that be all kinds of ideas. Some people think that the Eagles were followers of Onsen Olivier, who was a famous sit list. I'm not too sure whether that's the case or not. But there's clearly someone who's like almost a liter of a cult is very controlling amongst this group of people. So we repeat the chorus. Welcome to the Hotel California. Such a lovely place, such a lovely face, Lebanon up at the Hotel California. But by this stage, the idea of living, it doesn't sound as good as it might have done at the very start of the song. What a nice surprise. Then there's nice sort of acerbic line here. Bring your alibis. So there's a lot of dodgy stuff going on amongst this group of people. Mirrors on the sailing, pink champagne on ice. Sort of celebrity lifestyle. And she said, We are all just prisoners here of our own device. So we have actually made a decision to be trapped in this lifestyle. And we're prisoners. That's actually something really horrible. We can't get ICT where n to this lifestyle. We're into this group of people and there is no escape. There's a hopelessness of ITA. Not. This next line is probably where the Satanism idea comes from, but it's not actually about CIT and there's already kind of Blackmagic a toll. And then the masters chambers they gathered for the face. They stab it with their steely knives, but they just can't kill the based faced stabs, stele based, great use of alliteration. What that's actually describing is the needles used in drug-taking. If you're taking heroin, you know, you're stabbing yourself with syringes. And that's really what's being described here. Last verse of the song, obviously incredibly famous. Last thing I remember, I was running for the door and had to find the passage back to the place I was before. So he's gone down this road, this lifestyle and desperately wants to go back to the person that he used to be relaxed, said the night man, we are programmed to receive. And then the really, really famous line, which is why I've put it in italics. You can check out anytime you like, but you can never leave. So you have lost all freedom. You can check it and you could commit suicide and just, you know, that's the only way you're going to get light of the situation. You can never leave, you're trapped. Very, very haunting song, very powerful use of metaphor. The metaphor is consistent through the whole of the song. Most songs that use metaphor, I'm, I'm thinking of Johnny Cash's Folsom Prison Blues where you have the metaphor of the trend running down the tracks and the guys stuck in presence of the trend can move. It has constant movement, whereas he's stuck in one place. That's a very strong metaphor. And allies the guy to be a bit conversational two, which is more the case, and songs that use metaphor. This song quite unusually, is completely and metaphor from beginning to end. But it works because the metaphor as consistent, you know, they say don't mix your metaphors. That's good advice because you don't want to confuse the audience. You want to stick with one idea which this song does amazingly well. 10. Metaphor: Example Deep River: So here is another great example of metaphor, a much simpler metaphor on a much shorter song than Hotel California. So this is Deep River, which is a spiritual and it uses the kind of imagery you would imagine would be content and a spiritual deep river. My home is over Jordan. Date river, Lord, I want to cross over n to count bribe. So that idea of crossing the Jordan. You've not biblical image has entered the language of semiotics. In other words, literary symbols as a symbol for death, but quite a peaceful symbol of death. So my home is over Jordan. I don't belong here in this world. I belong somewhere have in life. Lord, I want across over n to count grinds. A crossing over is almost a euphemism we would use for dying. And then it builds on that. Oh don't you want to go to that gospel faced, that promised land where all this pace, so the person or people singing this are longing for pace on also they believe that there will be a celebration, happier place, debate. They had been enslaved and their earthly life. And they're going to somewhere where they will have paced and well, they have a face-to-face celebrated. So welcome to have an antique my seat and cast my crime at Jesus feet. So very, very powerful image here cast micron, a crime symbolizing your dignity, your par, your place. And they construe that as bang and haven't. Deep river, my home is over Jordan. Again, the image of death. Date, river. Lord, I want to cross over n to count grind. I short powerful metaphor that is profoundly and incredibly moving. 11. Intertextual Writing: Now we're going to look at intertextual writing. We've mentioned this before in relation to Leonard Cohen xylene there yet. And also in the exercise where you take an image from Google images and describe that image in order to craft some lyrics. So in this section, I'm going to play you a track, but I co-wrote and explain to you, hi, that track was originally based on Tennyson's and memoriam. So here is a little bit of the track. These three aspects to list. Two is two, we shall have had never crossed. We'll review this in Spain spans to you this way. There is live, this is too little Gamow. And when you then Learning Center can hear you. Yeah. You promise me that you'll know a staff mass and it's Wednesday. Which leads to a big, They say it's better to have loved and lost the very, very famous words from Ed memoriam. So we knew that we wanted to start a song with those words basically because my co-writer very strongly disagreed with the sentiment and wanted to argue with it. So when you, those words came from time in memoriam. So we went onto poetry.org to find the poem. So there's some Grant databases online. All poems like think about a memoriam is, but being a Victorian poem, it's well out of copyright. If you use a poem that was written in the last 70 years, you might get into a bit of trouble for lifting lines aren't