Skillshare: Diversity: Geography and Youth Culture | Dr. Warren Chalklen | Skillshare

Skillshare: Diversity: Geography and Youth Culture

Dr. Warren Chalklen, Education Innovator

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
4 Lessons (56m)
    • 1. Introduction

      15:17
    • 2. Youth Culture

      15:13
    • 3. Geography

      11:07
    • 4. Summary of Major Multicultural Themes

      13:53

About This Class

f25de794

In this course we delve into the complexities of geography and Youth culture in their relationship with diversity.

To build prosperous communities, nurturing schools, and innovative businesses; we require understanding of how to work with people from all walks of life. This course systematically prepares anyone interested in diversity and multiculturalism with important skills to make their environments more inclusive, safe, productive, and connected.

Concepts covered include the cultural, historical, and philosophical foundations of education in a multicultural society. We begin by outlining the principles of multicultural education, before looking at the connections between issues such as race, class, gender, and sexual orientation.

We also cover less addressed issues of diversity such as language, geography, religion, and the youth culture. Optional discussions, activities, and a range of additional readings deepen the learning so that anyone taking the class can put the ideas into practice right away.

Transcripts

1. Introduction: welcome to multiculturalism and diversity. My name is Warren Chocolate. I'm a PhD candidate at Texas A and M University, and I'm very passionate, educated. You'll notice by my accent that I'm not from the United States or the United Kingdom or even Australia from South Africa. And I'm very, very passionate about issues off multiculturalism and diversity because of my teaching background. I connect a lot of what I learned to this idea of multicultural education because they have very strong connections. And this first lecture is really about introducing you to some core concepts. And I'm really looking forward to this journey that we're about to embark on. What is our agenda? I will be covering a little bit about what we'll be doing over the next couple of weeks. I'll be defining multiculturalism and multicultural education and talking about the principles that we use and talking about measurement and reflection and how we can tile these pieces together. All right, I begin each lecture with a question that is designed to begin to bring out some of the core ideas because I'm a constructivist in nature, and I believe that all people have the knowledge inside of them. My goal is to draw it out of you and to use the knowledge that you have and build on that. So the question that I'm going to begin with is how can rebuild better teams? I recently saw commercials for team building exercises, and I wondered whether they actually addressed many of the factors that actually keep teams which are made up of people apart. Why is it that we have $1,000,000 billion industries that work on team building and building relationships and connections between people? It must be because they are difficulties in that space. Now, if you're at someone at home who's in the working world or being in the working world or currently in College University or someone who's just interested in multiculturalism in general, one of the questions you got to be asking yourself and one of the reasons why you probably in this class is you're thinking to yourself, Where do you connect in this idea of multiculturalism? And how does it apply to you? So let's get back to the question. How can be both better teams now? The strongest teams are those that are able to bring together different strengths and understand different so called weaknesses or misunderstandings amongst people. Why multiculturalism is important is because it gives you the tools. It gives you a set of frameworks in which you can begin to unpack the people around you and understand them better and help them understand you better. And the end result of that is better teams, more productive teams, better individuals, more productive individuals. And the ultimate benefit of it is more inclusive, safe and humane societies. So I want you to think about this idea of team building on how it relates to you and your context. And I think that's an appropriate way for us to get started in some of the meat of this class. So what are some broad multicultural themes that we're going to be dealing with? Okay, I'm going to draw your attention to the center of the screen. We look at the broad themes we're gonna be looking at culture. What is culture and identity? Ah, we're going to be looking at space by space, I mean inhabited space, but also the internal space that we that we have, that we existed as people and then I'm going to be having a focus on young people. Many off you take this class are going to be pre service teachers, and so looking at young people is a very, very important component. Let's begin with culture. What is culture? There's a whole lecture where we talk about what culture is and how it effects you. And many people will say to me that they do not have a culture, and what my classes about is helping you unpack what your culture is. And some of the very big markers that make it up within culture will be talking about issues of race and ethnicity that'll be actually electoral wine. We'll be talking about racism and our race works. The different interpretations will be talking about gender and class social economic status . All right, when it comes to identity, will be talking a little bit about sexual orientation as well as religion. So how people identify would be using words such as my identity and how I identify okay, he's are just giving you some insight into the kind of discourse by discourse. I mean, the kind of terms that will be introducing you to over this class, and hopefully they'll make more sense as we progress. Okay, Bye Space. I talk about issues of language and geography when I came to the United States, and you'll notice when I started this lecture, I spoke about the U. K and Australia and the fact that my accent is from a different place South Africa and many people will say that I speak English in a very different way to English people, Australian people and people here in the United States and so language. Even though we're speaking English, there's different parts of language that are very, very important and part of understanding multiculturalism is unpacking