Social Psychology: Obedience and Power | Nejla Z. | Skillshare

Social Psychology: Obedience and Power

Nejla Z., Manager of Information Technologies

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6 Lessons (28m)
    • 1. Obedience

      9:58
    • 2. The Stanford prison study and Abu Ghraib

      5:14
    • 3. Power

      0:49
    • 4. Reward, Coercive and Legitimate Power

      6:05
    • 5. Referent and Expert Power

      2:47
    • 6. Does Power Corrupt

      3:28

About This Class

The fact is that our social behavior arises from our social cognition. Especially when the unexpected occurs, we, as a humans, want to understand and explain why people act as they do. Social psychology’s great lesson is the enormous power of social influence. This influence can be seen in our conformity, our obedience to authority, and our group behavior.

If you have ever wondered:

How Much of Our Social World Is Just in Our Heads?

Would People Be Cruel If Ordered?

To Help? Or to Help Oneself?

A common thread runs through these questions: They all deal with how people view and affect one another. And that is what social psychology is all about. Social psychologists study attitudes and beliefs, conformity and independence, love and hate.

Course is made of 13 carefully graded sections, where every section include several lectures related to the specific topic. Of course, we start with the mother of Social Psychology and have some general info about Psychology itself, than we go to the center and start with the Social Psychology. We cover two main parts of Social Psychology – Social Thinking and Social Influence.

Social thinking covers topics where we learn more about ourselves, who are we in social worlds, how our selfesteem affect it, and how we perceive others. And later we have Social influence and topics which talk about how persuasion affect our personality, how we act if we are given power in certain fields, and are we capable of killing someone if it’s ordered to us?

Who should take this course and why?

If you find anything interesting in this field, and if you like answering on the question that are so obvious but maybe you never will ask them, you are the right person for this course. If you like to hear and learn about how todays advertisers, marketers, and scientists first of all who bombard you with those ads all over our social networks, how they experiment with our brains, and how they made someone to buy certain things or just to explain that “unexpected” behavior click enroll and let’s find out together. :)

