Six Sigma White Belt | For Engineers | Ali Suleiman | Skillshare

Six Sigma White Belt | For Engineers

Ali Suleiman, Mechanical Design Engineer

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10 Lessons (48m)
    • 1. Introduction

      1:07
    • 2. What is Six Sigma

      7:45
    • 3. Understanding the Belts

      7:39
    • 4. Certification in Six Sigma

      5:40
    • 5. Importance of Six Sigma for Engineers

      5:08
    • 6. Data Distribution

      3:47
    • 7. Mean and Standard Deviation

      3:00
    • 8. The Sigma Levels

      4:34
    • 9. Performance vs Industry

      4:44
    • 10. DMAIC: Overview

      4:06
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About This Class

If you are an engineer and still have no idea about six sigma and would like to learn about it, then this course is all what you need to have  your first step in the world of six sigma and be able to apply the basic tools of it.

This is a complete course in Lean six sigma Methodology covering the white belt level, including examples to make the ideas more clarified.

The course includes all topics related to 6 sigma, starting from defining the term and why it is so important for  industries in regard to quality and also to engineers for their career development.

The course then dive into the core topics starting from defining processes and how their performance is evaluated along with a clear explanation on normal distribution and its relation with evaluation of performance. After we learn how to quantify the performance using the mean and standard deviation values and how to use these values to define the sigma level of performance.

The course finally introduces the six sigma algorithm DMAIC  through an overview in regard to its 5 stages.