of a verb atom, but you can of course write your own response to it. The opposite of memoriam is Oblivion. So Memoria Mohsen, something that you purposefully hold in memory and oblivion, a state of being totally forgotten. So our first births became, they say it's better to have loved and lost. I don't believe that to be true. Is it fair to wish our past had never crossed? I've not be crying over you. And compare that to the original words of the poem. I hold it true. What Arabic will I feel it when our sorrow boast to his better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all. So an interesting exercise for you today would be to think of a poem that really inspires J or some very famous words. Try and find the entirety of the poem online. Really taken the things about it, and write your own response. And I'd be very interested to hear what you come up with. 12. The Right Language: The right language for your target audience, you're going to use very different words and phrases if you're writing commercial for 16 to 20 year-olds than you are if you're writing, say, americana or country music for people who are 30 plus. Let's look at the lyrics of Garden Valley by Kara della. This is really not my home or wherever you, my lovely Johnny, I'm afraid and all alone. There's no paste for me. So before we listened to the song, I just want you to think through reading these words. What kind of music do you expect to hear when you read these lyrics? And what kind of demographic do you think would like this kind of music? So that's something to think about. It. Maybe pause the video and have a little think about that and then we'll listen to the track. Really. Yes, I am sitting exchange in this strange shape to the SNF piece. That's cool. I think it's again, the names. If you add one shot, one opportunity is everything you have to caption. This causes sweating because I have it as vomit on his sweater already. Spaghetti, he's nervous, but on a surface it looks cool. Getting what he wrote down. Everybody's moving on to a very, very different lyric, M and M lose yourself. So when you look at the start of the song on the slide, there's an awful lot of words. So let's look at some of those wives. And if you have one shot or want opportunity to seize everything you ever wanted and one moment would you capture or would just let it slip. Okay, then we have some brilliant imagery. Palms are sweaty, knees, weak, arms are heavy. There's vomit on his sweater already, Mom's spaghetti. So who is the target audience here? Who he wants to hear this track? What kind of age are they? What part of the wilds to the 11? Are they male or female? Let's just have a little think about that. So when you are crafting your own lyric, bear in mind that there will be certain words and phrases that will be familiar to your audience that will make sense to them. And some that maybe won't so much. So just check your lyric that it really is heading home that you're targeting at well, at who your audience is going to be. Thank you so much for completing the section on larynx. And if you want to send me any lyrics that you've written during this part of the course, I'd be more than happy to read them. 13. Lyrical Hooks: Let's look at the really crucial concept of lyrical hex lie in the same way that the music of a song may have a hook that helps make it really memorable. Think of the big guitar riff from Leila, or perhaps the line Hallelujah from that at Cohen's Hallelujah. Musically. In the same way, a song should have a lyrical hook, a word or a phrase that really hits home that sticks in people's mind. And that is the main point of the song. So we're going to listen to some quite well-known lyrical hex and discuss what makes him great and why it is that they work. There was this sequence and converting Caffe goes hack this. So a lyric by Leonard Cohen, hallelujah, which had already mentioned, and that's the safest way and write recording which I really love. So he sets up in the first verse this sort of Queen aside religious imagery. But David, of course, not only the biblical king, but he was also a composer. And the word hallelujah before land of Cohen wrote this song, would have been most associated musically with Handel's Hallelujah chorus that so it's a big exuberant term of joy and appraise. And here of course, he subverts that and makes it very dine baits. But we have the wired side. I heard there was a secret chord that David played and it pleased the lower, but you didn't really care for music, do you? So we're bringing in that element of classical music and over religious story. And that sets up the word hallelujah really well, because as a word that is associated with both those things. But he's not associating it with a Dine bait sentiment. And I'm much, much simpler form of music. And maybe we don't have a symphony orchestra playing this here. It's played on piano only. There's a lot of recordings on guitar. Jeff Buckley is being the most famous, but the repetition of hallelujah, hallelujah, hallelujah, hallelujah really hammers home the sentiment of the song, which is all come to focus rind this one word on a lyrical hook will normally repeat. So let's look at another example of a lyrical hook, which this time it's more than one word and it's a bit more of a recent song. So we find love in a hopeless place where it's by Calvin Harris, was famously sung by Riana. That is a huge, big emotional sentiment. We find love and hopeless place. That's either something you can relate to or something that you're aspiring to. So it's going to make an emotional connection with an audience. And it's repeated over and over again. We find love in a hopeless place. We want love in a hopeless place. We thought love in a hopeless place. We find love in a hopeless place. Those are the words that are really drawing you into the song and helping you connect with it. So let's move on to another example. The next example is one of my own songs, but MY defense, it may seem a bit like