Social Psychology: Learn More About People and Yourself | Nejla Z. | Skillshare

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Social Psychology: Learn More About People and Yourself

teacher avatar Nejla Z., Manager of Information Technologies

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

17 Lessons (57m)
    • 1. Social Psychology

    • 2. The Story of Psychology

    • 3. Psychology's Roots

    • 4. Psychology s biggest question

    • 5. Psychology's Subfields

    • 6. Three Main Parts of Social Psychology

    • 7. Introducing Social Psychology

    • 8. What is Social Psychology

    • 9. Social Psychology s Big Ideas

    • 10. Social Psychology s Big Ideas 2

    • 11. I Knew It All Along Phenomenon

    • 12. I Knew It All Along Phenomenon 2

    • 13. The Self in a Social World

    • 14. Spotlight and Illusions

    • 15. Self concept Who am I

    • 16. Development of Social Self

    • 17. Development of Social Self 2

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About This Class

The fact is that our social behavior arises from our social cognition. Especially when the unexpected occurs, we, as a humans, want to understand and explain why people act as they do. Social psychology’s great lesson is the enormous power of social influence. This influence can be seen in our conformity, our obedience to authority, and our group behavior.

If you have ever wondered:

How Much of Our Social World Is Just in Our Heads?

Would People Be Cruel If Ordered?

To Help? Or to Help Oneself?

A common thread runs through these questions: They all deal with how people view and affect one another. And that is what social psychology is all about. Social psychologists study attitudes and beliefs, conformity and independence, love and hate.

Course is made of 13 carefully graded sections, where every section include several lectures related to the specific topic. Of course, we start with the mother of Social Psychology and have some general info about Psychology itself, than we go to the center and start with the Social Psychology. We cover two main parts of Social Psychology – Social Thinking and Social Influence.

Social thinking covers topics where we learn more about ourselves, who are we in social worlds, how our selfesteem affect it, and how we perceive others. And later we have Social influence and topics which talk about how persuasion affect our personality, how we act if we are given power in certain fields, and are we capable of killing someone if it’s ordered to us?

Who should take this course and why?

If you find anything interesting in this field, and if you like answering on the question that are so obvious but maybe you never will ask them, you are the right person for this course. If you like to hear and learn about how todays advertisers, marketers, and scientists first of all who bombard you with those ads all over our social networks, how they experiment with our brains, and how they made someone to buy certain things or just to explain that “unexpected” behavior click enroll and let’s find out together. :)

See you :) 

Meet Your Teacher

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Nejla Z.

Manager of Information Technologies


Bachelor of Management of Information Technologies
International Burch University
Oct 2013 - Jun 2016

