Seven Wonders of the World, Travel Tribe Culture Series | Kelsey Betzelberger | Skillshare

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Seven Wonders of the World, Travel Tribe Culture Series

teacher avatar Kelsey Betzelberger, Opera singer / Teacher / Traveler

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

115 Lessons (5h 22m)
    • 1. Introduction to the Course

      3:23
    • 2. Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

      4:42
    • 3. Egypt Introduction

      0:31
    • 4. History of Egypt

      1:32
    • 5. Fun Facts of Egypt

      3:21
    • 6. Cairo and Arab Culture

      3:50
    • 7. Language & Standard of Living

      3:00
    • 8. Holidays & Food

      8:04
    • 9. Travel Tips Egypt

      2:19
    • 10. Egypt Conclusion

      0:53
    • 11. Giza Introduction

      0:36
    • 12. History & Fun Facts Giza

      4:52
    • 13. Construction & Interior of Giza

      3:58
    • 14. Pharaoh

      3:20
    • 15. Giza Conclusion

      1:12
    • 16. Seven New Wonders Introduction

      0:37
    • 17. Deciding on Seven

      1:34
    • 18. Seven New Wonders Conclusion

      0:49
    • 19. China Introduction

      0:37
    • 20. China's History Peking Man, Dynasties & Paper Money

      4:30
    • 21. Geography of China

      1:49
    • 22. Animals of China

      1:48
    • 23. Religion, Communism & Socialism

      4:21
    • 24. Beijing & Writing

      5:42
    • 25. Shanghai

      1:11
    • 26. Tianjin

      0:55
    • 27. Tea, Chinese Medicine & Silk

      5:56
    • 28. Chinese Holidays & Food

      4:32
    • 29. Travel Tips China

      3:50
    • 30. China Conclusion

      1:17
    • 31. Great Wall Introduction

      0:37
    • 32. Great Wall Fun Facts

      1:50
    • 33. Construction & History of the Great Wall

      3:26
    • 34. Rice, Space & The Longest Cemetery in the World

      3:42
    • 35. Great Wall Conclusion

      1:17
    • 36. Jordan Introduction

      0:56
    • 37. Jordan Fun Facts & History

      5:03
    • 38. People Jordan

      2:47
    • 39. Amman

      2:46
    • 40. Food & Daily Life Jordan

      2:50
    • 41. Travel Tips Jordan

      2:51
    • 42. Jordan Conclusion

      1:18
    • 43. Petra Introduction

      0:57
    • 44. Fun Facts Petra

      2:14
    • 45. Petra's Treasury and More

      3:46
    • 46. History & The Nabataean Empire of Petra

      1:26
    • 47. Petra Conclusion

      1:12
    • 48. Italy Introduction

      0:48
    • 49. Fun Facts of Italy

      3:04
    • 50. Italian Opera

      3:24
    • 51. Italy's Landscape & History

      4:17
    • 52. Venice, Amalfi Coast & Tuscany

      6:01
    • 53. Rome & Vatican City

      4:47
    • 54. Italian Food

      4:22
    • 55. Travel Tips Italy

      3:11
    • 56. Italy Conclusion

      1:09
    • 57. Colosseum Introduction

      0:39
    • 58. The Flavian Amphitheater & Other Amphitheaters

      3:43
    • 59. Construction Colosseum

      2:07
    • 60. Cats Colosseum

      1:18
    • 61. Colosseum Conclusion

      1:15
    • 62. Introduction Mexico Seven Wonders

      0:36
    • 63. Fun Facts Mexico

      2:08
    • 64. History

      2:26
    • 65. Mexico Geography And The Yucatan Peninsula

      3:05
    • 66. Mexico City

      4:07
    • 67. Axolotl

      2:04
    • 68. Mexican Food & Celebrations

      4:07
    • 69. Travel Tips Mexico

      2:26
    • 70. Mexico Conclusion

      2:17
    • 71. Chichen Itza Introduction

      0:52
    • 72. History of Chichen Itza

      3:23
    • 73. El Castillo & Key Locations of Chichen Itza

      2:59
    • 74. Conclusion of Chichen Itza

      1:12
    • 75. Peru Introduction

      0:22
    • 76. Fun Facts of Peru

      3:58
    • 77. Peru Geography The Andes & The Amazon

      6:44
    • 78. History of Peru, The Inca Empire, Cusco & Smallpox

      3:25
    • 79. Peruvian People & Animals

      4:33
    • 80. Peru's Capital Lima

      2:04
    • 81. Fruit & Peruvian Food

      7:44
    • 82. Travel Tips Peru

      3:08
    • 83. Peru Conclusion

      1:26
    • 84. Machu Picchu Introduction

      0:34
    • 85. Machu Picchu History & Fun Facts

      2:21
    • 86. Construction Machu Picchu

      2:51
    • 87. Machu Picchu Conclusion

      1:13
    • 88. India Introduction

      0:34
    • 89. India Fun facts

      3:48
    • 90. Geography & History of India

      6:43
    • 91. India Caste System, Marriage & Clothing

      4:45
    • 92. Indian Holidays & Food

      4:11
    • 93. New Delhi & Other Sites

      7:24
    • 94. Mumbai

      1:50
    • 95. Kolkata

      2:05
    • 96. Jaipur

      1:07
    • 97. Language & Bollywood

      3:56
    • 98. Indian Animals

      3:45
    • 99. Travel Tips India

      3:46
    • 100. India Conclusion

      1:11
    • 101. Taj Mahal

      5:22
    • 102. Brazil Introduction

      0:49
    • 103. Geography of Brazil

      3:39
    • 104. Brazil Cities

      6:10
    • 105. Brazil People & Animals

      4:00
    • 106. Brazil History & Dance

      2:58
    • 107. Brazil Carnival & Food

      3:46
    • 108. Travel Tips Brazil

      2:15
    • 109. Brazil Conclusion

      1:20
    • 110. Christ The Redeemer Introduction

      0:31
    • 111. Christ The Redeemer Fun Facts

      2:21
    • 112. History of Christ The Redeemer

      1:31
    • 113. Tijuca National Park

      1:29
    • 114. Christ the Redeemer Conclusion

      1:14
    • 115. Conclusion Seven Wonders of the World

      3:03
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About This Class

Welcome to Travel Tribe's History and Culture course on the Seven Wonders of the World!

In this dynamic, fast-paced course, we will explore the history, language, food, culture, traditions, celebrations, geography, animals and famous sites of the countries of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World: China, Jordan, Italy, Mexico, Peru, India and Brazil. We will also discover the importance, culture and historical details of the country with the only remaining Ancient Wonder of the world: Egypt and the Great Pyramid of Giza. The course then dives into the construction, history and fun facts about each of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World, as well as the Great Pyramids. This class isn't all dates and names though - it's so much more! Students explore local traditions and fun facts that shape these countries into the exciting and dynamic places that they are today.

Some of the fun-fact topics we will explore:

  • Where are the oldest human remains of anywhere on earth?

  • Why are cats everywhere in Rome? 

  • What is the most popular tourist destination on the entire continent of South America?

  • What is Arab Culture?

  • What is the Mexican Axolotl and is it true that it can re-grow its limbs?

  • How far did the Roman Empire reach, and what are the primary Roman remains that we can see from Tunisia to England?

  • What is the significance of Silk? 

  • Why are some Mexican Cenotes - or sink holes - considered sacred? 

  • How long does it take to weave one Peruvian poncho out of Alpaca fur?

  • Why is Brazil's Carnival such a major event? 

  • Where was the first opera performed, and what's the most popular operatic language?

  • In what country do cows and monkeys freely wander the city streets?

About The Author

My name is Kelsey Betzelberger, and I have been teaching for over 10 years. I was trained as an opera singer at Northwestern University in Chicago, and visited 45 countries around the world while performing at opera houses in Italy, Germany, England, Argentina, France, Croatia and the Netherlands. I also teach German, French, and music, and I have lived in seven different countries with my husband and our three well-traveled, geriatric cats.

