Skillshare Diversity: Language, Religion and Exceptionalities | Dr. Warren Chalklen | Skillshare

Skillshare Diversity: Language, Religion and Exceptionalities

Dr. Warren Chalklen, Education Innovator

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5 Lessons (1h 7m)
    • 1. Introduction

      15:17
    • 2. Language and Diversity

      7:50
    • 3. Exceptional Children in Diverse Environments

      14:21
    • 4. Recognizing religious diversity

      15:46
    • 5. Summary

      13:53

About This Class

 

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This course is perfect for anyone interested in deepening their knowledge about how language, religion and exceptionalities intersect with diversity. 

As a college professor I have travelled the world teaching students the value of diversity in their work and lives. I share these insights throughout this course.

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To build prosperous communities, nurturing schools, and innovative businesses; we require understanding of how to work with people from all walks of life. This course systematically prepares anyone interested in diversity and multiculturalism with important skills to make their environments more inclusive, safe, productive, and connected.

Concepts covered include the cultural, historical, and philosophical foundations of education in a multicultural society. We begin by outlining the principles of multicultural education, before looking at the connections between issues such as race, class, gender, and sexual orientation.

We also cover less addressed issues of diversity such as language, geography, religion, and the youth culture. Optional discussions, activities, and a range of additional readings deepen the learning so that anyone taking the class can put the ideas into practice right away.