Transcripts

1. Introduction: six Sigma is a very important package of tools for any type of engineer. If you are working in design, process quality or even testing six Sigma will be a lot handy in your daily work. Having that said, if you are an engineer who is searching for a beginner course in order to start your journey in six Sigma, then you are definitely in the right place. This course will explain to you what six Sigma is along with illustrating the difference between the valuable belts and how to get certified in any of them. Furthermore, the course will teach you how to evaluate the performance off any process, according to the Six Sigma latter. Along with explaining a lot off terms like scrap rate yield, DPM oh, and many others, each topic is accompanied with real life examples to support her learning process. Finally, the course will come to explain to you the Six Sigma methodology de make and how the activities in it evolved through the five stages 2. What is Six Sigma: if we would like to describe Six Sigma, who would say that it is a package off statistical tools that are applied in a systematic way within production to improve the quality and reduce defects. The foundational elements of the Six Sigma tools can be traced back to 1920 by the well known statistician Walter Short, who is known as the father off statistical quality control. These tools were then first introduced in industry by the American engineer Bill Smith while working in Motorola within 1980. Jack Walsh then adopted the Six Sigma Tools as a strategy to his business at General Electric in 1995. After the continuous proven results, Six Sigma now has become more popular than ever among industries and considered as one of the main pillars for a successful and sustainable business for achieving a higher quality and lower number off defects. The Six Sigma algorithm works on minimizing de variation in production. To understand that better, let's take an example of a company that manufacturers water hoses, assume that this company produces 18 holes is every day, and that it sells each holds for $50. The engineers in this company have defined the energy am attar off the holes to be at two centimeters. Acknowledging the fact that not all the holes is will have their diameter perfectly matching the two centimeters the engineers have defined a tolerance range off plus minus 0.2 around the target value. Let's say that for one day we have measured that the amateurs off these 18 produced hoses and then we have plotted the values on the following diagram. Taking the defined tolerance range, which is plus minus 0.2. The range limits in this case will be on 1.8 on 2.2 centimeters. The holes is which fall within the tolerance range, are proven to fit within the application that's are to be accepted and can be sold to the customers for the hoses which fall outside of this range. These are to be considered defects and should eventually be scrapped. If we are to evaluate the current situation, this company have 12 holes is within the tolerance range, so it will sell them to its customers. That's making a revenue off $600 on a daily basis. On the other side, the company has six horses outside of the range, which are to be scrapped. In this case, the company loses $300 as well on a daily basis. Other than speaking about revenue on money loss, let's also evaluate the customer satisfaction in this situation, and how is their perception to the quality off? The 12 holes is which were sold to them. Assume that each customer will connect the hose to a water tap off a standard size that has a diameter off two centimeters. In this case, if the holes the amateur is two centimeters, then the water tap will perfectly fit within the holes. If the host the enter is less than two centimeters, then it will gradually be harder to assemble the holes. And if the hose diameter is more than two centimeters, then there will be gradually more leak is off water. Having that, said customers which have received holds is that our closes toe the target value will have a perfect fit with the water tab that's being completely satisfied with the product customers which have received hoses that are a bit further. They will experience some minor problems in regard to water leakage and assembly these customers can still use the hoses within their application, but they are considered to be partially satisfied. Finally, for customers which have received holes is close at the limits, they will either not be able to fill the holes at all or they will have big leakage off water. These customers will be completely dissatisfied and will most probably ask for their money back accordingly. By numbers, we have four customers who are completely satisfied for customers who are partially satisfied on also four customers which are completely dissatisfied. If we take a look on, the diagram will see that the main contributor to this situation is actually the spread of the parts. This spread is described by what its so called variation on production. In that accordance, the Six Sigma tools will work together to minimize this variation. If we are to evaluate the new situation after the variation has been minimised, we will see that the number off defects has been reduced to two holes is only by comparing it to the previous situation. We can confirm that the money loss has been reduced from 300 to $100 on Lee. On the other side, the quantity off holds is within the range, limits has been increased from 12 to 16 horses, thus increasing the revenue from 600 to $800. If we come to reevaluate the customer satisfaction, we can see that the number off customers who are completely satisfied has been raised from 4 to 11 customers. As for the customers which are partially satisfied, their number has been reduced to three customers on Lee. Finally, for those which are completely dissatisfied, their number has been reduced toe only to customers wrapping up. We can define Six Sigma as a set off statistical tools that work to gather in production to minimize the variation. Minimizing this variation will lead to a higher quality off products on lower number off defects. The lower number off defects will result in a lower amount of money loss, thus having a higher revenue. The increased quality on its side will end up with more customer satisfaction. These two combined will ensure sustainable on more profitable business. We will come to explain six Sigma more in details throughout the course 3. Understanding the Belts: in the field off Six Sigma practitioners possess different levels off experience and capabilities. In that accordance, six Sigma practitioners are differently. Positioned on a defined ranking system, which identifies their level of experience, tower the Six Sigma tools and practices. This ranking system is composed off different belts. At the lowest