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Kelsey Betzelberger

Opera singer / Teacher / Traveler

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Transcripts

1. Introduction to the Course: Welcome to the Travel Tribe history and culture Course on the Seven Wonders of the World. My name is Kelsey Bessel Berger and I have been teaching for over ten years. I was trained as an opera singer at Northwestern University in Chicago. And I visited 45 countries while performing at opera houses around the world. In this dynamic, fast-paced course, we will explore the history, language, food, culture, traditions, celebrations, geography, famous sites of the countries of the seven wonders of the modern world. China, Jordan, Italy, Mexico for r2, India, and Brazil. We will also discover the importance, culture and historical details of the country with the only remaining ancient wonder of the world, Egypt and the Great Pyramid of Giza. We will then dive into the construction history and juicy fun facts about each of these seven wonders of the modern world, as well as the Great Pyramids. This class isn't all dates and names though, students explore local traditions and fun facts, such as Brazil's current UAV, pedals, fluffy and feisty alpacas. The significance of tea in China, the Roman Empires influence on modern society, Arab culture and traditions. How Mexico is more than just tacos and the Day of the Dead. What is inside the Great Pyramid. Discover all more in the troubled tribes, history and culture Course on the Seven Wonders of the World. Make sure to bring your travel journal. As the saying goes. Traveling makes you speechless and then makes you a storyteller who are going to hopefully, I'll place far away. We're going to have Bon, dance and play, or getting on a plane, maybe eating food, or see you. Let's see France, Let's see Spain. Yeah, me too. I said, Let's see Greece, Morocco, let's say come up. Let's see China, Let's see Russia, travel, trip. Let's go, let's see France, Let's see Spain, Let's see it. Let's see. Let's see Colombia. Yeah, Let's see China and let's see Russia. Let's go. 2. Seven Wonders of the Ancient World: Why do we use seven? What significance does this specific number hold? And what are some other examples of seven in our daily life? Well, first, the number seven was chosen because it is considered by the Greeks to be of lucky. Number. Seven is supposed to represent perfection and prosperity. We have the seven deadly sins. So lust, gluttony, greed, sloth, wrath, envy, and pride. We then have the seven kings of Rome, or the ancient Roman monarchy. We have seven days of the week and the seven days of creation. And of course, the seven virtues. Chastity, temperance, charity, diligence, kindness, patience, and humility. The seven colors of the rainbow, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. And of course, the seven wonders of the world. But in fact, there are multiple Seven Wonders. We first have the seven wonders of the natural world, which include the aurora borealis or the Northern Lights, the harbor of Rio de Janeiro, the Grand Canyon, the Great Barrier Reef, Mount Everest, Victoria Falls, and party putin. The youngest volcano in the Northern Hemisphere that pushed up through this cornfield in Mexico in 1943. We also have the seven wonders of the new modern world, which is what we will talk about in this course. The Great Wall of China. Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro, Machu Picchu in Peru, Chichen Itza in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. The Roman Colosseum in Rome that you see here. The Taj Mahal in India. And of course, the ancient city of Petra in Jordan. But if you'll notice, we said the seven wonders of the new or modern world. Could it be that there was a group of the seven wonders that came before this set that we know today. Actually, yes. The seven wonders of the ancient world were the original Seven Wonders of the World and the seven most remarkable structures of ancient times. Our traditional set of Ancient Wonders is recorded in a poem by an anti-pattern of psi dot written around the year 144, current era or BCE. The problem is primarily praising the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus is seventh and ultimate wonder, which was destroyed, the blood in the seventh century BCE. But he also mentions the other six, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, which was possibly only a legend. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia in Greece. The lighthouse of Alexandria built on pharaohs around 280 BCE. Colossus over Addis, that the Statue of Liberty was actually based on the pyramids at Giza, which were built around 20, 560 BCE. And of course, the magnificent tomb of King Mao Zola's in the fourth century BCE in Halicarnassus or today's Turkey. This burial site for King modulus gave us our word, mausoleum or mycelium, as we speak today, of the original seven wonders of the world. Only one still exists today, the great pyramids. Before we dive into our only original great wonder, Let's learn a little bit about Egypt, the country in which it was built. 3. Egypt Introduction: Welcome to Egypt, a large bustling country in the northeast corner of Africa, bursting with big families, delicious food and ancient history. Egypt is a Mediterranean country with thousands of historical gems. Most notably gazes massive pyramids and Great Sphinx. 4. History of Egypt: Okay. People first settled in Egypt along the Nile River, arguably the longest river in the world, around a thousand years ago. They were hunters and fishermen, people who traded with their neighbors and develop small communities. By the year 3000 BCE, they had developed a civilization and worshiped powerful kings, known as pharaohs, who ruled Upper and Lower Egypt. Pharaohs built colossal pyramids and important temples and rule the land for nearly 3 thousand years. Ancient Egypt, one of the most powerful societies in the world, came to an end in year 31 BCE, when Egypt was taken over by the Romans. The Byzantine Empire conquered the land and year 312. And then Muslim warriors 300 years later, who founded the modern Egyptian capitals. 5. Fun Facts of Egypt: Officially known as the Arab Republic of Egypt. This large so well during country has 104 million people with an official language of Arabic. That means that English and French are widely understood, especially in the touristy cities. The Sahara and Libyan deserts make up most of the area of the country, hence, Egypt being very dry. The capital city is Cairo with a largest population. But other major cities include Alexandria, Giza, S1, and Luke's are the longest river in the world. The Nile runs through Egypt. Egypt is home to a wide variety of plants and animals, including gazelles, crocodiles, and Cobras. The Egyptian government is a presidential republic and 90 percent of the population is Muslim. There are very few minority religions, but around 10 percent of the population as Christians. The currency is the Egyptian pound, and they drive on the right side of the room. Along with oil and gas. Egypt's tourism industry remains a key part of its economy. Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization. The ancient Egyptians. For nearly 3 thousand years, ancient Egypt was the leading civilization in the Mediterranean world from its unification and around 3100 BCE to its conquest by Alexander the Great. In your 332 BCE. Egyptian men and women wore makeup in order to protect their skin from the harsh sun. And for the healing powers. They were one of the first civilizations to also invented writing. They use ink and paper called papyrus. Ancient Egyptian writing is known as hieroglyphics or sacred carvings. And it was developed at some point prior to 2600 BCE. The ancient Egyptians were scientists and mathematicians. They had countless inventions, including architectural accomplishments, makeup instruments, the calendar, medicine, and toothpicks. Cats or considered sacred and often mummified and buried with their owners to preserve and protect them until their next of their nine lives. 6. Cairo and Arab Culture: Egypt's massive sprawling capital, Cairo, lines the banks of the Nile River. It is a fusion of ancient and modern with churches built on top of Roman ruins and skyscrapers that tower behind medieval monuments. Cairo is chaos At its most magnificent and beautiful. The distorted roar of the call to prayer. And it goes out from dueling minarets. Car horns bellow from the streets below a midtown dusty lanes full of donkey and a horse carts and secret monuments. Cairo is home to a vibrant and modern society striving to be the Paris of the Nile. At its heart, Tahrir Square and the vast Egyptian Museum, which houses and impressive collection of antiquities, royal mummies and King Tutankhamen artifacts or King Tut artifacts. Cairo currently has more than 21 million people. It is the 19th largest city in the world. And among the world's most densely populated areas. Close to 100% of Egypt's population lives in Cairo, or the nearby city of Alexandria, which is known for the great lighthouse, considered to be one of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World, which stood until about 500 years ago. Following the Muslim, Byzantine and Ottoman conquest, an Arabic vernacular slowly but efficiently replace the Egyptian language. And both urban and rural societies began to include elements of Arab culture. For example, most Arabs believe that life's events are orchestrated by God and that we are dependent on fate as determined by God. Religious affiliation is essential in Arab society. Most Arabs believe that there should not be a separation between church and state, and that religion should be taught in schools. Besides their faith, family is the second most critical part of Arab culture. Children are considered jewels, and both men and women have distinctly different roles in society and in the home. Children are everywhere. As a constant reminder of the countries high birth rate and importance placed on family values. Older women can be seen in long black robes. And in some parts of the valley, women over the age of 16 don't leave their house at all. Women rarely appear in public, except with a black head dress, uncovering their heads and faces, known as the job. Hospitality, friendliness, and generosity towards strangers are expressions of sacred duties. In spite of the many ancient civilizations with which it came into contact, Egypt, without a doubt, belongs to an Arab and Islamic social and cultural tradition. 7. Language & Standard of Living: Egypt eventually became one of the intellectual and cultural centers of the Arab and Islamic world. The official language of Egypt is Arabic. And most Egyptians speak one of several vernacular dialect. Although phrases can be directly translated, many Arab words have multiple meanings and connotations. Even words as simple as yes and no, have ways of being stated as to not presume or insult. For example, it is not polite to simply say no. Instead, you will often hear as God wills it, which is perhaps a nicer way of declining. Also. It is customed to never refuse a request from a friend. You always say yes. Keep in mind though. Yes. Also means maybe what do you wish to speak to someone in Egypt? The first and the best thing to say is the local variation of the Islamic greeting. Us a novel, why Lego? Which literally means peace be upon you. This is the most common form of saying, hello. In Muslim communities. Egypt has one of the richest cultural histories in the world, but the general standard of living remains somewhat low. Results of a 2018 United Nations, the study show the 32, 0.5% of people in Egypt, which totals around 32 million people, are living below the international poverty line, which is a $1.25 in US dollars per day. There has been a steady increase in poverty in Egypt over the last 30 years, mainly due to an increase in food prices and an alarmingly high rate of inflation. In relation to its population size is economical resources, mainly land, are rather limited. The amount of productive land is insufficient to adequately support Egypt's sizable population. As around 96 percent of Egypt's oldest area is a desert, dry and unbearably hot. 8. Holidays & Food: Egyptians celebrate a number of holidays. Secular holidays include revolution day, armed forces day, and the celebration of the Nile River. Revolution day refers to the anniversary of the Egyptian revolution on July 23rd, 1952, which ended the period of the Kingdom of Egypt and led to the declaration of the modern Republic. It is the biggest secular public holiday and consider to be the National Day of Egypt. In other words, Egyptians version of the US, July 4th or Croatia is October 8th. Armed Forces Day is always celebrated on the sixth of October. It marks the start of the October war against Israel in 1973. And it is one of Egypt's most significant annual events. Armed Forces Day is celebrated by cities hosting large and military parades and setting off these grand displays of fireworks. Celebration of the Nile. Ancient Egyptians worshiped the Nile because of the yearly bounty at broad and gorgeous young women were sacrificed to appease the gods and encouraged the start of the yearly flooding. Modern Egyptians still celebrate the yearly rise of the river on June 17. But instead of these sacrifices, modern Egyptians picnic and count alongside the edges of the river and spend the night celebrating with family and friends. Much easier on the eyes. I would say. At sunset, women put out balls of dough representing the people in the house. And in the morning, the dough has cracked due to being out in the open air. And the cracks are examined to make predictions about each person's life and future prosperity. Religious holidays include the two IEEE ads. I eat and I eat out fitter. The profits birthday melodic under B and Coptic Christmas. The four day Islamic celebration of IE, the island have, commemorates the willingness of Abraham to sacrifice his son. The ceremonial slaughter of a goat or a sheep by those who can afford it, is followed by days, stay and partying with family and friends. Ramadan is a month of fasting during daylight hours. Muslims refrained from eating, drinking, smoking, and intimate relations from sunrise to sunset for an entire month. Shops often reduce their business hours and allow time for spiritual contemplation. The first day after Ramadan. Begins this three or four day holiday called IEEE fit data. After the final fast breaking, people often celebrate and feast all night long. The next day, locals dress up and take part in street festivities and outside markets. Families and friends get together to exchange gifts and sweets. Muslim holiday is Ramadan and I eat of it that are included are not on a fixed date because they are on the lunar calendar instead of the Gregorian calendar. So they move back by about 11 days each year. Melodic. And a B is a major Islamic festival that marks the birth of the prophet Muhammad. The streets filled with dancers, acrobats drew rivers and musicians. As most cities host parades and processions. Families gathered together and exchange gifts before exploring the city wide festivities. People indulge in traditional sweets and hummus, the traditional food of melodic and newbie. Coptic Christian. An estimated 10 to 15 percent of Egypt's population are Christian. And the vast majority of this percentage practices Coptic Orthodox Christianity. Well, it's still a celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ. Coptic Christmas follows the Julian calendar instead of the lunar calendar or the Gregorian calendar that place this Christmas in December. Coptic Christmas is therefore celebrated on or around January seventh is preceded by an ethics 43 day fast, meaning people are primed for a feast. Food. Madonna's, the most popular street food and snack in Egypt is full Madonna's, which is a paste of mashed Fava beans flavored with garlic and olive oil. It is served out of a large copper pots, often into pita bread, and typically sold as an inexpensive takeaway sandwich. Maya, another Egyptian street foods staple is known elsewhere as falafel. It is made with mashed Fava beans and parsley instead of chickpeas, which are used elsewhere around the Mediterranean. And it is made in the shape of flat disks rather than round balls. To Maya is typically eaten as a sandwich with a satellite. So Varma is an incredibly tasty Egyptian dish. It is a large cone of Pressed of lamb or chicken meat that is vertically rotated in front of the flame grill. The meat cooks, it is sliced off and mix on a grill with tomatoes, onions, parsley, before being rolled in a large flat bread and wrapped with foil. Flame growth chunks of lamb or Khabbab and spice to minced meat made into sausage and grow on a skewer called Kafka, our favorite Egyptian foods. They are typically eaten with a tomato and cucumber salad and flatbread. Egyptian deserts are quite light compared to the rest of the hearty meal options. Ma her labia is the delicate rose water flavored ground rice desert topped with toasted nuts. And sentiment. On Bali is similar to the English bread and butter putting, but it's less soft and spongy. 9. Travel Tips Egypt: Here are my top tips for traveling in this part of the world. Safety. Seeing guards with rifles and metal detectors everywhere you go can be alarming at first, but this is all done to keep people, especially tourists safe. Tourism is a huge industry in Egypt and it would be a massive loss to have tourism die down due to preventable violence. So the Egyptian government attributes a large number of funds each year to making sure that these areas are as safe as possible. Taking pictures, use your camera, on your phone, and leave the tripod at home. Unless you are a serious photographer. Most touristy spots require a photography pass which can run as high as nearly 20 US dollars per site, which can add up quickly when there are three spots at once. So make sure you've got space and battery on your cell phone and click away toilet paper, make sure to always have some toilet paper with you. As the majority of restrooms do not have any available money. Withdraw cash from ATMs in Egypt and always have cash with you. Small coins are especially useful as there are a lot of situations where a tip is expected from someone taking your picture to putting someone's animal like a camel, to handing you a towel and the restaurant. So make sure that you have some small chains with you at all times. Don't drink the water. Don't drink anything with ice or something that might have been washed with tap water, like lettuce or fresh vegetables. Definitely don't brush your teeth with tap water or open your mouth and the shower. Also, it's advisable to bring an extra tooth brush in case you accidentally rents yours with tap water. And as with all travel, try to learn a few key phrases before your trip. Speak slowly when using your native language. Smile and have fun. 10. Egypt Conclusion: Egypt is a beautiful and delicious destination, full of exciting traditions, large family celebrations, and some of the world's oldest historical sites. Feel free to comment in your travel journal about the Egyptian traditions that you might enjoy and the foods that made you hungry. I'll see you in the next section where we will check out the only remaining ancient wonder of the world, the Great Pyramid of Giza. 11. Giza Introduction: Welcome to our section on The Great Pyramid of Giza, which is the oldest and the largest of the three pyramids in Cairo, Egypt. It is the oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world and the only one to remain intact. The Great Pyramid of Giza is a defining symbol of Egypt and was built over a 20 year period during the reign of King Khufu. 12. History & Fun Facts Giza: During Egypt's third, fourth dynasties, the country reveled in tremendous economic prosperity and stability. Came this called Pharaohs ruled over the land. Pharaohs held a unique position and Egyptian society, they were viewed as somewhere between human and divine and believed to have been chosen specifically by the gods themselves. Therefore, everyone's best interest to keep the king's majesty intact even after death. When he was believed to turn into 0 Silas, god of the dead. The new Pharaoh became Horace, who served as protector of the sun god. The great pyramids were built as a burial ground to house and protect the remains of the pharaohs, their families, and other important officers. These monumental tombs are relics of Egypt's Old Kingdom error. And they were built around 4500 years ago. Egypt's pharaohs were expected to become gods in the afterlife. Ancient Egyptians also believed that when the pharaoh died, part of his spirits stayed with his body. In order to properly care for his spirit. The deceased king was mummified and buried with everything he would need in the afterlife, including goals, food, furniture, other offerings. And these buried treasures were irresistible to Sticky Fingers, see, later known as grave robbers. The pyramids helped to protect the pharaoh's body and belongings after his death. The riches would provide not only for him, but also for the relatives who were buried near him. Built during a time when Egypt was one of the richest and most powerful civilizations in the world. The pyramids, especially the Great Pyramid of Giza, are some of the most magnificent man-made structures in the history of the world. The great pyramids are in Egypt, close to Cairo. The oldest and largest of the three pyramids of Giza, known as the Great Pyramid, is the only surviving building of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Pharaoh Khufu began the first Giza Pyramid project around the year 2550 BCE. He ruled for 23 years and built the biggest pyramid in history. His Great Pyramid was the largest of Jesus pyramids. Its original height sword at 481 feet or a 147 meters. The sides of the pyramid at its base, measured an average of around 755 feet or 230 meters. It was the tallest building in the world for almost 3800 years. It is believed that it took around 20 years to build and was completed around here, 2570 BCE. It was constructed with an estimated 2.3 million stone blocks. Each of these stone blocks ways an average of 2.5 to 15. These massive stones that differ from one another in length by no more than two inches were cut using nothing more than copper tools. To give you an idea of how big this is. How does a person. Then Great Pyramid is a part of a group of buildings called the Giza Necropolis. 13. Construction & Interior of Giza: Although it has been rumored that the pyramids were built by slaves or foreigners forced into labor. Skeletons found on-site show that the worker is worth probably native Egyptian laborers who worked on the pyramids during the time of year when the Nile River flooded. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus wrote that it took 20 years to build and required a 100 thousand man. Later evidence suggested that the workforce actually been closer to 20 thousand men, but still a massive undertaking. Nonetheless. Excavations beginning in the late 1800s revealed three chambers within the now 459 foot or a 140 meter high pyramid. An underground chamber at the base, the queen's chamber in the middle, and the king's chamber above the two lower compartments. The pyramid contains two distinct tunnel systems, one of which is unique to the Great Pyramid. The tunnel systems ascending passage leads up to a serious blocked off passageways in order to outwit to writers. In the descending passage where we find the pyramids official entrance. It is disguised with a limestone facing, identical to the surrounding stones. Beyond this hidden door lies the 26 foot high Grand Gallery, the queen's chamber above, and the king's chamber on top. Researchers have also recently discovered a fourth chamber that measures are a 164 feet or 50 meters long, but they are not sure as to whether it was built to mainly reduce the weight of a gallery, or maybe it serves some other more important purpose. We don't quite know yet. Small pyramids built for Khufu is queen, are lined up next to the Great Pyramid. And a tomb was found nearby containing the empty sarcophagus of his mother. Queen had to papyrus. Khufu's Great Pyramid is surrounded by rows of must of us or flat roofed rectangular tubes made from bricks of mud, were relatives of the king were buried in order to accompany him in the afterlife. The Great Pyramid is here in the middle. For Pharaoh or King Khufu. The middle pyramid at Giza was built for Khufu is son Pharaoh Khafra, who died in year 25, 32 BCE. The Pyramid of Khufu day is the second tallest pyramid at Giza and contains King Khafre's to. The southern most Pyramid at Giza was built for men cuda, coffees, sun. It is the shortest of the three pyramids at 218 feet. And it is thought to have been built in the 26th century BCE. But the exact date still is not known. 