Transcripts

1. Obedience: one of the fundamental aspect or social interaction. Either some individuals have more influence than others. Social power can be defined as the ability of a person to create conformity, even when the people being influenced me attempt to resist those changes. Bosses who have power over their workers, parents have power over little Children and, more generally, what conceited, dozing authority have power over dear subordinates. In short, I wear affairs to the process off social influence itself. Those who have power are those who are must able to influence others. The powerful ability overdosing authority to control others was demonstrated in a remarkable set of sadists performed by Stanley Milgram, You 90 63. Milgram was interested in understanding the factors that lead people will be the orders given by people in authority. He designed a study in which he could observe the extent which of person who presented himself as an authority would be able to produce obedience, even to the extent of leading people to pose harm to others. Like his professor Solomon Asch, Milgram's interest in social influence being in part from his desire to understand how the presence of a powerful person, particularly the German dictator Adolf Hitler, who ordered the killing off millions of people during World War Two, could produce obedience under Hitler's direction. The German assets troops over so the execution of six million Jews, as well as others on desirable, including political and religious descendants, almost actuals mentally and physically disabled people and prisoners of war milk amused newspaper at the record man and, in one study, women from a wide wear if you're backgrounds to participate in his race itch. When the research participants arrived at the lab, he or she was introduced to a man who the participation believe was another reason participation. But it was actually an experimental could rather eight. The experimenter explained that the goal of the research was to study the affects of punishment on learning other, the participant and the Confederated board could send consented to participate in the study . The researcher explained that one of them would be randomly assigned to be the future and the other the learner. They were age given a slip of paper and asked to open it and to indicate what is sad. In fact, the good full papers read feature which allows the Confederate to pretend that he had been assigned to be the learner, and that's for sure that the actual participation was always the feature. Well, the research participations now the teacher looked on. The learner was taken into a joint shock room and strapped to an Ellen Alex Road. It was to deliver due punishment. The experiment there explained that the teachers the job would be to sit in the control room and to read a list of work. Here's the learner author. The future right Building one. It would be the learners job. Remember which worth went together? For instance, if the word appear was Abou sofa, the teacher would say the word blow on the fasting trials, and the learner would have to indicate which, for possible words, how soft a cat or carpet was the correct. As for by pressing 14 buttons in front of him, Authority experiment or gave the teacher a sample shock, which was said to be at 45 wolves. To demonstrate that the shock really were painful, the experiment began. The research participant first read the delicious work to the learner and then began testing him on his learning. The shop panel has shown here in this picture you can see was presented in front of the feature and the learners was not visit visible in the shock room, the experimenter said behind the future and explained to him that each time the learner made a mistake, the future was compressed one off the shocks, which is let me start a shock. They were to begin with the smallest possible shop, which is 15 rules. But with each mistake, the shock was increased by one level. Produced an additional 15 wolves. What? The learner was off course. Actually, an experimental Confederate was alone in the shack row. He and strapped himself from the shock machine and brought out a tape recorder that he used to play a pre recorded serious of responses that the G Peter could hear treatable the room . The future heard the learner say, Oh, after the first few shocks up for the next human states when the shock level week 150 world the learner was hurt, exclaimed, Get me out of here, please! My house starting to bother me. I refused to go one let me out as a shock race. About 270 hold the learners protect sticking more women. In other 300 rules, the learner proclaimed that he was not gang signs for anymore questions from 303 dirty walls and up the learner was silent. The experiment responded to party spins questions. At this point, it was asked, any with the script response indicated that they should continue aerating the questions in applying in prison shock. When the learner didn't respond Before Milgram conducted his study, he described the procedure to three groups. Call the student middle class of elves and psychiatrist, asking each of them if they thought they would shock a participant who made a sufficient error at the highest end of the skin, which is 450 walls 100% of old tree groups they wouldn't do so. He didn't ask them what percentage of other people would be likely to use the highest end of the shock scale. At which point did the tree groups demonstrated remarkable consistency by old, producing rather optimistic estimates off around 1% to 2% the result of the actual experiments, where themselves what was quite shocking? Although all of the participants gave the initial milled level off shocked responses, worried that some refused to continue up for about 150 deciding existence of the experimenter to continue to increase the shock level. Still, Waters, however, continued to present the questions and to administer the shocks under the pressure of the experimenter, who demanded that they continue. In the end, 65% of the park disciplines continued, giving the shock to the learner old away after the 450 worlds maximum. Even though that shop was marked at danger, Silver Shop in there had been no response, hurt from the participant for several trials. In some, almost 2/3 of the man who participated had as far as the new shocked another person to that all as part of a supposed experiment on learning status similar to Malcolm's finding, have seen being conducted over the world with obedience raise a ranging from a high of 90% in Spain