Social Psychology: Biases | Nejla Z. | Skillshare
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4 Lessons (28m) View My Notes
    • 1. The Fundamental Attribution Error

    • 2. Actor observer Bias

    • 3. Self serving bias2

    • 4. Group serving Bias


About This Class

The fact is that our social behavior arises from our social cognition. Especially when the unexpected occurs, we, as a humans, want to understand and explain why people act as they do. Social psychology’s great lesson is the enormous power of social influence. This influence can be seen in our conformity, our obedience to authority, and our group behavior.

If you have ever wondered:

How Much of Our Social World Is Just in Our Heads?

Would People Be Cruel If Ordered?

To Help? Or to Help Oneself?

A common thread runs through these questions: They all deal with how people view and affect one another. And that is what social psychology is all about. Social psychologists study attitudes and beliefs, conformity and independence, love and hate.

Course is made of 13 carefully graded sections, where every section include several lectures related to the specific topic. Of course, we start with the mother of Social Psychology and have some general info about Psychology itself, than we go to the center and start with the Social Psychology. We cover two main parts of Social Psychology – Social Thinking and Social Influence.

Social thinking covers topics where we learn more about ourselves, who are we in social worlds, how our selfesteem affect it, and how we perceive others. And later we have Social influence and topics which talk about how persuasion affect our personality, how we act if we are given power in certain fields, and are we capable of killing someone if it’s ordered to us?

Who should take this course and why?

If you find anything interesting in this field, and if you like answering on the question that are so obvious but maybe you never will ask them, you are the right person for this course. If you like to hear and learn about how todays advertisers, marketers, and scientists first of all who bombard you with those ads all over our social networks, how they experiment with our brains, and how they made someone to buy certain things or just to explain that “unexpected” behavior click enroll and let’s find out together. :)