level comes the white belt. Then above it comes the yellow belt. Above it comes the green belt than the black belt until reaching the highest, which is the master black belt wide belts on, Lee received a general knowledge in regard to Six Sigma in other meaning, they are not expected to know or apply any of the tools rather than knowing what Six Sigma is all about. For that reason, the white belt is not a recognized belt within industries. Having that said, White Belt fits for two types of six signal students first. For those who are not willing to work with six sigma, however, they would like to know about it. Second, for those who are willing to work with six sigma, however, they still have no idea for what Six Sigma knees. Accordingly, it is highly recommended toe have the white belt as a first step within the journey off learning Six Sigma yellow belts received basic training in six Sigma. In that regard, Yellow Belt is the lowest belt in the ladder, which is recognized within industries. Yellow belts learn how to apply certain basic tools within the Six Sigma mythology in other meaning. They do not lead projects rather than being members within them, thus performing the required tasks that will support the progress in industry. Yellow belts officially have 0% off their time devoted for six Sigma projects. On that their support is taken on demand. Although yellow belts are not perceived officially as six Sigma practitioners, they are still considered to be so valuable and big contributors to the success of the project. The reason is that these people will still support in the project from their position where they do have big experience and knowledge, thus serving as subject matter experts. For example, if you are leading a project to improve the mold off a product, then the process engineer who is in charge of the molding machine will be the Yellow Volt who supports you in your work. Having that said, yellow belts are highly engaged in measurements and gathering off data, but they are not to be involved with in the analysis. Greenbelts are officially considered as Six Sigma practitioners on Dwell recognized within industries. They received an intermediate training invariable tools, which will allow them to lead projects off medium complexity on to fully apply the Six Sigma methodology within them, these practitioners are expected toe have up to 50% off their time devoted for six signal projects. As for projects off high complexity, greenbelts can still serve as members within them. But they have no privilege to take decisions in such projects on only to report their work to the black belts. Black belts are identified as Six Sigma experts on their highly recognized within industries. They receive advanced training in six Sigma, which will allow them to lead one project off high complexity at a time or multiple medium projects in parallel. Having that said, black belts are expected to have 100% off their time devoted for six Sigma projects, black belts have high privileges and they are decision makers and their projects. They have also higher authority tower decisions taken within the projects, which is being led by the green belts. Master black belts are at the top off the Six Sigma ladder on they are adopted as leaders on a high level within industries. Master black belts are capable off all the Six Sigma statistical tools and methodologies as well as tools in regard to process management. Having that said, they serve as mentors, and they can even provide trainings toe all other bills in industry. Master black belts are often responsible for the strategy off an industry and are expected to run big programs in it in other meaning. Master Black Belts one or supervise multiple projects off high complexity at once, which will serve in deploying and you decided strategy. For the company, the Six Sigma practitioners, being with different belts doesn't mean that their work will be independent. Having that said, six Sigma practitioners off different belts should work together as a team in order to achieve the desired goals. To understand that better, let's take an example of a company which produced Bolds. The company has decided to change the way these bolts are being manufactured in order to save more money. For that reason, it was decided to move from machining toe called forging process. This will trigger upgrades for the machines In all the production lines. Such decision is changing the strategy by which the company is working. Thus they have assigned a master black belt to lead the change. The muscle black bolt has split the work by lines. Aunt has assigned a black bolt to be responsible for each line upgrade. The black Belt, then has split the work in his production line by machine and has assigned a green belt for the upgrade off each of these machines. The green belt on his side is using the support off yellow belts in this project, such as the manufacturing engineer who is in charge off running the machine. This is just an example to show how these belts are structured within the projects for any company on how they're different levels off experience will collaborate in order to achieve the goals 4. Certification in Six Sigma: after the continuous proven results off Six Sigma in improving quality and revenue, the demand for learning these tools has grown up in almost all industrial companies. For that reason, a lot off academies have appeared within the market claiming that ability to teach six Sigma and offer certifications as well. Having that said, industrial companies now pay for these academies in order to provide six Sigma trainings to their engineers. I know that these economists vary by their training programs in regard to the conditions which are to be met before they can offer certifications to the students in other meaning. There is no standard yet that clearly list the training conditions for having a Six Sigma certification. For that reason, the Six Sigma certificates is similar to your diploma, as its value strongly relies on the name and reputation off the academy that gave this certificates to you as Six Sigma was first embraced by American companies, The highly adopted certification conditions are those listed by a sq, which stands for the American Society for Quality. We mentioned before that wide belt is not a recognized felt within industry, so there is no certification available for this belt within the sq listing. Certain academies still offer a free certification and white belt, but this is only for the marketing purposes, however. As we said previously, it is very good idea. Toe have the white belt as an introduction to six Sigma, especially in case you have no idea about the methodology and would like to start your learning journey in this field on the other side. If you're thinking off White Belt as his certification