Social Psychology: Perceiving Others | Nejla Z. | Skillshare

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Social Psychology: Perceiving Others

teacher avatar Nejla Z., Manager of Information Technologies

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

7 Lessons (22m)
    • 1. Perceiving Others intro story

    • 2. Perceiving Others

    • 3. Initial Impression Formation

    • 4. Nonverbal behavior

    • 5. Attribution

    • 6. Making Inferences About Personality

    • 7. Attributions for Success and Failure

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About This Class

The fact is that our social behavior arises from our social cognition. Especially when the unexpected occurs, we, as a humans, want to understand and explain why people act as they do. Social psychology’s great lesson is the enormous power of social influence. This influence can be seen in our conformity, our obedience to authority, and our group behavior.

If you have ever wondered:

How Much of Our Social World Is Just in Our Heads?

Would People Be Cruel If Ordered?

To Help? Or to Help Oneself?

A common thread runs through these questions: They all deal with how people view and affect one another. And that is what social psychology is all about. Social psychologists study attitudes and beliefs, conformity and independence, love and hate.

Course is made of 13 carefully graded sections, where every section include several lectures related to the specific topic. Of course, we start with the mother of Social Psychology and have some general info about Psychology itself, than we go to the center and start with the Social Psychology. We cover two main parts of Social Psychology – Social Thinking and Social Influence.

Social thinking covers topics where we learn more about ourselves, who are we in social worlds, how our selfesteem affect it, and how we perceive others. And later we have Social influence and topics which talk about how persuasion affect our personality, how we act if we are given power in certain fields, and are we capable of killing someone if it’s ordered to us?

Who should take this course and why?

If you find anything interesting in this field, and if you like answering on the question that are so obvious but maybe you never will ask them, you are the right person for this course. If you like to hear and learn about how todays advertisers, marketers, and scientists first of all who bombard you with those ads all over our social networks, how they experiment with our brains, and how they made someone to buy certain things or just to explain that “unexpected” behavior click enroll and let’s find out together. :)

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Nejla Z.

Manager of Information Technologies


Bachelor of Management of Information Technologies
International Burch University
Oct 2013 - Jun 2016