plugging. And I can only play use short snippets of other people's music. But because I own the copyright of my own songs, I can talk about them a bit more in depth. Now. That said, it's not too bad, It's just the standard deviation. So it should be quite clear that the title of this song is elimination. Unlike the other two songs, this is not just a lyrical hook, it's what's called a titular hook. In other words, it's also the title of the song, Night. I have tried to do something similar to Leonard Cohen, though it's very different style of music. And I sat up in the first verse, my basic concept, which is this person who has long dark evenings, the cartons closed, things are a bit dark. They only light is one small little candle and that reflects our psychological states. And then when we get into the chorus, That's becomes a firework bursting on a jet black sky. So you compare that to the little candle burning. But I don't actually use the word illumination until I got into the chorus because the whole concept of the song was you were in darkness. So this parcel was in darkness, quite lonely. Somebody comes along and suddenly there's light. So it's quite a simple concept. But I'm saving up for the course because the chorus as the main point, the song, like a firework bursting on a jet black sky, illumination, illumination, a sudden spark to melt an ice code life elimination, elimination. And that again a couple of lines later, elimination, elimination. And right at the end, the chorus illumination, illumination, illumination, illumination, height boring. You might be thinking That's not exactly inspired lyric writing, but that repetition of the hook got me places with this song. I managed to make a connection with the publisher I really wanted to work with through the song. And Nashville Songwriters Association international Navy wanted to watch twice on the back of the song. Whereas when I try to be clever and I tried to be Shakespeare and my lyrics attended to do less well. And the reason for that is if publishers are getting hundreds and hundreds of songs a day, you have to do something to make yourself stand out and to make yourself stand like quickly. And that's what I'm aiming to do both with the musical and with the lyrical hook of the song. You can tell what the title of this song is quite easily. So now let's talk about your lyric writing. So if you want to think about a song you're writing at the moment are planning to write, or maybe a song that you've written quite recently. Go back over those lyrics and say, can you discern a clear lyrical hook, a word or a phrase that's really going to stick in people's mind. Let's summarize this water as you're trying to say. And if your song doesn't have that, It's a really good idea to add that because it is hook best songs both lyrically and musically that tend to be sustainable, that tend to be commercial. 14. Songforms and Lyric Writing: We're going to look at a topic that's essential for all songwriters, even those who are pure lyricists and not as song forms. The most well-known song form on the one that you're most likely to use when you first start is a B, a B form, or in other words, the national formula. So AB, AB form is verse chorus, verse chorus, and then quite often a bridge on a chorus. There are a lot of examples. I mean, we could think of millions of songs and this structure, let it go. Popular in recent years. Gimme, gimme, gimme by ABA and wrecking ball by Miley Cyrus are all examples of songs that are in ABAB form, which is a very commercial song form. So let's look at one of those songs. Nih, you've probably heard this a 100 thousand times. It's everywhere. I'm not gonna go through all of these lyrics, but just looking a little bit at what it does, setting up the snow glowing white in the mountain. She's walking up the hill. She's a queen of isolation. That situation set up in the first verse 66, founded upon the chorus, let it go, let it go. Grit, titular hook gets such a big emotional statement. You don't let it go, can't hold it back anymore. Let it go, let it go, turn away and slam the door. Some grit imagery there. So the story builds. And in this particular song, they chorus has different lyrics. Every time it comes, Ryan, same melody, different lyrics. And that's because we're using a bit of a Music Theatre form here as well. This is a bit like sung monologue. This not a pure commercial pop song. So what I want to look at as well, it does in the so-called C-section in the bridge, or if you're British thought might be referred to as a middle it, but my power flurries through the air into the grind, my solace spiraling and frozen fractals all around. And one book crystallizes like an icy blast. I'm never going back. The past is in the past. So she's really in part by the time she gets to this point in the song. So in essence, we're looking at the whole story of the song from a completely different perspective than we were when we were talking about snow glowing white and the mountain on being a queen, that of isolation because she's in isolation at the starts on here. She's very, very empowered. She's much more in control. And that's really what a bridge should do in this particular song form. When it comes rind. And it should help us to look at things from a completely different point of view. And I should really move the story on. Now there are other song forms. There's a form that we'll look at in a few minutes called AABA form, which is a verse, verse bridge verse form, where the bridge would do something a little bit different. But in this form, that's what you want it to do. And you want your chorus to really summarize the whole essence of your song. Let it go, let it go. A AAA, AAA form. So that's basically verse, verse, verse with no chorus. And that's the form that's very much associated with folk music. With storytelling. And it's come from that kind of traditional backgrounds. So being door than our SUN, I think AIA forum, I think is songs like she made through