the way language shapes, the way we behave in the way that we do things. And it gives us market in terms of our geography where we're from. And that's a very important component to understand as well. Now, looking at young people, I'll be talking about about exception. Ality is exceptional. Students will be talking about differently abled students, and finally, we'll be talking a little bit about youth culture will be talking a little bit about hip hop. We'll be talking a little bit about the way in which young people identify and shape cultural experiences. And then finally, the final lecture will be pulling these pieces together and giving you an understanding off how you can actually use these things in your daily life. Okay, with that being said, we have to helpful texts. I don't get paid or have any connection to these texts other than the fact that I really I have read these techs, and I think they're very accessible. I have a preference towards diversity consciousness, mainly because of its accessibility. But Goldman tensions, multicultural education of pluralistic society is a cannon. A lot of scholars who teach in multicultural education, particularly in various colleges of education across the nation and the world, used this text. And so it's important for me to share that with you. But diversity consciousness is a fantastic book for those who are beginning to really unpack this idea of diversity consciousness. So I really encourage you. I will be referencing these East texts as we go along in the class. All right, so let's get into it. I hope you have a pen and paper, your laptop ready, and you you're excited to get into some some content here. Let's talk a little bit about multiculturalism in multicultural education. OK, now it's a concept that acknowledges the important role of diversity in the lives of students families and build on it to promote equality and social justice and education. OK, no multicultural education. Remember, my my background is an education, so I start off with that component. But multiculturalism is about promoting equality and social justice anyway, whether students, we can substitute that for Children, we can substitute that for young people, families, families look different around the world. And so multiculturalism encompasses all kinds of difference. Everyone is different. So multiculturalism encompasses us all and pushes to promote equity and equality amongst us . And not only that, were there disparities, it looks to create some kind of justice. Okay, so, Golden Kenshin frame intricate multicultural education in this way. Okay, Now there are very few slides in this first lesson. I want to give you some principles off multiculturalism and multicultural education. All right, principle number one is I would like to summarize this as adaption in terms of the way you approach things. So if you're a teacher, there would be teaching approaches and materials that are sensitive and relevant to people If you're in the workplace, for example, these are teaching or using approaches, whether you're hiring someone or working for a bus or working with colleagues using approaches that are sensitive to them. For example, if you see a woman wearing his job is off the Muslim faith, using approaches that are sensitive to those particular faith and the practices, for example, ordering lunch and making sure there's no pork if you have a Jewish or Muslim colleague or even a vegan colleague or someone who does not feel comfortable with pork, that very simple example is about being sensitive to the people that are around you. Okay, Number two, The learning styles of students and the teaching styles of the teacher understood to develop effective instructional strategies. Okay, if you're a teacher, this means that everything you do has to be about making sure that you teach in the way that students can land. If you're a manager, if you're a bus, if you're someone in the working world, it's about using strategies that are effective with your colleagues such that their strengths are brought out and your strengths are brought out at the same time. Okay, Number three using a role and nonverbal communication. Where I come from, shaking someone's hand with your left hand is considered route. It's a non verbal sleight against someone. Okay, so understanding people is about understanding both e r. A. What was saying and the non verbal what we're not saying, but we are saying through our bodies, okay, very, very important. When you're teaching in a classroom to really understand the students in front of you and the way they communicate often in their cultures, they communicate nonverbally. Okay, now in the workplace, this has very, very, very important consequences for things like sexual harassment, for example, or things like jokes and humor. Okay, and how those kind of things those are all communications can be taken in very different ways. So being multicultural and being sensitive is about understanding both the arrow and the non verbal. Put another way, the verbal and nonverbal communication. So multiculturalism, principle number five is about integration. So often, students will tell me that they have international days where they dress up in different cultures and they have different food from different cultures, and that's the way they integrated. And that's fine. But the next question I ask them is, What about the rest of the okay? And so multicultural? Education is about integrating the perspectives off all students into the curriculum on a daily basis, making it an important part of the discussion in the work place. This is just a important understanding why Muslims are fasting during Ramadan. Understanding why Urumqi poet is so important to the Jewish community. White Christmas is so important to the Christian community understanding why, Ah, someone may want to go to Hajj, for example, or understanding why someone may refer to uncles as brothers or cousins as brothers or cousins or sisters. Understanding the family makeup these kind of things that, if integrated into not only the curriculum at the workplace, can really make people feel savings and really secure in the environment that they're in. Okay, Number six. This is a very important piece of multiculturalism. There's one stream of multiculturalism that talks about multiculturalism just is awareness , but there's another piece that talks about using multiculturalism, toe address, inequalities, toe address oppression such as racism, ages and sexism, classism, these different ISMs that we have. Okay, so