SECRETS of COFFEE - Part 1. HISTORY - (for Coffee Lovers) - Become An Expert in 3 hours! | COFFEE EXPERT - Sergio Reminny | Skillshare

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SECRETS of COFFEE - Part 1. HISTORY - (for Coffee Lovers) - Become An Expert in 3 hours!

teacher avatar COFFEE EXPERT - Sergio Reminny, 25 years of Love for Coffee ❤️

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

30 Lessons (3h 9m)
    • 1. INTRODUCTION ▪ About the Course

      8:00
    • 2. KALDI + GOATS ▪ Unknown Version

      5:01
    • 3. ETHIOPIA: Other Coffee Legends

      5:23
    • 4. Origin of the WORD "Coffee"

      5:07
    • 5. YEMEN: Moka and Monopoly

      5:37
    • 6. GAHVA: the Coffee Dinosaur

      4:50
    • 7. How Cofee Took Over the WORLD

      4:59
    • 8. TYPICA ▪ Variety that Started It All

      4:42
    • 9. BOURBON ▪ French Kings & Coffee

      5:12
    • 10. OTTOMAN Empire: First Marketers

      4:29
    • 11. World Coffee FORMATS

      2:52
    • 12. ETHIOPIAN Coffee Ceremony

      14:20
    • 13. ORIENTAL-Style Types of Coffee

      4:36
    • 14. VIENNESE Coffee and Kulchytsky

      10:57
    • 15. Espresso: History of the MACHINE

      14:24
    • 16. WORD "Espresso": True Meaning

      5:06
    • 17. First Steps of Coffee in AMERICA

      3:40
    • 18. ENGLAND: Coffee and Newspapers

      8:32
    • 19. LONDON: Coffeeshop to Empire

      6:17
    • 20. How AMERICA Switched To Coffee

      5:09
    • 21. The King of Coffee with ALCOHOL

      5:58
    • 22. Father of Coffee with CHOCOLATE

      4:08
    • 23. How COLD Coffee Was Born

      2:51
    • 24. – 1st Wave: Gold Coffee RUSH

      3:21
    • 25. – 2d Wave: Birth of Coffee SHOP

      5:01
    • 26. – 3d Wave: Coffee as Personality

      7:53
    • 27. – 4th Wave: Look into the FUTURE

      7:23
    • 28. The History of SPECIALITY COFFEE

      14:46
    • 29. Coffee DAY: Why 1st October ?

      4:44
    • 30. AFTERWORD ▪ About Next Сourses

      3:33
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About This Class

Dear Friends, welcome to my course "Secrets of Coffee. HISTORY"!

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It is intended for the Coffee Lovers and Baristas who want to know more about their favorite drink and understand all its fantastic diversity.

In this course, you will:

  • Fully understand all aspects of the modern world of coffee through its history.
  • Follow the path of the coffee culture by which it spread throughout all continents of our planet.
  • Get acquainted with unknown legends about the origin of coffee in Ethiopia.
  • Learn the types of "Oriental coffee" and distinguish Turkish coffee from Greek coffee.

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  • Discover what the famous Arabic words "Moka", "Geshir" and "Gahwa" are.
  • Will review the world's major coffee formats in all its beauty and diversity.
  • Experience the fantastic Ethiopian ceremony, the oldest coffee tradition on our planet.

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  • Understand how the Ottoman Empire became the world's first coffee promoter and how the sultans make coffee a tradition.
  • Discover how the Viennese Yuri Kulchitsky became a true coffee legend.
  • Find out how "Tips" appeared in England, and how America became a coffee country.
  • Learn about such important but unknown drinks as Bicerin and Mazagran and re-discover the Irish Coffee masterpiece.

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  • Understand the origins and real meaning of the words "Espresso" and "Barista".
  • Explore the history of the world's leading coffee culture – His Majesty Espresso Italiano.

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  • Clearly categorize all "Coffee Waves" of modern coffee history.
  • Will understand, once and for all, the most complicated coffee term "Speciality Coffee."

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  • And I promise you that all this we will do in a BEAUTIFUL and ENTERTAINING way!