14. Pharaoh: Pharaoh is the title now used for the head of state and highest authority of ancient Egypt. From the first dynasty, around here, 3150 BCE until the year 30 BCE, when Egypt was conquered by the Roman Empire. The Pharaohs of Egypt were often buried in giant pyramids or in secret tunes. They believed that they needed treasure to be buried with them in order to be assisted in the afterlife and prepared for the afterlives journey. As a result, archeologists have a lot of well-preserved artifacts and tools to examine in order to find out how the ancient Egyptians lived. In Ancient Egypt. Women rulers such as Cleopatra kept societies stable in times of potential term while ruling from 51 to 30. Cleopatra lead Egypt into a long awaited era of peace. Thriving arts and culture. A fearless and crafty leader, ambitious yet down to earth, and adored by her people. Cleopatra's spoke many languages and influenced the way western empires would be governed for centuries to come. Although she was the last ruler of the kingdom of Egypt before it was conquered by the Roman Empire. She influenced the politics of Rome, like no other woman of her era could do to her feminine strength, fearless determination. Cleopatra came to represent the prototype of the romantic femme fatale. In ancient Egyptian society, every day life was centered around religion. One of the roles of the Pharaoh was to be an intermediary between the gods and the people. The Pharaoh enacted laws, waged war as commander in chief of the Army, collected taxes, and oversaw all of the land in Egypt. The Pharaoh officiate and religious ceremonies and chose the sites of new religious temples. The Pharaoh was responsible for maintaining cosmic order, balance, and justice. The Farel kept his hair covered as this was not to be seen by the common people. Many scholars believe that the first pharaoh was Narmer, also called menace in the year 3000 BCE. 15. Giza Conclusion: The Pyramid of Giza, one of the tallest man-made structures in the world, was a resting place for pharaohs, their families, and their possessions. Although experts have studied the Great Pyramid of Giza for decades, there is still a lot to discover about this sole remaining structure of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World. Feel free to write down in your travel journal what possessions and family members you might want to have buried with you as your version of buried treasure as an Egyptian Pharaoh. I'll see you in the next section of this lecture, where we will explore how the Seven Wonders of the World, of the seven wonders of the modern world were chosen. 16. Seven New Wonders Introduction: The seven new wonders of the world, also known as the Seven Wonders of the modern world, were announced in the year 2007. A list was created with 200 different wonder contenders. The new wonders could be anything built before the year 2000. They had to be man-made or built by people, be well preserved and have artistic and architectural value. 17. Deciding on Seven: The list was reduced to 21 finalists with options ranging from the Acropolis and Neuschwanstein Castle, the Sydney Opera House, to the Eiffel Tower, the Statue of Liberty to Stonehenge and the more eyes and Chile. Over 100 million votes were cast in 2007. And the list of the seven new wonders of the world was announced. They were the Great Wall of China. Petra, though Roman Colosseum, Machu Picchu, Chichen Itza, the Taj Mahal, and Christ the Redeemer with an honorary inclusion of the Giza Necropolis. The site of the only remaining ancient wonder of the world, the Great Pyramid. Okay. 18. Seven New Wonders Conclusion: The seven new wonders of the world, built anywhere between 2300 BCE and 1931, serve as a testament to the creativity and imagination and backbreaking hard work of which human beings are capable. Feel free to write down in your travel journal, your top picks for the seven wonders and which you might like to go visit. I'll see you in the next section where we will dive into the history and culture of China, the home of our first new wonder, the Great Wall. 19. China Introduction: Welcome to China. Unmask country in East Asia overflowing with dragons, delicious food, ancient history and pandas. Home to the Great Wall, our first great wonder of the world. China's capital Beijing, dazzles visitors with traditional tea ceremonies, footprints of the ancient Silk Road and sizzling Peking duck. 20. China's History Peking Man, Dynasties & Paper Money: Officially called the People's Republic of China. This massive and fascinating place is the world's most populous country with around 1.4 billion people. Located in East Asia. China is the third largest country in the world. And China has an extensive history and some of the oldest verified records on the planet. China is among the most ancient civilizations, along with the Babylonian, Mayan, and Egyptian. China was inhabited around 2.25 million years ago. Fossils from the earliest Homo erectus or the oldest early humans that had modern human-like body proportions and lived in groups are from Peking Man. These fossils that were discovered in a cave near Beijing showed us that Peking Man was a Homo erectus who used fire. Dating between six hundred and eighty thousand and seven hundred and eighty thousand years ago. The discovery of Peking Man is celebrated as a major step forward in the theory of human origin and evolution. This Xia dynasty, which emerged around 2100 BCE, marked the beginning of China's political system based on dynasties, which lasted for over a 1000 years. The succeeding Shang dynasty ruled the planes of the Yellow River in Eastern China until the 11th century BCE. The song was conquered by the Zhou, which ruled for the next 600 years. And the territories of this dynasty waged war with each other for the following 300. The Warring States period ended in 221 BCE. After the scenes state conquered the other kingdoms, reuniting China and establish the dominant order of autocracy ruled by King Zhang. He proclaimed himself the First Emperor of these sing dynasty and enacted major reforms throughout China. Notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, Measurements, road widths, and currency. The Han dynasty then took over and controlled China for nearly 400 years, expanding the empires territory, reaching Central Asia, Mongolia, and South Korea. Han involvement in Central Asia helped establish the land route of the Silk Road and gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world. Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese economy, technology and culture entered this golden age. The Tang Empire retain control of the western regions and the Silk Road and made their capital Chiang, on a bustling urban center. The song was the first government in the world to issue paper money or notes. China developed a rich and prosperous economy with a flourishing art scene. And later, China's capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing. That seeing Dynasty, the last and final dynasty of China, ruled until 1912. On January first, china became their Republic of China. They use the Chinese yuan and they drive on the right side of the road. 21. Geography of China: China is a megadiverse and intensely complex country, and it has some of the highest and the lowest regions on Earth. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 9 thousand miles or 14,500 kilometers long. China's landscape is vast and varies greatly, ranging from the Gobi Desert in the north to the subtropical forests in the wet south. The highest peak of the Himalayan mountain range, Mount Everest, is the highest peak in the world and serves as the border between Apollo and China at nearly 30000 feet. China has been the world's largest producer of rice. Wheat, tomatoes, eggplants, grapes, watermelon, and spinach. And is the third most biodiverse country in the world after Brazil and Colombia. China's climate has dry seasons with wet monsoons. But a major environmental issue is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert. In recent times, China has also suffered from severe air pollution. Although the 1979 environmental protection laws are fairly stringent, they are in adequately enforced. In fact, China has the second highest death toll solely due to air pollution. 22. Animals of China: China's large and diverse landscape is home to an astonishing variety and abundance of wildlife. The giant panda is native to China. Weird is an endangered and protected species. Giant pandas are good at climbing trees, swimming and eating bamboo. Pandas are somewhat lazy. Eating and sleeping make up most of their day. And in fact, Pandas nap Most of the time, but they're not eating because their diet consists solely of 99% fiber. And pandas have very productive intestines. Pandas can even produce a result while they're napping. The snub-nosed monkey, named for its stump of a nose on their round basis as an endangered species as well. They are known as the primate species that lives in the coldest climate and they are a national treasure. Tibet macaque monkeys are found almost solely in Tibet and Southern China. And they are the largest breed of macaca is in the world. And finally, red pandas, which are slightly bigger than house cats, are also endangered. 23. Religion, Communism & Socialism: China's constitution guarantees freedom of religion. However, over thousands of years, the Chinese civilization has been influenced by various religious movements. Some more encouraged or tolerated than others. The three teachings, which include Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism, historically have a significant role in shaping Chinese culture. Tau is a maintains that humans and animals should live in balance with the Tao or the universe. The Chinese philosophy has been connected to Lao-Tzu, who wrote the main book of Tao taoism and around 500 BCE, the Tao Te Ching. Tao is believe in spiritual immortality and the joining of the body spirit with the universe after death. Taoism is often associated with Yin and Yang, the dark swirl the yin is associated with shadows and femininity. And the light swirl, the Yang represents brightness, passion, and growth, and apparently not femininity. Buddhism came to China perhaps as early as the third century BC. The country became an incubator for many of the great present-day Buddhists sex, including zen, Pure Land, and the source of Tibetan Buddhism. The five basic morals undertaken by Buddhists and monks. R2, not murder, steal, act immorally, lie or drink and toxicants like alcohol. Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been especially influenced by Confucianism. Originating in ancient China. Confucianism is a system of thought and behavior described as a tradition of philosophy, even a way of life. Confucianism developed at least 2500 years ago from what was later called the 100 schools of thought from the teachings of Confucius. With particular emphasis on the importance of family and social harmony. The core of Confucianism is humanistic or the value of human beings individually and collectively. China is one of the world's only socialist countries with a goal of building communism. The Chinese government has also been described as socialist and authoritarian. Heavily restricting free access to the Internet, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, the right to have children, free formation of social organizations, and freedom of religion, political freedom especially suppressed. The flag of China is a red field with five gold stars. The color red represents China's Communist Revolution. The five-stars are the unification of the country is people under the Communist Party. And the larger star surrounded by the four smaller stars, symbolizes the Communist party itself. 24. Beijing & Writing: Around 65 percent of China's population lives in the countryside, farming various crops or livestock. However, since the 1980s, many young people have been encouraged to pursue activities in the cities, such as handicrafts, commerce, factory work, and transport. Beijing from an ancient walled capital city to a glittering metropolis packed with skyscrapers, high-speed Internet, Konstan, traffic jams and highways in less than a century, no less. Beijing, china's massive capital city, is the center for triumph, tragedy, fortitude, and innovation. Beijing as a place like no other with a fascinating and tangled history. Now, middle-class locals run to catch buses as a hurry to their offices. But just as many indulgent purchases of silk, savor the light sent at a tea ceremony of Jasmine, and order Peking duck, that the many high-end restaurants. Beijing has a history that stretches back 3000 years. But it is just as famous for its modern architecture as it is for as ancient structures. Beijing, the actually 16th name given to the city literally translates to northern capital. It is one of the world's most populous capitals cities with over 21 million residents. China has been ruled from current-day Beijing for over 700 years. Common sites and Beijing are the great wall which we will cover in the next section. The Temple of Heaven, which is the most important of Beijing's imperial temples. It was where emperors of the Ming and sing dynasty is worship the God of heaven and prayed for good harvests. And the Forbidden City, which is the largest palace and the world, and was built in 420. It was forbidden to enter or leave the palace without the emperor's permission. Hence, the reason it is called the Forbidden City. Another popular site is the Summer Palace. The Summer Palace is the largest and best preserved Royal Garden in China. The temples, pavilions, and beautifully intricate gardens were designed to achieve harmony with nature and to please the I read lanterns can be found hanging by the doors of nearly every business. As a Red Lantern is the symbol of an enjoyable life and prosperous business. And they are traditionally read forum, good luck. Traffic is Everyone. And although many young people are taught English in schools, it is very helpful to have some knowledge of Mandarin while visiting Beijing or an excellent downloaded dictionary. The written language is central to the Chinese culture. Mandarin, which is spoken by around 70% of the population, is the official national language of China, taught in schools and is used as a common language between people of different linguistic backgrounds. There are perhaps as many as 292 languages spoken just in China. But Cantonese is one of the major minority dialects. The local language of the South East corner of China. Chinese characters have been used as the way of writing for thousands of years. But in 1956, the government introduced a simplified Chinese character set which made reading and writing much easier to blurred. As of 2018, 96% of the population over 15 are literate. In other words, able to read and write. In fact, the Chinese word for culture literally translates as to become literate. The origin of the writing style of calligraphy with brushes, a visual art related to writing dates back to ancient China more than 2000 years ago. During this time, it was expected that all educated men and women be proficient at calligraphy. All the rest of the Western styles evolved from these originals. 25. Shanghai: Shanghai is the country's biggest city and a global financial center. It is centered around the wound, a beautiful waterfront promenade lined with colonial era buildings. Shanghai Disney is a popular attraction with its large centerpiece modeled after Germany's Neuschwanstein Castle. Across the Huangpu river rises the nearly 2100 foot or 632 meters shanghai tower and the Oriental Pearl TV tower. This sprawling gardens has traditional pavilions, towers, and ponds. Shanghai has a maze of public transportation and interwoven highways. 26. Tianjin: Tianjin is a major port city close to Beijing, known for the European style houses, buildings and churches in a Wu Dao or the five great avenues in that hey ping district. The city has many modern skyscrapers, including the nearly 1400 foot or 415 meter tall, 10 Jin radio and television tower. Tianjin I is the nearly 400 foot or a 120 meter tall Ferris wheel that opened in 2009. Also keep an eye out for the porcelain house, known as China's house, which is a contemporary museum of pottery and antiques decorated with copious amounts of broken porcelain. 27. Tea, Chinese Medicine & Silk : Ti. An aromatic average with a 300 year history is normally made by pouring hot water over dried or fresh herbs, flowers, fruits, or leaves. And it is one of the most popular drinks in history. China is considered to have the earliest tea drinking records, dating back more than 2000 years. And historically, t was solely used as a medicinal herbs. The Han Dynasty use t as medicine for a number of ailments, including back pain, depression, fertility, arthritis, and insomnia. The use of t as a beverage drunk for pleasure with groups of family and friends, though dates back to the Tang Dynasty, nearly 1400 years ago. T plays a significant part in both Chinese engagements and in Chinese weddings. A tea tree or a plant with leaves used to make T cannot be transplanted or planted in one space and moved to another. It only sprouts and grows from a C. If moved, it dies. Chinese newly weds took T0 to symbolize loyalty, love, and the expectation of a long happily married life. A Chinese tea ceremony is held on the wedding day. The bride and groom serve tea to their parents or in-laws and other family members, symbolizing the union of the two families. Drinking that T indicates that the parents recognize and accept their child spouse as part of the family. Other than smelling and tasting fantastic. Some tea is had been proven to help boost your immune system, fight off inflammation, and even ward off cancer and heart disease. In fact, T was first used as medicine and remains to be one of the primary sources of natural healing. But mainly, most people drink tea for an energy boost or simply because it tastes good. Other forms of natural medicine, our foot massages and acupuncture. Massage is boost your circulation, which help with healing and keeps your muscles and tissues healthy. Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese system of medicine, which involves the practice of inserting tiny little needles into the skin. Silk. Silk is a fabric first produced in China from the delicate material of the silkworms cocoon. It became a reliable source of income for small farmers. And as weaving techniques improved, the reputation of China's delicate and beautiful silk spread throughout the world. Chinese silk became a highly desired product across empires of the ancient world. Silk is mainly produced in the south of the Yangtze River Delta. And its production remained exclusively Chinese for 3000 years. Called the clean of fiber. Clothes made of silk are an excellent quality and they are very porous. So it's marked by not only heat dissipation, but also heat preservation when it's cold. The history of Chinese silk can be traced back almost six, 1000 years, most recently celebrated because of the Silk Road. The Silk Road was a network of trade routes which connected the East with the West. It was important because it helps generate trade and commerce between a multitude of different kingdoms and empires. The Silk Road helped ideas, culture, and inventions spread across much of the settled girl. Silk is a specialty of China and one of the most beautiful contributions China has made to the world. Silk is made from the silkworm. When it's alive, it wraps itself in a silk for protection. When it dies, it leaves this beautiful thread to be spun and made into cloth. Similar to a very strong spider's web. 28. Chinese Holidays & Food: Chinese New Year. The most important Chinese holiday, is also called spring festival. It is also celebrated in overseas ethnic Chinese communities. Chinese New Year is known for Lion and dragon dances, fireworks, family gatherings, and visiting friends and relatives. Giving red envelopes with money inside. The red color is for good luck. The Dragon Boat Festival. The Dragon Boat Festival is a traditional holiday that commemorates the famous Chinese scholar Shu Yuan. This famous fun holiday, a celebration of eating rice dumplings, drinking wine, and racing dragon boats. The Mid-Autumn Festival comes from the custom of a worshiping the moon during the Zhou dynasty, over 3000 years ago. In ancient China, most emperors worshiped the moon every year because the moon is at its brightest. During this time, people will have mood parties to celebrate. The Mid-Autumn Festival. Legend talks about how a long time ago the Earth had 10 the sun and the heat was ravaging the planet, creating this terrible deadly drought. The Emperor of Heaven asked this great archer to shoot down nine of the sons and saving life on Earth. The most popular Mid-Autumn Festival food though, our moon cakes, which symbolized completeness and togetherness. Moon cakes in the South of China are filled with fresh meat and a ham. And northern Chinese moon cakes are filled with dates and red bean paste. They are an interesting and somewhat acquired taste. Women's Day and Men's day are days when women or men are recognized for their achievements and have the day off of work. International Children's Day is celebrated by rewarding children for their achievements. And I'm taking part in local games and field trips. Peking duck is a famous duck dish from Beijing, which used to be called peaking. That has been prepared since the imperial era. The ducks are glazed and cooked in hanging ovens so that the fat between the meat and the skin sort of drains out. And it leads to this yummy, crispy, crunchy skin. These deep fried golden dough sticks are very inviting and super delicious. And they are a very popular food for breakfast in China. People will dip them in their rice porridge for a delicious morning treat. A hot pot though, is the number one Chinese dish. A big pot is set in the center of the table with boiling broth and a flame or electric burner sits underneath to keep the heat going. Raw veggies, seafood and meet our served around the pot with other options such as a tofu dumplings and noodles as well. The guests cook the ingredients by placing them in the broth with chopsticks and eat them with a dipping sauce. 29. Travel Tips China: Here are some of my top tips when traveling in China. Many websites such as Facebook, Google, Instagram, and Twitter are blocks in China. Makes sure to download a VPN or virtual private network before traveling to China. Unlike in Western countries, china is more conservative with physical touch. Usually a verbal greeting or a nod will suffice when first meeting someone. Public affection is virtually non-existent. Personal space though, might be hard to find, especially on public transport. A large percentage of Chinese adults smoke. So when asking for a non-smoking accommodation, be very clear about wanting a non-smoking room or a non-smoking floor for the most comfortable, whether consider coming to China and spring or fall. Once out though Chinese local travel during these periods. So travel costs usually skyrocket. It is important to note that many public bathrooms do not provide toilet paper or paper towels. It is recommended to carry toilet paper and hand sanitizer with you. Also, the majority of public restaurants are squat toilets. Just consider this to be part of the Chinese experience. Keep in mind that white is the color of mourning. So avoid flowers, gifts, or wrapping paper, and wearing all white clothing. Also, very few people in China have read or blonde hair. So be aware that locals may want to take a photo of you. Although crime in China is much more rare than in other countries, petty crime exists everywhere. So be sure to keep your money, wallet, and passport on your person and concealed under your clothing. Just as in all countries with a currency different than your own, make sure to count your change carefully. Do not accept the initial price when shopping and China, bargain for everything unless you are in a large department store in boutiques, make sure to haggle for a fair price. Keep in mind that credit cards may not work in China. So prepared to carry cash and withdraw enough money from an ATM, The last for a few days. As ATMs that accept western debit cards are few and far between. Avoid ice in your drinks as ice is most likely made from a poor quality water source. On that note, only drink bottled water. As tap water is contaminated. Don't brush your teeth with tap water and shower with care. Don't open your mouth or your eyes in the shower. Learn a few words of the local language. It makes you a little more well-received and helps you when you're in a pinch. As with all traveled, all have plenty of patients. And to find funny communication amusing rather than annoying or angering, you'll have a much more enjoyable trip if you see humor and the things that go wrong. Also keep in mind, if you're not speaking their native language, speak slower but not louder. The locals are doing their best with your language, which is probably bear third or fourth language. A smile is universal code. So be kind, speak slowly, and have fun. 30. China Conclusion: The most populous country and third largest in the world. China is a spectacular and ancient place with a detailed records and artifacts that are sometimes a hundreds or thousands of years old. China is one of the best examples of how humans developed from individual cavemen into a modern and global community. Free to take notes in your travel journal about the types of tea you might like to try, which ailments you would hope that they can assist, and which places in Beijing you might want to visit. What are your thoughts on Chinese medicine? Have you tried foot massages? Would you try acupuncture? Now that we have some context, I'll see you in the next section where we will check out the first great wonder of the modern world. The Great Wall of China. 31. Great Wall Introduction: The Great Wall of China is the world's longest wall. And the first of our seven wonders of the modern world. Winding its path over steep mountains and rugged countryside ills. China's man-made stone dragon is a series of fortifications near Beijing, China's capital, built for the protection of China in the northern area of the country. 32. Great Wall Fun Facts: The Great Wall is located in Northern China, officially measuring 13,177 miles or just over 21 thousand kilometers. The Great Wall has a stunning array of scenery from vast beaches to toggle mountain is too dry deserts. The Great Wall is one of the greatest sites in the world and the longest wall in the world. An awe inspiring feet of ancient defensive architecture. More than 2300 years old. The Great Wall is not a single straight line, but a grand curvy stone pathway made to protect those inside and keep strangers out. The Chinese name for the great wall literally translates to the long wall. 10 thousand miles. The average height of the Great Wall is 26 feet or around eight meters. Bottling is the most visited section of the wall with more than 70 thousand visitors per day, just in this particular area. As attempting tourist destination, The Great Wall attracts around 50 million visitors every year in total. 