built in, mind that it has no value in front of your employer or the company that we're thinking toe work. And for yellow belt certification known as C. S S Y V, there are no conditions at all. All what you need in order to be certified is to attend the training and passed the specified exam. As for a Green Belt certification known as CS SGB, you should have at least three years of experience or no work experience but to be possessing a graduate certificate instead meaning master degree or above. If at least one of the two options is met, then you are eligible to take the examine get certified. As for black belt certification, known as CS SBB you shall also have at least three years of experience or no work experience along with possessing a graduate certificates. However, for this belt you will need to pass the exam along with two completed six Sigma projects at your company which are approved by your employer, or at least one completed and approved project, along with three years of experience in a role related to black bolt activities. Finally, for Master Black Belt certification, known as M V B. Before being able to apply, you will need to have at least five years of experience or no experience along with a graduate degree. The candidate is also required to be already certified as Black Belt aunt have spent five years within the related role. If the above is not met, the candidate can still apply if he has completed at least 10 black belt projects. After applying for the master black belt, the candidate is still required to pass the specified exam before acquiring the certification. So how the certification procedure usually works, the candidate first submits his application. Then, if there are no conditions specified for the required belt, the candidate kind directly start attending the training. If there are conditions listed for that belt, then the candidate should be able to meet them before being able to attend the training. Upon completion, the candidate will need to pass the exam specified for the required belt after passing the exam. If no projects are required, the candidate candy radically get the certification. If the candidate is required to complete six Sigma projects, that can be me will then agree with candidate on the period of time he needs to complete the projects. Upon completing the projects, it should be reviewed and approved by both the academy and the employer who sponsors the training. If done, the candidate can finally get his certification. I know that the required projects to be completed for certification are usually assigned to the candidate by the company where he works. The project is expected to be six Sigma related on. The candidate should have applied the Six Sigma tools in it in order to Progress Tower completing the project and achieve the goals 5. Importance of Six Sigma for Engineers: in industry. Whether you will be working as designed, process, quality or even testing engineer, you will always encounter Six Sigma and your work. So in this lecture we will illustrate the importance of Six Sigma for engineers in regard to the following aspect. How Six Sigma supports fresh graduates to land their first job easier. How Six Sigma helps engineers to advance in their career and finally, how Six Sigma allows higher salaries. We all know how much difficult it is for fresh graduates to land their first engineering job. However, with six Sigma in your hand, landing your first job can be much easier as Six Sigma gets more and more appreciated in the market. Top universities are discussing to include six signal within their curriculum. However, these discussions are still at initial stage and have not been implemented yet. What I meant to say is that industries who are willing to hire fresh graduates do not expect the candidates toe have knowledge in Six Sigma. On the other side, industries do recognize yellow belt and appreciate candidates who possess it know that as a fresh graduate, there are no conditions that prevents you from having training and get officially certified in your belt. So if you come to be certified in yellow belt and have included this information in your resume, recruiters will be more likely to pick you up out of the crowd. That will go also further to the stage of having a job interview. So if you come to show during the interview that you have a good knowledge in Six Sigma, interviewers will definitely be impressed. And they will be more likely to grab you in, especially that other candidates are not expected to have such knowledge due to the reasons we mentioned a while ago. Another problem fresh graduates face is the blank CV, which at most contained personal information along with a university degree taken while having a lot off space left, making their CV less interesting. In that regard, know that nothing prevents you from learning the Six Sigma Tal's individually and add them within the skills section in your resume, me, thus making it more attractive and professional. We mentioned previously that six Sigma projects eventually increased their avenue within the company accordingly, engineers who execute and lead such projects are well appreciated by their employers. Thus are more likely to get promoted. On the other side, embracing the Six Sigma tools and practicing them will turn an engineer to a better decision maker. The reason is that six Sigma tools are mostly about measuring and analysis. In order to draw the right conclusions as higher positions in any company or about getting more responsibilities, employers will be choosing for it employees who are better at making right decisions. Having that, said, six Sigma practitioners stand out from the crowd for filling out higher positions than the ladder in any company. Finally, in regard to higher salaries, we will not be showing any numbers here. The reason is that salaries for same position and expertise will still differ for many other factors aside of six Sigma like the country, the company or even the type of industry, However, it is confirmed that engineers who are certified in Six Sigma do take higher salaries compared to those who are not. One of the reasons is the fact that having a six Sigma certification will strengthen your position when discussing your salary during job interviews. Having that said, if you are certified in six segment, have asked for a higher pay compared to the other candidates, employers would still be more likely to choose you among the others, taking into consideration how beneficial you will be for the company. Another reason is about what we mentioned before, which is the fact that six Sigma practitioners are more likely and frequently to get a salary raise or promotion due to their achievements and outstanding skills as a bottom line . If you willing to invest some money into learning Six Sigma, I can confirm