I'm going to be applying this multicultural classes away, off, making you away. And my hope is that part of it at the same time is to really drive you to address some of the places and spaces that you have around you, where inequalities and various forms of oppression can take place. And so my agenda in through those classes to make you aware and give you the tools to make your own choices. Okay. Finally, multiculturalism is about bringing people together. It's about using people as resource is to teach and to learn from. Often, hotel teaches that your students will teach you how to teach them. When I'm giving talks in different organizations and corporations to manages, I tell them that their employees will teach them how to manage them. Okay, and that sometimes involves actually incorporating resource is from the local community. And that is a very, very effective strategy where you don't know multiculturalism really encourages you to find out to connect to other people, and other resource is okay, So what if some takeaways from this very quick introduction to multicultural education and multiculturalism, you'll see over the next lessons that you will see that I break it down? I take a bit more time, but this is just to give you a brief introduction. So there's three main takeaways here. Multiculturalism is a tool to build a more just world understanding. Difference can be a huge asset to you. Number two The seven principles of multicultural education can be applied to any multi cultural context. Even if you're in a homogenous community, there are differences in that community. And as you as you go through this class that those differences will become more away. You become more aware of those things. Okay, Now, finally, this next set of courses are designed to extend your knowledge base in multiculturalism and Tavist. My goal is to build your awareness, to build your understanding and to slowly take you on a journey where by the end, you'll be able to not only know, uh, issues around diversity and multiculturalism, but be able to apply them to your daily life. I look forward to this wonderful adventure that we're about to embark on, and I welcome you to please provide me feedback and to help me help you have a wonderful learning experience alongside you. Let's do it 2. Youth Culture: this week, we'll be talking about youth culture. Welcome. I hope these presentations these previous presentations have been fruitful and that you gaining a lot of interesting knowledge and interesting insight, and that you having pretty deep conversations and insightful conversations with your your colleagues, classmates and perhaps other people who may not be in this class with us. We'll be talking about the youth culture this week, and I'm gonna dive straight in. Remember each week of mixing it up? I normally begin with a question and an agenda. But this week, for those who are instructed students or learn students who learn in a constructive way, I'm gonna dive straight into this one, right? Let's go. Agent culture. We feel, think, perceive and behave based on the age group to which we belong. Remember who you are, and the way you look at the world is impacted by certain things. Age plays a role in those things, and we'll be elaborating, but more on that as we go through, an understanding of the various age groups is helpful in understanding and providing appropriately for the needs of students. The Gold Nick chapter on age and culture is a fantastic one to really begin to think about the way age and culture interact with each other. We have childhood. We will be in Children. Okay. Childhood is a critical time in the life of an individual. The educational educational setting can have profound influences on the young child language is developed at an early age. You will notice that young Children, regardless of culture and geographic location, begin to learn through imitation. They begin to mimic the sounds that the people around them make and different cultural settings raise Children differently. In South Africa, where I'm from, the child is raised with the mother all the time, whereas in countries such as the US and elsewhere, the child was taken to a K O. The child has taken somewhere else, and so languages developed differently in different settings. Nevertheless, all the behaviors off the child develop from very young age. The 1st 1000 days, 1st 100 days and 1st 1000 days of a child's life are very critical to their mental, emotional and physical development. Now you can read through the chapters. What I want to get to is how this applies to you in the classroom being a teacher one of the main things that I experienced when it came to Children with different forms of abuse. This cuts right across whether you're gonna be an elementary school teacher, high school teacher and anything in between. I need to give you some skills and some something, some things to think about when you're dealing with Children and some of the signs Number one always know your Children realize and be suspicious over the suspicions. Sometimes when you suspect that things may be happening with Children, when they when they wearing long sleeves, when it's a very hot day, when they're withdrawn when they're wearing hoodies. When they were in glasses, for example, these are warning signs that may elicit 222 draw the person into a conversation and refer them if necessary. Nevertheless, child abuse is a physical or psychological mistreatment over child those of physical things that I've spoken to you about. But they're also a mental and emotional things when Children begin to act out when Children begin to act in ways that are not not usual for them. Often we can determine how Children behave generally, and when they begin to act out those of warning signs. Those are invitations. I like to call them for you as the teacher to begin entering into a conversation with that student. All right, Abused Children may experience serious problems in school in terms of being both disruptive and in terms of the academic achievement. If you see grades slipping rarely drastically, something is going on. It's an invitation for you to begin to investigate. All right, child abuse is usually can't categorize this physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse or emotional abuse. So these are These are the type of words that we use to describe these things. It is the responsibility of each teacher to report, known or suspected you were legally obligated to report these occurrences. Okay, let's get into some of you