33. Construction & History of the Great Wall: Although it is named the Great Wall singular, it is actually a series of overlapping fortifications and trenches for blacking enemies, watchtowers for fires, signals and communication, and fortresses for head on battle. The Great Wall easily required the most immense human effort of any ancient construction. Research suggests that 100 million tons of bricks, stone, and soil, or transported and constructed by millions of soldiers as it's prisoners and animals. Early construction began nearly 2700 years ago. Meaning workers had perhaps basic rope would and a basket system at their disposal on unknown terrain that ranged from Sun, big deserts to dizzying mountain cliffs. The Great Wall designers didn't take advantage of this terrain model. Using tall mountain peaks and wide rivers to their advantage, which helps to control strategic areas and also aided in managing labor and materials. According to legend, there were three ways of hauling supplies up the mountains, carried by hand or shoulders or baskets or human chains, moved by wheelbarrows and maybe pulley systems and ropes, or transported by sturdy animals, such as oxygen or horses. Goats are known for being excellent climbers. So it is rumored that people tied bricks on goats horns and made them trek up the steep mountains. Legend has it that the Great Wall was built to defend against the Mongols. But the original purpose of this massive fortification was to deter the northern nomadic tribes coming from today's Mongolia and Northern China. Some states even build walls to fend off her nosy neighbors. Watchtowers. Watch towers were built high for observation and communication was accomplished through signal fire. The Great Wall of China, the collective name of a series of fortifications built across the historical northern borders of China and spans across 15 regions. Oh, it's made over the course of a hundreds of years. The wall was built by over six different Chinese dynasties. And you have to take a cable car currently up to the top of the wall in order to visit. 34. Rice, Space & The Longest Cemetery in the World: The building materials included soil, breaks, stones, and rocks. What was the mortar though? It was totally different from the modern sand and cement that we are used to today. Builders used rights processed sticky rice flour when wet, served as a reliable adhesive, especially 2000 years ago. When it hardens, the substance isn't nearly as impenetrable as cement. That being said, it has been nearly 3 thousand years since the beginning of its construction. And parts of the Great Wall have maybe been crumbling or breaking due to weather and tourism. Granted, very few visitors have been injured by such events. But China decided to simply block off areas deemed too dangerous for the general public, rather than spend money to mend and rebuild troublesome sections. Having visited the Great Wall just last year, I can confirm that the wall is not the most easily accessible as there were some steep drop-offs and dangerous cliffs that we're just kinda of roped off. Even though the other areas were considered safe. Locals warned us to wear really sturdy shoes as the Great Wall is not known for being accessible to folks who are perhaps unsteady on their feet. And they told us not to get too close to the edges. Contrary to popular belief, the Great Wall of China cannot be seen from space with the naked eye. It is unfortunately invisible from space. Trying to see the Great Wall from outer space would compare with how difficult it would be to see a single piece of hair from two miles away. The wall is sadly called the longest cemetery in the world. During the many years of construction, more than 1 million laborers had been recruited, including civilians, soldiers and felons. Helping build the wall was especial punishment for criminals during that sing and Han dynasties. Around 2000 years ago, the exhausting and precarious work took an estimated 400 thousand lives. Some are said to be even buried within the wall itself as carrying decease convicts back to civilization was not really high on the priority list. Even though there has been no actual evidence of corpses or bones found within the wall. This gives the Great Wall, but not so appealing saying of the longest cemetery in the world. 35. Great Wall Conclusion: The Great Wall of China is one of the single greatest sites in the world. The longest one at an awe-inspiring feet of ancient architecture. It's winding paths cover more than 13 thousand miles or 21 thousand kilometers of rugged countryside and steep mountains. Feel free to jot down in your travel journal your thoughts on how the Wall was built, construction being used for punishment, the usage of rice as mortar, and how you might have transported materials during this time. How long do you think it would take to walk the entire length of the Great Wall? I'll see you in the next section, where we will explore another ancient civilization, the country of Jordan in the Middle East. 36. Jordan Introduction: Welcome to the timeless country of Jordan. An Arab nation on the east bank of the Jordan River, packed full of ancient monuments, nature reserves, and sunny Seaside resorts. Jordan sits at the crossroads of the Asian, African, and European continents. But it's technically considered part of the Middle East. Roman amphitheaters, crusader castles, and Christian mosaics are just some of the fascinating attributes that this vibrant country has to offer. 37. Jordan Fun Facts & History: Jordan is in the Middle East, surrounded by Lebanon, Israel, Syria, Iraq, saudi Arabia. Here is among its capital city and the ancient city of Petra. The second of our seven wonders of the modern world. The North era of desert comprises around 75 percent of Jordan. But Jordan's dry landscapes are not the only scenery. The sizzling, Sandy country has to offer. Jordan is also revered for it's salty sea. At the lowest point on earth, droves of swaying palm trees and bursts of springtime of flowers and scattered among the hills. An Arab nation on the east bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is defined by ancient monuments, nature reserves, and Seaside resorts. Over 9.8 million people live in Jordan. The Jordanian DNR is the currency and they drive on the right side of the road. For many years, the ruling queen of Jordan was Queen nor an American born queen who married King Hussein. The current leader is their son, king of doula the second. The capital of Jordan is a mine. The official state religion is Islam. Yet several places in Jordan are important to Christians. The site where John the Baptist baptized Christ is believed to be enjoyed it. People in Jordan speak Arabic and English. The Dead Sea, which is occupied by both Jordan and Israel, syncs to a whopping 1414 feet or 431 meters below sea level. The Earth's lowest, 0.1 of the world's saltiest bodies of water is colorful, sticky, and surreal. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan as a small, young country located on land of ancient biblical significance. One of the most liberal Arab countries, but also a country with very few natural resources. Jordan's claim to fame is the ancient archaeological site. Petra, a red stone capital city that dates back to around 2300 years ago. Jordan occupies an area rich in archaeological remains and religious traditions. The Jordanian desert, home to hunters from the late Stone Age or earlier than 10000 years ago. And their tools have been found widely distributed throughout the country. Highly influenced by the Greeks, then the Roman Empire, and then finally, the Muslim empires starting in the seventh century. Jordan is a new country on ancient land, separated from Palestine by the Jordan River. This small region has played a leading role in biblical history. The early biblical kingdoms of Moab, Gilly ad and a DOM lie within its borders, as well as the famous city of Petra. Under the rule of the Ottoman Empire until 1918 and later the United Kingdom, Jordan finally became an independent kingdom in the year 1946. Woohoo, May 25th is Jordan's Independence Day, which is celebrated by grand displays of fireworks, religious ceremonies, and an official national celebration for the royal family. 38. People Jordan: The overwhelming majority of locals are aerobes, mainly Jordanians and Palestinians, with a significant population of Bedouin who were the largest indigenous group before the Palestinians arrived in the 20th century. The national languages, Arabic and Islam, is the official religion. Virtually the entire population is Sunni Muslim. There is a small percentage of Christians that live in Jordan, most of which adhere to the Greek Orthodox Church. The normal life expectancy in Jordan is 75 years, but the population structure is predominantly young. Nearly a third of the entire population is made up of people under the age of 15. Live birth rate is very high in comparison with the rest of the world. And Jordan's population is growing about twice as fast the world's average. Although not necessarily known for its wildlife. Jordan offers a surprisingly diverse plant and animal population. Due to the desert landscapes, only the most hearty and adaptable creatures can survive. Mainly the camel who can go without food or water for up to six months. The Asiatic jackal, the Desert Fox, the striped hyena, and wolves are some of the larger mammals found in Jordan. The Arabian are white Oryx. Jordan's national animal was almost completely extinct in the wild by the mid 20th century. The sunny, crystal-clear waters of the Gulf of Aqaba are ideal for the growth of coral. There are around 230 species of coral, as well as over one hundred, ten hundred species of fish. Sea cucumbers, starfish, sea horses, stingrays, man to raise turtles and dolphins that make the Gulf of aka a diverse underwater sanctuary. A popular diving destination for tourists. 39. Amman: Around four-fifths of all Jordanians live in urban areas. Most towns have hospitals, banks, government, internet, private schools, mosques, churches, libraries, entertainment facilities and newspapers. The main population center is the country's capital of Amazon, with roughly 2.1 million people. Around 20 percent of Jordan's entire population of over 10.2 million. Despite its rapid growth, especially over the past 10 years, the hypnotic city of Amman retains much of its old character. The capital of Jordan, Amman is a modern city with many ancient ruins. The Bronze Age Amman citadel includes the pillars of the Roman temple of Hercules. And the eighth century Omayyad Palace, known for its large dome and the ceiling of its palatial complex. Nearby the 6000 seat Roman theater is a second century stone amphitheater that dates back to when a bond was called by its earlier name, Philadelphia. The Greeks founded new cities in the area, modern-day Jordan, including its capital of Amman, roughly 2300 years ago. A mine was established in our world so long ago that it can even be found in the Bible. As Rabat, a bond. The buildings in our mind are covered with thick white limestone or sandstone, and the majority have balconies. Buildings are not allowed to be built more than four floors above the ground. The largest museum is the Jordan Museum, which houses much of the delicate and irreplaceable archeological findings in the country, including some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 2300 year-old Jewish manuscripts, the Neolithic limestone statues of I-I'm guys owl, an ancient archaeological site, and a copy of the Mesha Stele, an ancient artifact from your 840 BCE. Nightclubs, bars and lounges are popping up all across the skyline, changing the city's old image as someone conservative. And now alcohol also is widely distributed. 40. Food & Daily Life Jordan: Considered the coronary capital of Jordan. A New York Times article described Ambani cuisine as a culmination of several Arab of regional styles writing that it combines the bright vegetables from Lebanon, crunchy for levels from Syria, yummy kebabs from Egypt, and most recently, spicy meat dishes from Jordan's neighbor, Iraq. The countries cuisine features dishes with beans, yogurt, garlic, and olive oil. Jordan's two most popular dishes, arm PSAT Khan, lamb and rice with a yogurt sauce. And months off. Normally served in a large platter meant for communal eating. Mod stuff is a dish of tender meat layered with extremely thin flat bread. And towering piles of aromatic rice. Both in the Sachen and months off are served in large portions on holidays and special occasions. Everyday meals though, include flatbread with vegetable depths, grilled meats, and hearty students, usually served with sweet tea or cardamom flavored coffee. Jordan, an integral part of the Arab world, shares a cultural tradition common to neighboring countries. For example, family is of central importance. Village life revolves around religion, relatives, agriculture and hospitality. Urban dwelling Jordanians enjoy many aspects of modern popular culture. From theatrical performances to rock concerts, do operas, to ballets. The Ministry of Education distributes free books to students in public schools and enforces mandatory education until the age of 14. Jordan's oldest institution of higher learning is the University of Jordan, established in Amman in 1962. And one of the 20 universities in this capital city. Large towns have movie theaters with both era and foreign films. Younger Jordanians frequent internet cafes in the capital where they sip espresso while surfing the web. 41. Travel Tips Jordan: Here are some things to keep in mind when traveling in this part of the world. Jordan is one of the most water-scarce countries in the world. The countries renewable water supply concurrently only meet about half of the populations water demand. And the groundwater being used is twice as fast as it can be replaced. Do be cautious about your water usage in Jordan. Tap water here is somewhat safe to drink, but for a shorter trip, it might be better to stick to bottled water or even better, bring a bottle with a travel filter from home. Illegal trails. Some of the hiking trails are illegal when walking around the beautiful sandstone of Jordan, especially near Petra. The scenes of someone's sitting per, curiously on the edge of a cliff overlooking the ancient city of Petra. This trail that leads there is illegal. Those pictures are also illegal. So make sure to do your research so that you don't unintentionally contribute to the deterioration of these precious resources. Clothing, make sure to be mindful of the common dress in Jordan. As a somewhat conservative country, it's important that both women and men make sure to wear loose fitting clothes, long pants, and long sleeves shirts, even when hiking in the hot sun. Eating, Jordan is not the cheapest destination as tourism is a huge industry, and meal and accommodation prices can vary widely. Most only accept cash as well. So make sure to get some local currency from the ATMs. Jordan travel pass. The Jordan travel pass will save you lots of money, even if you're only coming for the day. It's an excellent value and nearly all tourist sites are covered by it. Animals. If you have legs and are able to walk, don't take the donkeys or the horses. These animals are worked all day long, usually with little water or care to their open wounds or frothing mouths. In case you don't know, frothing coming from the mouth and wounds covered in flies are huge red flags. These animals are thirsty, exhausted, and should not be used by people who are simply quote, unquote, tired. Don't listen to what the people say about how the animals feel. Look at the animals themselves. And as with all travel, try to learn some phrases before your trip. Speak slowly when using your native language. Smile, be patient and have fun. 42. Jordan Conclusion: An ancient country weaving its way through biblical stories, priceless monuments, meaty, aromatic cuisine, and a swiftly increasing population of restless young people. Jordan, the home of the ancient city of Petra, is a beautiful combination of determination. Antiquity and Sons soaked deserts. A mix of the ancient and the modern. Jordan is full of artistic young minds, traditional values, and buckets of spices. Feel free to write down your thoughts in your travel journal about how daily life and Jordan might differ from your own and what you might like to see in this tiny country. I'll see you in the next section where we will explore the number one destination in the whole country of Jordan. The ancient city of Petra. 43. Petra Introduction: In how good it since prehistoric times, Petra, nicknamed The Rose City, has two temples and monuments carved into the surrounding some baked pink sandstone cliffs situated between the Red Sea and the Dead Sea. Our second wonder of the seven wonders of the modern world was an important cross between a Rabia and Egypt. More than 2000 years ago. Petrus buildings carved into the towering red rocks. And it is one of the world's most famous ancient cities were early Eastern traditions combined with classical architecture. 44. Fun Facts Petra: The city of Petra, the ancient archaeological site of the Nabataean is one of the most exquisite archaeological sites in the world. It is a 149 miles or 240 kilometers south of Jordan's capital city, Amman, and 75 miles or a 120 kilometers north of the Red Sea town of aka, famous for its rock-cut architecture and advanced water supply system. Petra is also called the rows, the city, because of the color of the pinkish red stones from which it's carved. It became a unesco World Heritage site in 1985. And it is one of the richest and largest archaeological sites in this type of red sandstone. Dating back to around 300 BCE. It was the capital of the Nabataean Kingdom, a wealthy political state known for its riches collected from selling spices. Carved directly into the red, white, pink sandstone cliffs. Petra is sometimes called the Lost City. In spite of its being such an important ancient kingdom. After the 14th century, Petra was completely lost to the Western world for hundreds of years. It was rediscovered by the traveler Johan Ludvig boycott in 1812. On a mission to recover the rows city. He dressed up as a Bedouin or a nomadic Arab animal herder and convinced the locals to escort him to the ancient metropolis. 45. Petra's Treasury and More: Petra is approached through a mile long high walls, seek a crack in the rock, forcibly separated by tectonic pressure. Just when it seems like you might have gotten lost or maybe taken a wrong turn, even though there's nowhere to turn. The most impressive of Petrus sites comes into view. The Treasury, known as our caused a towering at a 128 feet or 39 meters high. A sophisticated piece of engineering as tall as a twelv storey building. Carved out of sandstone to serve as a to the Treasury, gets its name from a rumor that an ancient pharaoh hid his treasure in the top earn. A temple with an ornate Greek style Facade. Archaeologists recently discovered at the Treasury had even more secrets to share. The stone passageway along the Sikh sinks below the sand 300 meters before it ends, leading archaeologists to discover a secret burial chamber below the famous structure. Inside a Levin, bodies were found complete with areas to display items needed for the afterlife. This breathtaking city captivated scientists see yet again and provided years of research and priceless artifacts from the ancient world. An extensive water system, including dams, rock carved water channels, and ceramic pipes were used to sustain the ancient cities large population. From the Treasury, the out her seek holds more than 40 tombs on this street of facades. Just before the 2000 year old 8500 seat theatre. A set of steps leads to the high place of sacrifice. Hilltop alter, a steep 45-minute climb away. The high place of sacrifice that dates back to biblical times is a fantastically well-preserved site. More than 1 million people visit Petra every year, 80% of them from foreign countries. An entire town. Why do you mousa has been developed in order to cater to people coming to visit Petra. Petra is also a 147 miles or 236 kilometers from the Jordanian capital, amman. Petrus Rose Red Sandstone facades, tombs, and temples became known around the world through its brief appearance. The 1989 film, Indiana Jones and the last crusade. 46. History & The Nabataean Empire of Petra: It is not known precisely when Petra was built, but the city began to prosper as the capital of the Nabataean empire from the first century BCE, which grew rich through trading frankincense, myrrh, and spices. Petra grew quickly being located along the ancient trade routes between Arabia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean Sea. The capital became very wealthy and powerful, and Petra prospered as a center of the spice trade Between China, Egypt, Greece, and India. The city's population swelled to between 10000 and 30000. Petro was later seized by the Roman Empire. But it continued to thrive until two devastating earthquakes destroyed much of the city and the population shrunk dramatically. The ancient capital was eventually abandoned altogether. 47. Petra Conclusion: A poet penned Petra as a rose red city, half as old as time. The words conjure up images of an ancient civilization. The carved their history into the bright sandstone rocks, protecting well-kept secrets of this cradle of civilization for centuries to come. Take a moment to write down in your travel journal why you think Petra might have been abandoned for so long and what it might have been like during its peak as the capital. I'll see you in the next section where we will take out the culture and customs of everyone's favorite vacation destination. Rome and the Colosseum. 48. Italy Introduction: Italy. Officially the Italian republic is a country in southern Europe on a peninsula jutting into the Mediterranean Sea, known for rolling hills and fields of olive trees. What gestures and direct the gelato, beautiful beaches and quaint fisherman villages. Italy is one of the top vacation and retirement spots in the world. But Italy isn't only for foreigners. Let's check out what it's like to be a part of this festive and pasta filled country on the Mediterranean. 49. Fun Facts of Italy: Hi. With some of the most diverse and picturesque landscapes in the world. Italy is often described as being shaped like a boot. Tuscany is perhaps the country's most well-known region, known for Queen vineyards and olive trees and rolling hills. There are mountains in nearly every part of Italy, creating beautiful sweeping views and dizzy and cliffs. The island of Sicily and Sardinia. Why at the bottom of the country in the Mediterranean Sea. Italy is on the European continent and its capital is Rome, or aroma, as you might hear, their most Italians speak Italian, and they currently have a population of around 61 million people. The Italian name for Italy is Italian is the main language in Italy, but German, French, and Sylvain anion are also spoken in certain areas close to the German, French, Pennsylvania and borders. The currency is the Euro. Prior to 2001, it was the Italian lira. And they drive on the right side of the road. The colors of the Italian flag represent three virtues, green or white, or faith, and read or charity. In the south, there are hot, dry coast lands and fertile plains where olives, almonds, and figs are grown. To very small. Countries are also located within Italy is Borders. One is sun Ladino, completely surrounded by Northern Italy. The other is Vatican City, which is completely surrounded by the Italian capital of the Roman Ferrari. Lamborghini and Maserati, or Ferrari. Lamborghini and Maserati are well-known Italian car manufacturers, is the most common art form in Italy. 50. Italian Opera: Oh, and the opera is a play in which everything is sung instead of spoken. The first opera ever written was performed in 1590, seven in Florence in Italy. The singers who sing and act out the story are on the stage and the orchestra is in front of the stage, but lower down in an orchestral pit so that the audience can see the stage and also hear the music. And the conductor stands in front of the orchestra pit and make sure that everyone sings or plays at the same time. Opera is usually in Italian, german, French, English, or Russian. Italian pronunciation is soft and melodic. It is still the most popular operatic language and preferred by composers, even if it's not their native language. For example, even German composers who exist in their daily life speaking German and communicating in German, they use and compose in Italian, in opera, as it sounds so much softer than German. And from a Singer's perspective, it is somewhat easier to sing it. Here are some examples of the most popular Italian operas and operatic composers, including Verdi's Aida and Puccini's Madame Butterfly. Here is an example of some operatic Italian art song called nacho or the kiss. By DT. Yeah. 51. Italy's Landscape & History: Italy's broad mountain ranges in the North and the center of the country. The outside and the Apennine mountains are tectonically unstable in the South, with several active volcanoes, which include Aetna and Vesuvius. Every so often bursts of ash into the air above Naples, and it's Sunny Bay. The cone of Mount Vesuvius looms over the Neapolitan city of Naples in southern Italy. It's last eruption was in 1944. And scientists closely watched this beast of nature every single day. Because it's not a question of if Vesuvius will erupt again. But a question of when Italy's history stretches back tens of thousands of years, beginning with the Etruscans, an ancient civilization that developed between the Ottomans and the T better rivers. The autumnal runs through present day Florence. The Etruscans were overtaken in the third century BCE by the Romans, who soon ruled the entire Mediterranean world. Their empire stretched from India to Scotland. Within 400 years. Power struggles between military leaders, families, and religions kept the Roman Empire rather BioCurious and unstable, only to eventually fall in the fifth century. Italy peaked again, no, during the Renaissance era, in the 11th century, a time marked by significant intellectual, artistic, and cultural advances. We renaissance is a French word, meaning rebirth. The Renaissance was seen as a rebirth of learning. One of the most famous people who lived during the Renaissance was Leonardo da Vinci, well-known for his paintings, most notably the Mona Lisa. He was also a scientist, an engineer, and a mathematician. He along with sculptor, painter, architect and poet, Michelangelo, or true renaissance men. These artists were so productive and well-funded that about 60 percent of all the works of art in the world in Italy today. Currently, the whole of Italy is relatively prosperous due to the influx of tourists. Sometimes nearly as many visitors as locals can be found sipping from the ancient water fountains and chatting with friends and eating cheesy greasy pizza. Italy is currently a part of the European Union with multiple large cities showcasing ancient ruins, cliff side panoramas, Tuscan vineyards. The main cities include the capital of Rome, Venice, Naples, Milan, Florence, and Palermo. 