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1. Perceiving Others intro story: in 1991 gang who was its 28 year old Chinese former graduate physics students at the University of Eye opening the United States. He had reason. He lost the competition for an academic award that's unsuccessfully appealed the decision, and afterward he was unable to find an academic job. On November 1st, he entered a university of You of physics departments and shot his adviser, the person who handled his appeal. Several Paolo students in vice embers and then himself in old Yongle killed five other people besides himself, estate for faculty members in one student and he seriously injured on other students. These tragic events prompt a lot of people in the communities affected in the press to discuss the reasons for the killings. Michael Morris, at the time a graduate student at the University of Michigan, become interested in these discussions. He not is that the reports on the English language campus newspaper Blocos, mainly on gang, was perceived internal characteristics, making claims about him having had a bad temper and disturbed personality, for example, more is then consulted. A fallow graduate student was Chinese keeping plan to see how Chinese newspapers were covering the scene. Even that said that in contrast to the English language campus papers Morris has raided, the explanations in the Chinese papers, often centered on the social circumstances, indicate Lor slide, for instance, that he didn't get along. But he supervised or end on the relatively easy availability of guns. Indian Acted thinks banking worries were curious about whether the differences they had observed reflected a wider trend in how gangs those crimes have been explained. In an attempt to answer that question, they conducted an analysis off the content off the reports about the killings in The New York Times and then Chinese language Miss B. Burger World with Journal. Sure enough, they found that the differences in the types of explanations offered for the murders were worried different, whereas in Europe does describe them mainly in reference to lose internal characteristics. Noting things like a sinister add to Mr Wills character well before the shootings the world , the journal reporters attended to focus mainly on social factors leading up to the crimes, for example, arguing that the tragedy reflects the lack of religion in Chinese culture. 2. Perceiving Others : Why do these two newspapers a report on the same events in such different ways? There are many possible reasons. One parking truly irrelevant topic for social psychologists is that off person perception, which is the study of how we proceed and explain other people's behavior. Could it be that the different pockets of each newspaper was in part due to the contrasting these that people from different cultures sent to try to explain human behaviour? Although mass killings like these are mercifully rare events, how we try to explain them illustrate many of the processes that we go through in trying to figure out the cause is off more everyday behaviors to Why did my boss showed me today? Why is my partner so quiet tonight? Why is that a couple arguing in the street? Or why did I agree to go to the party whenever they're curious about why people, including ourselves, behaved in the ways that they do? We engage in an activity that social psychology school attribution, which is the process off assigning causes to behaviors. So we're often in the business of trying to make sense our people in their behavior. In that sense, we are all amateur social psychology. In some situations, we mean each to figure people out quite quickly. Some of these people are not particulary significant to us. The unknown pedestrians we pass on the side wall orders Check out Clark and the grocery Frances in these cases on what interactions might be on a fairly superficial level, we might just engage in a quick transaction, not our had in passing exchange pleasantries or accomplish some relatively limited tasks with the person before we move on. In other cases, our initially precious off others might be more important. For example, if someone approach issue in a deserted alleyway, do you need to be, Ah, has to recruit? Or is it safe for you the computing on your way? In the section, we'll consider how we make sense of other people, including the initial and often intuitive impressions that we rely on so heavily an hour later, more considered judgements. Then we will turn to the process of causal attribution with the goal of understanding how we infer what other people are really like by observing their behaviors. Finally, we'll consider how a cure it we are in making our determinations about others and will examine differences among us in our person per section styles. When we are finished, you will have a better idea of how we make judgments about other people in this inside May enable you to perceive others more accurately. 3. Initial Impression Formation: people are often worry skilled in person perception. The process of learning about other people and I will brings are designed to help us judge others efficiently. We have to Not, is that infants prefer to look at faces of people more than they do other visual patterns, and Children quickly learn to identify people in their emotional expressions. Is adults were able to identify and remember a potentially unlimited number of people as you navigate our social environments, and we form impressions of those others quickly and without much backward. Furthermore, our first impressions are, at least in some cases, remarkably, a cured. Recent research is beginning to uncover the areas in our praying where person perception of yours in one relevant Fadi Neeson and McCray used functional magnetic resonance imaging scans to test whether people store information about other people in a different location in the brain. Then were the store information about animals and they found it. This was the case. It's the sick curious off the prefrontal cortex were found to be more active when people made judgments about people or other Dan docks. Learning about other people is a lot like learning about any other object in our environment, with one major exception with an object, there is no interaction will learn about the characteristics of a car or a cell phone, for example. We don't any concern that the car or the phone is learning about us. It is a one way process with people in conscious. There is a two way social process. Just as we're learning about another person, that person is learning about us or potentially attempting to keep us from a currently proceeding. He or her. For instance, research has sounded when other people are looking, the writing it as well process. Their futures were fully and faster, and we remember them better than when the same people are not looking enough in the social dynamic with others. Then we have two goals for us when we could learn about them. And second, we want them to learn about us and we hope, like and respect us. Our prophecies here is under former process. How we make sense. Father people, Let's remember that justice you're judging, then they're judging you. We have seen in the section about south that when people are asked, described themselves, they generally do so in terms of their physical caters. For example, I'm really tall social category memberships or, um, a woman and trade unfriendly. The skirt or six well, reflect the dimensions We girls when we try to form Impressions office. 