may have never heard of these things. Okay, some of you may have. Either way, it's important to talk about physical abuse Refers to the non accidental injury inflicted by a caretaker. Physical abuse ranges from minor bruises to severe fractures or even death. Okay, now very important for you to be aware of your students and the way as I've said, the clothes, they were their mannerisms and things like that very, very critical. Okay? Neglect. Remember, some students may not be necessarily physically abused, but they may be stopped. They may be started not only food but also emotionally. It involves the failure of parents, the garden or caregiver to provide for the basic needs of the child. If you think about Maslow's basic needs, he puts them into a pyramid. And part of those needs are both physical comfort, safety but also emotional needs as well. Physical, medical, educational and emotional needs. If these air neglected, you need to act. Sexual abuse refers to the involvement of Children or under age, adolescence and sexual activities. It also includes practices that violate the Social Moors of one's culture as they relate to family roles. This is a very, very sensitive issue, and it's very important for teachers to be the care giver and the protector of Children in the society. In societies in which these these things occur. Often these things are well hidden. These things are almost right under our noses, and we really need to be aware and actor now instincts when these when these things occur, emotional abuse involves chronically belittling, humiliating, rejecting a child or continue attacking, attacking their self esteem. Let me be very clear about this. Teachers are very guilty off this form of abuse towards Children, and one of the ways they do that is through low expectations of Children. No expectations of Children is a form of emotional abuse. Okay, so just as parents may have no expectations, you need to understand that this is a very, very serious form of attack on a child. Self esteem, an attack on a child. Sense of Southwest. All right. No, Some of you may be working with very young Children, but adolescence is really where the teacher will play a critical role in shaping young people. Why? Because here is where they most supple here is where they're almost like clay, where you are really able to shape them and where they are really shaped by the world around them. So if you can play a pivotal role, adolescence is really critical. It's the finest ages 13 to 18. It is a transitional period, which is why this is so important. Because they really begin to open up. Okay? The individual is suspended between childhood and adulthood. They may feel invincible. They may may feel that they can break the rules and test the rules. Very important part of this emancipation from the primary family unit is the central task of the individual. U. S. A. Teacher will be one of the authority figures that the student will either draw towards or rebel against. Either way, you need to figure out ways to draw the student as close as possible and to guide them as much as you possibly can. Relationships with parents at this state shift from emotional ties towards piers. Very important adolescence assert their right to assume adult behavior. Smoking, drinking and other sort of things begin to sort of come into the the students the students radar Over. This time they assume complementary adult like responsibilities, which could lead to conflict and families money, time, authority. Very, very tensions. Tense issues. Now, as students begin to experiment, sometimes abuse begins to happen. Substance abuse is one of those things. Illegal drugs and the overuse of legal substances such as anti anxiety anxiety pulls, especially in young woman preparing for the exams. Okay, things like marijuana. Things like all kinds of drugs to calm students down sleeping pools is another one very, very common that young people will take these legal drugs and become hooked on them. Okay, substances are abused to produce altered states of consciousness when people are taking energy pills and energy tablets continuously to keep themselves going throughout the week. Those are very dangerous behaviors because they conform addictions or bacon for medical ailments later on in the line and sometimes even death. Very important to understand. Have a listen drug users, either experimenters or compulsive users, or both. Generally, we have what's called gateway drugs. These are drugs that students begin with or people begin with and they lead to others. So 1 may be the experimental marijuana user and end up being a compulsive heroin user or compulsive sleeping pill taker, for example. No, at a lesson. Sexual behaviors very important with the media and the impact of the media and young people and other things, sexual behaviors are becoming more and more normalized. All right. With that reality, us a teacher will will be in a position to guide young people. OK, now there's a huge increase in teenage pregnancies and STDs, including HIV HIV, is a death sentence. Don't let Magic Johnson for you. Those who contract HIV are going to going to die within the next 10 years. Regardless, the antiretroviral drugs will extend their life. But it is a death sentence. Okay? Young people need to understand this danger. All right? Sexual activity and high risk behaviours often have a high correlation. This is a myth. This is a myth, right? Golden Qinshan? Um, they framed people in poverty as those who engage in high risk behaviours. Okay, they have a strong correlation, but there's a lot of research that debunks this. All right. Young people across all classes across all ages. Okay. 13 to 18 engage in high risk behaviours. It is not only those in poverty. This is what's known as a deficit perspective. Okay? What it does is, it is it captures those who are in low social economic status, and it puts all the social ills on that particular group. That is a great example of of this sort of thinking. OK, no sexting. This is a very important thing, and I'm sure that some of you may be aware of this time. It refers to sending nude or semi nude pictures from cell phones to cell phones, right? Young people are increasingly engaging in this. What happens is once the picture is sent, it begins to get sent out, and humiliation of young people occurs. Humiliation needs to depression, okay, and can lead to things like suicide. All right, now, at a lesson. Suicide, as I've just explained, you can look at this slot on on your own. All right. Self injury. Very