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1. Social Psychology: Hello. My name is Nayla. I'm you Demi instructor for almost two years now and is a part of ABC to theme I have teach almost thousands Didn't. Still. Now, as a student of management, I had mandatory course named the Behavioral Psychology. And if you're asking why it is the ghost of the customers demain ting in the whole economy the epicenter of every topping in my studies show the predict customer behavior when it it to research he psychology to see what exactly is in his mind and how he decided to buy something that he'd boat So we can offer him late some off the new products and took off by his mind. So he thinks like we think. But I don't want water you anymore with the economy or management since you are here because over the name of the forces social psychology, this subject really inter give my mind. So I decided to research it more. Ah, lot of books I started uring races are talking more or less with the same things which I will present here. In course, my main point is into books for us. The David Myers and social Psychology and 2nd 1 from Dr Charles. Stronger in principle. So social psychology What? Someone should be interested in social psychology. The fact is that our social behaviour arises from our social cognition, especially when the unexpected of yours we is a humans want to understand and explain why people act is they do social psychologies. Great lesson is the enormous power of social influence. This influence can be seen in our conformity, our obedience to authority. And I would group behavior if you have ever wondered how much of our social world is just in our heads, or would people be cruel if order or to help or to help once out, a common tread? Iran's for these questions, and it is that they old deal with how people view in affect one another. And it is what a social psychology is all about. Social psychology. Study our attitude and beliefs, conformity and independence, lock and hate. This course is made or 13 carefully grade infections where every section includes several lectures, are related to the specific topic. Off course. We start with the mother of social psychology and have some general info about psychology South. Start with a social psychology what will cover two main parts of social psychology, social pinking and social influence. Social thinking covers topics where we'll learn more about ourselves, who are being social world, how our self esteem affected and how we perceive others. And later we have social influence and topics which look about how precision affect our personality, How we act were given power in certain fields. And are we capable of killing someone? If it's ordered to us during lessons here beside my head, you can something. See some names in years to know. Don't our researchers who made conclusions I will mention during blesses well, should think this course and why you can find anything interesting in this field. And if you like answering on the questions that are so obvious that maybe you never will ask them, you are the right person for the scores If you like to hear and learn about how today's advertisers, marketers and scientists first off old bombard you with those ads all over social networks , how they experiment with our brains and how they made someone to buy certain things or explain that unexpected behavior we could roll and let's find out together 2. The Story of Psychology : to start to talk about social psychology. We must mention its mother psychology out. So this first section is reserved for psychology and what it's all about. So we'll start with the interesting storing go psychology, namely Harvard Astronomer Open Gingery reports that there are more than 100 billion Galaxies. One of these our own relatives. Back of Galaxy has some 200 billion stars. Many, which like our Sun Star, are circled by planet on the skills of outer space, were lasted in a single grain off stand on all of the oceans, beaches and our lifetime about morality. Nana Second. Yet there is nothing more of inspiring and absorbing than our own inner space. Our brain as ginger. It is by far the most complex physical object Noto us in the entire cosmos. Our consciousness, our mind, somehow arising from a mother remains a profound mystery. I was thinking emotions and actions and their interplay with others, thinking emotions and actions fascinate us. Other space judges us with its enormity with inner space and trust us. For most people, psychologist seemed to analyze personality offer concealing and east is child raring advice . Do they really? Yes and much more. Consider some off psychologist question that you may wander about. For example, have you ever found yourself reacting to something as one of your biological parents would ? Perhaps in a way, you wowed you never would, and then wondered how much off our personality you inherited? Have you ever played Peek a boo with a six month over and wondered why the baby finds the game so delightful? Or have you ever wondered how the Internet, video games and Elektronik social networks affect people? How do how will do today's electronic media influence, how we think and how we relate? Psychology is a science that seeks to answer such questions about us all. How and why we think, feel and act as we do. 3. Psychology's Roots: once upon a time on a planet in the neighborhood of the universe, there came to be people. Soon thereafter, these creatures become intensively interested in themselves and in one another. Who are we? What produces our thoughts, our feelings and actions? And how are we to understand and manage those around us? To be human is to be curious about ourselves in the world around us. Before 300 b. C. The Greek naturalist and philosopher are resettled, theorized about learning and memory, motivation and emotion, perception and personality. Today we chocolates some of his gases. Like his suggestion. This Emil makes us sleepy by causing gas and heat to collect around the source of power. Personality the heart but credit Aristotle with asking the right questions. Philosophers thinking about thinking continued until the bird of psychology as we know it. On a December day in 1979 in a small third floor room at the Germany University, a plastic their two young men were helping an Auster middle aged professor will him want creating an experimental apparatus. Their machine measures the time lag between peoples hearing a bull hitter platform, and they're pressing a Tal Gorky curiously, people responded in about 1/10 of a 2nd 1 asked to present key as soon as the sound a cured and in about 2/10 of a 2nd 1 asked to press the key as soon as they were consciously aware of perceiving the sound. This is because who be a were once awareness takes a little longer. What was seeking to measure atoms off the mind? The fastest and simplest mental process. So began the first psychological laboratory sent by Wound and by psychologies first graduate students. Before along, this new science of psychology became organized in the different branches or school of thoughts, each promoted by pioneering thinkers. Too early schools were structuralism and factionalism, as physicists in Camas discerned the structure