4. Nonverbal behavior: nonverbal behavior is any type of communication that doesn't involve speaking, including facial expressions and body language touching the most patterns and interpersonal distance. No more about behaviors are used to reinforce spoken words, but also include such things as interpersonal distance or how Far away from You, the other person's 10 tonal voice. I gaze and hand gestures and body bar positions. The ability to decode nonverbal behavior is a learned early, even before the development of language. We tends to like people who have a pleasant tone of voice and open fracture, who stand in a property distance away from us and whole look at and touch us for the right amount of time, Natural March or Tulio. The particular nonverbal behavior that we use as well as their meetings are determined by social norms and these storms me wary across cultures. For example, people holding in world climates nearer the AC router use more non wearable communication or talking with their hands or so showing strong facial expressions. And I will likely to touch each other during conversation that people holy in colder climates and your earth pulls in the appropriate amount of personal space to keep between ourselves and others also varies across cultures. In some cultures, for instance, those also with American countries. It is a property to stand where we close to another person while talking to him or her. And in idle Kartal, for example, in the United States and Western Europe, more interpersonal space eased in or the appropriate amount off eye contact with others is also the Thurman. By culture in like in America, it is appropriate to lock eyes with another person, whereas in Japan people more often try to avoid eye contact. Although non verbal behaviours can be informally during the initial stages of person perception, they're limited in what they can. Condi, In general, they communicate our own status or dominance as well as our interest in or liking off. Another. Honorable behavior provides different information than horrible behavior because people frequently say one thing and do another. Perhaps you remember being really angry at someone, but not one thing to let on that you were mad. So you try to hide your emotions, but not by not saying anything. But perhaps you're known. Rebel behavior eventually gave you a way to the other person, although you're were trying as hard as you could, not two. You just looked angry. We frequently rely more on non wearable than honorable behavior. One. Mass cities are contradictory. One reason for this is that we know that it is relatively easy to monitor our wearable behavior, but harder to control the non verbal. However, we expected people who need to deceive others, for instance, where we good poker players are able to modify. Or they're not horrible behavior better than most people, making it difficult to get a good read on them. But because we use nonverbal behavior so frequently in our social interactions, we're in fluent readers of them. We also realize that we can gather, communicate with others when we use them. Indeed, it is worried difficult to communicate a curently when we cannot express ourselves and on verbally you probably have not. Is this yourself? If you email or tax the message to your friend, for instance, you need to be careful about using sarcasm because he or she might misinterpret your meaning. Because nonverbal information is so important, we quickly learn to incorporate it in the form off, um, articles in our text messages 5. Attribution: we have seen that we use personality traits to help us understand and communicate about the people we know. But how do we know what rates people have? People don't walk around with a label saying and generous or I'm a grass tickled your foreheads. But if J hits joy, we might go go that Jay is aggressive. And if Mark leaves a big tip for the waiters, we might go that he's generous. It seems natural and reasonable to make such inferences, because we can assume often but not always correctly, that behavior East Coast by personality. It is a Jace aggressiveness that causes her to heat, and it is marks the generosity that large to his big, although we can sometimes in fear personality by observing behavior. But this is not always the case. Remember, that behavior is influenced by both our personal characteristics and the social context in which we find ourselves. What this means is that the behavior we observe other people engaging in might not always be reflective off their personality. Instead, the behavior might be caused more by the situation rather than by underlying person characteristics, perhaps J. Heat drawing. Not because freeze really in a grassy person but because of joy, insulted or provoked her first. And perhaps Mark left a big tip in order to impress his friends rather again. Because haste, really generous because behavior can be influenced by both the person and the situation, we must attempt the thermal. Which of these two causes actually more strongly the thurman, the behavior, the process of strength of the Thurman? The causes of people's behavior is known as causal attribution. Because we cannot see personality, we must work through in fear it. So when a couple we know breaks up next slide, what seemed to be a match made in heaven were naturally curious. What could have caused the break up? Was it something one of them sad or did well, perhaps dressed from financial hardship Was the corporate making a causal attribution can be a bit like conducting a social psychology experiment, we carefully observed the people were interested in, and we know how they behave in different social situations. After we have made our observations with the role, our conclusions, we make a personal or internal or disposition all also called attribution. When we decide that the behavior was caused primarily by the person and a personal attribution might be something along the sentence. I think they broke up because Sarah was not committed to the relationship. At other times, we made the Thurman that the behavior was caused primarily by the situation. So we call these making a situational attribution. A situational attribution might be something like, I think they broke up because they were under such financial stress it. Yet Other times we may decide that the behavior was caused by both the person and the situation. For example, like this. I think we broke up because Sarah's lack of commitment really became an issue once they had financial. 