the fair, my leg and love, which are Irish folk songs on wildland and time, which is a Scottish folk song, arguably because the lyrics are actually from, by someone from Belfast. And I live very near Belfast, So we like that. Now Wild Mountain Time actually does have a chorus, but the chorus in essence has the same melody as the virus. So I think we can technically call it a form. So let's look at one of these folk songs. If you don't know this song, it's exceptionally beautiful. I highly recommend looking it up new tapes. So my young love said to me, my mother won't mind. And my father were slightly for your lack of kind, then she stepped away from me and this sheeted say, it will not be long love till our wedding day. I'm not line it will not be long loved to our wedding day repeats again up the end of the song where we realized that his love has died and she's coming back to him in the night, meaning his own death is imminent. Very Irish, this isn't it. It will not be long lived till our wedding day. So slightly the precursor of the modern day lyrical hook, I, I'm claiming because you know, ours folk music fatten to American music in a big way. And American music became the commercial music of the world at 1, but a big input from the bread. So I don't think I'm pushing it too far to say that we are Irish, had a bit of an influence on the way that world's commercial music went. So that line from the first sparse repeat that last part. Very, very emotional. It's got the story that moves what it doesn't have as a chorus that keeps repeating the man of emotional point of the song because we don't really need this. This song is basically a story and it's come out of a storytelling tradition. And there's no reason why you couldn't write an AIA saw add Sharon has made all things spoken acoustic, very, very commercial. Actually, there is a point of writing something, not because it's commercial, just because you won't take. So that would be on mice challenge to set for yourself to write on a AAA form song. Now let's look at a AABA form, which I refer to slightly earlier. That's where you have the verse verse and then a bridge on a virus. It normally comes in at 32 bars. There's an awful lot of old jazz standards and swing songs that do this. They usually come in at 32 bars on them. Want generally tends to happen is the bridge. The last verse are repeated to make the song long enough to play because normally it comes in at around 1.52 minutes. Examples of this form include, dream a little dream with me. I can't help falling in love with you. And will you still love me tomorrow? Yesterday by Paul McCartney and other on pretty much every jazz standard that you can possibly think of. All those old Tin Pan Alley songs follow this structure of salt, right? So let's look at, well, you still love me tomorrow. Bye Carole King, grit songwriter. So I mentioned before that the bridge in this particular form does something different than a bridge would do if we were in a b ib form in the national formula. So the bridge and this song is tonight with words on spoken. You say that I'm the only one, but my heartbeat broken when the light meets the morning sun. That that's the whole point. That's what she's worried about. That's why she's singing this song. So in this form, the bridge is basically taking the place of a chorus and making the moon point of the whole song. Compare it to the first verse, which was tonight your mind completely, you gave your love so sweetly tonight the light of love is in your eyes, but will you still love me tomorrow? It's the same kind of emotional sentiment is just phrased in a different way. And that again, we have who lyrical hook thing going at the end. Will you still love me tomorrow? Big emotional for is that we can all cottoned onto we really know what that means. So there's one more song form for us yet, and that is post form. And really, unless you're a very, very established artists, you're not going to be writing in postwar. It's blocks of music put together very much associated with prog rock cues. So if you think sort of Radiohead Pink Floyd examples might include Bohemian Rhapsody, they carry that way it, you know, where there isn't really a verse chorus, verse chorus. There's a lot of sections of music added together on these songs tend to be very long. I would think that it would be unlikely unless you were very, very established or specifically working in the prog rock fields, that you would be asked to write anything and post form. So we're not going to look too much in depth at that noise. If you are interested and post-war him, you'd like to chat to me about it. Feel free to get in touch. 15. Over to You: Rewrite One of Your Lyrics: Hello again. I hope you picked up some useful tips from the last section. On, in this section, it really is over to you. And we're going to be looking at your songs in this section. So the very first exercise that I would like you to do is to revise a song that you've already written. So if you haven't written a filler at key out, if you're not at that point, you can't write one from scratch, but using the principles that I'm going to mention. And based on what we've just learned, I've attached a checklist to this lecture, which is the somatic checklist. And I won't cheat to look at your lyrics against this checklist and try and fix anything that might have gone slightly astray. And that's a very important thing that commercial songwriters do. You don't just write alert can go about set, knock it out and half in R. There is a re-writing process. Unusually, the rewrite is rewritten a few times. And then when the song is actually recorded in the studio, you work, got that certain things work or don't work for the synchronous rewritten again. So I want you to get into that habit of revision and rewriting. So there is a checklist that I'd like to go through with you and I want you to measure your songs against this checklist. The first thing we're going to look at is, does your song have