1. The Fundamental Attribution Error: after we learn about attributions. Let's see now are our traditions secured? We have seen that person perception is useful in helping us successfully interact with others in relation to our preceding discussion of attributions for a success and failure. If we can. The Thurman, why would it pearly in a test, we can try to prepare differently. So we do better on the next one because successful navigation off this social world is based on being a cured. We can expect that our attribution all skills will be pretty good. However, although people are often reasonably a cured in their attribution, we could see perhaps that they are good enough. They're far away from perfect. In fact, causal attributions, including those relating to success and failure, are subject to this thing. Types of biases that any other types of Social Chapman's are. Let's now see, consider some of the ways that our attributions may cooperate. One way that our attributions may be biased is that we're often too quick to attribute the behavior other people for something personal about them, rather than to something about their situation. This is a classic example of the channel human pendency off underestimating how important the social situation really is in the German in behavior, the spires occurs in two ways. First, we're too likely to make strong personal attributions to account for the behavior that we observe offers engaging in. It is, we are more likely to say Mark left a big tip, so he must be generous than Mark left a big people. But perhaps that was because he was frank impress his friends. Second, we also tend to make more personal attributions about the behavior of others. So we tend to say Mark is a generous person. Then we do for ourselves. We tend to say I'm generous in some situation, but not in others. When we tend to overestimate their role of person factors and overlooked the impact of situation, we are making a mistake that social psychologists have firm. The fundamental attribution error. This error is very closely related to another attribution all pendency the correspondents bias, which secures when we attribute behavior to people's internal characteristics even in heavily constrained associations. In one demonstration off the fundamental attribution, errors will lead the skit. CA and Hercules had participants read a brief story about a professor who had selected to students volunteers to come up in front of a class to participate in a trivia game. The students were described as having been a randomly assigned to the rule of ire, quizmaster, or contestant. By drawing straws. The quizmaster was asked to generate five questions from his idiosyncratically knowledge with a stipulation that he knew the correct answer. Told Five questions Rate, which is the quizmaster. Subsequently post his question to the other student dream, which is the contestant, for example, re asked with cowboy movie actors. Psychic East, smaller Burnett. Jim looked puzzled. And final year price. I really don't know the only movie cowboy that pops to mind for me. East John Wait read and asked for additional questions, and Jim was described as answering on Lee one of the five questions correctly. After reading the story, the students were asked for indicator very fractions off both race and James intelligence. If you think about the set up here, you will not is that the professor has created a situation that can have a big influence on the outcomes it as Ray because Master has a huge advantage because he got the truth. The questions as a result. The questions are hard for the contestants plans for, But the participants realize that association was the cause of the outcomes. They did not. Brother, this Dennis rated re as significantly more intelligent than Jim. You can imagine that where you just seem to be a really smart of the students. After all, he know all the answers, whereas do you on Lee one of the five. But of course, this is a mistake. The difference was not it old you to the person packers This comeback obliquely that the situation regards to use his own personal store of as a thorough acknowledged to create a mosque, difficult questions he could think off and The Observer committed a fundamental attribution . Error impedance sufficiently will pick the quizmaster situational advantage into account. Michael Morris and his colleagues investigated the role of culture on person perception in a different way. By focusing on people were big cultural. It has who have knowledge about two different cultures. In the research, they used high school students living in Hong Kong, although traditional Chinese values are emphasized in Hong Kong because Hong Kong was a British administered territory for more than a century, the students there are also somewhat a countered with Western social beliefs and values. Morris and his colleagues first randomly assigned the students at one of three primary conditions. Participants in the American culture, prime in conditions. So pictures off American icons such as the U. S. Capitol building in the American flag and then rode stand sentences about American culture . Participants in the Chinese culture prime in condition So each Chinese Aiken, such as Chinese truck and in the Great Wall of China, and then hold 10 sentences about Chinese culture and finally, participants in the control condition so pictures off natural landscapes and rolled 10 sentences about the landscapes. Then participants in all conditions read a story about an overweight boy who was advised by a physician not to eat food with high sugar content. One thing he and his friends went toe a bath, a dinner where a delicious looking cake was offered. Despite its high sugar content, he aided. After reading the story, the participants were asked to indicate the extent to which the boys weight problem was caused by his personality, which is personal attribution or by a situation which is situational attribution, the students who had been primed with symbols about American culture and gave a relatively last week to situational rather than personal factors in comparison with students who had bean prime with singles off Chinese culture. 