My name is Sergio Reminny, I am a coffee expert with 25 years of experience in the professional coffee industry,

I am a businessman, a writer, a blogger, and the 1st Coordinator of the European Speciality Coffee Association (SCAE) in Ukraine.

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I studied business and marketing in the UK, USA, France, Netherlands, Sweden. For more than 20 years,
I collaborated with Italy, where I lived and worked for many years, and where I learned the ins and outs of espresso - today's leading coffee culture on our planet.

My fascination with coffee has taken me to over 100 countries: I have visited coffee farms in Ethiopia and Yemen, Panama and India, Costa Rica and Hawaii, Colombia and Rwanda, Nepal, Indonesia, Brazil, and many others. 

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And today I bring all my experience to you through my coffee lectures.

"The HISTORY of COFFEE" will give you a complete chronological understanding of how coffee won peoples’ hearts and became a favorite drink of mankind.

You know, instead of offering my arguments in favor of your taking this course, I want to give a perfect example of how the understanding of the history of coffee can help you in your life. For this, please, watch the introduction lecture "About the Course."

An interesting example of a clear understanding of the difference between Latte and Cappuccino is waiting for you there!

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The purpose of the mentioned story (you'll enjoy it, I promise) is to draw your attention to the fact that knowledge of history is not just erudition.

Knowing the PAST is important for understanding what you are doing TODAY and who you will become TOMORROW.

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This is exactly what my course is about – to give you the basic coffee education of the history of coffee.

Well, we have a lot of work today, so get a cup of your tasty coffee, and let's begin!

See you in the first lesson!

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Meet Your Teacher

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COFFEE EXPERT - Sergio Reminny

25 years of Love for Coffee ❤️

Teacher

Hi, my name is Sergio Reminny, I am a coffee expert with 25 years of experience in the professional coffee industry.

I was the 1st Coordinator of the European Specialty Coffee Association (SCAE) in Ukraine (2003-2008).

Today I am a blogger and writer, author of the books "Secrets of Coffee", "Travels over the World of Coffee" and "Coffee Letters from Italy". 

I created the most complete Coffee Blog in the former Soviet Union countries, and today I have more than 500,000 followers on my Facebook page.