of Mother so won't stay in an effort. Bread for peach ner aimed discovered in my structure. Hey, engaged people in self reflective introspection, which is looking inward, training them for report elements of their experience as they looked at the rose, listen to a matter inal smell the sand or tasted a sex pills before their immediate sensations, their images and feelings. And how did this relate to one another? Alice introspection proved somewhat unreliable is required. Smart, horrible people. And it's result worried from person to person and experienced experience as introspection when it so did structuralism, hoping go assembled the mind structure from simple elements was rather like trying from the centre car by examining heats disconnected parts. Philosopher psychologist William Jeans thought it would be more fruitful to consider the boat functions off our off our thoughts and feelings, or we can save smelling ease with it was that thinking is what brings us? But why do nose and brain do these things under day? In place of evolutionary theories, Charles Darwin James assume that thinking like smelling developed because it was adaptive. It contributed to our ancestors. Survival cautiousness serves a function it enables us to consider our past a just war were present and plan our future is a functional ways. James encouraged explorations off down to earth, emotions, memories, willpower, habits and movements. The moment streams off conscious James Legacy stands partly from his Harvard mentoring, and he's writing in 18 90 over the objections of Harvard presidents. He admitted marry within caucus increase graduate seminar. We have to mention here that in those years woman lacked even the Raj towboat, and one Caulkins joined the other students. Old man dropped out. So James Fugard, her alone. Later, she finished all of our with Feed your requirements. I was scoring all the meal stairs on the qualifying exams. Alice Harbor denied her the degree she had earned, offering her instead a degree from Radcliffe College. It's under graduated sister school for women. Coca has resisted the unequal treatment and refused it the decree. She nevertheless went on to become a distinguished memory researcher in the American Psychological Association. First, the new president in 95 the honor of being the first female psychology page. You later helpful Margaret Full Washburn, who also wrote an influential book, The Animal Mind Cold, and become the second female AP president in 1921. This was brave. Historic view off important milestones in psychologies early development. Let's now jump on. Next lesson in which we will see what is psychology is the biggest question 4. Psychology s biggest question: are our human treats. Present it bird order. They developed her experience. This has been psychologist, the biggest and most resistant issue. But the debate over the nature nurture issue is ancient. The Greek philosophers plateau assume that we inherit character and the intelligence in certain ideas are inborn. A recital on the other side concrete that there is nothing in the mind that doesn't first come in from the eternal world through the senses. In the 16 European philosophers re kind of the debate, John Locke argued that the mind is a blank sheet off which experience rides running the car to disagreed. Believing that some ideas are you need the cars use gain support from a curious, naturally those centuries later in 18 31 and indifferent Student, both ardent collector Because most and shell sense seal on a historic roam the world journey. The 24 year old boy Josh Charles Darwin ponder the incredible species variation he encountered, including for toy on One island that differed from those on nearby Ireland's darlings 80. With you nine on the origin of species explained these diversity by proposing the evolutionary process of natural selection from among chance variations nature select tree that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce a particle environment. The nature nurture issue Rick yours throughout the stacks is today. Psychologists explored your ality contributions of biology and experience, asking, for example, how we humans are alike because of our common biology and evolutionary history and diverse because of how would be bring environments East Children's grammar mostly need or formed by experience. How are intelligence in personality differences influenced by heredity in via environment, Our sexual behaviors, more post by in their biology or pulled by external incentive should be three psychological disorders such as depression. Is these orders of the brain disorders of the both or bought? Such debates continue yet over and over again, we will see that in contemporary science, the nature nurture tension. The souls nurture works on what nature and douse our species is biologically endowed with an enormous capacity to learn and adapt. Moreover, every psychological event, every thought, emotion, he single tenuously a biological woman does depression can be both a brain disorder and a thought disorder. This is again shortly on psychologies. Biggest question, but we move on because what we're interested in is social psychology. So let's jump on the next lesson. Where will conclude section about psychology held by meeting in sub field, and then we will start with one of them so called social psychology. 5. Psychology's Subfields : picturing a campus that work, You probably envision a white coated scientists surrounded by glassware in high pack equipment. Picture a psychologist at work, and you would be right to envision for first a white coat of scientists probing a Reds brain. Or maybe an intelligence researcher measuring how quickly in England shows boredom by looking away from a familiar picture. Someone will maybe imagine an executed of all waiting, a new healthy Lifestyles training program for employees or someone at the computer Analyzing data on whether adopted teens temperaments more closely resembled those of their adoptive parents or their biological parents. Others will emission a therapist, listening carefully to a client's suppress thoughts or a traveller visiting and other culture in collecting data on variations in human values and behaviors, or maybe a teacher or rather sharing the drive psychology with others. The plaster of sub feels weak. Will psychology is meeting a ground for different disciplines? Psychologies ah, hub scientific discipline, said Association for Psychological Finds, Presidents John Kasey Oppo. Thus, it's a perfect home for those with wide ranging interests in its diverse activities from biological experimentations toe cultural comparisons that Dr of Psychology is united by Common Quest, describing in explaining behaviour and the mind underlying it. Some psychologists conduct basic research that Bill Psychologies knowledge beat. We have different psychologies, and those are biological psychology ISS First, which exploring dealings between brain and mind. Then we have developmental psychology, which study our changing abilities from one to Tom. Next one is cognitive psychology, which experiment with how we perceive think insult problem. Next one is personality psychology, which investigate our persistent trees, and