2. Actor observer Bias: defend the mental attribution arrow in most a bias in how easily and frequently we make personal versus situational activations about others. Another similar way that we over emphasize the power of the person is that we sent the week more personal attributions for the behavior of fathers. Then we do for ourselves and weak, more situational attributions for our own behavior than for the behavior of others. This is known as the actor, observer bias or be friends. When we are asked about the behavior of other people, we tend to quickly make three attributions, for example. Oh, Sarah, she's really shy. On the other hand, when we think of ourselves, we are more likely to thinks that this situation into account so we can to say, Well, I'm trying my team with word, but with my close friends, I'm not at all shy. You might be able to get a feel for extra observer be prints by thinking the following short quest. First, think about a person you know, but not particulary vow a distant relation, for example, a collegiate work than for each rule circle. Which of the three choices back describes his or her personality for instance, is the person's personality more energetic? Relaxed? What does it depend on? The situation? Offer your finished and sort of questions again, but it is time about yourself. Like the fundamental attribution error. The actor observer difference reflects our tendency to overweight the personal explanations off the behavior of other people. However, recent meta analysis has suggested that an actor observer difference might not be as common and strong as the fundamental attribution error and may only be likely to a pure under certain conditions. But the tendency to over emphasize personal attributions in others. Horses ourselves. See, you spoke your for several reasons. One. It's simply because other people are so silly. And in our social environments, when you look at someone's behavior, you tend to focus on the person and are likely to make personal attribution is about him or her is just easy because you are looking right at the person when you look at Mark giving that big fit. But you see him and so we decided he caught the action. In fact, research has shown that we tend to make more personal attributions where the people were directly observing in our environment, then for other people who are part of the situation, but we are not directly watching when you think off your own behaviour. However, you do not see yourself but are instead more focused on the situation. You also tend to have more memory for your own posse situations than for others. You can't realize that it is not only you, but also the different situations that you are in the German your behavior. Maybe you can remember in the other kinds where you didn't give a big thing, and so you conclude that your behavior is caused more by the situation than by your underlying personality. These greater access to evidence about our own past behaviors can lead us to realize that our conduct varies quite a loss across situations, whereas because we have more limited memory of the behavior of others, we may see them as less changeable. This Internet leads toe another related attribution. All pendency made me to treat description bias, which defines a tendency for people to view of their own personality, beliefs and behaviours as more meribel than does a father's. Where does more likely cookery compared the behaviour support? This is just reflecting the type of people we think they are, whereas we tend to to fix our own conduct is born no aunts and socially flexible. A second reason for the tendency to make so money personal attribution is that they are simply easier to make than situational attributions. We have to admit, in fact, personal attribution seem to be made spontaneously without any effort on our part and even on the basis off on Lee, where re limited behavior. For example. Personal attribution Gyp just buck up into mind before situational attribution School. One reason parties is that it is cognitively demanding to try to process old irrelevant factors in someone else association and to consider how old these forces may be affecting that person's convict. It is much more straight forward to label a behavior in terms of personality, trade and third personal attribution also dominated because we need to make them in order to understand the situation that is, we cannot make either A personal attribution is, for example, markets genders or a situational attributions markets frank toothbrushes, friends until we have first identified, the behavior is being a generous behavior. Leaving the big table was a generous thing, though, so we end up starting with the personal attribution. Generous and Onley later tried to correct or adjust our judgment with O. We think perhaps it was really the situation that caused him to go. That adjusting our judgments generally takes more effort than does making the original judgment in the adjustment east frequently not sufficient. We are more likely to come to commit attribution errors, for example, quickly jumping to the conclusions that behavior is caused by underlying personality when we're tired, distracted or busy, doing other things varies a very important general message about proceeding others that applies here. We shouldn't be too quick to judge other people. It is competently easy to think that poor people are lazy, that people who harm someone, all Army and the people who say something harsh are bold or unfriendly that these attribution the frequently overemphasized the role of the person. This can sometimes result in overall harsh evaluations of people who don't really deserve them. We tend to blink a victim even for events that they can't really control. Some things people are lazy, mean or rude, but they may also be the Wickens off the situations. When you find your South meeting strong personal attributions for the behavior. So Father's your knowledge of fact revision Research can help you stop anything. Were carefully. Would you want other people to make personal attributions for your behavior in the same situation? Or would you prefer that they were wholly considered the situation surrounding your behavior? Are you perhaps making the fundamental attribution error? Think about it. Ultimately the firepower price, a well known saying, We need to be tried to be generous to others in our attributions, as everyone we need is fighting a battle we know nothing about. 