Transcripts

1. Introduction: welcome to multiculturalism and diversity. My name is Warren Chocolate. I'm a PhD candidate at Texas A and M University, and I'm very passionate, educated. You'll notice by my accent that I'm not from the United States or the United Kingdom or even Australia from South Africa. And I'm very, very passionate about issues off multiculturalism and diversity because of my teaching background. I connect a lot of what I learned to this idea of multicultural education because they have very strong connections. And this first lecture is really about introducing you to some core concepts. And I'm really looking forward to this journey that we're about to embark on. What is our agenda? I will be covering a little bit about what we'll be doing over the next couple of weeks. I'll be defining multiculturalism and multicultural education and talking about the principles that we use and talking about measurement and reflection and how we can tile these pieces together. All right, I begin each lecture with a question that is designed to begin to bring out some of the core ideas because I'm a constructivist in nature, and I believe that all people have the knowledge inside of them. My goal is to draw it out of you and to use the knowledge that you have and build on that. So the question that I'm going to begin with is how can rebuild better teams? I recently saw commercials for team building exercises, and I wondered whether they actually addressed many of the factors that actually keep teams which are made up of people apart. Why is it that we have $1,000,000 billion industries that work on team building and building relationships and connections between people? It must be because they are difficulties in that space. Now, if you're at someone at home who's in the working world or being in the working world or currently in College University or someone who's just interested in multiculturalism in general, one of the questions you got to be asking yourself and one of the reasons why you probably in this class is you're thinking to yourself, Where do you connect in this idea of multiculturalism? And how does it apply to you? So let's get back to the question. How can be both better teams now? The strongest teams are those that are able to bring together different strengths and understand different so called weaknesses or misunderstandings amongst people. Why multiculturalism is important is because it gives you the tools. It gives you a set of frameworks in which you can begin to unpack the people around you and understand them better and help them understand you better. And the end result of that is better teams, more productive teams, better individuals, more productive individuals. And the ultimate benefit of it is more inclusive, safe and humane societies. So I want you to think about this idea of team building on how it relates to you and your context. And I think that's an appropriate way for us to get started in some of the meat of this class. So what are some broad multicultural themes that we're going to be dealing with? Okay, I'm going to draw your attention to the center of the screen. We look at the broad themes we're gonna be looking at culture. What is culture and identity? Ah, we're going to be looking at space by space, I mean inhabited space, but also the internal space that we that we have, that we existed as people and then I'm going to be having a focus on young people. Many off you take this class are going to be pre service teachers, and so looking at young people is a very, very important component. Let's begin with culture. What is culture? There's a whole lecture where we talk about what culture is and how it effects you. And many people will say to me that they do not have a culture, and what my classes about is helping you unpack what your culture is. And some of the very big markers that make it up within culture will be talking about issues of race and ethnicity that'll be actually electoral wine. We'll be talking about racism and our race works. The different interpretations will be talking about gender and class social economic status . All right, when it comes to identity, will be talking a little bit about sexual orientation as well as religion. So how people identify would be using words such as my identity and how I identify okay, he's are just giving you some insight into the kind of discourse by discourse. I mean, the kind of terms that will be introducing you to over this class, and hopefully they'll make more sense as we progress. Okay, Bye Space. I talk about issues of language and geography when I came to the United States, and you'll notice when I started this lecture, I spoke about the U. K and Australia and the fact that my accent is from a different place South Africa and many people will say that I speak English in a very different way to English people, Australian people and people here in the United States and so language. Even though we're speaking English, there's different parts of language that are very, very important and part of understanding multiculturalism is unpacking the way language shapes, the way we behave in the way that we do things. And it gives us market in terms of our geography where we're from. And that's a very important component to understand as well. Now, looking at young people, I'll be talking about about exception. Ality is exceptional. Students will be talking about differently abled students, and finally, we'll be talking a little bit about youth culture will be talking a little bit about hip hop. We'll be talking a little bit about the way in which young people identify and shape cultural experiences. And then finally, the final lecture will be pulling these pieces together and giving you an understanding off how you can actually use these things in your daily life. Okay, with that being said, we have to helpful texts. I don't get paid or have any connection to these texts other than the fact that I really I have read these techs, and I think they're very accessible. I have a preference towards diversity consciousness, mainly because of its accessibility. But Goldman tensions, multicultural education of pluralistic society is a cannon. A lot of scholars who teach in multicultural education, particularly in various colleges of education across the nation and the world, used this text. And so it's important for me to share that with you. But diversity consciousness is a fantastic book for those who are beginning to really unpack this idea of diversity consciousness. So I really encourage you. I will be referencing these East texts as we go along in the class. All right, so let's get into it. I hope you have a pen and paper, your laptop ready, and you you're excited to get into some some content here. Let's talk a little bit about multiculturalism in multicultural education. OK, now it's a concept that acknowledges the important role of diversity in the lives of students families and build on it to promote equality and social justice and education. OK, no multicultural education. Remember, my my background is an education, so I start off with that component. But multiculturalism is about promoting equality and social justice anyway, whether students, we can substitute that for Children, we can substitute that for young people, families, families look different around the world. And so multiculturalism encompasses all kinds of difference. Everyone is different. So multiculturalism encompasses us all and pushes to promote equity and equality amongst us . And not only that, were there disparities, it looks to create some kind of justice. Okay, so, Golden Kenshin frame intricate multicultural education in this way. Okay, Now there are very few slides in this first lesson. I want to give you some principles off multiculturalism and multicultural education. All right, principle number one is I would like to summarize this as adaption in terms of the way you approach things. So if you're a teacher, there would be teaching approaches and materials that are sensitive and relevant to people If you're in the workplace, for example, these are teaching or using approaches, whether you're hiring someone or working for a bus or working with colleagues using approaches that are sensitive to them. For example, if you see a woman wearing his job is off the Muslim faith, using approaches that are sensitive to those particular faith and the practices, for example, ordering lunch and making sure there's no pork if you have a Jewish or Muslim colleague or even a vegan colleague or someone who does not