at the end we have social psychology, which explore how we view an effect one another in the scores. We'll focus on this one social psychology and explore how we view and affect one another. So stay with me and let's dig deep into the human wind and see what our answers on those biggest questions that always bother us. 6. Three Main Parts of Social Psychology: when it comes to social psychology is a sub field of psychology. We have three main parts, and those are social, pinking, social influence and social relations. In this version, of course, we will cover social thinking and social influence. Personal of a psychology, focus on the person it studied, the personal trees and dynamics that explain why different people may act differently in a given situation. While social psychology focus on the situation, it's study the social influence that explain why the same person will acted differently in different situations. I was social behaviour arises from our social cognition, especially when the unexpected of cures. We want to understand and explain why people act as they do after studying how people explain others behavior for its high there. Propose an attribution theory, which says We can attribute the behavior to the person stable, enduring priest, which is a disposition allow attribution or we can attribute it to this situation, which is a situational attribution, for example. In class we're not, is the Juliet Seldom talks over coffee. Just talks non stop. It must be the sort of people they are. We decide Julia must be shy and Jack outgoing Satch attributions for their These positions can be rallied because people do have enduring personality trees. But sometimes we felt pretty fundamental. Attribution Error it asked. We over arrest me to the influence of personality and underestimate the influence of situations in class. Jack may be as quiet as Juliette. Catch Julia at a party, and you may hardly recognize your quiet classmate. Have you ever noticed how one example, good or bad can prompt others to follow how one illegally parked car can give permission to others to do likewise? Social psychologies Great lesson is the enormous power of social influence. This influence can be seen in our conformity, our obedience to authority and our group of behavior. Suicide's a bomb threats, airplane hijackings in your fourth, citing all have a curious tendency to come in clusters on campus G's our desk owed on New York's Wall Street or London's Bond Street dress. Use art in or when we know how to act, how the groom how to talk life functions more quickly armed with social influence, principles, advertisers, fund raisers and campaign workers. Ain't the sway our decisions? The why to donate toe woke isolated with others who share their grievances. This centers me gradually become rebels and rebels may become terrorists. Turk Part is, as we said, social relations and we'll just mention it. Social relation is all about how we think about any influence. On another, it is social psychologies. Third pockets, how we relates to one another. What causes us to harm or to help or to fall in love? How can we move a destructive conflict toward a just peace? We will father the bad in the goat from prejudice and aggression Toe attraction l trees, um, in peacemaking. So if you find any interesting work listening in this briefing, join us Quicken role and seeming the course. 7. Introducing Social Psychology: this action, as well as others large in its little start with the story, which will find later, really, to the psychological traits and situations. So let's start with this story. Namely, there once was a man whose second wife was a Wayne and selfish woman. This woman's full of others were similarly went and selfish demands. Old Older, however, was Nikkan on Selfish, the Sweet Congo, their home we all know as Cinderella. I learned early on that she should do as she was called, except ill treatment in insults in avoiding anything off stage, her step sister and their mother. But Dan, thanks to her fairy godmother, Cinderella, was able please keep restitution for an evening in a tent ground ball, where she attracted the attention off a handsome prince. When the last truck translator in conference Cinderella back in her, the greeting hope he failed to recognize her. Is this implausible? The cocktail demands that we accept the power of the situation in the presence of her oppressive stepmother, Cinderella was humble in an attractive at the ball, Cinderella felt more beautiful and walked and talked and smiled as if she were in one situation. She covered another she charmed. The French philosopher novel is shown. Polsak Tree would have no problem accepting the Cinderella promise where humans are first of all, beings in a situation hero, we cannot be distinguished from our situations, for day, from us and beside our possibilities. 8. What is Social Psychology: it is inevitable to start this lesson with the definition. So we will see that social psychology is a science that studies the influences off our situation with special attention to how we view and affect one another. More precisely, it is scientific study of how people think about influence and relieved to one another. Social psychology life psychologies bound very with sociology compared to sociology, which is the study of people in groups and societies, social psychology focuses more on individuals and use this more experimentation. Compared with personality psychology, social psychology focuses less on individuals, differences and more. How individuals in general you and affect one another. Social psychology is still a young science. The first social psychology experiments were reported barely more than a century ago in different social psychology. Tax didn't appear until just before and after niceties. Nothing feel the 19 thirties did. Social psychology assumes its current form, and not until World War two did it begin to emerge as the Weibring field it is today. Social psychology studies our thinking, influence and relationships by asking questions that have interviewed us all. And some of those questions are, for example, how much off our social world is just in our hats, as we will see in later sections. Our social behaviour worries no, just with the objective situation, but also with how we construct it. Social beliefs can be self fulfilling. For example, happily married people will attribute the dearest forces acid remark by saying, Can you ever put that where it belongs to something external, as he must have had a frustrating day while unhappily married people will attributes the same remark for me in this position as is he ever haw style and me respond with a counter attack. Moreover, expecting hostility from their schools, they may behave recipe awfully, thereby eliciting the facility. They expect another example of the question we all wondered Mitt would be. Would people be cruel if ordered? How did nisi Germans conceive an implement? The unconscious herbal slaughter of six million Jews? Those evil acts occurred partly because thousands of people followed orders. They put the prisoners and trains, herded them into crowded showers and poisoned down with gas. How good people engage in such horrific actions? Were