3. Self serving bias2: you may recall that the process of making causal attributions is supposed to proceed in a care who rational and even scientific manner. But this assumption turns out to be a police, in part, untrue. Our attributions are sometimes biased by ethic. Although we would like to think that we are always rational and a cured in our attributions , we often tend to distort them to make us feel better. Self serving attribution are attribution that help us need our desire to see ourselves positively. Ah, particle. Early common example is the self serving bias, which is the tendency to attribute our success is to ourselves and our failures to others in the situation. We all make self enhancing apparitions from time to time. If a teacher student do well on an exam, he may make a personal attribution for their successes inside and says, I am, after all, a great teacher. On the other hand, when they do Pearland exam, the future me tend to make a situational attribution in, bleed them for your failure and see them. Why didn't you all study harder? You can see that this process is clearly not the type of scientific, rational and careful process that that attribution Theory suggested the teacher should be following it is on a fear, although it does make him feel better about himself. If he really were acting like a scientist, however, he will do the Thurman ahead of time. What causes ghoul or per exam scores and make the appropriate attribution? Regardless of the outcome, you might have not as yourself making self serving attribution who perhaps you have bleed another driver for the accident accident that you were in or blame your partner rather than yourself for a break up. Or perhaps you have taken credit for your success is but a believe your failures on external causes. If these judgments were somewhat less than a cured but they beat benefit you, then they were indeed self serving. Interestingly, we did not as often show these bias when making at traditions about the successes and setbacks. Fathers. This tendency to make more charitable attributions about ourselves and then others about positive and negative outcomes often links to the actor observer be friends. Did we mentioned earlier? It appears that the tendency to make external attributions about our own behavior and internal attributions about a condom off. Others is particularly strong in situations where the behaviour in bowls undesirable outcomes. So this was dramatically illustrated in some fascinating research by bombs Tire. Still, while in what month In the study, the researchers analyzed the accounts, people gave open experience that they identified. Were they angered somewhere else? It as when they were the proper here of a behavior leading to an unpleasant outcome in another one where someone else entered them it as they were to beat them. The difference in attribution a meeting These two situations were considerable when accounting for themselves as perpetrators. People manage to emphasize situational factors to describe the behaviour as an isolated incident that was meaningful, understandable, responsible situation and to assert that the action caused no washing harm when they were weak tins. On the other hand, they explained, the property is behavior by focusing when they pursued, correct their defects of the person and by describing the behavior as an arbitrary and senseless action thinking, please eat an ongoing context of abusive behavior that cause lasting harm. Prevent ISO captains. These sobering findings have some profound implications for Manning work on social issues, including reconciliation between individuals and groups who have been in conflict, even where every day we, they perhaps remind us off. The need to try to extend the same understanding would give ourselves in making sense of our behaviors to the people around us in our communities. Too many times in human history, we have failed to understand and even demonized other people because of those types of traditional vices. Now we have a question. Why are these South serving attribution of ice is so common? One. As for that we have already alluded to, is it that they can help to maintain and enhance south esteem? Consistent with this idea is that there are some cross cultural differences reflecting the different amounts of South in has been that were discussed in previous actions. Specifically, self serving bias is less apparent in members off collectivist ICS than individualistic cultures. Another important reason is that when we make attribution, we are not only interested in consolidate, we are often interested in responsibility. Finchem and Jasper's argued that as well as acting like Lee, scientists hunting for the causes of behaviour were also often acting to rule. We too little ears seeking to assign responsibility. We want to know know just why something happened. But also who east the blame. Indeed, it is hard to make an attribution of cause without also making a clean of our responsibility. When we add review someone's angry outbursts when the internal factor, like an aggressive personality as opposed point external cause such is a stressful situation we are implicitly or otherwise. Also placing were blamed on that person into four marquees than in later seeing. Attribution is also being about responsibility. Shot some interesting further light on the south serving vice. Perhaps we make external attributions for failure partly because it is easier to blame others or or the situation. And then it is ourselves in the victim perpetrator account outlined by Bones Star Still while and what Maybe they were partly about either of Soling or assigning responsibility respectively. You need There are a number of other at traditional biases. There also relevant toe considerations of responsibility. It is to these this will how three 4. Group serving Bias: a self serving pattern off attribution can also spill over into our attributions about the crops and that we belong to the group serving bias sometimes referred to us the don't meet attribution error and describes a tendency to make internal attributions about our in group successes and external attributions about their sack back ends to me the opposite packer and off attributions about our outwards. For example, when a member of our favorites