feel comfortable with pork, that very simple example is about being sensitive to the people that are around you. Okay, Number two, The learning styles of students and the teaching styles of the teacher understood to develop effective instructional strategies. Okay, if you're a teacher, this means that everything you do has to be about making sure that you teach in the way that students can land. If you're a manager, if you're a bus, if you're someone in the working world, it's about using strategies that are effective with your colleagues such that their strengths are brought out and your strengths are brought out at the same time. Okay, Number three using a role and nonverbal communication. Where I come from, shaking someone's hand with your left hand is considered route. It's a non verbal sleight against someone. Okay, so understanding people is about understanding both e r. A. What was saying and the non verbal what we're not saying, but we are saying through our bodies, okay, very, very important. When you're teaching in a classroom to really understand the students in front of you and the way they communicate often in their cultures, they communicate nonverbally. Okay, now in the workplace, this has very, very, very important consequences for things like sexual harassment, for example, or things like jokes and humor. Okay, and how those kind of things those are all communications can be taken in very different ways. So being multicultural and being sensitive is about understanding both the arrow and the non verbal. Put another way, the verbal and nonverbal communication. So multiculturalism, principle number five is about integration. So often, students will tell me that they have international days where they dress up in different cultures and they have different food from different cultures, and that's the way they integrated. And that's fine. But the next question I ask them is, What about the rest of the okay? And so multicultural? Education is about integrating the perspectives off all students into the curriculum on a daily basis, making it an important part of the discussion in the work place. This is just a important understanding why Muslims are fasting during Ramadan. Understanding why Urumqi poet is so important to the Jewish community. White Christmas is so important to the Christian community understanding why, Ah, someone may want to go to Hajj, for example, or understanding why someone may refer to uncles as brothers or cousins as brothers or cousins or sisters. Understanding the family makeup these kind of things that, if integrated into not only the curriculum at the workplace, can really make people feel savings and really secure in the environment that they're in. Okay, Number six. This is a very important piece of multiculturalism. There's one stream of multiculturalism that talks about multiculturalism just is awareness , but there's another piece that talks about using multiculturalism, toe address, inequalities, toe address oppression such as racism, ages and sexism, classism, these different ISMs that we have. Okay, so I'm going to be applying this multicultural classes away, off, making you away. And my hope is that part of it at the same time is to really drive you to address some of the places and spaces that you have around you, where inequalities and various forms of oppression can take place. And so my agenda in through those classes to make you aware and give you the tools to make your own choices. Okay. Finally, multiculturalism is about bringing people together. It's about using people as resource is to teach and to learn from. Often, hotel teaches that your students will teach you how to teach them. When I'm giving talks in different organizations and corporations to manages, I tell them that their employees will teach them how to manage them. Okay, and that sometimes involves actually incorporating resource is from the local community. And that is a very, very effective strategy where you don't know multiculturalism really encourages you to find out to connect to other people, and other resource is okay, So what if some takeaways from this very quick introduction to multicultural education and multiculturalism, you'll see over the next lessons that you will see that I break it down? I take a bit more time, but this is just to give you a brief introduction. So there's three main takeaways here. Multiculturalism is a tool to build a more just world understanding. Difference can be a huge asset to you. Number two The seven principles of multicultural education can be applied to any multi cultural context. Even if you're in a homogenous community, there are differences in that community. And as you as you go through this class that those differences will become more away. You become more aware of those things. Okay, Now, finally, this next set of courses are designed to extend your knowledge base in multiculturalism and Tavist. My goal is to build your awareness, to build your understanding and to slowly take you on a journey where by the end, you'll be able to not only know, uh, issues around diversity and multiculturalism, but be able to apply them to your daily life. I look forward to this wonderful adventure that we're about to embark on, and I welcome you to please provide me feedback and to help me help you have a wonderful learning experience alongside you. Let's do it 2. Language and Diversity: the house and my nanny, Salamu Alaykum. Uh, John Vasana. These are greetings in different languages, and often many of your students will be sitting in classes in which English the language you may be teaching. It is not their first language, and so it will sort of sound like a bunch of gibberish to them. They may even get it, but a whole lot later. So your job is to really understand the way language affects the way in which students are experiencing your classroom. If I was speaking in my mother tongue closer, right now, it has three clicks, the Q click, the X clicked and the sea click. I think it would sound more like music to you than it would in actual language, and that would impede your learning. And often what teachers will do is blame. The students were not understanding when in fact it's about. It's the teacher's role to make learning and language accessible to them. What is our agenda today? We're going to start off with the classic questions that I always try post you the reason why I opposed these questions two years, because my job is not only to teach you contact content, but to provoke your thinking. All right, We're gonna look at language, how it effects learning. We're going to talk about language and culture. And finally, we're gonna talk about differentiated instruction. Okay, Now the question I have to post to use, how could we think without language? Do we even think in language? When I say I'm going to pick up a bottle to drink, for example, why I'm going to I think about food when I'm hungry. I think about sleeping. Do I think in a language? And if I think in the language doesn't mean that if I'm talking a different language that I have to translate, How do I What do I think? Do I think with language? Why do I think without language now, when you if you've ever had had the experience of being in a classroom in which people are speaking languages different to yourself? What you will notice is that you translated from English to your home language, and then you have to figure out how to translated back into English. Okay, so in some ways, we do think in language and other ways. The verdict is still out whether all of our thinking is in language or not, I want you to think about that and more you tell now language is a system of vocal sounds and nonverbal systems by which individuals communicate. One of my favorite things to do as a teacher when I have misbehaving Children is to go and stand next to them while I'm teaching, you will notice that they get really uncomfortable and they stop doing whatever they're doing. The lesson and the fluidity of the lesson continues. That's a way of using nonverbal communication to get a point across without actually saying anything right. They get your they get your point. Try standing over someone's shoulder while they're trying to take an exam and see how they respond to you. It's this how non verbal signs and signals 90% of what we say to students isn't the nonverbal room. All right, now, vocal sounds also very important. You've got to make sure that the students have struggled to hear you in the front. You've got to make sure that you speak clearly. You will notice that