important. Very important to talk about not only suicide, but also self injury. There are many as a teacher. This is something I had to deal with. A lot of young people self injuring themselves through things like cutting through things like all sorts of things that are very difficult to explain. Self injury or self mutilation is the deliberate act of harming one's earned body, often through things like cutting. All right now you will notice when the young person is always wearing long sleeves. Okay, When they don't want you to see the arms, they will cut the inside of their legs. They'll cut the inside of the arms or behind the shoulder so that they can wear shirts and sometimes along the sides of their bodies. Okay, these are is a sort of the warning signs. Now, those are difficult for you as a teacher to get to okay to be able to see them. But if there's suspicion, they are procedures that you can follow to begin to have, perhaps if their suspicions you can you can kind of get a sense of how you can help address that with the student. Okay. Very important, because this often leads to suicide eventually. All right, most of the South injuries behaviors begin between 12 and 15 from a very young age. Okay, at the lessons may engage in this behavior to manage painful feelings, cope with anxiety and relieve stress and pressure. The stress and pressure and expectations we put on students can often force them into behaviors that we were not expecting. Self mutilation is one of those now teachers engage in bullying as much of students. Okay, so teasing, taunting, verbally, abusing, not necessarily shoving and hitting, but spreading rumors or deliberately excluding someone are things that teachers do on a daily basis. Okay, So before we begin to talk about bullying within the students, we need to address bullying within our profession. Okay. What? We as teachers do is we often by setting low expectations. But we also we also know a lot about the student, and we use their trust to tease them or turn them or create things in which we spread rumors about students often intentionally or unintentionally. These are very important things for us to be aware of as teachers. Okay, no, we need to be able to deal with bullying not only amongst ourselves but also amongst the students. Students need to feel safe if there is their safety. There is no learning in the classroom. Very important. You, as the teacher in the classroom, need to ensure that you check yourself and that you ensure that your students, every single one of them. It's safe from any form of physical, emotional or mental abuse of any kind. Why? Because it has serious long term consequences for people. All right now, one of the things that comes out in the youth culture we've spoken a bit about bullying and some of these very serious things. I also wanted to address this area of hip hop culture. Many people see hip hop cultures degrading or as something that's not sort of morally okay . It's sexist. It's racist. However, hip hop culture is a very, very important part of young people's lives. It is not only these things. It is also a whole lot more. And so hip hop culture is comprised of so many things that make up historical cultural pride in many, many communities. If you can utilize hip up culture to teach students, you're well in your way. All right. Cell phones and texting. You can look at this. I'm sure your lecturers is including myself. Have spoken to some students about this in this university, not necessarily in school. So you won't have to deal with that. I think karma will come around to you. Um, finally, the takeaways from today's lecture. Okay. You need to address the various age groups in your classroom appropriately. You need to meet them where they are. Okay. You need to You need to better understand them and better understand their families and their communities. Okay. Understanding the particular age group characteristics and needs of students can assist the educated, better understand and managing related age related behaviors. Okay, thank you very much for this presentation. I look forward to seeing 3. Geography: welcome to this presentation. We're going to be discussing geography, and this presentation is really going to be short and sweet and to the point. I want you to really begin to understand the way in which these different elements are beginning to fit together in this broader puzzle. So I hope, as the weeks of progressing, you're sort of seeing how these different pieces are fitting together. This week will be dealing with geography. Our agenda will begin with the question as per usual. Well, look at what is geography, The different kinds of geography. Many of you have seen an atlas and at this is one way of looking at drug. If we were gonna be taking a different route, how does it operate in the classroom? How can you use it to build teaching and learning in your classroom in the future? All right, let's begin with the question. And the question I have this week is does where I come from, determine who I am, does where I come from, determine who I am in South Africa. We have a philosophy. It's known as we're going to go Moon to grab on to say that one more time we're going to go movinto Lavonte, which means I am because you are so I cannot be human without you without another person. Other people make me human, and I make them human right in the same way does where I come from. Determine who I am. So because you're from the United States, because you may be from other places in the world or because you from the United States but from different regions of the United States have those contributed to who you are, have those sediments of those different places influenced and shaped the way you think about the world and the way you think about things. Are you aware of those things? Well, that's it. We're going to be unpacking in this lecture. What is geography? As I said, the one way to look at it is the physical geography, the study of the physical environment. When you think about the United States, for example, you think about the Grand Canyon, you think about perhaps the Niagara Falls. Do you think about the States when you think about Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world, or Kilimanjaro, the second highest month in the world, located in Kenya on East Africa. These air terms will be talking about the physical geography of a place that cut the name of the country that I come from is called South Africa. It's a geographical location as well as the name of the place. Okay, so that's