those individuals normal human beings? Stanley Milgram wandered, so he sat up a situation where people were ordered to administer, increasing the levels of electric shock to someone who was having difficulty learning a serious awards as well. Seeing one of the sections, nearly 2/3 of the participations fully complied, and third question would be to help or toe have one south as bags of cash stumbled from an armored truck one full day, so 1,000,000 was gathered along a Columbus, the highest read. Some offers stuff to help returning Humber houses. Judging from the 1,900,000 that disappeared, many more stop tohave themselves. What would you have done? One similar incident secured several months later in San Francisco Inter until their cells were the same passer Byes. Grab must of the money. What situations trigger people to be helpful or greedy? No. Some cultural context. Perhaps villages in small towns breed greater helpfulness. A common tried Iran's through those questions. They told you with how people view and affect one another. And that is what social psychology is all about. Social psychology, study, attitudes and beliefs, conformity and independence, love and hate. After we need a short introduction, let alone the next lesson were will cover social psychologies, big ideas 9. Social Psychology s Big Ideas: in many academic field, the results of a sense of thousands of studies, the conclusions of thousands off investigators and the insights off hundreds of theorists can be boiled down to a few central ideas. What concepts are on social psychologies? Shortlist of big ideas? What themes or fundamental principles will be worth remembering long after you have forgotten most of the details? We will see it in the next few minutes of this lesson. In the picture you can see from the Social Psychology book of David Myers. There are uniquely ordered principles that will cover in this and next lesson off the section 1st 1 Ease as you can see that we construct our social reality. What does this mean? We humans have an irresistible or to explain behaviour, to attribute it to some cause and therefore, to make it seem orderly, predictable in controllable. You and I me react differently to similar situations because we think differently. How we react to a friend's itself depends on whether we attributed hostility or to a bag. We're all intuitive scientists who explain people's behavior usually weak enough speed and accuracy to suit our daily needs when someone's behavior equal is consistent and distinctive. We attribute that behavior to his or her personality. For example, if you observe someone who makes repeated its night Commons, you infer that this person has a nasty disposition, and then you might try to avoid person our beliefs about ourselves. Also, mother. But we have an optimistic outlook. Do we see ourselves as in control of things, though we view ourselves as a relatively superior or inferior hours, first, influence our emotions and actions, how we could through the world and ourselves matters. Second, principales that our social intuitions are often powerful, that something's perilous, always sent intuitions shape our fears. For example, question is flying dangerous impressions, as can I pressed him and relationships such as Does she like me? Intuition influence presidents in times of crisis, gamblers after the table and drawers assessing guilt. Personnel directors screening applicants. Such executions are common pleas. Indeed, psychological science reveals a fascinating, unconscious mind, an intuitive backstage mind that forward never told us about more than psychologists realize until recently, thinking or a cures offstage, out of side. Our intuitive capacities are a bill by studies of what leader chapters will explain. Al automatic processing implicit memory, hubristic, spontaneous straight imprints, instant emotions and non verbal communication thinking, memory and are produced all operated two levels, one conscience and deliberate and the other unconscious and automatic do or processing today's results. Coolidge, we know worried, then we know. We know intuition is huge, but intuition is also perilous. An example would be that, as recalls for life mostly on automatic pilot, we intuitively judge the likelihood of things by how easily various instances come to mind . Especially since September 11 2001. People curie readily available mental images of plane crashes Does not people fear flying more than driving, and many will drive greed distances, the word risking disguise, actually where many times safer per mile travelled in a commercial plane and then in the more for radical. Our social institutions, then, are no word the for both their powers and beer. Pareles. By reminding us off the infusions gift and alerting us to expect Fels, social psychology is aimed to fortify our thinking in ma situations. Fost and frugal snap judgments serve us fouling up, but the others were a cure. Asi mothers, as when needing to fear derived things and spent our resource is accordingly. We had vast restrain our impassive infusions with critical thinking. Next principle will be that social in places shape our behavior. We are, as Aristotle long ago observed social animals. We speak and think in worse. We learn from others we long to connect to belong and to be well thought off, a social creatures response to our immediate context. Sometimes the power off a social situation leads us to act culturally to our express. Our attitudes invade powerful. The evil situations sometimes overwhelmed good intentions in using people to agree with falsehoods or comply with cruelty. Other nasty influence. Many decent seeming people became instruments off the Holocaust. Other situations may elicit great generosity and compassion. After the 9 11 catastrophic New York City was overwhelmed with the nations of pulled clothing and help from eager volunteers. 10. Social Psychology s Big Ideas 2: in this lesson, we continue with social psychology, is big ideas and at the beginning we talk about personal articles and dispositions also shape behaviour. Internal forces also matter. We are not passive tumbleweeds summarily blown this way and that by the social wins I would interact, use affect our behavior, our political accurate influence our warning behavior and I was smoking aka Cute influence . I was acceptability to peer pressure to smoke our attitudes toward the poor influence our bill. This will help them as we will see in future lessons. I will articulate also follow our behavior which leads us to believe strongly indo things we have committed ourselves to or suffered for personality dispositions also affect behaviour facing the same situation Befriend people Mirek differently emerging from years of political imprisonment. One person excuse between this in seeks revenge. Well, another such a suit. Africa's Naslund, Nelson Mandela six Reconciliation and Unity with his former enemies, aka Cules and personality Influence Behavior. 