52. Venice, Amalfi Coast & Tuscany: Venice known for its beautiful canals, private bridges. And she can't be or Italian top US. But Venice is built on more than 100 small islands in the Adriatic Sea. Venetian canals divide up the city of Venice as there are 417 bridges. 70 of them are privately owned, has no roads. But the Grand Canal, lined with Renaissance and Gothic palaces is packed with large taxi books, each called evaporate or evaporate. Though these floating taxis are the main form of transportation throughout this eclectic city. And gondolas provide an authentic and enjoyable experience for tourists. The city itself is built on large wooden pillars, which are slowly sinking, much to the dismay of the scientific community and locals who live there. The central square, Piazza San Marco, contains St. Mark's Basilica, decorated with Byzantine mosaics. And the company lead bell tower offering views of the city's iconic red roofs. 40 minutes by boat sits Murano. Italy is a rainbow town, an old fisherman's village with multicolored houses and clean canals lined with gondolas. Butanol is one of the most visited small towns in Italy and in Europe as a whole. This is next to Murano, the glass making Island, and is one of the major attractions of Venice along with Murano. As if we needed any more reasons to go to Venice as the city of canals and the floating city, that is, is one of Italy's most picturesque locations. The amount of fee coast, not far from Naples, is the amount the coast, one of the most beautiful coastlines in the world. The Amalfi Coast is a 35 mile or 50 kilometer stretch of coastline along the southern edge of Italy is sought or in DNA Peninsula. It's a popular holiday destination, which sheer cliffs and a rugged shoreline dotted with small beaches and pastel colored fishing villages. Nearby is Mount Vesuvius, still active volcano that destroyed the close by Roman town of Pompeii. Declared one of the unesco World Heritage sites for It's undisputable beauty and the uniqueness of its natural landscape. The Melfi coast has more annual visitors than nearly any part of Italy. Tuscany. Tuscany is a region in central Italy with its capital, Florence, being home to some of the world's most recognizable and valuable Renaissance art, including Michelangelo's David statue. Tuscany is known for its sweeping landscapes, artistic heritage, an influence on high culture. Olive groves, vineyards, and rolling hills attract visitors year around. Tuscan appetizers usually includes sheep's milk, Pecorino cheese, and cured meats like pursuit though, post scanner. This city, known for its Tower of Pisa is in Tuscany, cause to be capital Florence. Peas, I got it's name is 600 BCE from a Greek word meaning marshy land. A shallow foundation, and the soft ground if p is our too unstable to support the building, even in the early stages of construction. So the Leaning Tower was actually already leaning when it was first built. The Tower is predicted to remain stable only for the next 200 years. So do get your pictures while you can. 53. Rome & Vatican City: The role, or Rome. One of the oldest great cities of the world. Rome is the capital and most populous and prominent city in Italy with 4.2 million residents. The cities classic motto, don't see Vidar or sweet life, is glorified by wood burning oven baked pizza, creamy gelato, and hundreds of varieties of why. Rome has been a major human settlement for almost 3 thousand years. And Italy's capital was the central location of the Roman Empire that ruled Europe for hundreds of years. Known for its extraordinary architecture. Notably the Colosseum, which we talk about next, the Pantheon and the Trevi Fountain. Rom is often compared to a feast for the eyes or an outdoor museum. Throw a coin into one of the fountains to grant a rich, as the legend goes, toss it behind your back into the water to make sure that you return to Rome. This capital city, is no stranger to tantalizing aromatic and carb packed meals, mainly pasta, pizza, and not q or p or no G, as you might hear it sometimes. In Italian it is Naoki, eaten with red and white sauces topped with fresh Parmesan. Each region in Italy has its favorite ways to eat pasta. In Rome, two classics, IV, carbonara with eggs and punchy data, which is sort of like bacon. And B calculate that day, which is cheese and pepper. In fact, wrong has a museum dedicated entirely to half-step. Route is also a city surrounding another city, or a city surrounding another country. To be more precise. The Vatican City, bordered on all sides by Italy's capital. Vatican City is an independent city-state and less smallest country in the world. The Vatican is the seat of the Roman Catholic Church, headed by the Pope, and the spiritual home of Italy's large Catholic population. It's vast Vatican Museums. How's ancient Roman sculptures and Renaissance frescoes? They display the immense collection of sculptures and paintings and gifts amassed by the Catholic Church throughout the centuries. St. Peter's Basilica is a fourth century Renaissance style church built by Emperor Constantine, the Roman Empires, first Christian emperor. And it is the biggest church in the world. St. Peter's Basilica is the spot where St. Peter is thought to be buried, right next door to the renowned Sistine Chapel, the official residence of the Pope, built in 1873. The Sistine Chapel is famous for Michelangelo's in We'll ceiling, a cornerstone work of High Renaissance art. Vatican City has citizens, even though no one is actually born there. There are no hospitals. So the contrary does not give you citizenship based on birthright. If you are born somewhere around there, you are considered to be born in Italy. In fact, citizenship is always temporary, only given to the people who are in direct association with the Catholic Church and work in one of the religious buildings. 54. Italian Food: Italian cuisine as popular around the world, it is generally characterized by being somewhat simple, with most dishes having two to four main ingredients. Italian cooks normally rely on the quality of ingredients, rather than the elaborate preparation. Dishes such as pizza, spaghetti, bolognese, lasagna, and Elisa, though, all come from Italy. The National Food of Italy is the pasta dish that is called an R group, which is a Bolen users saas of meat and tomatoes with dietary lead pastor. Most Italians eat pasta at least once every day. But that doesn't mean that they eat the same thing every day. There are many ways to eat pasta with a variety of different toppings and sauces. You'll never get bored. Italian pasta is renowned worldwide and there are more than 200 different positive shapes. Italian cheese balls made originally from buffalo milk. Lasagna, layered past editions with tomato mozzarella cheese and a minced meat, Philly and gelato. Both the gelato and ice cream use cream, milk, and sugar. But authentic gelato, as compared to ice cream, has more milk, less cream, and no egg yolks. I wouldn't go so far as to say it's actually healthier than ice cream, but it is different. Another famous Italian food, pizza, was invented in Naples in Italy. Pizza is surely one of the most famous exports. And in Italy, it is usually baked in a wood fired oven for around 90 seconds, as it's very thin, but loaded with fresh vegetables are thinly sliced ham, salami, artichokes, olives. There are two classic types of pizza. One topped with a simple red sauce that is called Muddy NACADA or rasa, and topped with tomato sauce and mozzarella. The margarita, or the margarita is named after Queen Margaret IDA. The oldest pizza place opened in Naples in 1738. And we've got beads. Anya, alba started as a street food stand for polar Neapolitan. But since then, it has turned into one of the most popular restaurants in the world. Being featured in films. They take no reservations except maybe for filming movies. So the line often spans for blocks and the weight is easily two to four hours. Pro tip. If you go as a party of one like I did, you can actually get in usually within the hour. 55. Travel Tips Italy: Italy is one of the most beautiful countries in the world. There's so much to see and consider when planning a trip here. So before you pack your bags and indulge in gelato, here are some things to keep in mind. Use public transit or my taxi you to get around. Currently, the only form of Uber that exists in Italy is Uber black. And it is currently only a presence in Rome and the line. Whereas the laws might be changing as a general rule, don't count on using Uber and Italy. My taxi is a great alternative and its app is similar to the restroom, isn't free, hear anything €1 or less is acceptable, but more than that, try to find somewhere else. If you're not used to holding it all day, make a habit of visiting the restroom at any place that you pay for something, especially restaurants, coffee shops, and museums. Monday is generally a terrible day to visit museums. Why? Because most of them are closed, except for the Vatican Museums that is, which are unsurprisingly closed on Sunday instead of on Monday. You can drink from the tap in Italy, suddenly prefer bottled water, but the tap is safe. There are also tiny fountains all over cities like Rome, and that water is also potable. Feel free to take a sip or refill your water bottle here. While it's common to leave a few euros after a meal, servers get paid an actual living wage here and don't survive solely on tips. Therefore, customer service is quite different than what you might be used to. While greeting people is essential. Waitstaff won't hover over your table. You might need to actually waive someone down if you want to refill or when you are ready for the check. Sign. No petitions, never sign anything, no matter what they say, it's for. Smile and walkaway. Take no flowers. If someone hands you a flower, they will try to extort money from you for it. Don't let anyone give me a friendship bracelet. A hugely popular scam and most European countries, someone will come up to you offering a free friendship bracelet as soon as it's tightly tied around your wrist and you can't get it off. It's no longer free. Pockets are everywhere and Italy is no exception. They are WE prevalent in busy train stations, on crowded buses and trains and major touristy areas like churches and the Colosseum. English is the international language of tourism, and that includes in Italy. But everyone in Italy does not speak English. So you should absolutely learn at least a few basic Italian phrases before coming to Italy. And when you're traveling to any country, be patient. If the people are speaking your language, it might be very third or fourth language. So speak slower, smile, and have fun. 56. Italy Conclusion: Sizzling peeps at sun baked coastlines and olive trees are just some of the many gorgeous parts of this Mediterranean country in the south of Europe. Feel free to jot down what you might do in Italy. Which parts of the country you like to see, which cities you would go to, which type of Italian foods you would order at the many delicious cafes and restaurants, What would you wish for? And pulling it into one of the timeless Roman fountains, like the tin IV fountain. I'll see you in the next section where we will check out the most famous part of Rome, the Roman Empire and Italy itself. But Colosseum. 57. Colosseum Introduction: A majestic set of ruins with a gruesome and somewhat flamboyant history. The Colosseum is an oval amphitheater and the center of the Italian capital city of Rome. And the largest ancient amphitheater ever built. Our third wonder of the modern world. The coliseum has drawn visitors worldwide and inspired artists and scientists for centuries. 58. The Flavian Amphitheater & Other Amphitheaters: The Flavian Amphitheater, also known as the Colosseum, was built in the year 70 by Emperor of us bayesian of the Flavian dynasty as a gift to the Roman people. Ten years later. But Bayesians son Titus, premiered the Colosseum with a 100 days of gladiatorial combats and animal fights. The gladiatorial shows were Gaudi demonstrations of both power and prestige. However, they were very popular with the crowds, even though as many as 400 thousand lives were lost during these 400 years of entertainment. After hosting thousands of gruesome games, the majestic arena fell into neglect and was used as a source of building materials up until the 18th century. Two-thirds of the original Colosseum structure has deteriorated through time. But even through years of neglect, the coliseum remains a popular tourist destination and an iconic symbol of the Roman Empire. Located in every corner of the Roman Empire. More than 230 amphitheaters have been found from the massive Colosseum in Rome to the ruins of Chester, England. With Sina or una, was a Roman colony in Tunisia. And its intricate amphitheater held around 16 thousand people, but the ruins are seldom visited. And the Athena amphitheater is an excellent example of how arenas were built into the surrounding hills for a better support system. The Roman arena of RL is one of the most popular tourist attractions in current day Southern France. It was built around the first century BCE, and with three tiers, it was capable of ceding over 20 thousand spectators. Since 1830, this arena has been used for hosting bullfights, which is much debated by the animal rights community, was still enjoyed by the fans. Nonetheless, the arena of a nim was built at the end of the first century in current day France, and seated around 24 thousand people. It was one of the biggest Roman amphitheaters. It was so large that during the Middle Ages, a fortified palace was even built within this amphitheater. 59. Construction Colosseum: Made of stone and concrete. The Colosseum was built as an independent freestanding building. Much to the amazement of worldwide architects who would only dare to build such a structure on the side of a hill or within natural stabilizer. When it was first built, the impressive theatre had three stories with around 80 arched entrance. It's supported by columns. The Colosseum could hold it 50 thousand to 80 thousand spectators, having an average audience of 65 thousand people. In 1349, a massive earthquake struck and the outer south side of the Colosseum was nearly destroyed. In order to not let it go to waste, much of the collapsed stone was re-used as material to help build palaces, churches, and hospitals elsewhere in Rome. By the 20th century with of weathering natural disasters, neglect and even evangelism. Yet another third of the original Colosseum had been destroyed, including the arenas and marbles, seats and decorative elements. Leaving just one last third of the famous Flavian Amphitheater left for the sizable Roman population to enjoy it. I'll mating attraction for tourists from all over the world. Restorations have been ongoing for the past 30 years. And the Colosseum attracts over 7 million visitors per year. 60. Cats Colosseum: Law in Rome allows cats to live without disruption in the place that they were born. Why cats can be found climbing the walls of the Colosseum and sleeping among the ruins of the Roman Forum. Why are cabs everywhere you ask? Because as tourists we are exploring and perhaps dropping some peanuts, dropping sandwich crusts, lettuce bits, salty snacks. After closing, mice appear to help clean up and the caps arrive on the scene just in time for their own midnight snack. Cats with historically help to keep down the spread of disease that could be passed to humans through boots. So people in Rome encouraged the cats to come in around, especially in the touristy areas and markets. They keep everyone safe. 61. Colosseum Conclusion: One of 230 amphitheaters around the world. The Flavian Amphitheater, traditionally known as the Roman Colosseum or just the Colosseum, had a bloody beginning. But it has become a massive tourist destination, bringing money into Italy from all over the world, especially once it was added to the unesco World Heritage Site List in 1980. Feel free to write down in your travel journal which events you might like to see at the Colosseum, concerts, bullfights, Roman gladiator games. Also. Which other Colossians would you like to visit? I look forward to seeing you in the next section where we will explore the history and culture of the home of Chichen Itza, Mexico. 62. Introduction Mexico Seven Wonders: Officially the United Mexican States. Mexico is a country in the southern part of North America, home to the world's largest Somali. Mexico is known for its mouth watering food culture and it's a little lively festivals. Your travel the world worksheet is available for your reference at all times during the course. A blank sheet is also provided for optional self-study. 63. Fun Facts Mexico: Mexico is the combination of a rich Native American heritage, 300 years of Spanish rule, and a shared border with the prominent and wealthy United States. Mexicans have a diverse ancestry, which includes spanish, African, indigenous, and German. Around 53 percent of Mexicans they'll identify as Mestizo or mixed race. Mexico is famous for Mayan temples, send out days or sinkholes, mouth-watering food, mariachi bands, and beach destinations like him can. The currency is the Mexican Peso, and they drive on the lit side of the road. Mexican constitution guarantees separation of church and state. However, more than 80 percent of the population is at least sort of affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. Throughout its history, Mexico has been home to many talented artists. The Maya and other indigenous groups created impressive murals, detailed sculptures, and beautiful jewelry. Modern artists include great painters, photographers, sculptors, muralists. Street art has become a national hit nearly overnight to, due to the influx of tourists looking to decorate their social media accounts, providing an insight to the current affairs and the history behind how Mexico came to be this dynamic country than it is today. 64. History: The Olmec people were Mexico's first civilization emerging around 1200 BCE. They were later followed by the Maya, the toll tech, and the Aztec peoples. When the Europeans arrived in the early 15 hundreds, the land of Mexico was thought to have been inhabited by migrants from Asia, by crossing a former land bridge in the Bering Strait and heading through the Americas, perhaps more than even 10 thousand years ago. A spectacular Maya Ruins in the Yucatan Peninsula, mainly Chichen Itza, show the widespread urbanization dating back at least 2000 years. And by the early 16th century, most people lived in Northern and Central Mexico, ruled by the Aztec Empire. The Aztecs ruled from 13, 45 to 1521. And they are remembered for their elaborate religious lifestyle, complex social organization, elegant literature, and amazing sculptures. The way marriages were arranged was when a man, if his cloak to the corner of a woman's blouse, and then she became his wife and could not marry anyone else. The indigenous civilizations of Mexico were thought to have most likely been more medically advanced than their Spanish conquerors. However, the Aztec people were not protected from foreign illnesses and they got sick easily from the diseases that the Spanish brought with them, mainly small box. The Spanish ruled Mexico until 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. Mexican Independence Day is September 16th. And this important holiday is filled with national pride, colorful parades, mariachi band, and food, food and more good smelling food. 65. Mexico Geography And The Yucatan Peninsula: Mexico is located in one of the Earth-Sun most lively tectonic areas. It is a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a region that encircles the land surrounding the Pacific Ocean, known for its frequent seismic activity and active volcanoes. According to the National Center for disease prevention, there are 48 active volcanoes in Mexico right now. An active volcano is a volcano that has erupted in the last 10 thousand years and still has the potential to develop eruptive activity today. While the second largest volcano, poker table, located in Morelos, Puebla, has had more than 15 major eruptions since the Spanish arrived in 1519. The last serious volcanic disaster in Mexico took place in 1982 in Chiapas. After the volcano erupted and killed at least 2000 people in nine different towns and villages. She chosen was previously inactive for 550 years. Mexico is also home to the world's highest volcano, going skull bad day, which is located just 15 minutes away from Puebla. The official national language of Mexico. And the language taught in schools is Spanish, which is spoken by the vast majority of the Mexican population. However, there are more than 50 indigenous languages spoken by more than a 100 thousand people in Mexico, mainly Mayan in the Yucatan Peninsula. The Yucatan Peninsula that separates the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea, was a center of the ancient Maya civilization. The region still has a large Maya indigenous population and is known for spectacular, spectacularly old archaeological sites, such as Chichen Itza. Mayan speakers make up the majority of the population, and the Yucatan is rural areas. The Yucatan is known for its sparkling tropical rain forests and jungles, and being the home of the ancient Maya people. 66. Mexico City: Mexico City, the country is dynamic. High altitude. Capital is the political, economic, social, educational, and industrial center of Mexico. Mexico City is densely populated and America's oldest city, as it was founded in 1325, making it nearly 700 years old. Mexico City is the second most populated city in Latin America, and around seventh in the world. With more than 21.4 million people. It comes high on the list after cities like Tokyo, Delhi, Shanghai, Beijing, Mumbai, and Sao Paolo. Mexico City sits at approximately 7200 feet above sea level, about 2000 feet higher than Denver. The capital had an estimated population of around 350 thousand by the early 15 hundreds, which made its population comparable to European cities like Paris or Venice. It was also speculated that Mexico City was a five times the size of London during the reign of Henry the eighth. Mexico City is also an average of 12, 15 inches, or 2.5 to 40 centimeters per year to the precise. This is due to the fact that the city was built on top of the famous floating city of the Aztecs. Because of the alarming rate of extraction of water from the cities aquifers due to the increasing human population and consumption. The Mexico City metro, or subway system, is the second largest transit system in America and the ninth busiest in the world, only topped by the New York City subway. The Mexico City metro has 12 lines, a 195 stations, covers overall 140 miles and is used by 5.5 million people every day. There are also women only cars for safely. Mexico City is known for its deathblow ME, or an Aztec temple from the 13th century. The Baroque annotate the val metropolitan or they may go of the Spanish conquistadors. And the Palacios nasa, which holds historic murals by Diego Rivera. All of these are situated by the Plaza de la constitution, the massive main square in Mexico City. Picture ask locations are the Boesky, the chat pulled up back. The biggest city park in all of America, twice the size of Central Park in New York City. Then there is the Castillo de jumbled up bag, built in 1788. The only royal castle in all of the Americas, which now serves as the Mexican National Museum of History. 67. Axolotl: The axle lot all the axle model is a tiny, endangered aquatic creature and it is 100% Mexican. It can only be found in Lake Zoe She miracle. This fascinating critter is known worldwide for its weird looks and interesting colors of bold, white, dark gray, blue, ish, or clear, which is also the pink. Some might describe as their blood is clearly visible to the human eye through their clear skin, making them look pink in color. The axial load L has an impressive ability to re-grow lost limbs. They do this so successfully that scientists have now incorporated acts a little limb growth patterns into regeneration studies for people who have lost their own lives. In fact, excellent holes are probably one of the most scientifically studied salamanders in the world. Even more than this one. Named for an Aztec god. The axle Lato is critically endangered. According to legend, this water monster was a God who disguised himself as a salamander to avoid sacrifice. The axle model is known as the Mexican walking fish due to its close relation to the salamander. However, the axle model is not actually efficient. All but an amphibian not just chooses to stay underwater. 