we put close captions on these videos because I'm very conscious of the fact that the way I sound to your ear may not be very clear to you. And and so I'm using both audio and visual in terms of the close captions to support your learning us A teacher need to consider the same things. Finally it is. It is a critical tool in the development of identity, self awareness, intellectual and psychological growth. I'm going to go back to this model. Remember? We spoke about language. We spoke about institutions. We spoke about symbols and we spoke about policies. The one thing that all these things have in common is language languages. Not only its own thing. What we call a something, right. What? We pull something. I'm going to just put that in parentheses. But each one of these rely on language to create meaning to construct meaning. When someone says to me really quick The first time I heard that phrase, I was wondering whether the person was coming back. So I called them and asked them. You said real quick. Does that mean today? Tomorrow in an hour it was because I didn't understand the meaning off their language, even though we were speaking English, right? The meaning was different. Now students with limited English proficiency may suffer institutional discrimination, the link between language and institutions and the link between language, institutions and policies. Those students with limited English proficiency create symbols, are created out of them. Sometimes the symbol is known as e l l O E S L. It becomes not only a word or a phrase, but it also becomes Assemble with certain sets of meanings. And that's what we're gonna be talking a little bit more about language. As a socializing agent, I want you to take you probably at your laptop right now. You could be at your iPad. Stop this present right now and go. And remember what socialize that socialization is, right? Just check out with Wikipedia and find out what this word socialization means. Okay, Welcome back. Socialization is a form off teaching Children the hidden rules of the game. Sometimes they're hidden. Sometimes they not. But it's the rules of the game. All right. So languages used to socialize Children into linguistic and cultural communities. Notice my formal language, notice that I'm not screaming profanity. Notice that I'm speaking at a certain pitch to you when I could be speaking. If I was at home in South Africa would be speaking a lot of loud and with a lot more expressions, and I would be moving a lot more. It would look something like this, but because I'm in the US and I've learned I've been socialized into linguistic and cultural communities, I learned that the appropriate way to teach you is to stand very still and use my arm. Two point of things because that's the way in which people have socialized me to teach you and because you, as a US student, are used to that. I'm trying to meet you where you are. OK, If I was teaching South African on African students, my mannerisms would be very different. My linguistic cues would be very different. Okay, Children learn almost instinctively the right word, the right responses and the right justice per situations. Hello, how you often people don't even respond. They just woke on. They don't really care about how the person is, but they still ask the question. This is a great example of that native speakers unconsciously know and obey the rules. Customs of the language and community. Often I'll get students who email me. I'll call them into my office and ask them to read the emails allowed to me. And I asked them what does the sound like? And often what it sounds like in reality is difference to what they've written down. Because the tone looks different and often people will say things. An email that they will not say in person. Okay, so this is a good example of how these sort of what we write down the language we use is different to the non verbal communication that we have with one another. Almost all Children have the ability to learn one or more languages. I'm not sure what they mean by native languages. Okay. I want to challenge this idea of native languages. All languages are native somewhere. All of us have the ability to learn languages. 3. Exceptional Children in Diverse Environments: welcome to this presentation this week will be talking about exception. Ality. What is the agenda for today? We'll be talking about labelling. We'll be talking about grouping the consequences of grouping how to teach exceptional students and takeaways. Remember, every mother thinks their child is exceptional. Every child is exceptional in its Your job is the teacher to bring out those exceptional qualities in them. So let's let's start off with a question for today. Think about your school. What memories stand out for you. I want you to really sit down and think about your school experience. What one memory stands out for you. Okay. Now, as you think about this experience, I want you Teoh to classify this memory, whether it's a good memory or a somewhat, not so good memory, right? Many people's early experiences of school or a specific memory stay with them even into the adult life they think about when teachers call them bad names when they were humiliated by a bully in school, or sometimes it's positive things like winning an award or other things like that. The point is that what happens in school stays with you for the rest of your life, okay? And those things, even though we grew up in, we're adults. We carry these sort of things with us. And those things shape the way we think about school in the way we think about teaching. Many of you may have had bad experiences in school, which is why you becoming a teacher, right? In the same way, the way we deal with students, the way we talk to Children gives them memories. You know, the cycle continues. And so what this presentation is about is about creating good experiences for students so that when they look back, hopefully they can write down positive things rather than negative things. But I want you to think about this and write it down. All right, So what is exception Ality exception. Ality is when we look, we talk about different types of students. Remember? This idea of treating students equally is actually doing them into service. We have to figure out what each student needs and meet them where they are. Remember the seven Principles of Multicultural Education Principle number one, meet students where they are. To do that, you need to know who and what they are. What their challenges are with their exceptions are okay. Now what happens generally is labelling occurs. All right. Labels such as identity labels can carry connotations and stigmas that impact school relationships. What we think about students often becomes their reality. What they think about themselves. Remember adults. One of the things they do is not only do they provide resource is, but they also provide an inner voice. And us a teacher will provide an inner voice for a student with a through verbal communication or non verbal communication. And often students will do well in your classroom, not because they like the content, but because they like you as a teacher. So the voice you insert into them often becomes their reality. Some disabilities are more socially acceptable than others, all right now. Socially acceptable to who? To the system of education right to the school system. Many school systems are very rigid. They don't allow for students that somehow fit outside of their box, and your job is to deal with any student who comes into your environment. So this is that this is where the conflict begins to emerge, all right, despite the controversy surrounding labeling it is necessary for funding and services. Now, remember how we spoke about the system? We spoke about classes, a system we spoke about race as a system. We spoke about gender as assistant disability or exception. Ality or differently. Abled students are inserted into the system where if they have certain exception, entities there are excluded in certain ways, and these are under the guise of things like funding and services. And we'll get a bit more into that as we as we proceed Now, I'm moving a bit quickly because I want to get to the slide. Exceptional individuals and society. The media generally shows people with disabilities as Children or childlike with severe disabilities. Okay, now, remember, we spoke about how prejudices have discrimination works. We spoke about different sort of things, right? One of the things we spoke about, I'm going to write them up