and the Netherlands toe a little 16% among Australian women. In case you're thinking that such high levels off videos wouldn't be observed in today's modern culture, various evidence that day would be recently. Milgram's results were almost exactly replicated. Using Madden women from a wide where review of acting groups in a study conducted by Jerry Burger X had the Clara University. And in this replication of the Milgram's experiment, 65% of the men and 70 tribe 3% of the women agreed to administer increasingly painful electric shock. When we were ordered to final party figure in their application, however, the artist again, we're not allowed to go beyond the 150 won't shock switch over. My stamping took a cold that Milgram's experiments demonstrated. People aren't in a great evil creatures who are ready to shock others to that. Milgrom didn't believe that this was the gays. Rather, he felt that it was the social association and not a people themselves that was responsible for the behavior and one final hold here about Malcolm studies that old oh milligram explicitly focused on the situational factors that lead to greater obedience. These have been found to interact with certain personality characteristics, yet another example of person situation interaction, specifically authoritarianism, a tendency to prefer things to be simply rather than conflicts and to hold traditional values. Then we have consciousness, which is a tendency to be reasonable orderly independently and agreeableness, a tendency to be ruled nature cooperated and trusting and are over related to higher level level soap. Obedience where US higher moral reasoning, which is the matter in which one makes tactical judgment and social intelligence an ability to develop a clear perception of the situation. Using situational cues, both predict the resistance for the demands over the authority figure. After we have discussed that both conformity and obedience, we have to see that they are not the same thing. While boot are forms off social influence, we must often tend to conform to our piers, whereas we obey those in positions of authority. Furthermore, the fracture toe before that's the be implicit, whereas the order to obey east typically rather explicit. And finally, whereas people don't like admitting toe having conformed especially in your normal social influence, they will more readily point to the authority figure as the source of your actions, especially when they have something. The art in Paris we're ashamed 2. The Stanford prison study and Abu Ghraib: in millions research, we can see a provocative demonstration of help. People who have power it can control the behavior fathers, you know, understanding of the social psychological factors that produce obedience. Help us explain the events that secured in 2000 for Apple ripe the Iraqi prison in which U . S soldiers physically and psychologically tortured beer Iraqi prisoners, the social psychologist Philip Zimbardo. Doing so, he knows the parallels between the events that secured it, ABBA bribe and the events that occurred in the present study that he conducted in 90 71. In that study, Zimbardo and his colleagues set up a mock prison. They selected 20 tree student volunteers and divided them into two groups. One group was chosen to be the prisoners, and they were picked up if their homes by actual police officers arrested and broached to the prison to be guarded by the other group of students, which are with the guards. Little groups were pleased in a stabbing that was designed to look like a real prison and the rope they began. The study was expected to run for two weeks. However, on the second day, the prisoners tried to rebel against the gods. The guards quickly move who stopped the revelation by using both psychological punishment and physical abuse in these. During these, the guards denied the prisoners food, water and sleep, shot it down with fire extinguishers, spray through their blankets into the dirt, force them to clean toilet bowls with their bare hands and stripped them naked on the night . The experimenters weakness the guard putting bags over the prisoners. Has Janey they relax and washing them around? At this point? Ah, former student who was not involved with the study spoke up, requiring the treatment of the prisoners being world. As a result, the researchers stuff the experiment early. The conclusions off the bottles races were seemingly clear. People maybe so profoundly influenced by their social situation that they were become cold hearted jail masters who tortured their victims. Arguably, this conclusion may be applied to the research that scene itself, which seemingly neglected ethical principles in the pursuit of very surgical's embargoes. Research may help us understand the events that secured in Abou bribe em 03 prison used by U. S. Military following the successful copping off big food or some settlement scene Zebadua acted is an expert witness in the trial of surgeon Chip Frederick, was sentenced to eight years in prison for his role in the abuse of Abbott. Dr. Frederick was the Army reservist who was put in charge of the night. Shift it fire one e. Where did the things were abused during these trials products that what I did was wrong, and I don't understand why I did it. Zimbardo believes that product acted exactly like the students in the prison he worked in. The president was overcrowd both he and dangerous and where he was expected to maintain control over the rocket prisoners. In short, the situation he found himself in was worry. Similar forgot off civil. His business body in a recent interview is in, Bottle argued. And we can tell that he's a social psychologist, that human behavior is more influenced by things outside off us that inside He believed that despite our moral and religious beliefs and despite the inherent goodness of people, there are times on, external circumstances can overwhelm us, and we will do things we never thought we were capable of doing. He argued that if you are not aware that this can happen you can be seduced by evil. We need inoculations against our own potential for evil. We have to acknowledge that we can change it. You may wonder whether the extreme behavior of the gods and prisoners in the Bardos person study was unique to the market girl social conflicts that he created. A recent research by Stephen Arrive Rocket and Alex Haslem suggest that this is indeed the case in the research they re created. Some bodies person study, while making some small but important changes for one of the prisoners were not arrested before the study began, and the set up of the jail was less realistic. Furthermore, the researchers in this experiment full the gods in the prisoners that the groups were arbitrary and could change over time. That is, that some prisoners might be able to be promoted to guard. The results of the study were entirely different than those found fighting bottle. The study was also stopped early, but more because he good the guards help uncomfortable in their superior position then, because the prisoners were being abused, this prison simply didn't feel like real prison to the participations, and as a result, they didn't think on the rules, they were assigned again. The conclusions are clear. The specifics off the social situation more than the people themselves are often the most important determinants of behaviour. 