68. Mexican Food & Celebrations: Mexico is known for its delicious food culture, like tacos, tortillas, burritos. These are common Mexican foods. Drool worthy engraved by people around the globe. But for the vast majority of Mexicans, cuisine varies greatly by region. Corn, beans and squash are the presumed trio of staples. Rice. Another crucial ingredient is also widely consumed, usually served with beads. Mexicans also tend to make liberal use of avocados, hence, the grand popularity of guacamole. Other popular local ingredients are chili peppers, tomatoes, papayas, potatoes, lentils, contains many salt and hot peppers or hot sauce, or common condiments. And corn tortillas are often served with main dishes. Maggie, also known as gaba, is planted in many parts of Central Mexico, originally used in making pool Kaye, an inexpensive alcoholic beverage. The plant has become highly lucrative due to increasing a Gabe's sales around the world. I actually just had some this morning. To qui le, Mexico's national record is also derived from a god, a plants, including at least 51% from blue. The drink gets its name from the town of Tequila, which is the center of its production. Day of the Dead. Also known as All Saints Day, is celebrated on November 1st. During the day of the dead. People celebrate and honor their deceased loved ones and try to normalize and make peace with the idea of death. Treating it familiarly without fear and dread, led by the goddess mic tickets Seattle, known as The Lady of the dead. The celebration can last an entire month, and it is full of food, partying, and parades. In rural areas, families decorate grave sites with candles, flowers, usually marigolds, and food in an attempt to persuade their loved ones to come back for a family reunion. In the cities, people drink, eat, and party on the street. Some wear wooden skull masks known as Cadillac. As many families build altars in their home with photos, candles, flowers, and food. Breads, candies, and toys are made into shapes that symbolize death, such as skulls and skeletons. 69. Travel Tips Mexico: Here are some of my top tips when traveling in Mexico. Don't get stressed out because of safety concerns. Mexico has a bad rap from drug cartel violence to missing women on the train. Not to say these things don't exist. But mostly in places the tourists just aren't in a rush to see. Let's be clear though, traveling in most of Mexico is very safe. Remember, roughly 40 million people visit Mexico every year, and violence against tourists is rare. The main crime travelers may encounter is petty theft or pickpocketing. So be aware of your belongings at all times, especially in crowded places. And as usual, make sure to check your government websites. Border crossing. You'll get a slip of paper when you enter Mexico, don't lose it. Most visitors will fill out a little section at the end of the Immigration Forum. It is actually for when you are leaving the country after your trip, the immigration officer will tear it off and stick it in your passport for use at the end of your trip. Without this slip, you may have to pay a fine. Pay in pesos, not US dollars or your home currency. In some places in Mexico, it is sometimes possible to pay in US dollars. However, you'll get a much better exchange rate when pay in pesos. Also, when you get to Mexico, skip the exchange bureaus and take money out of an ATM. Avoid the tap water. It's generally a good idea to avoid tap water in Mexico, which also includes ice cubes in drinks and juice, and also brushing your teeth or opening your mouth in the shower. Bathrooms. When you see an M on the bathroom door that stands for Mohists or women. You're also likely to find a basket next to the toilet, which means that the location is not connected to the public sewage. So don't flush your toilet paper. As with all travel, make sure to learn a few key phrases. Speak slowly when using your native language. Smile and have fun. 70. Mexico Conclusion: Marked by massive pyramids, glorious speeches, and mouth-watering cuisine. Mexico is a country rich with history, lively festivals, and a lot of guacamole. Feel free to write in your travel journal your favorite thing about Mexican culture, what your favorite Mexican food is. Now that you have filled out your travel planner, free to share with the class. You're welcome to also post your coloring pages. Thank you for traveling with the travel triad for future research. Some of my favorite travel books are a year in Provence by Peter male under the Tuscan Sun by Francis maze, wild by cheryl strayed, CouchSurfing in Iran by Stephen North and the cat who went to Paris by Peter gathers. For future traveling adventure is search. Traveled drive in the search bar. The next course in your travel journey is the history and culture of France and an exploration of Germany a day. And I look forward to seeing you at your next Travel Tribe adventure. 71. Chichen Itza Introduction: The exceptional ruins of Chichen Itza are evidence of a magnificent ancient city, once the center of the Maya empire and Central America. Located in the Yucatan state of Mexico. Chichen Itza is a town, not just the name of one building, but the main pyramid is L Castiel. And usually the spotlight attraction for visitors. This large Mayan city, famous for a grand pyramid temple built by the Maya civilization, was developed between the sixth and 14th centuries. And 1988, Chichen Itza was deemed a unesco World Heritage site. 72. History of Chichen Itza: The Maya people had been living on the Yucatan Peninsula since around 1500 BCE. Chichen Itza was a center of pilgrimage for the ancient Maya for over 100 years due to its easy access to water. And the 10th century, the city was innervated by foreigners, probably Maya speakers from the toll Tech of central Mexico. Around the year 987. The ruler of the toll tag people arrived. His name was cuckoo. And the name of the Mesoamerican feathered serpent deity. With his Maya allies, he made teach a needs of the most powerful city in the Yucatan Peninsula. At its peak, this bustling city would have been home to around 35 thousand people. We invaders were responsible for the construction of such major buildings, such as El Castillo or the castle. A pyramid that rises above the main plaza. The Step pyramids, temples and arcades of Chichen Itza, or sacred to the Maya, and a sophisticated urban center of their empire from year 750 to 1200. Around the year 1450, the last great Maya capital of Maya been dissolved. When the Spanish arrived shortly thereafter, the Maya were living in many small towns. But documents show that major cities like Chichen Itza were already abandoned by this time. T2 need so remains and sacred to the Maya, even though the buildings were overgrown with jungle and slowly decay. The first archaeological projects began in 1920. Close to the modern city of Mary, that there are two main send out days or sinkholes on the site which helps to give it its name. Chi, or mouth and chin or wells. And that comes from the name of the Maya tribe that settled their caves and sink holes in limestone formations known as senate. This are found throughout this area of Mexico. Send out there's provided water for this religious, military, political, and commercial center. They were considered a sacred part of the Maya civilization and a major attraction for surrounding communities. 73. El Castillo & Key Locations of Chichen Itza: El Castillo is the center of Chichen Itza. And it was built over a pre-existing temple between the years of eight hundred and nine hundred. So there's a tuple underneath it. A temple step pyramid dedicated to the feathered serpent God, cuckoo icon. And because Theo is 79 feet or 24 meters tall and has nine platforms and four sides. Each side has a 91 stairs facing a cardinal directions, north, south, east, and west. These, as well as the top step, combined for a total of 365 steps. The number of days in one year. A carving of a serpent at the top of the pyramid is symbolic of one of the major deities of an ancient Mesoamerican pantheon. Maya would often build newer, bigger temple pyramids on top of older ones. So there's actually a temple inside El Castillo. And a red Jaguar thrown started with Jade was found buried underneath both pyramids. As of 2006, visitors are no longer allowed to climb in or on the structures. Although header know if I would want to anyway, they look a little rickety. Other buildings and important sites of Chichen Itza include the house of the dark writing, the red house, the church, the nunnery, and the observatory called the snail. The skull platform was a carving to represent the typical type of wooden rack documented in several Mesoamerican civilizations, which was used for the public display of humans skulls, typically those of war captives or sacrificial victims. The Cult of the central day was a legendary tradition and teaching needs that as a sacrifice to the rain god chalk, human victims were thrown into the city is Major Sonata, with gold and Jade ornaments thrown in after them. The American who bought the entire site in 1904, Edward Herbert Thompson, discovered skeletons and sacrificial objects in the bottom of the Senate day, which confirmed that grew some legend. 74. Conclusion of Chichen Itza: Although no longer a city, the ancient ruins of Chichen Itza attract visitors from around the world to see our Castillo, the popular pyramid, and the many sonatas or sinkholes that drew the Maya people to this location thousands of years ago. Would use swim and these ancient send out this. What are your thoughts on building a pyramid on top of an existing pyramid? What do you think the significance was of the serpent found in many locations throughout Chichen Itza. Free to take notes and jot down your thoughts in your travel journal. I'll see you in the next section where we will check out the vibrant history and daily life in the South American country of petals. 75. Peru Introduction: Mainly known for the Amazon rainforest and Macchu Picchu. Peru is a country in South America rich in archaeological sites, including Sacred Valley, the Inca trail, and previous capital of Cusco. 76. Fun Facts of Peru: Peru is a country located on the South American continent. The capital is ulema, and the national language is Spanish. The earliest inhabitants arrived in Peru around 15 thousand years ago. One of the most important Peruvian cultures was the Inca, who lived in Peru around 600 years ago. Their capital, Cusco, is still a major city today. Cusco is one of the most beautiful cities in the world, located in the Andes Mountains. At one time, it was the capital of the Incan empire. And it still remains a bustling city with fruit stands, cobblestone pathways and beautiful churches. Cusco is located at 11 thousand feet above sea level. Sex, a woman, a citadel built in the year 1100, is located at one of the highest points in Cusco. The 12 angled stone is another highlight of Cusco, carved with 12 angles to fit perfectly with the stones around it. The stone is currently part of a long of the palace of the Archbishop of Cusco. And not even a piece of paper can fit between the stones. Which is amazing because when they built this, they can have the machinery that we do today. Popular items from this area are paintings, jewelry, and fruit. The Inca also built Machu Picchu, a famous and mysterious ancient city in the Andes. They thrived for centuries before being conquered by the Spanish in 1532. In the next section, we will dive in more to Machu Picchu. Currently, the population has over 31 million people and the currency is the Nuevo. So they drive on the right side of the road. On peruse Pacific Coast is lema, the current capital city with a well-preserved Old Town and important collections of pre-Columbian art. Llamas and alpacas, Rome, the high mountains, as locals Don wide brimmed hats and heavy ponchos. Peru is one of the most diverse countries on the planet, with everything from rainforests and chocolate to two cans and some BJ, attracting visitors from around the world. 77. Peru Geography The Andes & The Amazon: The third largest country in South America after Brazil and Argentina. Peru is comprised of a wide variety of terrain, mountains, beaches, deserts, and forests. Most people live on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, where Lima is found. The coastal desert makes up only 1 tenth of Peru, but more than a half of all Peruvians lay off on this 1555 mile or 2500 kilometer stretch. Peru is essentially a tropical country, with its northern tip almost touching the equator. As the second highest mountain range in the world. The peaks of the Andes Mountains are so tall and foreboding that the ancient Inca people thought that they weren't gods. The Andes Mountains are over 7 thousand kilometers or 4300 miles long. And of an average height of about 13 thousand feet or 4 thousand meters. Peruse mountains are also home to many types of grasses and plants, which provide food for animals like the alpaca, llamas, snakes, reptiles, big cats, and colorful birds live in the rain forests. And fish. Penguins and see birds live in and near the ocean. The Poor Dad, I'm Monday plant grows for 100 years before blooming. That's a long time to be waiting for a flower. Even though the Andes are a stunning natural wonder. The immense difficulties of travel posed by this dazzling mountain range, including the 17 thousand foot high Rainbow Mountain, have a long impeded national unity because people just have such a hard time getting to each other. The Andes Mountains were created by the South American plate overriding the Nazca plate. The lower parts of the Andes Mountains merge with the tropical forested areas of the Amazon basin, which forms the region of Amazonian. This area occupies more than three-fifths of Peru. The Amazon. The Amazon is the world's largest rain forest and more than 60 percent of Peruvian territory. Is covered by this dense jungle. The area has 700 types of firms and more than 7300 species of flowering plants. There are around 1800 species of birds that live in the Amazon, as compared to 575 species of birds in all of North America, as well as many other plants and animals that don't live anywhere else on earth. The Amazon also has the four mile long Shen, a team ph guy. The only boiling river in the world. Births geothermal energy sheets. This water to almost boiling. It goes from roughly 80 degrees Fahrenheit or 27 degrees Celsius, to 200 degrees Fahrenheit, or 94 degrees Celsius at its hottest. Small mammals, reptiles and amphibians regularly fallen and our boiled in an instant. According to local traditions, the boiling river is a place of substantial spiritual power. The shin ATP Scott is a natural feature, non volcanic, geothermal and hot enough to cook any living creature in a matter of seconds, including humans. So watch your step. This genetic deme few Scott is a tributary of the Amazon River. Not far away are the Rivera annulus, the Amazon River people. The unity better annulus, or the indigenous tribes that live by the banks of the Amazon River. You can see by their attire that the weather and the climate of the Amazon is something that few people around the world have experienced for a long period of time. It's not only hot, muggy and rating, but there is also always something crawling on you. Mosquitoes are everywhere. The rearranges are notoriously adaptable and resilient. As they live in an area subject to remarkable environmental changes. Their lives revolved around the Amazon River. They wash their clothes in it, they bathe in it. They use water for cooking and fish in it for minutes. And since there are no roads that even INGOs use the river to get everywhere they need to go. The Amazon is so large and so dense that there will always be something to learn from this amazing part of our planet. Some scientists speculate that there may even be unknown indigenous tribes that have never seen the outside world. 78. History of Peru, The Inca Empire, Cusco & Smallpox: Peru is a very old country. The earliest residents arrived about 15000 years ago. Societies emerged on the West Coast more than 5000 years ago and began to spread inland. The peoples of Peru where mostly isolated from one another because of the Andes Mountains. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures, including the Chavan, the image J, and the Nazca. The note they Chico civilization, the oldest community in the Americas, settled here and around 3500 BCE. This was one of the six cradles of civilization, or people who chose to settle in one area and give up their hunter and gatherers nomadic ways. Along with Egypt, Mesopotamia or present-day Iraq and Iran, the Indus Valley, or present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan, and China, Mexico, and Peru. These early developments were followed by ancient cultures that developed mostly around the coastal and mountain regions throughout Peru. The main civilization being the Inca. The Inca Empire. The Inca Empire has one of the longest histories of civilization in the world. And we can trace its heritage back 6 thousand years. In the 15th century. The Inca form the largest empire in the Pre-Columbian Americas, controlling all of Northern Ecuador, Central Chile, from their capital of Cusco. Cusco, as we talked about, is still a major city today. The Inca also built much impeach you, a famous and mysterious ancient city on top of the Andes Mountains, close to their capital of Cusco. The incus arrived here for centuries. In fact, the Incan empire with larger than imperial Rome at its peak, it included nearly 25 thousand miles of roads and relied on a network of runners to spread news and keep the kingdom connected. What an after-school job, or do you think? This Spanish eventually took over in 1532. They brought their European culture, the Spanish language, many viruses and the Roman Catholic religion to this area. They also brought smallpox and the indigenous population got very sick. Many died due to the many diseases introduced by the Spanish. 79. Peruvian People & Animals: The people of Peru are a mix of many different cultures, including Indians, Spaniards, Asians, and descendants of African slaves. Until recently, most people lived in the countryside. But now more than 70 percent of people live in the cities. Most Peruvians follow the Catholic religion as introduced by the Spanish. And the main spoken language is Spanish. All know a significant number of Peruvians speak catch-up and other indigenous languages. A mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide variety of art, cuisine, literature, and music. The name Peru itself is derived from a catch-up Indian word, meaning land of abundance. A reference to the wealth produced by the rich and highly organized Inca civilization. The most common clothing in Peru is a wide brimmed hat and an alpaca wool poncho. It takes between 500 and 600 man hours and six months to spin, die. And we've a traditional Peruvian poncho. Adults generally receive one poncho throughout their life as a present when they are young, and it is expected to last a lifetime. Nearly every weaving technique known today was invented by the Peruvians and all of them before 3000 BCE. Alpacas and llamas were the main reasons why humans could live in the Andes due to their strength, their meat, and they're soft for. Perhaps the most recognized of Peruvian animals are the llama, alpaca, pack animals known for their soft, waterproof and fire resistant for, as well as their high-quality meat. Known as one of the most beautiful and resilient mammals of this area. Alpacas are indigenous to the Peruvian Andes and can live for up to around 20 years. They are similar to often confused with the llama. However, alpacas are notably smaller than llamas and somewhat more mild mannered, although don't be fooled, they are known to spit when they are annoyed. Alpacas also do not live in the wild. They are only owned by farmers who breed them for their soft fur and later their meat. They are often tied to a long rope in front yards, allowing them to graze naturally, but making sure that they don't wander off. Llamas and alpacas were the Incas most important domestic animal, providing food, clothing, and acting as beasts of burden. They were also often sacrificed in large numbers to the gods. There is one of the major attractions for tourists coming to Peru. Other mammals you might spot as you walk through the highlands are the andean fox, also known as the cold pale, as well as the spectacle bear. The tiny pygmy marmoset sets are known as pocket monkeys, little lions, dwarf monkeys. 80. Peru's Capital Lima: There was a mass migration to the cities during the 20th century, especially after the end of World War II. With a population of about 9 million people. Lima is the fifth largest city in South America, located in the desert between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes Mountains. The city has a gorgeous view of the Pacific and is known as the gray city due to all of the fog that rolls in off and water. A third of peruse population lives in this vibrant capital city. Lima was called the Sea you that the law cereus, or the city of kings. And was founded by a Spaniard conquistador named Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535. Or needs colonial architecture contrasts with modern high-rise buildings in Lima. Lima is most important architectural jewel. The church and Convent of San Francisco, built in 1674, is a part of the historic center of ulema, a unesco World Heritage site. Aside from the church and monastery, it also contains an ancient library and catacombs. Another important institution and peruse capital is sudden Marcos University, which was founded in Lima in 1550 one. And it is believed to be the oldest university in the Americas. 81. Fruit & Peruvian Food: Peru has hundreds of different types of fruit, including avocados, mangoes, guava does, and lives. Fruit is part of the street food culture. And you can often by something delicious and fresh on the street for just a peso or to some other delicious and colorful fruits in Peru are the sour sop, the Krakow mitochondria, or passion fruit, and the dragon fruit. Sour sop, a popular ingredient in tropical drinks and smoothies. They go on to have Anna or sour cell has been used as an alternative treatment for cancer and other health ailments. Its flavor is complex, sort of a mix of pineapple, strawberry, and citrus. Also known as the sweet passion fruit. This tasty AND, and fruit is similar to the more famous cousin, the mitochondria, or the regular passion fruit. But the outside is large and orange with a sweeter and less acidic flavor. It also kind of looks like an alien. Krakow is best known for its bidder, dark beads wrapped in Delicious pulp, but tastes sort of similar to an apple with a pineapple texture. It sees the cocoa beans are used to make cocoa solids, cocoa butter, and chocolate. The seeds are protected in a massive pod and the fleshy white pulp has a pleasant, sweet and kind of sour flavor. Passion fruit. Or the mitochondria is an edible, egg shaped and the fleshy fruit. The skin is a yellowish of violet or orange. The passion fruit got its name because it is one of the many species of the passion flower. The many, many black seeds are covered by an orange jelly, which is juicy and bitter, sweet, and sort of tastes like pineapple. Locals recommend that you do not chew the seeds but just swallow them. Otherwise, you might be too busy chewing to enjoy the flavor. Commonly known as dragon fruit in English. This alien looking fruit is sweet and produced by a type of night blooming cactus. It comes in several different colors and has a texture which is often compared to the kiwi fruit. Due to his ample number of seeds. Tour guides recommend that visitors only eat 1 third of a dragon fruit per week, as they are also used in aiding constipation. Peru is a colorful land of textiles, ancient ruins, and fluffy alpacas is also home to an interesting national dish. Roasted guinea pig or Cooley. It is served hole with head and feet intact. Traditional Peruvian cuisine as a lot of regional variation. In the mountains, most meals consist of potatoes and other mountain tubers, such as OCHA and grains like keyword and protein, like ulama, Guinea pig, chicken, and fish. In coastal areas, traditional cooking is called Cookie yo-yo style, with heaps of rice, UCA, tomatoes, onions, spicy peppers, and fresh seafood. A typical Peruvian dinner might include meat, rice and a potato, vegetable and keyless soup. So VJ, raw fish marinated and lemon or a lime juice is popular throughout Peru. Heroes are a favorite Peruvian snack, often sold on busy streets. The most popular food and Peru, though, without a doubt, is the potato. The potato has been growing in the high Andes mountains of Peru for over 10 thousand years, where there are now between 3000. And for the housing variety is of native potatoes grown. These potatoes are brilliant and color and range from dark purple, bright yellow. They come in all shapes and sizes, each with a rich and distinct flavor. Peruvians like to say. So, mass poodle Ohno gala, which means I am more Peruvian. Then the potato. It is believed that the Inca indians first grew potatoes in Peru. They were the main food source during the Inca Empire, providing them with their chief source of energy. The Incas loved potatoes so much that they even buried their dead with them. They use potatoes for medicinal purposes as well, such as placing a raw potato slice on broken bones to promote healing. They carried them around in purses and in pockets to prevent rheumatism or in their mouth to help a toothpick or on their skin when treating frostbite or a sunburn. Each year, on May 30th, perused celebrates VNS you and they laptop or national potato day. It is a day to celebrate the potatoes of different colors, different shapes, tastes, and textures. Throughout the country, you will find many fares and festivals celebrating the potato by offering a variety of food and drink. 