here. We spoke about language. Okay, language. We spoke about symbols. We spoke about policies and laws, and we spoke about institutions. Now, when you're an exceptional student, these full frames influence your experience. For example, the way we talk about differently abled students, I hear the word handicapped. Now that seems to be an appropriate word, but imagine how this handicapped becomes a symbol. Often you'll see a symbol of someone in a wheelchair. This is someone in a wheelchair, right? It becomes a symbol. Okay, on that symbol eventually becomes a policy where we have to deal with this sort of group in a specific way and that policy needs and an institution to run it. Now, that doesn't mean that people another way. Excuse me. Let me step one step back before I start to explain this. That doesn't mean that people with certain who are differently able to don't need certain services. But when we start off with labeling them in specific ways, it begins to inform the way we treat them. Ah, handicapped person. It sounds different to and recall someone differently. Abled. Okay, so the way we frame them is the way we treat them. How we all of this, it's how we treat them, and how we treat them begins to be what they expect from themselves. How we treat them begins to be what they expect from themselves. If we treat them like a handicapped person, they will begin to meet our expectations as teachers. Okay, I want you to begin to think about this. Now, remember, our job is teachers and educators is to meet the students where they are to understand their needs. Different students require different things. But when we begin to use this framework to understand the way we socialize students, the way we assimilate students, the way we the way we acculturated them into our classrooms, we need to think about the impact of the way we label them and the expectations we have of them. Okay, let's continue into individuals who deviates. So I've written quite a lot. I want Teoh. I'm right over here. Okay? Individuals who deviate significantly from physical norms are subject to possible rejection . Okay, Rejection. Now think about these things. How will rejection impact the way these students feel about themselves? All right. Finally, as we stereotype individuals with disabilities, we deny them their rightful place in society. So it's not only what they expect from themselves, but what these things do you have here is they begin to separate students under the guise off special services. Under the guise of special services, we begin to exclude students because they do not fit into our norm. Now this is something that begins to really take shape as we go along and we look at schools. The failure to provide adequate educational vocational opportunities for individuals with disabilities may preclude the possibility of social and economic inequalities. What this is basically saying is that the more we exclude people who are differently abled , I do not agree with this word. In the literature called disabled, there's no such thing as a disabled person. There's a such a thing as a differently abled person. Everyone can do something Our jobs teaches is to figure out what they can do and build on that. Okay, so this is where me and the literature begin to have a bit of an argument. But what this is saying is that differently abled people because they're excluded, their social and economic well being begins to be diminished when they put them in institutions. Such a special education, where where teachers are not trained to deal with those sort of students and let them watch movies all day, they don't get the skills they need to get a job to be self sufficient, right? So not only is the economic well being compromised, but so is their social well being. All right. Individuals who are differently abled often find confidence security with each other and may form their own enclaves and social organizational structures just like anyone else. We want to find people who can relate to us, and we can relate to them. People who are differently abled enjoy the same sort of things. They human just like anyone else. This is speaking a truth. Okay, now one of the things that I've spoken about is the way institutions, language policy and symbols begin to work together to exclude and marginalize differently abled students. What then happens is we need to layer things like class. We need to layer things like gender. We need to lay things like race on top off this differently. Abled exception ality. Okay, so I'm talking about exception ality not only in terms of differently abled people, but also exceptional students in other words, those that perform about the academic known. What happens is that the system begins to sort these sort of students out, and often what is misinterpreted for as a learning disability is often a racial class or gender institutional structure. that separates students into special education, and the data is very clear. African American and Hispanic students, especially African American males, are being disproportionately placed in special education classes, even though there's no clear evidence that those students should actually be there. So this is an example of how other factors are playing a role in special education in the United States. Okay, now, how do we teach Children with who I exceptional, right? Exceptional, being differently, abled and exceptional in terms of being, you know, sort of bright. As one could say, We need to remember that Children are Children. We are creating these labels like exception, ality and differently abled. We as the teachers are creating these labels. But Children are Children just like any other Children, right? Our job is to find out their talents and unearth those talents from them, so we need to treat them like human beings. We need to treat them as if they Children just like any other child, all right, they're more alike than they are different. Remember, multicultural education is about recognizing the difference and understanding how you can use the difference to positively influence their lives. But at the same time. It's not to focus on the different such that you create low expectations for those students . Okay, teachers must be constantly cognizant of the unique needs of their students. As I've just said, finally, teachers of exceptional to Children may find it necessary to check records carefully. You need to gather support around you to deal with the different students. You are not an expert in all these areas, but there are people who are experts in these areas. The Evans Library, the Internet are great places for you to find. Resource is in your school. Hopefully, there will be someone who is adequately trained to help guide you in terms of relating to students. With exception, Aditi's OK, so don't be afraid to reach out to them now. There are three types of needs for exceptional students. Now I could replace exceptional in In fact, I will and say there are three types of needs for all students, right? The three types of needs for all students remember, multicultural education is about recognizing the differences. I'm not crossing out exception entity because I'm trying to say that it does not exist. But what I'm saying is if you're a good teacher. You're applying these three principles anyway. Okay. So Children are perceptive and sensitive to non verbal communication and hidden messages. I hope you remembering some of the principles of multicultural education the verbal and nonverbal communication. Right. Teachers can facilitate acceptance of a child in a clash in by exhibiting an open and positive attitude. This sounds like something you should be doing in your classroom anyway. Okay. Freedom to grow. Students with disabilities need acceptance, understanding and freedom to grow. I think the right way would be human beings. Human beings need acceptance, understanding and freedom to grow. I hope I'm making my point. Okay. What are the takeaways from this presentation? There's no such thing as a disability. Only people who are differently abled. All right, we as teachers need to figure out how we are going to ensure that these students can thrive in our classrooms regardless of who they are. If they're blind, we make a plan. If their day, if we make a plan, if they cannot walk, we make a plan. Because that's our job is teachers. We need to be motivated to reach those Children where they are as if they were our own Children. All right, teachers, perceptions, expectations matter teaches, though, they can succeed. All right, if your