21st century social psychology is providing us with ever growing inside in power behaviors , biological foundation. Many of our social behaviors reflects a deep biological wisdom. If every psychological you went every thought, emotion and behavior is simultaneously a biological anyone. Then we can also examine the newer biology that underlies social behavior. What brains areas enable our experiences off love and contempt, helping an aggression perception and believe how the breed might in here function together as one coordinated system? What does the timing of rate or brain events very real about how we process information? Such questions are as by Dole's use social Your signs social your sciences do not reduce complex social behaviors such as helping and hurting. Too simple your or molecule are mechanisms. Their point is to understand social behavior. We must consider move under the skin, which is biological, and between skins, which is social influences. Mind and body are one grand system. We are bio psychosocial organisms where black, the interplay of policies that biological, psychological and social influences. And that is why today, psychologists study behavior from BZ friends level soap analyses. Social psychology has the potential to eliminate your life to make visible estoppel influences. That guy, they were thinking and acting, and as we will see, it, offers many ideas about how to know ourselves Tepper, how between friends and influence people and how will transform close this into open arms. Schoolers are also applying social psychological insights. Principle of social thinking, influence and relations. Have implications for human health and felt being for judicial procedures. Endure decisions in courtroom and for influencing behaviors. This will enable anymore mentally sustainable human future as but one perspective on human existence. Psychological SIZE Doesn't seek Wingate Lights. Ultimate questions. What is the meaning of from a life? What should be our purpose? What is our alchemy? Destiny? Bus Social psychology does give us a math of for asking and as wearing some exceedingly interesting and important questions. Social psychology is all about life. Your life, your beliefs are tickets in relationships. Social psychology is the scientific study of how people think about influence in relate one another, it's central painting goes the following. How we control social worlds, how our social conditions guide in some things deceive us how our social behavior is shaped by other people by our attitudes of personality and by our biology. How social psychologists principle apply 12. Where everyday lives and toe worries others feels or fields off body 11. I Knew It All Along Phenomenon : no social psychologies theories provide new insight into the human condition, or do they only describe the obvious? Many of the conclusions presented in the scores may have already a cured for you through for social psychological phenomena are all around you. We constantly observed people thinking about any implanting in relating to one another it face to discern what the facial expression predicts, how to get someone to do something or whatever to regard s friend or full. For centuries, philosophers, novelists implies, have observed and commented on social behavior. And now we have a question. Does this mean that social psychology is just common? Sensing fancy words, social psychology faces so contradictory criticism first that it is a tree bill because it documents the obvious and second, that it is dangerous because its findings could be used to manipulate people. Those social psychology and other social sciences simply formalized what any anther already knows rather cool, and Markey took death for you the other day. Social scientists go out into the world they after they discover that people's behavior is pretty much what you'd expect nearly 1/2 century earlier. Historian art slicing here Junior reacted with similar scoring A to social scientist. Studies of American World War Two soldiers. Sociologist. Full leather reviewed. Oh, studies and off a sample with interpretive comments. A few, which are power price here First, better educated falters suffered more adjustment problems. A dented last educated soldiers stormed. Soldiers cope better with a hot soc island climate that need northern soldiers. White privates were more eager for promotion. And then we're black privates. So there are blacks preferred a sort until Northern Wide Officers. As you read Joe's findings, did you agree that they were basically common sense? If so, you may be surprised that to learn that last ourselves went on see every one of these statements in is the direct opposite of what was actually found. In reality, the studies found that less educated soldiers adapted more pro. We sort of us were not more likely than orders to adjust to a tropical climate. Blacks were more eager than wise for promotion and so forth. Even we had mentioned the actual Reese use off the investigation. First, as Slesinger experience, the reader listener would have labeled these obvious Also one problem with common Sandy's that we involved it after we know the facts. Events are far more obvious and predictable in human side than beforehand. Experiments revealed that when people learn the outcome of any experiment, dead outcome suddenly seems unsurprising, certainly less surprising than it is to people who are simply told about the experimental procedures and the possible outcomes. Likewise, in everyday life, we often do not expect something to happen until it does. Then we suddenly see clearly the forces that wrote the event about and feel unsurprised. Moreover, we may also miss Remember our earlier view arrows in judging the Futures Force ability and , in remembering our past, combined to create inside bias, also called the angry along phenomenon. If inside bias is pervasive, you may now be feeling that you already knew about this phenomenon. Indeed, almost any conceivable result of a psychological experiment can seem like common sense. But Onley after you know the results 12. I Knew It All Along Phenomenon 2 : Cohen, marking managing editor of the Atlantic Focus. Sociology, Psychology and other social scientists for too often merrily discerning the obvious or confirming at the common please, his own casual survey of social science signings that turned up no ideas or conclusions that can be found in Barker's or any other encyclopedia of quotations. Nevertheless, to sit through competing sings, we need research because there are some dueling proverbs. Is it more true that too many cooks spoil the broth? Defend is mightier than this work. You can teach an old dog. New threat. Blood isn't thicker than water. He who hesitates is lot and forward is for arm or that two heads are better than one. Actions speak louder than words. You are never too old to learn. Many King broke off your friends. Look before you leap and don't cross the bridge until your country the I knew it all along phenomenon can have unfortunate consequences. It is conducive to arrogance an overestimation off our own intellectual powers. Moreover, because all comes seem as if they should have been foreseeable, were more likely to blame decision makers for what are, in retrospect, obvious bad choices, then to praise them for good choices, which also seem obvious in the aftermath of the 2008 world financial crisis. It seems obvious that government regulators should have please safeguards against