82. Travel Tips Peru: Peru is a fascinating and breathtaking place, but it's always good to keep a few things in mind. The altitude. Peru is high. Cusco city is at 11,154 feet or 3400 meters above sea level. Give yourself at least 12 hours for acclimation before heading out for any strenuous exploring. Coca leaves. Peruvians have used coca leaves to counteract altitude sickness for centuries, perhaps millennia. Locals chew the leaves or make a tea from it do to the ample amount of caffeine inside. Don't try it too close to bedtime. And be careful not to bring coca leaf tea bags or just the leaves themselves back to places such as the US. Because coca leaves grow on the same plant that cocaine is made from, it's illegal in many countries. The T and leaves themselves though, are harmless and can be consumed by both adults and children. Go to the doctor. Speaking of the altitude, think about heading to the doctor before your trip and inquiring about altitude medication, especially for places like Cusco and Macchu, Picchu. Another consideration is antimalarial medication and yellow fever or typhoid shots. If you plan to visit the Amazon regions, just like heading to other exotic places, consult your government websites for any up-to-date information and vaccine requirements. Macchu Picchu is awesome, but the weather is extremely unpredictable. As you'll have thunderstorms and bright sunshine all in one afternoon. Pro tip. Umbrellas aren't allowed inside or on top of the mountain in order to protect the ruins. So be sure to bring a plastic partner with you to protect yourself from the rain. Don't drink the water. Don't drink anything with ice. Brush your teeth with bottled water, and don't open your mouth in the shower. The water is not potable from the tap. According to Peruvian law, you have to always carry your passport in case of random document checks in towns, hotels, or at the train station, it is also advisable to make photocopies of your passport and store them in different bags. Went out and about. You won't see a multitude of ATMs. Peru is known around the world for its detail handmade goods like woven alpaca sweaters, blankets, and socks. But make sure you have enough cash on hand. Most people in Peru speak Spanish and English is not widely understood. So make sure to brush up on your travelers Spanish, speak slowly and clearly. The patient smile and have fun. 83. Peru Conclusion: An incredible amount of nature, food and color. Peru is one of the most interesting and diverse countries in the world. Join locals tasting fermented fruity drinks, children in pending flu fee, but kind of feisty alpacas and tourists climbing to the very top of Machu Picchu and Sacred Valley, Peru as something for everyone. What would you like to do? And what would you like to eat in Peru? How do you feel about maybe trying the Peruvian national dish? Would you try again pig. If you are a potato van, What's your favorite kind? What would be your favorite way to eat these Peruvian staples? Feel free to jot down in your travel journal, your thoughts. I'll see you in the next section where we will check out all that there is to see and do at our fifth wonder of the modern world. Modulo p 2. 84. Machu Picchu Introduction: High in the Andes mountains above the oral Bomba River Valley. Since an ancient and abandon and can sit it out named Macchu Picchu, our fifth wonder of the world. On the top of a mountain at nearly 8 thousand feet. This city in the clouds is the most popular tourist destination on the entire continent of South America. 85. Machu Picchu History & Fun Facts: Built in the 15th century. Macchu Picchu is renowned for its sophisticated dry stone walls and fuse huge blocks without the use of mortar. Macchu, Picchu is exact former US remains a mystery. But this mountain top city was built by Incan Emperor pod shock who tech Machu Picchu was used housing for the Inca and leet after the Spanish conquest of 1532. Once abandoned by the Inca, the city remained unknown until it was rediscovered by an explorer. In 1911. Macchu Picchu was designated a unesco World Heritage site in 1983. And it attracts over 0.5 million visitors per year, more than 2500 every day. The city in the clouds is accessible by train and then bus, then by sturdy walking shoes. The view is from our fifth of our seven wonders of the world are vast and impressive. But some younger people simply want to see the llamas and alpacas that live there. Generally. Historians agree that Macchu Picchu was used as housing for the Inca nobility after the Spanish invaded in 1532. It was away from the main roads, had extensive fertile lands for growing crops. And it was strategically on top of a mountain, making sure that residents could spot invaders from miles away. Still. We don't know for certain why Macchu Picchu was built, nor why it wasn't destroyed by the Spanish. 86. Construction Machu Picchu: A dramatic scene at the meeting point between the Andes Mountains and the Amazon River basin. The historic sanctuary of Macchu Picchu is among the greatest artistic, architectural, and land use achievements anywhere in the world. And with its tall walls and expansive terraces and organized rows for crops, it makes for an incredible sight. The city is surrounded on three sides by cliffs that dramatically dropped around 1400 feet into the Obama river. There are nearly a 140 buildings, including baths, houses, temples, sanctuaries, and at least a 100 different flights of stone steps. Most of the buildings of Machu Picchu are built with stone that tightly fit together without the use of mortar. This construction style helps the buildings to stay standing during earthquakes or large storms popular during the rainy seasons of Peru. The Inca didn't use wheels or animals to help with transport. So most of the hard work was done by hand. In other words, by people. It would have taken a hundreds of laborers using ropes and levelers to move these large stones. Once finished, it is estimated that around a thousand people lived there. Likely the Inca nobility, priests and their sermons. Macchu Picchu literally translates to old peak or old mountain in catch-up, the Incan language. 87. Machu Picchu Conclusion: Nearly 8000 feet above sea level in the Andes Mountains. Macchu Picchu is the most visited tourist destination in Peru and in all of South America. A symbol of the Incan empire. This ancient city was one of his best kept secrets. It's no surprise them considering that it's literally on top of a mountain. Why do you think Macchu, Picchu? What do you think it wasn't destroyed by the Spanish? Feel free to write down your thoughts in your travel journal. I'll see you in the next section where we will head east to explore the culture, food, and holidays of it. 88. India Introduction: India. Officially, the Republic of India, is a country located in South Asia with an estimated population of 1 36 billion people, the second most populous country in the world. India is also the seventh largest country with the number one largest democracy on the planets. 89. India Fun facts: India is home to one of the oldest civilizations in the world. India is in South Asia. The name India is derived from the river Indus, which also flows through India. The area known as India now was inhabited approximately 250 thousand years ago. The population is around 1, 36 billion people, as compared to someplace like the US, where the population is 330 million people. 44% of people in India speak Hindi, with English, and 22 other official languages spoken by people around the country. The capital of India is New Delhi, but the largest city is mumbai, also known as Bombay. The currency in India is the rupee, and they drive on the left side of the road. Every Indian currency note as two languages on the front, Hindi and English, and other languages on the backside. Indian clothes are colorful and attractive and all types of Indian foods are full of flavor and Spice. A person who was from India is India. One of the most important Hindu festivals in India is Dave Wiley, also known as the festival of lights. A common greeting in India is saying, now my stay, which means I bow my head to a popular instrument. Mbi is the sitar, which is like a guitar, but with a much longer neck. The Taj Mahal is India's most famous monument. 90. Geography & History of India: India is extremely diverse with snow-capped mountains to deserts, plains and health. The Himalayas in the northern part of India, are some of the highest mountains in the world, and about 1550 miles or 2500 kilometers long. The name Himalayas comes from the Sanskrit word Hema. Snow. The Himalayas have many soaring mountain peaks. The highest being Kunshan Jenga, at just over 28 thousand feet or 8500 meters, which is the third tallest peak in the world. The Ganges River, considered sacred by India's Hindu population is 1560 miles or 2510 kilometers long. People use this river from many daily needs as well, including transportation, bathing, and washing their clothes. This massive river is characterized by yearly flooding due to intense monsoon rainfall. India has one of the world's most pronounced monsoon climates. Among soon as a seasonal wind that brings extremely heavy rain to the affected area. The wet and dry seasons and large temperature fluctuations of the Indian monsoon system produce three types of climates. Cool and dry in winter, hot and dry and humid in the summer. Hot and wet in the fall, which is also monsoon season. Around 75 percent of the country's total rainfall each year happens during these fall months and it often leads to catastrophic flooding. Hand axes, the earliest items found in India have been dated back to around 500 thousand years ago. Modern humans from Africa arrived in India at least 55. And years ago. These people were hunters and gatherers for thousands of years. So the region became highly diverse as they moved around the country. India's earliest known civilization arose in what is now Pakistan, about 5000 years ago on the Indus River. The remains of two huge cities were discovered called Harappa at a 100 Dato with Greek houses, water systems and sewer pipes. By 1200 BCE. The ancient form of Sanskrit, a classical language of South Asia, was being used in India. Nobody knows why. But these cities were abandoned in 1700 BCE. A number of similarities exist between these cities on the Indus River and the rise of civilization and Mesopotamia, the world's earliest civilization in Iraq and Iran. Killer, but a very spiritual country. It has no official religion. But more than 80 percent of Indians are Hindu, about 13 percent are Muslim. Other religions include Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, which all began in India. Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma or way of life, and the world's third largest religion. Hindus make up nearly four-fifths the Indian population. And Islam is still the largest minority faith. During the Gupta Empire in the year 400, arts and sciences flourished. During this time, the Indian astronomer idea, but that determined the Earth, orbited the sun. The Western world, however, took much longer to accept this theory audio. But there was also a mathematician who gave the value of pi 3.14. And India's first satellite was named after him. Beginning in the 16th century, a Mongol leader named Bob Ward founded the Mongol Empire, which began the golden age of art, literature, architecture, roads, mosques, gardens, and enormous tunes such as the astonishing Taj Mahal. Britain took control of the country in 1757, which lead to uprisings and revolts. In 1920, political ethicist and lawyer Mahatma Gandhi began protests to encourage the British to leave. When British rule came to an end of 1947, the area was sanctioned along religious lines into India with the majority of Hindus and Pakistan with a majority Muslim population. Well, I'm a Gandhi was later assassinated in 1948. He left behind for children at an example for the world as to how to protest peacefully. India has been a secular federal republic since 1950, governed in a democratic parliamentary system. 91. India Caste System, Marriage & Clothing: The caste system is also a major part of India society. India is home to at least 3000 casts and 25000 sub casts. A cast or Jetty, which means birth, refers to a strictly regulated social community into which one is born and has dominated social organization for thousands of years. By 400 BCE, the caste system had emerged within the predominant religion of Hinduism. Cast is determined by birth, and therefore, there's virtually no way to change it. High castes are priests, soldiers, and land owners. People who have no caste do the most unskilled and undesirable jobs. These people are called the untouchables. Everyone else is somewhere in the middle. People are expected to interact with other castes in accordance with the group's position in the social hierarchy. A person is also expected to marry someone within their caste. Marriage is nearly universal. Divorce is extremely rare, and virtually every marriage produces children. The vast majority of marriages are arranged by family and a bride moves to her husband's house. Love or non arranged marriages are increasingly common in the bigger cities. Temporary tattoos made of dye from the henna plant are also popular for women and children during wedding celebrations. There is a clear order of social hierarchy and influence based on gender, age, and how many male children a woman has. Men of any age enjoy higher status than women? Boys are often pampered and girls are sometimes neglected or not given the same opportunities. Traditionally, women were expected to treat their husbands like gods even after death. In some casts, widows are not allowed to remarry even if they are very young. No matter the cast, fashion and India has always been colorful, flowing, right? While one might see some Western styles and the bigger cities, the most widely worn traditional dress for women in India is the sorry. A single long piece of cloth, traditionally 18 feet or six yards long. Uh, sorry, might be tied around the waist, nodded at one end, wrapping the lower body and then lifted over her shoulder. The way is sorry, is wrapped varies greatly by region. From a similar but shorter length of cloth. The dot b is a lower body garment. It is also wrapped and tied around the waist, but Styles again vary in accordance to region. In the South. Though these are wrapped around the lower half of the body with the upper part tucked in similar to a skirt in Western societies. In the North, the dose is wrapped once around each leg and then brought up through the legs to be tucked in the back of the waist band, which is what you might see Mahatma Gandhi wearing. 92. Indian Holidays & Food: There are many holidays celebrated in India, but most of which are accompanied by festivals, music and food. First start punching mommy is the festival dedicated to the goddess satisfied the, the goddess of knowledge, language, music, and art, ascent. But Xiaomi also highlights the coming of spring. 40 days after Xiaomi, the Festival of spring, colors and love called Holly signifies the triumph of good over evil. Traditional hierarchies are forgotten and families celebrate by throwing colorful powder and water at each other. The Wiley, another widely celebrated holiday symbolizes the victory of light over darkness. Families like lanterns, exchange, and sometimes like fireworks. India also has three national holidays. Republic Day, January 26, which honors the Constitution of India coming into effect in 1950. Independence day on August 15th commemorates the nation's independence from the United Kingdom in 1947. Last but not least, Gandhi's birthday on October second. Gandhi is considered India's father of the nation, leading India into independence from the British rule. He inspired the world with his peaceful protests. At a time when violence was rampant. National events are celebrated with great enthusiasm and always accompanied food. Although there is much regional variation in Indian cuisine, the everyday diet of most Indians is quite repetitive. Although they are full of spices and aromatic delights. Nearly all meals and India are mostly made up of regional staples. Fluffy rice in the East and the South are flat breads in the north and northwest. Soups and caries are popular throughout all of India. A puree of lentils called doll. Vegetables, yogurt, chilies, and other spices are also widely consumed. Meets is quite uncommon, except on festival occasions, but beef is never consumed. As cows are considered sacred. Coffee is more common in the South and t, called shy is generally the preferred beverage of people in the North. Delhi is classic dishes include butter, chicken, bow, Pioneer, I would chat, glove, Jomon, and lastly, or fruit and yogurt smoothies. 93. New Delhi & Other Sites: Less than 1 third of India's population lives in towns and cities. But India has three major cosmopolitan areas. Mumbai, which used to be known as bombay, Calcutta, Delhi. It is believed that Raja or king do founded ancient Delhi 2800 years ago. Called cut down was the capital of India until 1911. And after India gained independence in 1947, The capital was then moved to New Delhi. New Delhi has a current population of more than 30 million people and many traditional neighborhoods, as well as a bustling modern city center with skyscrapers and a rapid transit system. New Delhi seems to always be in the middle of a traffic jam with endless took, took motor bikes and cars. India's capital city has illiteracy rate of 89.38. And it's particularly renowned for its beautifully landscaped garden, but burst with color in the spring. The largest of these include Buddha Jayanti part, and the historic loaded gardens. Three World Heritage sites are also located in Delhi. The Red Fort, built in 10 52, is the place from which the Prime Minister of India addresses the country on Independence Day. Could tag me not. A soaring 73 meter or 240 foot high tower of victory was built in 1190 3. And who Mayans tomb predating the Taj Mahal by 60 years. Who my ends tomb echoed the sentiment behind the Taj Mahal is creation, where a grieving husband built a mausoleum and memory of his beloved wife, whom I ends tomb was the result of a wife's love for her deceased husband. And it was one of the main influences for the architecture of the Taj Mahal 60 years later. The India gate was inspired by Paris's Arc de Triomphe and built in 1931. It is the national monument of India and commemorates that 90 thousand soldiers who lost their lives while fighting for the British in World War II. The National Museum, another inspiring destination, has over 200000 works of art that span at least 5000 years. Delhi is where the traditional cuisine associated with India originates. Dishes such as Khabbab, did jadi, and time Doherty are popular worldwide and they all originate in Delhi. Housing prices in the largest cities like New Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai are among the highest in the world. Homelessness is unfortunately quite common, particularly in New Delhi, where many families reside and make shifts slums, or have no home at all. India has one of the largest economies in the world. But because of its enormous population, it is one of the poorest nations on earth. As existing housing simply does not meet India's fast growing communities. India is also the worst country in the world for air pollution, with nearly 17 percent of all deaths in India. Due to the countries massive amount of smog that looms over the cities and the countryside. India is also known for its many touristy sites, including monuments, tombs, and sacred structures, mainly the Taj Mahal. There are also many temples carved from rock, mainly Ajanta and a lot of being the most noteworthy. The temple is the largest of the rock cut Hindu temples at the alotta caves. The Sun Temple at gonadal is from the 13th century and dedicated to the Hindu Sun god Surya. The vast temple complexes at a boob on SY, conduit, owl and Kaci are breathtaking and Mogul masterpieces such as whom ions two and the Taj Mahal draw visitors from across the globe. 20th century buildings such as the High Court in Shonda guy and the Bhopal State Assembly Building in Bhopal are large structures. Also notable our step wells or man-made ponds that have this descending set of stairs to reach the water, such as chon Bowery step well, one of the deepest and largest step wells in the country. And bronze or queens step well, one of the most detailed stop wells in the world. Now a unesco heritage site. 94. Mumbai: Formerly called Bombay. Mumbai is a densely populated city on India's west coast. It is India's largest city and extremely wealthy. In fact, it has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires of all Indian cities. The gateway of India stone arch, built by the British Raj in 1924, stands on the Mumbai Harbor waterfront. The nearby LF Fanta host ancient cave temples dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva. The city is also famous for being the heart of the Hollywood film industry, is home to unesco World Heritage sites, such as the city's distinctive Victorian and Art Deco buildings. The global Vipassana pagoda is I don't meditation hall able to see around 8 thousand people built in the year 2 thousand. 95. Kolkata: Kolkata, previously known as Calcutta, was India's capital under the British Raj from 1773 until 1911. Kolkata is known as the cultural capital of India due to its historical and architectural significance. Today, it's famous for its grand colonial architecture, art galleries, and cultural festivals. Kolkata is also home to the mother house, headquarters of the missionaries of charity, founded by Mother Teresa, who's tomb is on-site. Kolkata is unique because it is the only city on the Indian subcontinent that has an underground railway. There is only one line, but about 10 miles long with 16 stations. Known as the City of Joy. Kolkata is one of the best places to settle down in India, especially for young families. The Victoria Memorial is a large marble mausoleum built between 1906, 1921, dedicated to the memory of Queen Victoria. At that time, the Empress of India. Cali temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the goddess Kali. It was built by dash Ramani, who constructed the temple in 1855. After being inspired by a dream. The Kolkata new market was built in 1874 and now has over 2 thousand shops. 96. Jaipur: Jay pore is now called the old city or the pink city, trademarked for the pink color of many of its buildings. J4 has numerous attractions, such as the City palace complex, built-in 727. And AVA Mahal, a palace made out of red and pink sandstone with gardens, courtyards, and museums. Part of J4 is even still a royal residence. 11 kilometers away is the fort or the amber Palace, which was built in 1592. 97. Language & Bollywood: The official languages in India are Hindi and English. These are the language is designated for government use. There are also 22 so-called scheduled languages recognized in the Indian constitution. 15 are Indo-European. For our Dravidian too, button. And one is Austro Asiatic. Hindi is spoken in the majority of the North. Nearly 44% of India speaks Hindi, but English is the most widely used and common language. The great size of India's population makes it one of the largest English speaking communities in the world. Even though English is spoken fluently by less than 5% of the population. English is also the principal language of trade and the language of instruction in nearly all universities and private schools. And however, is still the language spoken fluently by the highest percentage of people living in India. Bali would the massive motion picture industry in India centered in Mumbai, which used to be known as Bombay, is the most popular form of entertainment. And nearly all Bollywood films are in Hindi. Named after its US counterpart, Hollywood. This colossal film industry makes more feature length films than any other country in the world. Most movies are somewhat repetitive parodies of drama, comedy, music, and dance. And they can be upwards of three or four hours long. Dance has traditionally been an important part of culture and India. According to legend, the gods invented dance. And dancing is one of the most revered Hindu forms of expression because it incorporates a melody, drama, and form. Gestures, body positions and head movements are all emphasized in Indian dance. Welcome to Module 14, so to speak. 98. Indian Animals: India has nearly 90 thousand types of animals, 1200 birds, and 50 thousand plants species. For thousands of years since the Hindu religion first evolved. Respect for animal life has been an important part of Indians beliefs. Cows, especially our sacred and cannot be harmed or eaten. Cows are even allowed to wander through the city streets, which often contributes to the near constant traffic jams. Indian elephants, the massive one horned Indian rhinoceroses, and many primates are also popular in India, as well as the crocodiles that inhabit the country's rivers, swamps, and lakes. Coming second to New Zealand. India has the highest population of sheep in the world. At 75 million sheep. The national flower is the lotus flower. The national animal is the tiger. And the peacock is the national bird. The WHO lock, given the only ape found in India, is confined to the rainforests. And the lion tailed macaque monkeys with her around their faces are unfortunately becoming rare due to poaching. India is the only country in the world that has native lions and tigers. The Asiatic lion is the only lion found outside of Africa. It is highly endangered, so it is now confined to the year National Park. The Bengal tiger is the National Animal of India, and it is known for its beautiful colors, quick movements, and formidable strength. Once on the verge of extinction, Bengal tigers or Indian tigers, have increased to several thousand thanks to Project tiger, which has established protected and guarded reserves in various parts of the country. The Movement for the protection of forests and wildlife is highly active in India. A number of species including the elephant, the rhinoceros, and the tiger, have all been declared endangered, and many others are considered vulnerable. Legislative measures have declared certain animals protected and almost no forested areas are left in private hands. That could possibly offer hunters the opportunity to shoot endangered animals. 