parts theme make illegal challenges on the field or rain core court, we often attribute its to there being provoked. But what about when it is someone from the opposition? Do your illegal conduct irregularly leads us toe to make an internal attribution about their moral character. On a more serious note, when individuals are in a violent confrontation, the same actions on both sides are typically attributed to different causes. Depending on who is making the attribution so that reaching a common understanding can become impossible. Returning to the key study off a perpetrator gang, who could the group serving bias B A police part of the reason for the different attributions made by the Chinese in American participants about the mass killing? How much despise have played out in the situation. Remember that the perpetrator Yanga was Chinese. Might the American participants tendency to make internal attributions have reflected their desire to bring his solely is an alcohol member, whereas the Chinese participations more external attributions of might have related to beer , we should try toe, mitigate some off what they're following, remember, had done by invoking the social conditions that preceded the crime. A more recent pang assaults test out this possibility by exploring cross cultural RL actions toe another parallel tragedy debt secured just two weeks after Ganguly's crimes. Namely, Thomas McWane, an Irish American postal worker who had recently lost his job, unsuccessfully appealed the decision with his union. He had, in the meantime, field to find a new full time job. On November 40 he entered the Royal Oak, Michigan, boss office and shot he supervisor, the person who handled his appeal, several Paolo workers and by centers and then himself in all like again, who promise McQueen killed himself in five other people that day. If the groups are in bias, could explain much of the cross cultural differences in attributions. And then, in these days, when the perfect Raider was American. The Chinese should have been more likely toe weak internal blaming an attributions against an out. Remember in the Americans, the week more external mitigating once about beer. Eagle number. This is not what was found. Although the Americans did make more situational attributions about McWane, and then they did about well, the Chinese participants were equally likely to use situational explanations for both sets of killing, as Morris and Pang points out to the signing indicated that whereas the American participants attended to show the group's Harding is bias, the Chinese participation did not. This has been replicated in other studies, indicating a lower likelihood of these bias in people from collectivist six verses, individualistic cultures, it first lands. This might seem like a comfort, intuitive finding. If people from college activists cultures tends to see themselves and others is more invaded in their in groups, then wouldn't they be more likely to make a group serving attribution like the South Surrey Bias Group? Serving attributions can have. Ah, salving has a function leading people to feel better about themselves by generating favorable explanations about their in group's behaviors There. For us, self enhancement is electable priority for people in college 60 countries. We would indeed expect them to show less growth serving by. Besides these biases from previous lesson, there are other related biases that people also used to favor their in groups over their out groups. So let's now CDA the Group attribution. Arrow describes a tendency to make attribution all generalization about empire alcoves. Based on a very small number of observations of individual members, this era tends to takes one off, two distinct but related for us. The first was illustrated in an experiment by handle Wilson in use, but college students were shown vig Nitties about someone from one off throughout groups, welfare recipients and prison guards Being we're done asked to make inferences about members off these two groups is a whole. After being provided with wearing information about how typical the person they read about was off each group. A key finding was that even when they were told that the person was not typical of the group, they still need the generalization about growing members and that were based on the characteristics of the individual they had read about these buyers. Me does cause us to see a person from a party girl out group behaved in an undesirable way and then come toe attribute these tendencies to mosque or all members of their group. This is one off the manual ways that in a cured Syria pipes can be created. The second form off Group attribution. Bias closing relates to the fundamental attribution. Errors in that individuals come toe attributes, groups behaviors and act acute toe age off the individual speeding those groups your respective off the level off disagreement in the group or how the decisions were made in a serious of experiment, Alison and massive investigative People's attribution about growth members is a function of the decisions that the group's reached in various social contexts. In their first experiment, participants assumed that members off a community making decisions about water conversing conservation laws held audits reflecting the girl decisions regardless of how it was reached into follow up experiments. Subjects attributes a a greater similarity between outcomes, decisions and actitud that between in group decisions and Arctic utes. A further experiments showed that participants based their attributions off. Jury members are tickets more on their final group decisions than or on their individual fuels. The spires can present us with numerous challenges. Let's say, for example, that a political party passes a policy that goes against our they'd said. It believes about an important social issue like abortion or same fact marriage. This type of group attributions buys would then make it oh so easy for us to carry out their old members off and worse for that party is supposed to us when in fact there may be a considerable range of opinions among them. These fools assumption made that cause us to shut down meaningful dialogue about the issue and feel recognized the potential for finding common ground or for building in work and allegiances.