the ill fated bank lending practices. But what was obvious in him side was enforcing by the chief American, a regulator, Alan Greenspan, who found himself in a state of shock disbelief at the economic columns. We sometimes bleeding I was sounds for stupid mistakes, perhaps for not having handled a person or a situation mother. Looking back, we see how we should have handled it, for example, were saying I should have know how busy I would be at a semester's and and started to that paper earlier. But sometimes we are too hard on ourselves. We forget it. What is obvious to us now was not merely so obvious at this time. Physicians were killed both of patients symptoms and the cause of that as the thermal buyout of sea sometimes wonder how an incorrect diagnosis could have been aided. Other positions given on Lee the symptoms don't find the jet diagnose is nearly so obvious . Well, sure is be slow word toe. Assume my practice if they were forced to take a four side rather than a hint side perspective. What do we conclude that common sense is usually wrong? Sometimes it is. At other times, conventional wisdom is right or, it feels on both sides of an issue does happen. He's come from knowledge of the truth or for proceeding illusions, humming with others or from leaving in peaceful salvage. Oot opinions are a dime a dozen. No matter what we find, there will be someone who force it. Mark congested that Adam was the only person hope, one saying a good thing. New that nobody has said it before. With which off the many competing ideas Bastard reality research can specify the circumstances under which a common says three Zinni's Alec. The point is not. That Common says is predictable. Wrong. Rather, Common says. Usually he's right with a 30 pack were therefore easily deceived. I was sounding the thinking that we know and you more than we do ended, and that is precisely why we need science to help us. Six. Reality from Illusion and Junior Any predictions from easy inside 13. The Self in a Social World: Hello again this section, as you can see east about South in a social world. So what we need to know is that and to dissent her over our world, more people over us than anything else he's I was health. As they navigate allergy lives, our sense of self continually engages the world. Consider this example. One morning you wake up to find your hair sticking up with weird angles to your hat. I don't have these problems, as you can see, but let's take in consideration that you have, and for you, in this case, is too late for to jump in the shower and you can find a hat so you smoked down the ramp in spots. If you're here and dash out the working class well, warming, you're acutely self conscious about very bad here day to your surprise, your friends in class don't see anything. Are you secretly a lot of those house about how ridiculous you'll or already too preoccupied with themselves in office, your psyche here, let's jump on the next lesson in digging this action to find out more about al sounds 14. Spotlight and Illusions: related to the example spiking here. A psychology says that from our self focus perspective, we overestimate our conspicuous nous, and this is called spotlight affect. And it means that we tend to see ourselves at center stage, so we intuitively overestimate the extent to which others attention is aimed at us. In one research, Thomas Gilovich took three. A medic, and can it? Savitsky explored a spot like athlete by having individual Cornel University students don't embarrassing Barry Manilow patients before entering a room with other Stevens. The South conscious T shirt wearers, yes, that nearly how they're Pierce would not as a sure, actually, Onley 23%. It was true, off our dorky clothes and bad hair is also through of our emotions. Our anxiety irritation, discussed deceit or a fraction fewer people. Not is. Then we presume, keenly aware of our own emotions, we often suffer an illusion of transparency. If we're happy and we know it, then our face for surely show it and others we presume a lot is actually what can be more op acute than we realized. We also over estimated the visibility all our social wonders and public candle slips when we trigger the library alarm or accidentally in South someone, we may be mortified with thoughts such as Ever. One thing Sammer jerk. But 36 shows that would we agonize over others may hardly not as insulin. Forget this spot like ethic and their related ill ocean of transparency are but two of Manning samples off the interplay between our sense of South and our social worlds. Let's see some other examples social surroundings affect. I was self awareness East First, namely, were the only member of our race, gender or nationality in a group. We not as how we differ and how others are reacting to our a white American feel self consciously white while living in a rural village in that fall and African American feel self consciously American while in Africa sending we have East self interest collar, our social judgment. This means that when problems arise in a close relationship such as marriage, we usually attribute more responsibility to our partners. Dental was house. When things go well at home or work or plea, we see ourselves as more responsible. Next one e. That self concern motivates our social behavior, which means that in hopes of making a positive impression. We agonized about our appearance like saving. Politicians will also monitor others behavior and expectations and adjust our behavior accordingly. And last one is that social relationships helped define our self. In our worried relationships, we have wearing sounds notice and Anderson in Serena Chen, we maybe one South with mom, another with friends and another with features. How we think of ourselves is a link to the person we are with asked a moment and to comport as these examples suggest, The traffic between ourselves and others runs both ways. Our ideas, feelings about ourselves affect how we're responsible. Others and others help shape our sense of self. 15. Self concept Who am I: how and how accurately do we know ourselves? What determines our self concept? You have many ways to complete a sentence. I am independent blank space. Now pose this video and give your five answers. Taken together, these answers will define your self concept. The most important aspect of yourself is yourself. You know who you are, your gender, whose feelings and memories you experience to discover where the sense of south arises. Neuroscientists are exploring the brain activity that underlies our constant sense or being oneself. Some studies suggests an important role for the right hemisphere for both. Yours to sleep with an anesthetic fewer right carotid artery and you're likely will have trouble recognising your own face. One patient with right hands for damage Field to recognize that he owned and was controlling his left hand didn't medial prefrontal cortex and your impact, located in the eclectic between your brain hemispheres just behind your eyes seemingly helps teach together your sense of self. It becomes more active when you think about yourself. The elements off your South concept, the specific believes by which you define yourself are yourselves Kiemas