99. Travel Tips India: Here are some of my top tips when traveling in India. Only eat freshly cooked food. Don't eat salads, juices, or anything wrong. Uncooked food will inevitably be washed and contaminated with water that you don't want to ingest. Whereas cooking kills most of the germs. Possibly consider becoming a vegetarian. While in India, the meat being sold is often hanging in the warm sun with flies buzzing all around it. Locals are mostly vegetarians. So this is another way to fit in. Avoid ice in your drinks as ice is most likely made from a poor quality water source. On that note, only drink bottled water as tap water is contaminated in India. Aquafina is a good brand. But do your research about safe brands as sometimes used models can be refilled and resealed. So it's best to be cautious. Don't brush your teeth with tap water and shower with care. Don't open your mouth or your eyes in the shower. Speaking of the restaurant, prepare yourself. Squat. Toilets are common in public restaurants and low-cost hotels. Be careful when exchanging money. Atms are the safest way to get cash. When paying, always count your change carefully though. Feel free to use a converter on your phone just to make sure that there are no miscalculations or where to put your money. I'd recommend concealing your cash, your wallet, and your passport under your clothing, either in a neck wallets or a passport pouch, anything but a backpack or in your pockets. Make sure there aren't too many zippers though and whatever you put it in so that you don't need to pull it entirely out of wherever you've hidden it or untick everything you're wearing to access it. Going off that though, you will need to carry cash. Credit cards are only accepted at larger businesses or hotels, usually with exorbitant fees, no less. But for taxis, rickshaws, cheaper hotels, souvenir places, entrance fees and food, you will need cash. People might try to offer you gifts or let you hold whatever they're selling. Keep in mind though, many shop owners are of the mindset that you looked, you bought it. Also be aware that yes. Can also mean, I don't understand. It's one of the most well-known words in the English language. And it's easy to say yes. When you're trying to translate in your head, if you're in a taxi or scheduling a tour, I'd recommend not taking a simple yes for an answer. Also, memorize a few key phrases. Learn a few words of the local language. It makes you a little more well-received and helps you when you're in a pinch. As with all travel though, have plenty of patients and try to find funny communication amusing rather than annoying or angering. You'll have a much more enjoyable trip if you see humor and the things that go wrong. Also keep in mind, if you're not speaking their native language, speak slower but not louder. The locals are doing their best with your language, which is probably bear third or fourth language. A smile is universal though. So be kind, speak slowly, and have fun. 100. India Conclusion: A bustling country full of hardworking people, pile them vegetables and wandering cows. India is home to nearly 18 percent of the world's population. Mouth-watering food can be smelled from miles away. And giant Hindu temples provide space for worship. And plants and animals are highly protected. India is a wonderful example of an ancient country trying to move forward in society with a massive population. What are your thoughts on Indian culture? What would you like to see an EGF? Feel free to take notes in your travel journal about your favorite spots. I'll see you in the next section where we will explore our sixth wonder of the world. India's infamous Taj Mahal. 101. Taj Mahal: The Taj Mahal. The Taj Mahal is an ivory white marble mausoleum in the Indian city of Agra. Our sixth wonder of the world was commissioned in 1632 by the Mogul Emperor shah Jahan, in order to house the tomb of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. After ruling India for 30 years. This is where the emperor himself as buried as well. This massive complex includes the mausoleum, a mosque, a guesthouse, and expensive Walden garden. The Taj Mahal is managed by the government of India and it has nearly 7 million visitors every year. Construction of the Taj Mahal began in 1643 and took around ten years to complete. The entire complex is believed to have cost an estimated 32 million rupees, which in 2020 would be the equivalent of 916 million US dollars. The project took roughly 20 thousand artisans that don't marble mausoleum, known as the onion dome for its unique shape, is 115 feet tall. The Taj Mahal was commissioned in the memory at John's wife, Mumtaz Mahal. She had died earlier that year while giving birth to their forte child. The Taj Mahal was attributed to the emperor's love for his late wife and a way to soothe his grief over her death. The Emperor died 23 years after this marble mycelium was completed. And the tombs of the emperor and his wife rest side-by-side. The Taj Mahal is symmetrical in all ways, except for the two tubes which are different sizes. The emperor's being larger than his wives. The Taj Mahal is an ivory white marble mausoleum. And India famous for its amazing architecture, monumental size and dazzling beauty. This mobile architecture and indo Islamic style took about a thousand elephants to transport all the materials needed in order to build the monumental Taj Mahal. Indian architect who start at my law, which was the main architect of the grand structure. One of the Taj Mahal most recognizable features is the large white dome, called an onion dome. Due to its shape. The Taj Mahal is considered to be the greatest architectural achievement in the whole range of indo Islamic style. The arches and domes add to the mausoleums natural appeal as the sunlight reflects off the marble. The beautiful marble and precious stones make the buildings simply dazzling. There are more than 30 different types of gemstones decorating the Taj Mahal. Many types of marble were used in this construction, including materials from Afghanistan, sri Lanka, Saudi Arabia, and China. The marble walls change colors throughout the day depending on how the light hits it. In the morning. It appears pink. This shrine to eternal love looks bright, white during the day. And it seems gold at night, which is quite fitting considering that the name Taj Mahal literally means crown of palaces. One of the greatest architectural achievements of all time. The Taj Mahal with its white marble and glittering gemstones, attracts visitors year around. Feel free to write down in your journal the aspects of the Taj Mahal that you enjoyed or how you might like to spend an afternoon and wandering the grounds. 102. Brazil Introduction: The largest country in South America. Brazil occupies 47% of the entire continent. Brazil is both a tropical paradise and a lively, festive destination full of idyllic beaches and jungle explorations. World-class museums and festive ribbons of Rio de Janeiro is Connie VAB. With over 210 million people. Brazil is the fifth largest country and the world's largest producer of coffee, or at least the past 150 years. 103. Geography of Brazil: Brazil is the largest country in South America. It's capital is Brasilia. It is called Brazil in Portuguese, the official language spoken in Brazil. The Brazilian flag is gold and green with a starry sky holding a banner with the country's motto, or them, a progress, so order and progress. Brazil, officially, the Federal Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. Nearly all of Brazil lies in the Southern Hemisphere. Mainly a tropical destination. Brazil has enormous stretches of rainforest, hosting exotic plants and animals. Brazil's environments and climates range from human jungle to dry deserts and cool forests to tropical savannas. They use the Brazilian and they drive on the right side of the road. The northern part of Brazil is mainly dominated by the Amazon River basin. The Amazon rainforest is the largest rainforest on earth, and about 60 percent of the entire world's rainforests are located in Brazil, with cities dotted in between. For example, the area Rio de Janeiro used to be 90 percent forest in Brazil is the only country with both the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn. And Brazil shares the gouache Sioux Falls, the largest waterfall in the world, with Argentina, the gouache. So river drops spectacularly in the semicircle of 247 waterfalls that tumble down into the gorge below. Some of the falls are more than 100 meters high, and they cover such a broad area. But you'll never see them all at once. But you do get a broad panorama from the Brazilian side, as opposed to the view from Argentina. Brazil's 4600 mile or 70, 400 kilometer Atlantic coastline has beautiful gold sandy beaches. And its interior is filled with an abundance of fruits, vegetables, and minerals. Brazil was ruled by Portugal until 1822, and gold from Brazil's gold mines still line the churches of Portugal's current capital, Lisbon. Portuguese influence can also be found across the Atlantic in Brazil's colonial architecture. The decorative tiles and it's churches and convents. And in the official language of Portuguese. 104. Brazil Cities: 87% of Brazilian locals live in cities, mainly along the Atlantic coast. The biggest cities in Brazil are Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Brasilia. The current capital is Brasilia, but Rio de Janeiro was Brazil's capital until 1961. These Brazilian cities are all known for the festive favelas, a type of government housing that are somewhat dangerous, but a major attraction to tourists. Nonetheless, as they are quite photogenic. As the country's cultural capital, Rio de Janeiro, has many noteworthy artistic, literary, and scientific institutions. The Brazilian Academy of letters, Academy of Sciences, and Museum of tomorrow are just some examples. European presence in over Eurasia and 80 dates back to the 15 hundreds. And in 1763, Rio de Janeiro became the capital of Brazil. Tropical forests used to cover more than 90 percent of this area. But large portions were developed in order to produce coffee and sugar cane. Rio de Janeiro is tropical coastline and river banks are the only remaining habitat of the golden lion tamarin. And the most famous landmark of the entire country is located in a real Christ, the Redeemer. The 98 foot statue stands tall on Sugarloaf Mountain overlooking the city. Sao Paulo is not only the largest city in Brazil, but in the entire southern hemisphere. Because Sao Paulo is on a plateau, roughly 2500 feet or 760 meters above sea level. The city is not quite as warm as those near the coast. With a nearly 22 million people. It is also the most populous city in Brazil and home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in the country, including Madame dado Valley, Italia by NASPAA, and the North Tower. Sao Paulo is known for its unpredictable weather. Massive helicopter fleet of around 500 registered helicopters, rides per day. Its architecture, its colorful cuisine, and near constant traffic jams. The city was founded in 1554. Monument to independence was built in Independence Park as a celebratory statue to commemorate when Brazil was proclaimed an independent nation in 1822. Sao Paulo is home to numerous other monuments, parks and museums, such as the Latin American memorial. Ev it up when I park the Museum of EBIT on gap, South bow, those Museum of Art and the Museum of the Portuguese language. Sao Paulo holds events such as the Sao Paulo Jazz Festival, the Brazilian Grand Prix, Sao Paulo Fashion Week, the Brazilian game show and Comic-Con, and the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade that matches New York City's Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. Sao Paulo is a modern melting pot home to a large era, Italian, Japanese, Jewish, and Portuguese population with folks from nearly 200 countries populating neighborhoods with a myriad of peoples and colorful cultural communities. Brasilia is the capital of Brazil, designed by Oscar Niemeyer in 1960 and planned in the shape of an airplane. Brasilia was proclaimed a unesco World Heritage Site in 1987 due to its modern architecture and artistic urban planning. This unique design device the city into multiple districts, including the industry district, the accommodation and tourism district. And even though this makes Brasilia one of the least pedestrian friendly cities, it is very unique nonetheless. The city was named the city of design by unesco in 2017. And it was even built around an artificial link to boot, Lake, Potter law. Brasilia, the seat of all three branches of the Brazilian government, has around 4.6 million people. And it is known for its sixteenth-century cathedral, parte Duran metro Pollyanna, with its mixture of three architectural styles, renaissance, baroque, and neoclassical. 105. Brazil People & Animals: Brazil is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language, and the only Portuguese speaking country in the Americas. It covers three times zones. Brazil is one of the most distinctive nations due to its mass immigration from around the world. Brazil has the largest Japanese community outside of Japan, and the second largest black population after Nigeria. There are 67 tribes in Brazil, but have little or no contact with the modern world. They are medically advanced and use health-related plant elixirs as a medicine. But often live deep in the jungle, fiercely defending their territory and they have scarce contact with the rest of the world. As the only Portuguese speakers on a Spanish continent. And really far away from the English-speaking world. Very few Brazilians speak English, especially outside of the touristy areas like Rio de Janeiro or Sao Paulo. Brazil has a total population of more than 210 million people, and it is the largest Roman Catholic country. In fact, according to Portuguese records, Brazil was originally called the Land of the Holy Cross in Portuguese. However, it's named slowly changed when European sailors became accustomed to calling it the land of Brazil. Because of the Brazil wood supply. Eventually Brazil caught on the world. However, some sailors jokingly still call it by its third name. No more humorous land of parrots. Brazil has more animal and plant species than any other country in the world. The national animal is the jagged edge. But Brazil is also home to many other fascinating species, such as armadillos, to peers who must, and the Purana. Colorful to Ganz with big horned beaks can also be seen up in the trees, and pink dolphins can be seen playing and the warm rivers below. Brazil also has more monkey species than any other country in the world. The killer bee was created in a Brazilian lab. It was a mix between a European honeybee and an African beat in an effort to create a b that made more honey faster. Instead of angry be it came out and escapes the lab. It's spread through Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Texas, and California. Keller B is we'll attack if they smell perfume, see shiny jewelry or dark clothing, or even hear loud sounds. Even more frightening. If you try to hide under water, they will wait for you and attack when you come out. 106. Brazil History & Dance: As one of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Let's see, a woman was found in the area of Pedro Leopold and her bones provided evidence of human civilization in the Amazon region going back on 11 thousand years, the earliest pottery ever found in the western hemisphere, dating to around 6000 BCE, was also discovered in the Amazon basin. Brazil was occupied by numerous tribes prior to the landing under Explorer Pedro Alvarez Cabral up in the year 1500, who claimed this area. For the Portuguese empire. Africans influenced the language, cuisine, music, religion, and dance of Brazil. Kapo ATA, this blended style of dance is uniquely Brazilian and regarded as a sport. An Afro-Brazilian martial art with elements of acrobatics, music and dance. Capoeira was developed by African slaves at the beginning of the 16th century. The core culture of Brazil has many Portuguese influences because of its strong ties to the Portuguese Empire. Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced Roman Catholicism. The Portuguese language, detailed architectural styles. By the 17th century, sugarcane was the main export and the slave trade brought many African slaves. To the contrary. The Brazilian Gold Rush also attracted folks from all over the world. During this time, brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. Following three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil became an independent nation. In 1822. 107. Brazil Carnival & Food: Brazil is known for fresh fruits and vegetables, such as okra, coconuts, corn, and traditional dishes with beans and rice. Fish water is considered the national dish of Brazil. A simmering beans stew made with pork and rice. But some other typical Brazilian dishes include a small baked cheese roll or cheese bun, which is a popular snack and breakfast food. Jana, I drink, made with small red berries with lots of caffeine. Cuz Sheena, Brazilian breaded and deep fried snacks filled with shredded chicken and usually served with a chili dip. Brazil's festive atmosphere is associated with its world famous. A word derived from the Latin, gotten a violet, which means goodbye flesh or goodbye meet. This was originally a food festival. Were Catholics feasting on meat in preparation for the following 40 days of Lent, where they can have no meat whatsoever. At begins on Ash Wednesday. Starting on the Friday before Ash Wednesday, Brazil is known for its cheerful and vibrant atmosphere during cotton evolve. This massive festival is celebrated in many cities. But the academy Val in Rio de Janeiro is the world's biggest. Those cartoony Val is registered in the Guinness Book of World Records as the largest carnival in history. There are more than 10 million liters of beer consumed, countless donuts and sweet snacks. And more than 2 million people take to the streets each day during Carnival to celebrate and rebel in the festive atmosphere. Dancers practice and make their costumes and floats all year around in preparation for the massive celebration. Each district has their own samba school and participants compete against their local rivals. Some schools spend over 4 million US dollars on outfits and materials per year. 108. Travel Tips Brazil: Here are some of my top travel tips when heading to this part of the world. Water. Don't drink the water. Don't drink anything with ice. Brush your teeth with tap water, or open your mouth in the shower. Make sure to use bottled or filtered water. Safety. Brazil has a bad reputation for being dangerous, but these occurrences are actually quite rare, especially for tourists. That's not to say that the country is free from crime as the favelas are known to be quite dangerous, particularly at night. So pickpocketing and robbery are fairly common. Travelers are advised to leave anything valuable in the hotel safe and anything irreplaceable at home. Make sure to conceal your cash and passport on your person and underneath your clothing. Mosquitoes, Brazil has many wonderful things, but also many mosquitoes to go along with that, which carry anything from the Zika virus to malaria, to the Dang and yellow fever. While you can take antimalarials, which is a must if you are in or passing through the so-called red zone and be vaccinated against yellow fever. Long sleeves, a good mosquito repellent and mosquito nets are your best possible defense against these pesky and deadly insects. Make sure to learn a few key phrases, but keep in mind, Portuguese is not the same as Spanish. Despite the grammar and spelling being somewhat similar, Portuguese and Spanish could not sound more different. So for all of you Spanish speakers, while you might pick up the language a little bit quicker, Portuguese is a different language in itself. And as with all travel, be patient. Speak slowly when using your native tongue. Smile and have fun. 109. Brazil Conclusion: As the third largest country in the world. Brazil is a noisy, delicious, festive. Two cans are up in the trees in the Amazon. They call out to each other as the Amazon River flows below. And cotton evolve breaks historic records with the number of people dancing, drinking, and wearing glittery costumes. As one of the most festive countries on the planet, Brazil is bursting with life from both the Amazon, It's massive cities. What kind of costume would you, where would you like to try a meal and visually or a dance? The capoeira, feel free to take notes in your travel journal and what piqued your interest in Brazil. I'll see you in the next section. Our last of the seven wonders of the world. Rio de Janeiro is massive statue of Christ, the Redeemer. 110. Christ The Redeemer Introduction: Gazing out over the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro and the bay from the summit of cortico Envato, or hunchback in Portuguese. The colossal Jesus Christ Art Deco statue called the red and daughter, or Christ the Redeemer, is the newest of the seven wonders of the modern world. 111. Christ The Redeemer Fun Facts: Christ the Redeemer is an Art Deco statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, completed in 1931. This 98 foot or 30 meter high statue was created by the Polish French sculptor Paul Lander scheme. And the Brazilian engineer I dot da Silva Costa, who came up with the idea for the statue to face the rising sun, top of the mountain. The Christ Redeemer statue and audio deja nato has become one of the most popular tourist sites in all of Brazil. As it has become a symbolic protector of the people. With arms spanning 92 feet or 28 meters, as if to encompass all of humanity. This massive architectural feat was constructed of reinforced concrete and soapstone. It is the fourth largest statue of Jesus Christ in the world. The sanctuary of Christ, the Redeemer was the first open-air sanctuary on the planet. Although this is one of Brazil's most easily recognizable structures, it is often mistaken for the Christ of the Andes, confused with the statue that marks the border between Argentina and Chile. Brazil is Christ the Redeemer statue, built in 1931, is 98 feet tall. From 1931 until 2010, it was the largest Art Deco statue in the world. It has been damaged by lightning at least two times. Also, repairs in 2014 added more lightening rods to prevent future damage from lightning. It is 30 meters or 98 feet tall. 112. History of Christ The Redeemer: After World War II, the Roman Catholic archdiocese in Rio became concerned about the lack of religious faith within the Brazilian community. It was hoped that by building this massive statue of Jesus Christ on top of the tallest mountain, that it would discourage against the increasing godless snus of the country. The statue was to be placed on top of Mount Kournikova. Hello, and it would be visible from anywhere and everywhere in the Venn capital of Rio de Janeiro as a way of reclaiming ratios Christianity. By the time of completion, the construction had caused 250 thousand US dollars or the current equivalent of 3.4 million US dollars. And it was funded entirely by the Catholic community of result. Because of the statues of massive size. Christ the Redeemer was put together on site. The materials were transported up cortico vital mountain unless train the same one that was used to transport tourists. 113. Tijuca National Park: This statue is located on a 2300 foot or 709 meter tall hill, part of the tissue, aka national park, a tropical rainforest, and the remainder of what used to be a massive forest covering the entirety of Rio de Janeiro. Among the highlights of this 24 square mile or 39 square kilometer park are several waterfalls. The 19th century chapel, cappella, several caves. The park is also home to many animals, including glonass and monkeys. All right. 114. Christ the Redeemer Conclusion: Christ the Redeemer as a sanctuary of celebration, charity, and culture. The statue as a masterpiece that expresses the feeling of holiness and the blessing of the Brazilian people. It was built as an expression of the divinity of Jesus Christ to green mind, the city of Rio de Janeiro that Jesus is watching. Would you like to visit the statue of Jesus Christ the Redeemer? How do you feel about the statue being built to remind the city of its religion? How would you feel if it was built in your hometown? Feel free to write down your thoughts in your travel journal. Join me in our last module where we will summarize what we learned and I will point you toward where to look for future research. 115. Conclusion Seven Wonders of the World: In this Travel Tribe history and culture Course on the Seven Wonders of the World, we learned about the traditions, holidays, food, art, history, animals, and famous sites of the countries with the seven wonders of the modern world. China, Jordan, Italy, Mexico, India, and Brazil. With a special section about the significance and history of the only remaining ancient wonder of the world, Egypt and the Great Pyramid of Giza. We explored the hidden secrets of the Great Pyramid, the longest cemetery in the world, the Great Wall of China, the rows city of Petra, the biggest Roman amphitheater in the world. The Colosseum, the ancient city of Chichen Itza, and sacred sonatas and Mexico, South America.