to you that it is definitely a winning deal on the long term. 6. Data Distribution: six Sigma practitioners believe that everything can be measured and once measure, it can be optimized and controlled. To be able to measure the variation in data, you need first to see how this data is distributed. The best tool for visualizing data distributions is what a so called hissed a gram to learn how to build a history. Graham out of the data. Let's bring back our example in regard to the company that produced the water hoses. Remember that the hoses were supposed to have an inner diameter off two centimeters, along with acceptable range off plus minor 0.2. Assume that the company this time has produced 36 holes is on that. We have measured the inner diameter for each one of them. As you can see, the hoses will not be perfectly matching the target value. That's having a variation in the energy amateurs. So we have holds at 1.71 point 81.922 point 12.2 and 2.3. These different values are called outcomes. Let's now distribute these holes into groups where each group will have hoses that share the same outcome. Value the number off hoses in each group is called frequency. As we have the outcomes and frequencies, we are ready now to build the history. Graham The vertical axis in the history Graham represents the frequency on the horizontal axis represents the outcomes being listed in an increasing order. In addition, who will represent the tolerance limits in the diagram, as dashed vertical lines were, the upper limit is called USL. On the lower limit is called LSL. Not that the target value here is two centimeters. After that, we will represent the frequency off each group within the history Graham by a bar that goes up to the related frequency. By that our history Graham is ready. If we come to connect the top mid points off these bars, who will acquire a poli line off specific shape? This shaper presents the type off the data distribution. In our case, the fully line is a bell shaped curve, thus representing a normal distribution. No that, aside off normal distribution, there are many other types of distributions. However, normal distribution is the most dominant and popular one adopted in Six Sigma as the Graham is a visualization for data distribution Let's see how the history Graham changes with the level of variation. When the variation is high, the data will be distributed along the whole range at a relatively similar frequency. That's having a polar line with small curvature we can describe. The shape has a small hill on the other side. When variation is minimized, the bars, which are closer to the target value, will start to have a higher frequency, while other bars will have their frequency decreases, thus forming a peak in the middle. We may describe the shape in this case as a Steve Mountain. 7. Mean and Standard Deviation: aside from knowing how to build the highest a gram. In order to measure the performance, we need to consider two important pedometers, the mean and standard deviation. The mean represents the average value among all outcomes on designated with love from you. If we assume the total number off outcomes is designated with letter and then the equation for calculating the mean will be the some off all outcomes divided by em. If we bring the same example off the 36 produced hoses, the mean will be calculated as follows first, being equal to the target value, which is two centimeters, know that the mean value may not necessarily be equal to the target value. However. If it does, then this will be the perfect case that the practitioners look forward. Toa have on the other side, speaking for the standard deviation. This pedometer is a measure off the amount of variation in other meaning. If the variation gets higher than the standard deviation, value will increase. The standard deviation pedometer is designated with letters Sigma. Let's see now how we can calculate the standard deviation. Assume here that we have only five outcomes designated with letter acts so if we represent the mean value as a straight vertical line will see that each outcome will be located at a specific distance from the mean value. In this case, the distance one will be equal to X one minus the mean distance to will be equal to X to minister mean. And so if we calculate the sum off all five distances being squared individually and then divide the sum over the number off outcomes, which is five. In this case, we will get what its so called variance which is designated with sigma squared. The standard deviation is then calculated by getting the square root of the variance. By that, we can consider the general equation for calculating the standard deviation as the square root off the some off all squared distances divided by the total number off outcomes were X represents. The outcome mute presents the mean and and represents the total number off all comms coming back to our example, the total number off outcomes here is 36. Accordingly, where the defined equation, the standard deviation will be equal to 0.1354 8. The Sigma Levels: in six Sigma performance is evaluated according to a ladder which is composed off ascending signal levels. As the Sigma level gets higher, the better the performance will be. Know that the ladder may go further more than six Sigma level. However, this level is seen very satisfactory and appealing among most industries. For that reason, you hear the term six sick mother most having that set. When the Sigma level increases, the performance increases as well, and as performance increases, the variation is expected to get lower, thus resulting in a lower amount of scrap as well. In order to learn how to measure the Sigma level in any set off data, let's bring a generic history. Graham for illustration purposes. The signal level mainly reflects how many standard deviations are between the target and the tolerance limits. For example, a three Sigma level means that the distance between the target and any off the limits is equal to three standard deviations. Having that said, if we would like to improve performance from three sick my level 24 Sigma level, then the value off standard deviation should decrees so that the distance will be equal to four standard deviations instead off three. In this accordance, the equation to calculate the Sigma level will be USL minus lsl divided by two Sigma. Recalling our example about the 36 produced hoses, the standard deviation was equal to 0.1354 The U. S L was equal to 2.2 centimeters and l s L was equal to 1.8. If we are to use the defined equation, that signal level in this case will be 1.477 in other meaning. The performance level for this company is at approximately 1.5 sigma. If we would like to improve the performance, towered a three sigma level, then we will use the same equation in the reversed way. Here, the