3. Power: one of the most influential furies of power was developed by Bertram Braven and John French , or even identified five different types of power. And those are reward co receive a legitimate referent and expert power, arguing that each type of power in both a different type of social influence and that the different sides where incomes, whether they're used, will create public compliance or private acceptance. Understanding that absolute power is important because it allows us to see more clearly the many ways that people can influence others. Let's consider these five types of power, beginning with those there are most likely to produce public compliance on Lee and moving on to those that are more likely to produce private acceptance. 4. Reward, Coercive and Legitimate Power: we will start with the reward power and says that reward power a cure. So when one person is able to influence others by providing them with positive outcomes, for example, bosses have a reward power over employees because they're able to increase employee's salary and job benefits. And theaters have reward power or students because they can assign students high marks. And they worry, fuel rewards that can be used by the powerful is almost endless, and in close, verbal praise or approval, the warding off status or prestige and even direct financial fanned the ability to will. The reward power overdose we want to influence is contingent on the needs of the person being influenced. Power is greater when the person being influenced has a strong desire. Toe pain, The reward and power is weaker. When the individual doesn't need very work, a bus will have power, more power or influence on an employee who has no other job prospects, then on one who is being sought after by other corporations and expensive present will be more effective in proceeding those who cannot by the actions with their own money, because the change in behavior that results from reward power. Easter, even by the reward itself it's used is usually more likely to produce public compliance and then private acceptance. Then we have Corsi power, which is the power that is based on the ability to create a negative outcomes for others, for instance, by bowling, intimidating or otherwise punishing. Buses have coursey power over employees if they are able and willing to punish employees by reducing their salary, demoting them toe a lower position, embarrassing them or firing them, and friends can cores each other through teasing humiliation and ostracism. People who are punished to mark are likely to look for other situations that provide more positive outcomes. In many cases, our holders use a reward and Chrissy power at the same time, for instance, by both increasing salaries as a result positive performance but also threatening to reduce them. If the performance of drops because the use of coercion can such can have such a negative consequences, authorities are generally more like it. He was reward then. Chrissy Power Carson is usually more difficult to use since it often requires energy to keep the person from awarding the punishment by leaving association altogether and Chrissy Power is less desirable for both of the power holer in the person being influenced because it creates and negative environment of negative feelings. And this trust, and is likely to make in corrections difficult, undermine satisfaction in lead to retaliation against the power holder. As with reward power, Coursey power is more likely to produce public compliance than private acceptance. Furthermore, in both cases, the effective use off the power requires that a power holder continuing monitor the behavior of the target to be sure that he or she is complying. This monitoring may help. We do a sense of mistrust between the two individuals in the relationship. The power holder feels perhaps unjustly, that the target is on Lee complying due to the monitoring where at the target feels again, perhaps unjustly, that the power holder doesn't trust him or her and legitimate power, whereas a reward and Chrissy power are likely to produce the desired behaviour. Other types of power, which are not so highly pockets around the reward and punishment, are more likely to create changes in attitudes as well as behavior. In many ways, then these sources of power are stronger because they produce a really believe change legitimate power East Power West did in those who are appointed or elected the positions of authority, such as features politicians, Fallis officers and judges and their power is successful because members of the group accepted is a property. We accept that government can leave taxes in. The judges can decide the outcomes off court cases. Because we see these groups and individuals as well, it Parsifal with society. Individuals with legitimate power can exert substantial influence on their followers. Those with legitimate power may not only create changes in the behaviour fathers, but also have the power to create and change the social norms of the group. In some cases, legitimate power is given to the authority figure as a result of flaws or elections or is part of the norms, traditions and values of the society. The power that experiment there had over the research participants in Milgram's study on obedience seems tohave. Bean, primarily the result of his legitimate power as a respected scientist, is an important university. In other cases, legitimate power comes more informally as a result of being a respected group member. People who contribute to the growth process and follow group norms games that is winning the cold and therefore earn a legitimate power. In some cases, legitimate power can even be used successfully