one way to look at geography. But there is another way to get geography, and that's the way we're going to look at it through in this presentation, and that is human geography. We're gonna be looking at geography in terms of its impact on the way in which people use their economic and social and cultural systems, right? So the way in which geography really influences things like economic activity. I'll give you an example. One of the greatest studies to determine why there's so much political and war, for example, political strife or war in Afghanistan is the geographic lay out of the area. All right, there's sparse amounts of water and its very rocky. There's a lot of places to hide. Those contribute to the instability that Afghanistan experiences on a daily basis in certain areas of Afghanistan. It's not totally at war. Therefore, that shows you that geography is not just about the physical space, but about how human beings interact with the physical space. All right, now, how does it operate for you in your classroom? Remember this framework? We talked about language, institutions, symbols, laws and policies. I'm going to unpack a little bit in the way I understand how geography can influence. Now, for example, we have language. And when we think about things like accents, I was having a discussion with colleagues earlier. Work about a New York accent? Have I've been practicing my New York accent. It means that I'm I'm speaking perhaps the same language, but I'm saying it in a different way. We talk about dialects, for example. We talk about dialects. It's the same language, the broad language, for example. It could be English. Okay, it could be plus up, for example. But within these languages we have accents. We also have dialects. We have. We have terms in the United States, such as riel. Quick, for the first time I heard real quick, I was wondering whether the person was coming back sooner than I expected or not. So I gave them a call and it turns out real quick is just something you say right in South Africa. How equivalent to really quick is now. Now we use the word. Now, now we start off every sentence with Yes. No. So if someone asked me, what would you like for dinner? I would say yes. No. Can I please have some pizza? Right. So these are the ways in which we use language. Now, this is not necessarily an accident. Just please forgive this arrow over here. This is a form of dialect, an accent. Many people will ask me where you're from. I'm speaking English with them, but they can hear that I'm from somewhere. So my accent is something that they pick up on. Okay. Now, absence are important for you. As a teacher. I'm going back to how they operate accents and languages. Important because different students in your classroom may all speak English. But the accent may influence the way they understand the meaning. Let's go on to institutions. I want you to think about schools and how they operate with in communities how those communities operate within states and other states, operators in the countries, and how those countries operate within the world schools are really what's called a microcosm. They really reflect the communities in the worlds around them. OK, so schools are impacted by things. Schools are institutions themselves, but they're also impacted by things like immigration, which we'll talk about A but with more in policy. Which is why I'm putting on over here. Right, So you will have students coming to you from all over the world with different perspectives and different understandings of the world. Okay. Institutions such as stent such as police, for example, these institutions that regulates geographic movement people. Now schools also have things like teachers, right? Administrations. You go to the administration building. I'm just going to use the word admin. These are institutions that regulate the movement of people, the movement of things. When you go on a school trip, you're going to a different geographic space, and these institutions regulate how that happens. All right, this is this will make more sense. As you progress symbols. I want you to think about flags, right? This is the South African flag right over there. We have the United States flag too, and I just draw the United States flag. We create symbols. We create symbols of places right, and these symbols are significant because they pinpoint, as in a specific place in the world, whatever else we got, right. So symbols are really important and symbols fit into language. They fit into institutions, and they fit into laws and policies, perhaps the most important law and policy for you when it comes to language when it comes to the laws and policies, is your cell English as a second language? We also have immersion policies, okay, and we also have immigration policies. Many of the Children, especially in Texas, well might be from Texas or will be first generation students who have come into Texas. Right now. Geography really plays a huge role in how you operate with those students that not all your students are going to come from your from your local town. Remember, we have different kinds of places you read and gold, neck and chin. When you read about rural communities, you read about urban communities and you read about suburban communities. Many of you may identify with some of these communities. The smallest town in Texas has a population of 19 people that may sound like a town. But that sounds like a family reunion to me. Now, why is this important to you? Why should you care? What do you see in this picture? It's this picture right here. What do you see in this picture? What is the first thing you see? I want you to write that down right now. I want you to look at the second picture, and I want you to write down what you see. What do you see? Okay. No, Some of you might see a old woman, right? There's her eyes. There's her mouth. There's her nose and she has a shoal. She has a shore. There's her chin. Okay, Some of you may see an old woman. Others might see others might see a young woman in this picture. She's actually looking away. If you notice. Here, here's her eyelashes. Here's her little nose. He has her chin. He has her years. And this is her hairline. And this is a necklace that she's wearing, and she's actually wearing a shoal. So there's two pictures in here Now, if you look at this picture, if you look in picture number two, you may see a man who is looking into the distance. But you may also see a man who's looking directly at you. Okay, so the first interpretation and you