child had a learning disability for, for example, if your child had some kind of challenge, you would be spending all your energy, making sure that that child could learn in some way. If you're a teacher, there's no such thing as I can teach the child. Otherwise, you shouldn't be in the classroom. All right, finally, find support, stay committed and reflect on your practice. Reflect on how your strategies are working and find support systems around you. Teaching is not an individualistic profession. It's about collaboration. Find people who are passionate about the profession. Find people who are knowledgeable about these certain issues, connect with them, learn from them and both from there. I look forward to seeing you next week 4. Recognizing religious diversity: welcome to this presentation. We've spoken about various elements of multicultural education over the past couple of weeks. This week will be talking about religion, a topic that can be very sense to very controversial but very dear to many people, right, that is the ability to have faith, the ability to have religion, but also the ability to choose not to. So what? What I wanted to cover in this presentation is you as a teacher going to be dealing with human beings. And those human beings have a lot of components. We've talked about gender. We've talked about class and all those pieces combined to make the Children in front of you . The colleagues you work with and the bosses you have so understanding. Religion really applies to you in multiple ways, even though in many instances people will say that they won't talk about it. In reality, it really influences the way than the way the way in which they see the world. And so that is the reason why we're gonna be talking a little bit about it today. Okay, so let's talk about our gender for today. Religion as a way of life. The two major strands of religion. I'm going to be talking to you about the Abrahamic faiths as well as the Hindu based faiths . All right, I'll be looking at on overview of major face in the United States, and why does it matter to you now? There's many things that I'm an expert in. Religion is not one of those things. However, as I go about and learn, I welcome your feedback. I welcome you to email me and to teach me and to show me a little bit more. This is an area I'm very interested in. So please, I'm just presenting to you one piece of a broader picture. So I welcome feedback in this regard. Okay, So many religions are particular Ristic and that members believe that the only religion is uniquely true and legitimate and all others are invalid. Okay, Now, the reason why I've started off in this way is because we have to understand that religion is not only about a belief system, but it is also about how we live. I remember talking about a blueprint in terms of the way we live our life. In many respects, religion is part of US blueprint that really impacts the way in which people interact with world. Okay, there are many people in which religion does not play a role in impacting the way they see the world. Okay, so I want to pay homage to both groups of people. Those that do have religion and those who don't have religion. All right. Other religious groups accept the validity of distinct religion that have grown out of different historical experiences. I'm gonna be talking about the historical experiences in quite a lot of detail in this presentation. Now, one of the things that people tell me is that religion religions are very different now. There are two types off major religions in the world. We can divide them into two sort of strands, if you like. One of which is the Abrahamic faith. People will recognize this from Abraham. All right. And Abrahamic. Faith really begins with Abraham. Okay? In the Old Testament in the Bible, the Christian Bible, the Torah as well as the Koran. Okay, we have Abraham. Abraham has two sons. Okay? He has Isaac and has Ishmael. Now I'm going to talk to you about the significance of this in terms of its its relationship to Christianity, Islam and Judaism. All right, So as we begin Abraham following this line, Isaac, we have the Jewish faith. The Jewish faith is probably the oldest religion in relation to the Abrahamic faith. It isn't the oldest religion in the world, but it is definitely one of the oldest religions in terms of the Jewish faith. All right, so we have the Jewish faith. Isaac was Jewish, okay? And what happened is we had in We had the birth off a person called Jesus Christ. There were many profits who followed the Jewish line, all right. And we had someone called Jesus Christ. Many of you have heard of this person. I don't when you assume that all of you have and Jesus Christ really gave birth to this thing called Christianity or this faith called Christianity. Okay. Now Christianity is not a monolithic, monolithic, really religion in other ways, it's not static. It's not a single thing. They are commonalities, which I'm going to talk about in a moment. But this idea of Christianity is not one thing. It is many, many things, and it's taken many forms over. It's time. All right, so to give myself a little bit of space. I'm going to just erase this, which I'm going to talk about in a second. And we're gonna be talking about Christianity and more details. So we have the Jewish faith over here, which gives birth to the Christian faith. Now the Christian faith. In 3 25 a. D. We have what's called the Council of Nausea in the Roman Empire on the Council of Naseer begins to bring together the major Christian centers in the world at that time. Okay, And one of the major debates that the concept of Macia was this idea of the Trinity and for those of you made who may not have heard this term before, it's the idea of the Father, the Sun and the Holy Spirit. Will you spirit So at the concert of this year and 3 25 a. D. They begin to debate this idea of the father, the son and the Holy Spirit, the trinity, and they begin to lay down the foundations of the Christian faith. All right, now, that was very heavily influenced by Catholicism's. Okay, So when you visit places like the Vatican when you visit Constantinople. When you visit Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, those of the Christian Church is the Catholic Church is that came down and began to talk about what is this Christian faith? And they began to lay down the tenets off the Gospels. The part that's arms and the lack. So that was the birth of the New Testament. The New Testament was born from this console. All right, now, one of the things that happened later on Waas Now I'm going to be a raising one of this because we have to get to the other side, which is where Ishmael comes in. So I'm sort of drawing the side, and I'm going to raise it. But this is very important for you to understand my central point that what begins to happen is eventually someone comes along and his name is Martin Luther. And he breaks away from the Catholic tradition and begins to to engage in what's known as the Reformation and from the Reformation. What you start seeing is different kind of what we call sort of spinoff churches. Okay, so we have Baptists, we have Methodist, and I'm going to just draw this year, we have Protestant, especially in places like England. Now you will notice that part of the Reformation was breaking away from the Catholic tradition off iconography. For example, you'll notice that in Methodist churches the buildings are very simple, right? You will notice that in Catholic churches, if you look at them from the air, they are shaped in the shape of a cross, whereas Methodist Baptist and projects and churches are often square shaped and very bland , with very central pews. Not a lot of extravagance, because the Reformation was about breaking from this idea off sort of icons or visual to very inward. And that was one of the key differences that Martin Luther began to bring. Now the Reformation heavily influenced the world, in fact, especially the U. S. Because Protestant Protestant Protestant population makes up up to 40% of the population here in the U. S. On the Protestant values really influence the tenants of the US Constitution and the way a lot of things happen here in the U. S. Okay, now, that was as a direct response to the Reformation. And as we've gone along, we've been many, many different types of churches that have begun to emerge. And so from these different strands we have different reaffirmations, as you would like to the modern day. It's a Christianity has become a very fluid idea. The central tenet, er, is that