a story progression? Is there a clear movement for a debate? And as that story clear to the listener to that, do they know what's happening? And something that particularly beginner songwriters do is they pour their heart ICT and the song, which is well and good. But they don't always think, does the person listening to the song really understand what I'm trying to say. Someone once said to me that a good song conveys high, the songwriter fails, but a great soul conveys high, the listener fails. In other words, people hear your story and they can almost imagine that it's theirs. So does your song do that is the story Claire, I'm going to have a little look. I have this all written, died, I hope you don't mind. The next point is, is the image array emotive? And is it consistent? Have you got a clear series of images going through your song? So think of the recent song, supermarket floors. A song about someone who's lost a mother, which is awful and we have the central image of the supermarket Florida. Does your song or an image in it that people can connect to that's going to real people in it. It's the imagery consistent. If you've used a metaphor, again, is that a clear metaphor? The metaphor consistent. Think Hotel California or Folsom Prison Blues that we looked at in the last section. If you've made references to somebody else's work, like say you've quoted Shakespeare, Have you done it in a way that makes sense? I'm mix the sentiment your own. And also if you have quoted somebody else's words, are you sure there's no copyright infringement? Anything that was written within the last 70 years, you might need to have a bit of copyright clearance to use somebody's works for bottom, It's the language that you've used appropriate to your target audience. So if you're writing for, say, 17 to 20 year-olds, have you used words that 17 to 20 year-olds actually use as at the way that they speak. I'm, I know we've already had a video on that. Depending on the song form. Does the chorus convey the man point of the song? And if you're in AABA form, does the bridge convey the main point of the song? Does the bridge go somewhere that shows a new point of view? If you're an ABAB form, does it take the story somewhere else or progress the story or show us somebody else's point of view? Is it coming at it from a different angle? Does the song have a clear conclusion? Do we know high the character circumstances or their point of view, you're, their feelings have changed throughout the course of the song and we've come to a definite conclusion. And is there a clear lyrical pay-off line or lyrical hook? Because as we discussed in the last section, it's really important to have lyrical hook. So I have written all this done for you on the checklist, on it just like you to check one of your own lyrics against this checklist. And evident red needs editing. And if you would like, send it to me for feedback. 16. Two Lyrics on the Same Theme: What I'd like to do is look at two lyrics that are on the same fame, which in this case is the theme of grief. And I want to ask which of these lyrics appeals most to you? And why? Well does it apply to it that makes it more effective than the other lyric? Could be, you'd like them both the same. There's no right or wrong answer to this. We're just going to look at different ways of approaching the same thing. So these are two songs in the theme of great. The first one is supermarket floors buy ads share. And I apologize that these texts, these slides are really text heavy. But there's no other real way of looking at the larynx other than actually having them on the screen. So I took the supermarket flowers from the window, sill I3, the DOT from the cup packed up the photo album. Matthew had made memories of a life that's been loved. Take the get well soon carts and stuffed animals poured the O Ginger bear down the sink. Dad always told me, Don't cry when you're died, but mom, there's a tear every time that I blink. So it's using a lot of imagery, the imagery of the supermarket floors to photo album. That sounds like something very rail that's actually happened than someone's life. And then they, oh, I'm in paces. That's a phrase that people would generally use. I'm in pieces, I'm in bits. So if you want to pause this video and have a rate at these lyrics, so it goes on to sing hallelujah, you were an angel and the shape of my mom. So Angeles and haven't then very inefficient use of metaphor when it comes to death until lost there. So that's the first lyric, the second lyric, dancing in the sky by Danny and Lizzie. And that's really going with the idea of having being in the sky and a very, you know, very well worn metaphor for death and you'd rising. Tell me what does it look like in heaven? Is it painful? Is it free? Like I say, does the sunshine bright forever? Have your fears on your pan gone away? So imagining what the plants, where are the person that they've loved as gone? So it's coming from a slightly different tack. Much less dawned on Earth and the atmosphere and so on was very earthy. And this is honestly a bit more heavenly as it's a bit more in the realms of Dre and imaginative than the others saw. The chorus, I hope you're dancing in the sky. I hope you're singing in the angels choir. I hope to Angeles know what they have. I bet it's nice up and haven't since you arrived. So expressing affection for the Parson. This is obviously a very, very well-worn use of imagery. Do we think it's cliche? Do we think that it works? There's no right or wrong. So I'm going to give you time to read both these lyrics and then answer some questions. So I'd like you to think about, what do you like and dislike about each of these lyrics? Which one do you consider to be the most effective and why? And based on your reading of the larynx, why do you think they songs were so successful? What is it about them that's resonated with people? Obviously grief as, as a bit of a universal fame and something that most of us go through at some point in our lives. So if you want to just take out a notebook and pan, I'm coalesced your thoughts around this and say, what methods they are using to put the heart strings to reach people with aren't actually really depressing people. And think about what elements of these really successful songs you can use in your own song writing. 