may even see 1/3 thing that I may not even see right. But for example, this is the person looking in this direction. But there's also this person looking at you. If you look at this picture very carefully, no, In each example that I've tried to draw for you in each example that I've tried to draw for you, I've tried to show you how who you are. None of you are wrong, which every perception you brought to the table is totally correct. So what? That means that diversity adds richness to any experience. The first of my soldiers, I saw an old lady and I couldn't see the young lady. And I was convinced eventually that they were they were two realities in this picture. There are multiple ways in which to see the world. And really geographic difference contributes to that reality. What are the takeaways? Where we come from determines much about who we are. We are comprised of sediments. This is a new word for the week sediments. from each experience. Every day that we live drops in sediments into us, which eventually formed who we are jug of. We operates in your classroom. Very important to understand. But all the things that we have spoken about this week we're speaking about geography operates in your classroom. Diversity can add richness to the classroom if done right. Thank you very much for your time. And I look forward to seeing you next week. 4. Summary of Major Multicultural Themes: welcome to the last lecture of the semester Education. There is multicultural, basically a summary off the different experiences that we've been having the semester and some pulling all the concepts together and really helping you find a place for them. Any loose ends that may have bean thrown out there this semester. This presentation is about bringing it all together and giving you a clear picture. Now, before I get started. I saw a talk this week that that was based on three principles. Okay, he said right, consciously read critically. Tell your truth, and this is based on a on a Ted talk. Okay. No, I want to start this. I want to start this lecture from this platform because firstly, before I get onto this, I want you to know that 10 thes ted talks are really valuable for you to begin to get in perspectives on education from around the world and education that is multicultural. The world is multicultural, so understanding from different experts that give their perspective of education can really benefit to you and apply immensely to a classroom. So I'm going to apply something. I learned from the Ted talk to this classroom and speak about where you will go from here. Underlying under pending months of multicultural education is about you engaging in discussions in which you have written conscious. You've thought about what you are writing down. Some of you may not have thought about it as much. But writing consciously is about beginning to transform yourself, beginning to use discourse and words that you may not necessarily have used before. You will notice that if you go back to your first discussions you are using, you will use words that only later on you will fully have understood. Let me say that again. If you go back to your discussions in the beginning and you compare them to the ones you're doing now you will notice that a shift has occurred in many of you and you're beginning to write more and more consciously about the way you do things. But writing consciously is only half is important as reading critically. You will notice during the presentations that they are points in which I have stopped and I've actually begun to challenge the authors. You will notice that I begin to challenge those because I want you to read critically and I want you to take these lectures in critically and think about them and how they apply nothing you read in your in your career. Well, totally sit well with you. You need to be able to challenge them. You need to be able to work with them and you need to be critical off them. Finally, you need to tell your truth. Multicultural education is about finding your space in the broader, pluralistic society that we are engaged in. So multicultural education is not only out there, but it's also within you. And this class has really been about helping you develop these skills to be able to ride consciously using the discourse of multicultural education. I'm able to sit down with you and talk to you about things like pluralism, assimilation, nationalism, ethnocentrism. These are words that you may not have been exposed to before the close of the way you think about the world. There will come a time in which something you've read about will occur in real life and the Penuell drop That is when you will realize that you have read critically. Remember to tell your truth. Remember to think about your truth. Remember to think about your blueprint. Remember, we spoke about a blueprint to think about how all of these concepts have begun to fit together, almost like puzzle pieces. Each of these has represented a puzzle piece that is beginning to fit together into this broader puzzle. No beginning with that, let's have a look at what was multicultural education. Let's tie this whole piece together if we remember from Election number one. Multicultural Education is a concept that acknowledges the importance of diversity in the lives of students, families and bulls in it to promote equality and social justice. Education. Remember the adversity of strength. Okay, and multicultural education is not about what we call rhetoric off multiculturalism, in other words, multiculturalism on the surface. But it's about deep understanding. It's about deep change to the status quo of dominance. Multicultural education is about helping you a teacher shift the status quo because the status quo is perhaps why you got into teaching in the first place. What have we learned in this class? Let's let let me break it down. I'm starting off with the takeaways. First up front place students at the center of learning students are the reason why we get into teaching. We don't get into teaching for the money. We don't get into teaching for the hours we don't get. We certainly don't get into teaching for the stress and anxiety that it can calls. We get into teaching because we are passionate and we care about young people and about their futures, right? So remember to always begin with that in mind. Place them at the center of learning, established a safe classroom climate. You are the law and order in your classroom. You are responsible for the classroom climate in your classroom. Believe that all