Jesus Christ is a is a part of the father, the son and the Holy Spirit. He is the son of God, okay, and that's the central thing that binds all of these together. But because we know that religion is more than just faith, it is also a way of life. All right, we spoke about a way of life. It's a blueprint because religion is also a way of life, the way they may have the same faith. But the way in which individuals India's religions who are embedded in these religions practice their life is very different. And so when people say that their Christian, they may all agree on one thing, but they have disagreements on other things. Those are very important for you to know is a teacher. Okay, let me quickly go through to Islam. Very important to understand. And I'm just going to be very quick on this, like we was had Ishmael and Ishmael, who is the son of Abraham, brother of Isaac, goes on to form Islam. Now Islam is based on five pillars. Very important to know. The first pillar is understanding that the Prophet Mohammed I'm gonna call in Prophet Mohammed. Peace be upon him. We cannot use, say the Prophet Mohammed without following it up with the phrase peace be upon him is the prophet of Islam. Okay? Muslims will pray up to 25 times a day. Okay, Up to 25 times a day at a minimum, five times a day. Okay. They will also go on on what's called a hajj in Mecca. Okay? It will give 13% of their income to the poor. And last but not least, they will accept. They will accept that Allah is God OK? Notice that I haven't put Theo in there. In Judaism, you cannot write the word God. You have to. You have to abbreviate it. Okay? I'm trying to be respectful to our members of the Jewish community. Now Islam is broken up into different strands. Just like Christianity. You have three men's two main strands on a substrate. You have Sunni Islam and Shi ite Islam. And then you have a type of Sunni which is called Sufi Islam. Okay, which has unique practices Now. The reason why all of this is important is because all of these religions Islam, Christianity, Judaism, all share a commonality all share commonality. And that is respect for humanity, Respect for human dignity, respect for humanity. The in form, a way of life that is not only has faith but a way of life that brings together different forms of humanity. Despite what you've heard about Islam, it is a very peaceful religion. Okay, here we go. Hinduism. In fact, many people think that Judaism is one of the oldest religions. In fact, Hinduism is perhaps the oldest religion right now. The differences between Hinduism and Abrahamic religions that Hinduism give rise to Buddhism on Baha ism, the high is a Morecambe in it now, Hinduism, Buddhism, Baha ism have a very, very strong disconnection from the Abrahamic faith in that God is multiple things. God is everything. God is the universe and God is in Hinduism. You have, for example, garnish who is represented as an elephant. You have different types of iconography. Pictures, pictures off gods who have different types off meanings, One of the meanings. And if you look at the icons of garnishes, you'll see a swastika, a swastika in Hinduism, the swastika and the trident is a symbol off piece of war off all the things that make up the universe. And so Hinduism begins to capture these elements in their different icons and their difference. Idols, right. It has various idols in Hinduism, Buddhism, born out of Hinduism, talks about the Enlightenment, talks about being enlightened and part of it being enlightenment. Is that the belief that life is a form of suffering? Life is a form of suffering, and part of suffering is about worry is about anxiety. And the point of our lives is to become in Latin. Now, the key thing that threads Hinduism together is that all live whole life deserves respect and dignity. Dignity is at the center point of all these faiths. Now, why am I telling you all of this right now? You can go through these on your own. These are just some at lance off thes religions. Now, these are some outlines of the different religious groups that I've spoken about. But why is this important? Why is this important? This is important because religion people will walk into our classrooms with the religion with a faith with a way of life and without your understanding of how these different faiths play out in the labs of your students, colleagues and buses, cultural conflicts will occur in your classrooms. Okay, so you understanding religion will be a major help to you in really understanding the way to reach Children where they're at. Okay, now all religions stressed the fundamental humanity of people. All religions do that. Okay. Even having even those without religion also stressed the fundamental humanity of people. Religion is who students are understanding. Religion helps you meet them where they are. Acceptance messes agreement. People may not necessarily agree with different faiths, but they have to accept that those face existence and find ways toe work through them. Finally, I've given you some broad historical context to spark you, to spark you, to think about your faith, to think about you. Maybe not having faith to spark that exploration. And finally, the reason why that spark is important is because the more research to do on how different faiths impact the learning environment of different students, the more effective you will be as a teacher. Thank you for joining us 5. Summary: welcome to the last lecture of the semester Education. There is multicultural, basically a summary off the different experiences that we've been having the semester and some pulling all the concepts together and really helping you find a place for them. Any loose ends that may have bean thrown out there this semester. This presentation is about bringing it all together and giving you a clear picture. Now, before I get started. I saw a talk this week that that was based on three principles. Okay, he said right, consciously read critically. Tell your truth, and this is based on a on a Ted talk. Okay. No, I want to start this. I want to start this lecture from this platform because firstly, before I get onto this, I want you to know that 10 thes ted talks are really valuable for you to begin to get in perspectives on education from around the world and education that is multicultural. The world is multicultural, so understanding from different experts that give their perspective of education can really benefit to you and apply immensely to a classroom. So I'm going to apply something. I learned from the Ted talk to this classroom and speak about where you will go from here. Underlying under pending months of multicultural education is about you engaging in discussions in which you have written conscious. You've thought about what you are writing down. Some of you may not have thought about it as much. But writing consciously is about beginning to transform yourself, beginning to use discourse and words that you may not necessarily have used before. You will notice that if you go back to your first discussions you are using, you will use words that only later on you will fully have understood. Let me say that again. If you go back to your discussions in the beginning and you compare them to the ones you're doing now you will notice that a shift has occurred in many of you and you're beginning to write more and more consciously about the way you do things. But writing consciously is only half is important as reading critically. You will notice during the presentations that they are points in which I have stopped and I've actually begun to challenge the authors. You will notice that I begin to challenge those because I want you to read critically and I want you to take these lectures in critically and think about them and how they apply nothing you read in your in your career. Well, totally sit well with you. You need to be able to challenge them. You need to be able to work with them and you need to be critical off them. Finally, you need to tell your truth. Multicultural education is about finding your space in the broader, pluralistic society that we are engaged in. So multicultural education is not only out there, but it's also within you. And this class has really been about helping you develop these skills to be able to ride consciously using the discourse of multicultural education. I'm able to sit down with you and talk to you about things like pluralism, assimilation, nationalism, ethnocentrism. These are words that you may not have been exposed to before the close of the way you think about the