by those who do not seem to have much power other Hurricane Katrina. He to the city off your Leon's. In 2005 the people dear demanded that the United States federal government help them rebuild the city. Although these people didn't have Ma Cherie word or currency power, they were nevertheless perceived is good and respected citizens of the United States. Many US citizens tend to believe that people who do not have as much as others, for instance, those who are wary poor should be treated fairly, and that these people may live just innately demand. Resource is from those who have more. This might not always work, but to the extent that it does, it represent attack off legitimate power power. That comes from a belief in the appropriateness or obligation to respond to the request. The fathers with legitimate sending 5. Referent and Expert Power: now we took about a referent power. People with referent power have an ability to influence others because they can lead those others to identify with them. In this case, the person who provides the influence is a and member, often important reference school where someone we personally admire an attempt to humiliate , be a charismatic dynamic and Percy's of leader and see a person who is a particle, early, attractive or famous. A young child ho mimics the opinions or behaviors open all their sibling or a famous sport person. Or our religious person who follows the advice of a respected religious leader is influenced by referent power. Referent power generally produces private acceptance rather than public compliance. The influence brought on by referent power me a cure in a passive sense because the person being emulated does doesn't necessarily attempt to influence others in the person who is being influenced, may not even realize that influence is securing. In other cases, however, a good person with referent power, such is the leader of a cult, made me full use of his or her status as a target off identification or respect. The produce change in either case is referent power is a particulary strong source of implants because it is likely to result in the acceptance of the opinions off. The important other experts have knowledge or information and conforming to does whom we perceive to be experts is useful for making decisions about issues for which we have insufficient expertise. So expert power does represent a type of informational influence based on the fundamental desire to obtain while it in a cured information and where the outcome is likely to be private acceptance, conformity to the believes or instructions off doctors, teachers, lawyers and computer experts even example of expert influence. We assume that these individuals have, well, it information about their areas of expertise, and we accept their opinions based on this perceived expertise, particularly if there'd wise seems to be successful in sewing problems. Indeed, one method of increasing but once power is to become an expert in To me, expert power is increased. For those Hope was asked more information about irrelevant topic than others because the others must turn to this individual to gain the information. You can see then that if you want to influence at ours, it can be useful. Begin as much information about the topic is, you can 6. Does Power Corrupt: and at the end of the section, we have a question. Does power corrupt having power provide some benefits for those who have it in comparison to those replace power? People who have more power over others are more confident and more acute toe potential opportunities in their environment, According to Anderson and Bergdahl. They're also more likely than are people with less power to take action to meet their goals . Despite these advantages were having power. A little power goes a long way, and having too much can be dangerous for both it August of the power and the power hole lurking south for herself. In an experiment by David Kipnis, college students played the role of supervisors who were supposedly working on a cast with other students, which are the workers. According to random assignment to experimental conditions, 1/2 of the supervisors were able to influence the workers through illegitimate power only by sending them messages attempting to proceed ample work harder. The outer help of the supervisors work even increased power. In addition to being able to proceed the workers to increase their output. The messages they were also given both rework power, which is the ability to give small monetary worth and Corsi power. The ability should take away earlier reward. Although the workers who were actually pre programmed performed equally well in both commissions, the participants were given more power, took advantage of it by more frequently contacting the workers and more frequently threatening them. The students in this condition relied almost exclusively on Kirsty power rather than attempting to use their legitimate power to develop. Positive relations would be supporting these, although it didn't increase the workers performance. Having the extra power had a negative affect on the power holders images, all the workers. At the end of the study, the supervisors who had been given after power regular workers more negatively, were less interested in meeting them and felt that the only reason the workers did well was to pain. Very words. The conclusion off these researchers is clear. Having power may lead people to use it, even though it may not be necessary, which may then lead them to believe that their subordinates are performing on Lee because of the price. Although using excess power may be successful in the short run power that is based exclusively on reward, incursion is not likely to produce a positive environment for either the power holder or the subordinate. People with power may also be more likely to stereotype people with less power than they have, and they may be less likely to help other people who are in need. Although these researches deaths that people may use power when it is available to them, other research has founded. This is not equally true for old people. Still another case of a person situation interaction. Serena, 10 and her colleagues found that students who have been classified is more self oriented in the sense that they consider relationships in terms over what they could and should get out of them for themselves. Work we're more likely to misuse, misuse their power where our students, who were classified as other oriented, were more likely to use their power toe, have daughters