students can learn. Picture each one of those students in your classroom is one of your Children. And think about how you would meet them where they are. If students aren't learning the way you're teaching them, you need to change the way you teach that they could learn simple as that acknowledge in building students life histories and experiences through culturally responsive teaching. This is the new toe. I know it's our last lecture, but I want to I want you to Google this term culturally responsive teaching. It's teaching that uses a student's culture remember cultures, a blueprint that encompasses age and encompasses ethnicity. It encompasses race and encompasses gender. It encompasses religion. It encompasses all these factors that we've been speaking about and uses it to teach the student. It analyzes oppression and power relationships in schools and society. When we spoke about gender and you watch the video about the fair six and we spoke about male privilege and we spoke about race and we could have spoken about white privilege and we could have spoken about male privilege and other forms of privilege. Okay, it's because we're beginning to unpack the way in which oppression because and multicultural education, true monster cultural education is about challenging, challenging those forms of oppression. All right, we have modeled justice and equality in the classroom with students, families and communities. There's no doubt that each of you have shown a commitment to justice and education. Many of you have said how you will use some of these principles in your classrooms, and that is really you know, you know how to use multicultural education. This class has just been about giving you the tools in the language to talk about those in real time Okay, so this is a bit more. I've touched on these. But make sure that students know you. You can and that you show pride in their work. They can feel it. Remember how we spoke? About 90% of the communication between you and a student is nonverbal communication. Okay. They will know whether you care and whether you're actually proud of them or not. Okay, Yeah. I've spoken about the Hidden and Ovett curricula. Remember emotions and attitudes off out. All right. Jointed, productive activities, believing all students can learn. Remember, some students learn together Some students work better collaborative than they do by themselves. Okay? Challenge challenge them through activities, set them things that they can do but sit them. Things that will stretch them, set them things that will learn that will help them learn about life and how life really works. Okay, Reflect, very important. We're gonna come back to this term, reflect on the way there land input. Reflection is critical. Find common ground and be brave. Remember, we learned that most of most teachers will not touch and multicultural issues because they are too scared to. They will not touch in inches of race that we're not touching issues of gender because they're too afraid to delve into that. So remember to be brave in order to really impact, not only students lives but the society in which they are. You have to be brave. You have to learn to be reflective, and you have to learn to be compassionate. Most importantly, you have to learn to be the bigger person. When it comes to Children. Children will test your Children will humiliate your Children, will be angry with your Children, will say terrible things to you. Remember, your job is to be compassionate and to be quote unquote the bigger person with them. Okay, Model justice, develop critical thinking. Challenge them. Do some of the questions that we've discussed over the semester. I've used these questions with third graders. I've used these questions with second and first graders. Critical thinking does not necessarily have to be a very complex thing that we only do a university level. Young people are thinking about the death of a goldfish and the moral implications and the ethical implications of that. Young people have a mind. We just need to develop their thinking. Okay, No yourself get to know yourself more. You've engaged in a family origins project in an autobiography project. You found out your family history and where they come from. Very important to understanding yourself and your biases to and remember. Last but not least, reflect, reflect, reflect. Think about yourself. Reflect on why things happen. OK, Now we're going back to the Seven Principles of Multicultural Education. I want you to think about how these have applied and how they're how they've been used. Remember, we need to use culturally sensitive materials, culturally sensitive and culturally relevant. Okay. We need to use the learning styles of students. Remember, We need to begin where they are. Begin where students are OK. And that way I'm able to begin where students are. All right. I use oral and non verbal communication. 90% of what you are saying comes through your body language. 90% of it. Remember that. Okay, It has to be integrated throughout the curriculum. It's nice to have days where you bring international food, but that's not good enough. You have to integrate multicultural education in different ways. Okay? You have to make sure that the disparities between men and women. The disparities between racial groups are addressed in your classroom, All right. It must deal with the social and historical realities of American society. I hope as you as you sort of dealt with the literature, you've realized that things aren't as rosy as they seem, OK? And that you, as a teacher, are slap bang in the middle of all of that. All right, so it has to deal with that. It has to talk about that. It has to think about ways and strategies to deal with those things, all right? And it should incorporate from the local community where we don't know we can refer and drawing other expertise to help us teach in there. Finally, my message to you. This is my classroom in South Africa. My message to you is make your life matter. Okay. Make sure that when you step into the classroom that who you are comes through and that each day you learn how to take students wonderful young people with huge potential to where they need to be. These people will teach you more than you will teach them. But unless you're using the tools of multicultural education, you will lose out on those great learning opportunities. I wish you the best. And I look forward to connecting with you in the future. Please feel free to contact me or email me with any questions. Thank you. Take it.