steam Mazar mental templates by which we organize our worlds. Our south schemers, which is our proceeding ourselves, is a plastic overweight, smart or whatever powerful we affect. How we perceive. Remember in the Val weighed other people in our sounds. If a black eggs east central to yourself concept, then you will tend to not these others bodies in skills. You will quickly recall sports related experiences, and you will welcome information that is consistent with your South schema DeCell scheme us that make up our self concept. Help us organize ever three of our experiences I was have concepts include not only ourselves Dimas, about who we currently are, but also who we might become or our possible South. So cold has a Marcus and her colleagues know that our possible Selves include our wish ins off the South. We dream of becoming the reach south the himself the passionately loved in loving South. They also included the self we fear becoming on the other side For the on very employed south, the on love South, the academically failed south such possible Selves Montaigne hate us with a wishin off the life we along for 16. Development of Social Self: the self concept has become a major social psychological pockets because it helps organize our thinking and guide our social behavior. But what the Germans I was self constant Studies of cleans point to genetic influences on personality and south concept, but social experience also plays a part. Among these influences are the following Dural sweet plea, the social identity, sweet form, the comparisons we make with others. I will successes in failures, how other people judge us and the surrounding culture. We'll see every one of them separately. As we enact a new role, such as college student, parent or salesperson, we initially feel self conscious. Gradually, however, what begins is play. Acting in the theatre of light is absorbed into our sense of south. For example, while playing our rules, we may support something we haven't really talked much about. Having made a pitch on behalf of our organization with unjustified our words. By believing more strongly in it, Earl Clean becomes reality. How do we decide we are reaching smart or sure one way is through social comparisons. Others around us help to define the standard by which we define ourselves is rich torpor, smart or dumb? tell short we compare ourselves with them and consider how we differ. Social comparison explains why students then toe have, ah higher academic self concept if they attend ah, high school with mostly average student and how that self concept can be tracked. And after graduation, when student who excelled in an average high school goes on to an academically selective university, the big fish is no longer in a small pond. Much of life revolves around social comparisons. We feel handsome when others seem home way smart. When other scene, though, and caring one other seen Cowell's When we witness appears performance, we cannot resist implicitly comparing ourselves. We may therefore privately think some pleasure in appears failure, especially when it happens to someone we and me. And when we don't feel well, Marble to such me sports, not without social comparisons can also diminish our satisfaction. When we experience an increase in affluence, that is, or achievement, we compare upward. We raise the standards by wish we evaluate our teams when climbing the ladder of success. We tend to look up, not down. We compare ourselves with others, doing even better one facing competition, we often protect our shaky self concept by proceeding and the compactor is advantaged. For example, call it seamers believe that their competitors had rather coaching and more practice time. 17. Development of Social Self 2 : we continue which influences of social experiences and now talk about success and failure. Seth concept. He's fed on Lee by our rules, our social identity and our comparisons, but also by our daily experiences. To undertake challenging yet realistic tasks and to succeed is to feel more competent after mastering the physical skills needed to repel a sexual assault. Woman feel less vulnerable, less anxious, in more in control after experiences academic success Students believe they are better at school, which often stimulates them to work harder and achieve more according to 1000 little ones. Best and achieve is to feel more confident and empowered. The success be. Self esteem. Principle has led several research psychologists to question efforts to boost achievement by raising South a scheme. Would positive messages such as you are somebody or You're special self esteem comes enough on Lee from telling Children how wonderful they are, but also from hard earned achievements. Feelings follow reality. Low self esteem does sometimes goes problems compared with does with a loss. Self esteem. People with a sense of southward are happier. Last now erotic, less troubled by insomnia and last prone to drug in alcohol addictions and they are more persistent after failure. But as we will see, critics argue that it's a to least as true the other way around. Problems and failures can cause loss selflessly one. People think well of us. It helps us a finger while of ours. House. You'll learn who mothers illegal is gifted, hard working or helpful, then to incorporate such ideas into their self concepts in behaviours. If minorities didn't feel threatened by negative Syria types of their academic abilities or if a woman feel trapped in violent expectations for the year math in size performance the me this identify with those rounds rather than fight that prejudgment, they may identify their interests somewhere says. Still, the looking glass self was how sociologist Charles H. Coolly described our use off. How we think others perceive us as a as a mirror for proceeding hours. House fallow sociologist George Harvard need didn't find this constant, and nothing that what matters for our self concept is not how others actually see us, but the way we imagine they see us. People generally feel freer to praise than the criticize. They voice the they're complete mints and restrain their jobs. We meet therefore overestimate other surprise. All inflating hours help it South inflation as well, sees found Maastricht investor countries, namely, she Nobuaki Katayama reports that Japanese visits or store in America are actively Strack by the many words of praise that friends offer one another. When he and his colleagues asked people how many of these ago they last complimented someone, the most common American response was one day in Japan, where people are socialized, a less to feel pride in personal achievement and mortified, ashamed in failing honors the most common responsible for days our ancestors feet that depended on what others told of them. Their survival was enhanced when protected by their group one proceeding their groups disapproval. There was a biological wisdom through their feeling, shame and rule South scene is their heirs having a similar? They've stated it needs to belong. We feel the pain off low self esteem when we face social explosion. No smart query. Self esteem, he argues, is a psychological god by which we monitor and react to how others appraise us.