required signal level is three. USL is again 2.2 and the LSL is 1.8. Accordingly, the standard deviation here is 0.66 another meaning in order to improve the performance level from 1.5 Sigma Tau three sigma, then the standard deviation in the data should be decreased from 0.1354 to 0.66 The sigma level will also tell you about the percentage off data within the tolerance range. Another meaning the yield, along with the percentage off those which are outside another, meaning the scrap. If the data distribution is at three Sigma level, the yield percentage will be 99.73% and scrap percentage will be 0.27% being split on both sides. If the performance level is increased, the yield percentage is expected to increase as well. On the scrap percentage, it will decrease. So if the data distribution is elevated, tower before sigma level, then the yield percentage will be 99.9937%. On this crap, percentage will be 0.0 63% being split on both sides according to what preceded. For your reference, I will be listing all the Sigma levels along with their yield and scrap percentiles. 9. Performance vs Industry: if we take a typical normal distribution on that, we set each of the two specification limits to be three signal away from the center. In this case, 99.73% off. The distribution will fall within the specification limits, and that 0.27% will fall outside if we assume that cars manufacturing company is producing 1000 cars a day, which is a very normal quantity in automotive industry and that each car is being sold with $50,000. If this company is producing the cars with a three Sigma process, distribution than 99.73% of the cars will be released to the market and 0.27% of the cars will be scrapped. In that case, the scrap cars out of the daily production are to be 2.7 cars, which is worth $135,000. Now that is a big amount of money lost on a daily basis if you think that this is bad than the worse is yet to come. Our previous calculation was based on a process that was implemented and set on a three sigma level. But that is for short term, as processes cannot maintain the same performance level forever. On that, their performance is expected to degrade gradually. Over time. It is widely adopted that processes are expected to shift with 1.5 sigma on the long term in other meaning. A process which is on a three Sigma level as a short term, is expected to be on a 1.5 Sigma level on the long term. In such case, 93.32% will fall within the specification limits. On that, 6.68% will fall outside. If we come to our example again, it means that on the long term, the scrap cars out of the daily production will be 66.8 cores, which is equivalent to $3,340,000 in value. As we are speaking about industries which produce big quantities, let's introduce what its so called DPM old, which stands for defects per 1,000,000 opportunities, simply the term refers to the quantity off defects out off one million produced parts. So if you recall again the three Sigma distribution on the long term than its DPM O is equal to 66,800 defective parts. In order for manufacturing industries to reduce the money loss, they tend to improve their processes. Tower the higher signal level no that signal levels are mainly measures off quality on that . The loss in quality is then translated in close off money, as we previously shown in the example. On the contrary, if a processes improved, our higher signal level, then quality will be increased. Leading customers toe have more crust in the product, thus increasing their sales and profit as a bottom line. Almost all successful industries do adult continuous improvement strategies in order to optimize their signal level. For that reason, they are six Sigma practitioners in order to help them with that optimization for your reference in this table, I will be listing the six signal levels along with their person tiles and DPM. Oh, on the short on long terms 10. DMAIC: Overview: if we would like to describe Six Sigma in a more practical way, who would say that it is a corrective method that deals with an existing problem? The problem can be the current performance which requires improvement, or it can be an incident that has just occurred for solving the problem. Six Sigma would be applied successively through variable steps for that. Six. Sigma is mainly perceived as a project which is split into five main stages. Defy, measure, analyze, improve on control. This algorithm is often called the make. We mentioned before that six Sigma is mainly set off tools. Having that said, each tool is performed during one of the five stages according to the purpose which it serves. In the define stage, the leader gets the green light to exclude the project, first creating a team along with defining the role for each of its members. Altogether, the team members discuss and agree on the main plan of the project. Accordingly, they expected outcomes from this stage of the following, forming a team assigning the roles, defining the goal, stating the problem, describing the scope, listing the product activities on a time and communication plan once done, the team can move to the next stage. In this stage, the team is required to measure the problem or another meaning to describe the problem in the new medical frame. For example, if the problem is defined as the big scrap in production, then the team is required to measure the scrap rate percentage. I know that the team in this stage is only required to measure but not to analyze the results. Another meaning the team is only required here to have the following outcomes. To know what should be measured, what tools we should use to perform the measurements and to make sure that the measurements are accurate and represent herbal. After that, the team can then move to the next stage where the members are required to inspect the taken measurements, analyze them on draw their conclusions. This will include two main outcomes. First, to confirm the existence of the problem with numbers. Second is to identify and confirm the root causes of the problem. Once completed, the team is then required to define the improvement actions which are to be taken in order to eliminate the problem. This will also include performing a confirmation testing afterwards in order to make sure that the taken actions were effective enough to eliminate the problem in that accordance. The outcomes in this stage are as follows improvement actions are defined and have been deployed and also confirmed being effective toward solving the problem. Once the process has been improved or the problem has been confirmed to be eliminated, the team would then move to the last stage where they are required to define specific actions to be taken in order to make sure that this problem will not happen again in the future. These actions fall within what is so called control plan.