17. Write Lyrics to This Tune: Hi guys. So what I'm gonna do now is play a little chain that I've written that currently has no lyric. Well, it does have a lyric, but we'll forget that pretended as numeric. And I would like you to write on the right to the song that if you'd like, you can message those lyrics tomato, but be like recover it in together grid. So when you get a chain and there's no brief because it could be again a chain and you get a note saying, I'd like this song to be a bites, falling leaves and ultimate say, but here we don't have that. I'm going to leave it totally open-ended. So what you need to do as just really listened to the harmonics of the song cords. Are they happy? Are they sad? What kind of mood are they suggesting to you? And then they become up with a theme through that. So I'm going to play the chin guy. Hello. So how does it know? And then when we're done with the lesson, okay, part of the old slit, but it's only for the purpose of example. So really looking forward to hearing what you come up with best by the way, don't be too influenced by my particular voice. Because it could be when you're writing a song that the songwriter who sends you the chain might not end up being the final center. All the tracks are more bike chain than a bite. My voice, Alawite harmonics, what kind of mood is coming through the courts? And I'm really looking forward to hearing what you come up with. 18. Declutter a Lyric: Attach to the lyric sheet to this video and basically its lyrics that I wrote a few years ago, but I've purposely mask them up and kind of cluttered them. And what I'd like you to do is count them backed on so that the lyrics completely scam that the first line of each verse has the same number of syllables with the stresses of the same place. The second line of HBr has the same number of syllables with the stresses in the same place, et cetera. Now I, as a lyricist or as a songwriter, that's something you'll be asked today quite a lot. For example, last year I wrote a charity song for the Alzheimer's Society. And the gentleman had written a poem, but he wasn't necessarily a songwriter, lyricist. He was a poet. And the song when it arrived, the lyrics that I was asked to write music to were way too long to make a song. And also they didn't have the same syllable kinds on each line. So I then had to negotiate with him and on, once we came up with a chain, how we were going to change the word so what we could cut out, what we're going to leave in high, we could change things to make it scan better. So that's basically what I would like you to do with the lyric that I have attached. So it's a Word document you can mass away. But I know in a lot of courses that you do, what people do is they just watch videos and they take notes, but I like my students to work. So if you want to download the Word document and have a go at decluttering lyric that were bigger. It 19. Using Google to Write Lyrics: So if you've been having some problems with writer's block and you would like a method to help you kickstart your writing again, using Google images as a great way to do that. So I'm here on Google and I got to type in a quite generic term, relationship breakup. There's about a million songs on that topic and go to images. Now, the first thing I noticed is that everything looks a bit gray. Gray seems to be about color of depression, low mood, whereas love seems to be represented by rad, all the red hearts, the girl in the red jumper, actually quite like this picture. It has a bit of a story to it, but let's keep scrolling design and see if I can find an image that really appeals to a great story. Okay, so let's look at this image and we want to apply the who, what, where, why, why principle? So, who are these people? Well, does their situation high? Did they get into that situation? How are they going to get out of it? Where are they? And why has all this happened? So by asking yourself those questions, you can formulate a great story. There's also a lot in this image that's going to be great for coming up with a story like, I like the fact that the woman is standing in the lights words the guy's face is completely in shadow and it looks like it's the morning, it's me. So what has happened the night before? The bad is a little bit scruffy, an unmatched, that's a great image. There's the red lamp. There's so much that we could talk about it here. So I have, of course, she's a very generic term. Let's see what's, what happens if I use something very specific. So let's say, Oh, bedroom fights. Let's hope this isn't going to be two x rid of it. And we'll go to images. All exhibit tweet about generic. No, I hear something I hadn't thought all of the kind of idea of a pillow fights. So you can kind of compare play fighting to proper actual fighting. So here's a very different image. Yes, they're still the Massey bad, but they're clearly having fun. That's a playful relationships. So you could compare that to the other I mentioned, you know, how I did it all go wrong again, the light's coming in through the windows. We could add to our original story or come up with a completely different story from this image. So this method of using giggle, this is of course, intertextual writing, using somebody else's art form to spark ideas for your own on the member that is somebody else's art form and they're likely to own the copyright, all that. So never just right-click and save an image from Guigo and post it somewhere else online. That's not what I'm advocating here. A tall, it's just using the images that are there to spark your own ideas. So if you want to do that, if you want to think of a topic that you want to ride a bike and find some images and giggle, but go with the idea, I'd be really interested in reading your final lyric. 