6. Making Inferences About Personality: it is easier to make personal attributions in some cases than in others. When a behavior is unusual or unexpected. In the particle situation it appears in, we can more easily make a personal attribution for it. Imagine the situation you go for a party and your inch introduced to Kate. Kate shakes your hand and says, Nice to meet you. Can you readily conclude on the basis of these behavior that Katie's a friendly person? Probably not, because the social context demand that people act in a friendly way by shaking your hand in saying nice to meet. It is difficult to know whether Kate active friendly because of the situation or because she's really friends. But imagine on the other side that instead of shaking your hand, gave in Norse you and walks away. In such cases, it is easier toe in fear that kid is unfriendly in this case because her behaviour is so contrary to what one would expect. To test this idea advert, Jones and his colleagues conducted a classic experiment in which participants viewed one of four different videotapes off a man who was applying for a job for how the participants, the video indicated that the man was interviewing for a job is a submariner ah, position that's required close contact with many people over a long period of time. It was clear to demand being interviewed as well as to the research participants. Digital. Be a good submariner. You should be extroverted, for example. You should enjoy being around others. The other half of the participants. So a video in which the man was interviewing for a job as an astronaut which involved remember the study, was conducted in 90 61 being in a small capsule alone for days on end. In this case, it was clear to everyone that in order to be a good astronaut, you should have an introverted personality. During the videotape of the interview, a second Meribel was also manipulated. 1/2 of the participants saw the man indicated that he was actually an Inter work. He's setting such I like to work on my own. I don't go out much, and the other half saw demand, saying that he was actually an extra word, he said It such as I would like to be a salesman or I always did ideas from others. After ruling one off the four videotapes. Participants were asked to indicate how introverted or extroverted, they told the applicant. Really, Waas, as you can see in the table when the applicant gave responses that better matched what was required by the job, for example, for the submariner job, the applicant said he was an axe forward and for the astronaut job, he said he was an inter word The participants didn't change. His statements were, as indicated, off, his underlying personality as they did when the applicant said the opposite of what was expected by the job. The idea here is that the statements that were unusual or unexpected on the basis for the job requirements just seemed like they could not possibly having caused by the situation. So the participants really thought that the Inter we was telling the truth. On the other hand, when the Winter Wheat made statements that were consistent with with was required by the situation, it was more difficult to be sure that he was telling the truth, perhaps thinking back to the discussion of strategic cell presentation in previous action, he was just saying these things because he wanted to get a job and the participations made weaker personal attributions for his behavior. We can also make personal attributions more easily when we know that the person had a choice in the behavior. If a man chooses for be friendly, even in situation which he might not be, this probably means that he's friendly. But if we can, the Thurman that he's been forced to be friendly, it is more difficult to know if, for example, you saw a man pointing a gun at another person, and then you saw that person give his watch and wallet to the gunmen you would probably not in fear did. The person was generous. 7. Attributions for Success and Failure: causal attribution is singled in many Gorton situations now. Lots. For example, when we attempt the memory, why we or others have succeeded or failed it attack. Think back for a moment to attest that you've book or another task that you performed and consider why you did either well or pearly on it. Then see if your tools reflect with Bernard whiner consider to be the organ factors in this regard. Whiner was interested in how we determine the causes of success or failure because he found that this information was parking Curly important for us accurately the permitting, why we have succeeded or Field will have us see which asks We are good at already and which we need to work on in order to improve. Whiner proposed that we make these determinations by engaging in causal attribution and that the outcomes off our decision making process were attribution made either to the person. So we have toys. I succeeded, failed because of my own personal characteristics or to the situation where we say I succeeded failed because of something about a situation. Wyness analysis is shown here in this figure, as you can see and according to whiner. Successful failure can be seen as coming from personal causes, which is a bill if you're Mark aviation or situational causes such as lack or task difficulty. However, he also argued it, those personal institutional causes could be Iger stable, less likely to change over time or unstable. More like to change over time. This figure shows the potential attribution that we can make for our or for other people success or failure. Lockers considers whether the attribution czar to the person or the situation and stability . Consider whether or not the situation is likely to remain the same over time. If you did well on the past because you're really smart, then this is a personal and stable attribution of ability. It is clearly something that is caused by your personality, and it is also quite a stable. Got your smart TV and he will be probably be smart in the future. However, if you succeeded more because you study hard, then this is a success. You to motivation. It is again personal. You started, but it is also potentially unstable. Although you study really hard for the test, you might not work so hard for the next one what are considered to task difficulty to be a situational costs. You may have succeeded in the test because it was easy, and he assumed that the next test would probably be easy for you to, for example, what? That the task, whatever it is, is always either hard or easy. And finally, why not considered success due to lock your just guessed a lot of the answers correctly. Toby A situational costs, but one that was more unstable than past the school. D. It does out that all the whiners attribution do not always fit perfectly. For example, Pasqua, difficulty me. Some things change over time and does theater least somewhat unstable? The four types of information of pretty well captured the types of attributions did people make for success into a failure.