world. There will come a time in which something you've read about will occur in real life and the Penuell drop That is when you will realize that you have read critically. Remember to tell your truth. Remember to think about your truth. Remember to think about your blueprint. Remember, we spoke about a blueprint to think about how all of these concepts have begun to fit together, almost like puzzle pieces. Each of these has represented a puzzle piece that is beginning to fit together into this broader puzzle. No beginning with that, let's have a look at what was multicultural education. Let's tie this whole piece together if we remember from Election number one. Multicultural Education is a concept that acknowledges the importance of diversity in the lives of students, families and bulls in it to promote equality and social justice. Education. Remember the adversity of strength. Okay, and multicultural education is not about what we call rhetoric off multiculturalism, in other words, multiculturalism on the surface. But it's about deep understanding. It's about deep change to the status quo of dominance. Multicultural education is about helping you a teacher shift the status quo because the status quo is perhaps why you got into teaching in the first place. What have we learned in this class? Let's let let me break it down. I'm starting off with the takeaways. First up front place students at the center of learning students are the reason why we get into teaching. We don't get into teaching for the money. We don't get into teaching for the hours we don't get. We certainly don't get into teaching for the stress and anxiety that it can calls. We get into teaching because we are passionate and we care about young people and about their futures, right? So remember to always begin with that in mind. Place them at the center of learning, established a safe classroom climate. You are the law and order in your classroom. You are responsible for the classroom climate in your classroom. Believe that all students can learn. Picture each one of those students in your classroom is one of your Children. And think about how you would meet them where they are. If students aren't learning the way you're teaching them, you need to change the way you teach that they could learn simple as that acknowledge in building students life histories and experiences through culturally responsive teaching. This is the new toe. I know it's our last lecture, but I want to I want you to Google this term culturally responsive teaching. It's teaching that uses a student's culture remember cultures, a blueprint that encompasses age and encompasses ethnicity. It encompasses race and encompasses gender. It encompasses religion. It encompasses all these factors that we've been speaking about and uses it to teach the student. It analyzes oppression and power relationships in schools and society. When we spoke about gender and you watch the video about the fair six and we spoke about male privilege and we spoke about race and we could have spoken about white privilege and we could have spoken about male privilege and other forms of privilege. Okay, it's because we're beginning to unpack the way in which oppression because and multicultural education, true monster cultural education is about challenging, challenging those forms of oppression. All right, we have modeled justice and equality in the classroom with students, families and communities. There's no doubt that each of you have shown a commitment to justice and education. Many of you have said how you will use some of these principles in your classrooms, and that is really you know, you know how to use multicultural education. This class has just been about giving you the tools in the language to talk about those in real time Okay, so this is a bit more. I've touched on these. But make sure that students know you. You can and that you show pride in their work. They can feel it. Remember how we spoke? About 90% of the communication between you and a student is nonverbal communication. Okay. They will know whether you care and whether you're actually proud of them or not. Okay, Yeah. I've spoken about the Hidden and Ovett curricula. Remember emotions and attitudes off out. All right. Jointed, productive activities, believing all students can learn. Remember, some students learn together Some students work better collaborative than they do by themselves. Okay? Challenge challenge them through activities, set them things that they can do but sit them. Things that will stretch them, set them things that will learn that will help them learn about life and how life really works. Okay, Reflect, very important. We're gonna come back to this term, reflect on the way there land input. Reflection is critical. Find common ground and be brave. Remember, we learned that most of most teachers will not touch and multicultural issues because they are too scared to. They will not touch in inches of race that we're not touching issues of gender because they're too afraid to delve into that. So remember to be brave in order to really impact, not only students lives but the society in which they are. You have to be brave. You have to learn to be reflective, and you have to learn to be compassionate. Most importantly, you have to learn to be the bigger person. When it comes to Children. Children will test your Children will humiliate your Children, will be angry with your Children, will say terrible things to you. Remember, your job is to be compassionate and to be quote unquote the bigger person with them. Okay, Model justice, develop critical thinking. Challenge them. Do some of the questions that we've discussed over the semester. I've used these questions with third graders. I've used these questions with second and first graders. Critical thinking does not necessarily have to be a very complex thing that we only do a university level. Young people are thinking about the death of a goldfish and the moral implications and the ethical implications of that. Young people have a mind. We just need to develop their thinking. Okay, No yourself get to know yourself more. You've engaged in a family origins project in an autobiography project. You found out your family history and where they come from. Very important to understanding yourself and your biases to and remember. Last but not least, reflect, reflect, reflect. Think about yourself. Reflect on why things happen. OK, Now we're going back to the Seven Principles of Multicultural Education. I want you to think about how these have applied and how they're how they've been used. Remember, we need to use culturally sensitive materials, culturally sensitive and culturally relevant. Okay. We need to use the learning styles of students. Remember, We need to begin where they are. Begin where students are OK. And that way I'm able to begin where students are. All right. I use oral and non verbal communication. 90% of what you are saying comes through your body language. 90% of it. Remember that. Okay, It has to be integrated throughout the curriculum. It's nice to have days where you bring international food, but that's not good enough. You have to integrate multicultural education in different ways. Okay? You have to make sure that the disparities between men and women. The disparities between racial groups are addressed in your classroom, All right. It must deal with the social and historical realities of American society. I hope as you as you sort of dealt with the literature, you've realized that things aren't as rosy as they seem, OK? And that you, as a teacher, are slap bang in the middle of all of that. All right, so it has to deal with that. It has to talk about that. It has to think about ways and strategies to deal with those things, all right? And it should incorporate from the local community where we don't know we can refer and drawing other expertise to help us teach in there. Finally, my message to you. This is my classroom in South Africa. My message to you is make your life matter. Okay. Make sure that when you step into the classroom that who you are comes through and that each day you learn how to take students wonderful young people with huge potential to where they need to be. These people will teach you more than you will teach them. But unless you're using the tools of multicultural education, you will lose out on those great learning opportunities. I wish you the best. And I look forward to connecting with you in the future. Please feel free to contact me or email me with any questions. Thank you. Take it.