20. Write a Pay Off Line: So we could almost make a competition. I did this next exercise. I'm going to give you some lines of lyric. And I want you to find a pay-off line are really, really good line that ties together the sacrament and makes a real point moves the story onward. So I have included this little virus as a resource attached to this lecture. And I'm also going to set it up to the screen. And we can always have like a competition to see who comes with the best payoff life. So O person classes all I will read a white lie cheat. We wanted to in the garden as the old trees were freezing. You are holding my hand. I listened to you breathing. The R was lit when we reach the gate and you turn to me and sat over 2 Pi, does this end? I'd be interested to know, feel free to send me the results. 21. Bonus: How to Become a Pro Songwriter by People Who've Done It: hi students and anybody else who happens to be watching this video. Here I am in one of the nicest recording studios are ever worked. Um, I've been writing in here for the past two days, so I'm just gonna spend rights. You can see it. Really? Comfy air conditioned all the kit. So this is the words Norway. And I'm here on a songwriting camp to write songs for your vision. 2020. There are professional songwriters here from all over the world. All signed two different publishers. So I thought that it would be useful for you while I was here. If I interviewed them on high, they became professional songwriters What they did to get there. So hope this video is going to be useful for you. Hi, students. Here I am with the lovely kid. The Sky was actually signed to Universal as a songwriter, which is pretty cool where at the moment of out of the woods in Norway, writing for Eurovision 2020 which is really exciting. And can you and I have been doing track today, So gonna ask you about a parcel writing. So what made you decide to become a songwriter? for many years old I did was like singing when I was a kid. I was not simply school productions stuff, you know, the usual stuff. And for May, the turning point was when I wanted to be able to put my message in my own songs. And you can take the eyes and ice unless you write Arizona's right. You're in some things. You need to get good at something. I think that's what really pushed. Yeah, because I felt like I had a message. Is an artist and you want to get that message out in the form of a song? Excellent. So, like, what are some of the things that you did that got you to the point where you could be signed? Teoh your major labels publishing division? I had a lot of learning to dio lots of songs that we were in a song sets with for me Teoh. Hone my skill in my craft land What I was going up. I was personally even that I'm much better melodies the lyrics. So I'm getting better. But and yeah, some of the things were collaboration. Writing with other writers who are back to the new as well, making yourself feel a little bit uncomfortable and challenge is really good. It's really positive is actually the only way to grow. Visit somewhere, to be challenged, them to be pushed out of your comfort zone, to write with different people who are you have different perspectives than you on melody and lyrics. So collaboration was a big one. I would save May on them. New experiences I was traveling brings a lot of inspiration. T be able to write some. She need lots of good subject matters looked subjects to write about. And if you were going places and experiencing new things, then you will feel inspired. As one short question, I would ask, Was it really cool writing that brought you to the attention of Universal Because you being writing with writers that they were familiar with is that kind of is this wise business once it makes no sense because you could only ever send it to the people in your little contact pool. Yeah, whereas if you write with writers, then they will have a little contact, and then that song that you've read in that one day could go full of different contact on bay sent to eventually to the right person who would then either your voice or listen to how you right. And they then she's got from And so it goes further than you could get yourself. When you collaborate, you have other pools of contacts. Is it once again? Absolutely so, Yeah. She definitely does have something, by the way, so check kidding. Hi, students. I'm here with that Louise. Do you want a personal interest? Are now? Because my German is Oh, yeah. And the reason is you could be releasing your first single suit on she signed as a songwriter just to go get yet Napa sounds going to get a second. So she writes a writ stuff. We're here at the moment of out of the woods in Norway, writing for Eurovision 2020 which is being really fun. So that asked Louisa Louisa, what made you decide to become a musician? Well, for me, I was always a singer, and I felt like kind of a relief on the ferry to write songs into single day. And I have a feeling I have to tell my own stories, and this is why that's okay. So you wrote stories and get your message. Are that something that I love? A songwriter? Say, what would you say it was that you did that got signed basically like I did you get where you are? Well, basically, I would say I just did everything I could to be recognized in some way as a singer, as a whatever. I met so many people. I went everywhere like I went through two billion from Cologne, which is not so close in Germany and just met Brenda. People done one day I met a guy cool to be asses and he's on me to my first published networking and getting yourself there. Yeah, important message. That's it. Just like work work, right? Do what you love and let people know what you do. Like especially like through social media through. So everything ended you to I did life stuff I did writing. I did everything I could to be I'm gonna put some links, raises social media with this video. So people, can I follow your example of what you did. Thank you. Thank you so much. Lees. That's really helpful. We're we're just having lunch with my studio. Thank you. I'm here with the lovely in new Connor, who is an hour so writer like myself. He's have all my 30 songs associated with your general Richard. Quite amazing. So I'm not asking what made you decide to get hold of music. I think what made you decide to get involved in music is speaking my truth. Speaking what I want to get across to be. It's very unusual, very rare for some letters to have that opportunity, like all that must want to tell our story. But to be involved in songs on to just say this is what I feel with good or bad Just get out there and say it. Don't be afraid. It made me think this is the avenue that I want to go down. Don't listen to other people. Don't Teoh other influences, I think. What is your view? What do you want to tell? How do you want to expect story? That's just don't be afraid. Also, you know it takes a dark side, but it takes a every song has a bit of a gang of light and shade. Yeah, but also don't be afraid to kind of go. I'm going to tell that story. Also tell that lights tell everything their happiness because they have been cheating on that. But 10 start, very pressing solves. Nobody wants to sign. Some of the only has very pressing, so I have to mix it. Otherwise you're going to be stuck in this type of song. And I've seen people who are somewhere anything one genre, and that is really bad for your career. You'll be typecast and not do. Every life has different dimensions of it, like you know us from sin mood every day, or even, like all the way through today. So what is it you think you know? It has gotten to the point about your act, where artists are like messages asking, What do you think that I think I love people was working for me? A lot of it is you don't have a joint. If you don't have personality, you can connect with people. And if you can't mix with a group of you you've never met before, he's kind of cancer. That's where that's a drawback. You have to try yourself. You might be scared, but you have to just choice. I go, I'm gonna do my best. You might be full of anxiety going in there. Kind of. I don't know what's gonna happen, but the best thing is just face this fear down. Anyway, That's a great message. Don't be afraid. I'll be able to get on with people Syndrome has turned up funding for my songwriting students on I'm asking working music. Walt Manju won't work in music. What is it that you did that brought you to this point in your career? Me personally, I am down mixing and using program W called life because I waas I wanted to convince my friend that this was an easy thing to do. It's not, but I thought so. That point in time. There is a whole lot making a good song. What you would first think challenge is really what made you what made me really snakes go for this day for us And I really want to really want to make this life rather than just a stupid bet. Yeah, yeah, yeah. It started by not serious. Your Hello are here. Yes, yes. So that's quite Mr what got you to the point they would like I say, let's get Senator has a dedication to excellence. He doesn't have anything which I think is a big part of thanks. That's thanks. Um, no, I actually had actually had a lot of luck. Nothing. Cryptocurrencies is embarrassing. I feel like I kind of had too much left my way through time. I decided I would use that to to invest in something that I wanted to do. And that is that. That's music, because music is really hard and I actually need to do that more lucky. Ask who made some money. You make a good point there that people do need to have a day job until I think it's important to be financially sensible, like investing in other things on making music and a wise it's not stable in this gown like Like you could come here and you could write so and it might be picked up. Might make one things from it Or you can actually spam gonna get here Panic, actually thinking good advice. Thanks so much Teoh way. Are you in your dreams? Thank you so much. Way are going head into the party 22. Getting Feedback: So if you really go into lyric writing or you've been sold writing generally, you would like some feedback on your work. I do. You offer a free feedback service, so please feel free to send me either lyrics or whole am P threes on. I'll give you a proper considered the back sheet, which will look at things like your hooks that will let things like your story progressions . So it won't just say, you know, that was good. I will actually give you some comments, and hopefully that's going to be useful if you're aiming to take some running forward. Getting things back from music educators from people who work in the industry and for people who've been writing in years is for years is something that is really, really important today. So more than happy to receive any feedback on Also, I love to hear what has happened to students in my courses after they finish, because I've had some students go on to great things, go on tours, schools get ready to play, and it just, you know, it warms the cockles of my heart to know that the course has been useful to you. What you've done with that. So if you have any comments or feedback on the course that you think it can be improved or you've been enjoying it, please feel free. Teoh Lever View or Teoh send me a message. But if you got a story, Buck would be amazing to hear. So in the next section, the last section of the course, I have some useful organisations and these air organizations, such as performing rights organizations that pay royalties, music body development organization. So if you're really looking to take music forward, I really recommend that you don't load and read the pdf. And don't just finish the course here because there may be some great directions for the future. In that hyperlink document, you only have to click on the legs on Thank you once again. So much for doing the course