I studied business and marketing in the UK, USA, France, Netherlands, Sweden. For 20 years, I collaborated with Italy, where I lived and worked for many years, and where I learned the ins and outs of His Majesty Espresso - today's lea... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. INTRODUCTION ▪ About the Course : (music playing) Hello, dear friends, and welcome to my online course "The History of Coffee”. My name is Sergio Reminny, I am a coffee expert with 25 years of experience, a businessman, a writer, and the first coordinator of the European Speciality Coffee Association in Ukraine. We were at the origins of baristas championships in our country, today I have my own coffee business, a coffee blog with more than 1,000 articles and several books about coffee. Almost all my life I have maintained close contacts with Italy, the country to which we owe the invention of espresso, the most successful business model in the coffee world. Over past 10 years, I have been running on Facebook my personal page with the audience of half a million subscribers. And during this time, the entire coffee Internet of the world passed through my hands. This helped me a great deal understand the way the end consumer thinks. After all, the consumer is the ultimate recipient of all coffee knowledge and the main examiner of our efforts. The whole complex value chain of coffee, from farmers and exporters to roasters and baristas, exists only so, that our clients, an ordinary coffee lovers, could enjoy this wonderful drink. Only you decide if coffee prepared for you by hundreds of thousands of coffee professionals around the world is tasty or it is not. Today, there exist countless training courses for baristas where they can learn how to prepare drinks, to roast coffee or to perform at championships. However, a barista becomes a professional not when he learns how to make a heart or a rosetta in latte art, but when he has an idea of how the coffee world works, understands the way things are related to each other in this world, and, most importantly, uses his knowledge in the right way. This course will give you a chronological understanding of how coffee, won peoples’ hearts and how it became a favorite and the best-selling drink on our planet. You know, instead of offering my arguments in favor of your, taking this course, let me tell you something. If you ask an ordinary coffee lover what is the difference between cappuccino and latte – almost no one will be able to clearly explain it to you. Even 99% of the baristas will not answer this question exactly. Maximum that they will be able to say is that “the milk is less whipped in latte than in cappuccino and the latte is served in a glass goblet.” In reality this is far from the complete answer. But if you delve deeper into the history of the origin of this drink, you will immediately comprehend its meaning. Actually today, the word “latte” is used to describe almost any coffee with milk. And not only coffee. Nowadays, there are beet latte, mushroom latte and even seaweed latte. But to obtain a true and deep understanding of the role of latte, let's take a glance at the variants of Italian coffee with milk. Everybody knows very well what is standard "espresso macchiato", also known as "caffè macchiato", when they take an espresso and add to it a very small amount (literally a drop) of whipped milk. The drop turns into a small spot on the surface of espresso, and hence comes the name "macchiato", which is Italian for "spotted, stained.” “Macchia” means “spot”, and this drop, added to coffee, softens its taste and turns ordinary coffee ("un caffè") into "spotted coffee" ("un caffè macchiato"). Next, there is caffè latte - coffee with milk. They prepare an espresso and pour some milk into it. Usually they add warm milk, but today it is also whipped a little, although they did not do that before - a little later I will talk about it. The next drink is cappuccino. You know it well: it is coffee with whipped milk. Thanks to the soft milk, it tastes better, softer, than just caffè latte - coffee with milk. And now comes the main drink I want to pay attention to - latte macchiato. What is it? In Italian, “latte” means just “milk.” I believe that many of you heard stories about how a man enters a bar in the heart of Italy, elegantly orders a latte, and the waiter brings him a glass of ordinary milk. The thing is that "latte" in Italian means just “milk” and nothing else but milk. In the last century, in bars, the customer could often order a glass of milk without surprising the bartender. He just said “latte” and they brought him a glass of milk. The milk was served in a transparent glass, and not so that the layers could be visible, but simply because in Italy milk had always been (as it is today, by the way) served in a glass. And then, when someone wanted to add a little taste to his milk, he would say: "Latte macchiato, please", which meant “add something to this milk, stain it.” “Macchia” is the Italian for "spot", remember? But unlike the coffee macchiato - when the milk was served, everything was viceversa - they added a drop of coffee, obtaining thereby MILK with the taste of coffee. In other words, to make caffè macchiato they added a spot of MILK to COFFEE + and to make latte macchiato they added a spot of COFFEE to MILK. This is where the difference between caffè macchiato and latte macchiato hides. Later, when Italian coffee culture started to conquer the world and was copied everywhere, other cultures borrowed espresso, cappuccino and the latte macchiato but shortly calling it just... latte. And as a fact - this «cutted» version killed both names “caffè latte” and “latte macchiato” – fueling numerous future misunderstandings for latte as drink. Actually “latte macchiato” came out the winner, because when it was served in an elegant transparent glass with beautiful layers, it was by an order more attractive. But, unfortunaltely, caffè latte - such an important and such a traditional drink – almost disappeared from coffee menus internationally. So, in order to be a real expert today, please do not ask, what pronunciation is correct - “lAtte” or “lattE”? lAtte is English pronunciation, lattE – the Italian one meaning just “milk. So in reality if you want coffee with  milk – you’d need to order “caffè latte” - without reducing this word to “latte.” And when you want more MILK with coffee, you should order “latte macchiato”, also without any verbal reductions. Be correct and professional. And don’t forget about it. Especially when you are in Italy. The purpose of this short story, guys, was to draw your attention to the fact that knowledge of history is not just erudition. Knowing the PAST is important for understanding what you are doing TODAY and who you will become TOMORROW. This is exactly what my course is about. If you take it I assure you will not regret it. And I promise it will be interesting and beautiful course. Well, we have a lot of work today, so let's get down to business right away. 2. KALDI + GOATS ▪ Unknown Version: (music playing) Of course, we will begin our history course with Ethiopia - the main coffee country of the world and the cradle of all coffee cultures of mankind. You are probably well acquainted with the legend of shepherd Kaldi and his famous goats. And in our first lesson, we will analyze the FULL version of this famous story. The word "legend" should not mislead us, because, despite certain literary nature of this term, it is highly likely that in reality everything happened just like that. Over the years of my contacts with people from the coffee world, it has never failed to amaze me how few experts know the full version of this legend. Not just it’s abridged version, according to which goats tasted the famous fruits and started to leap and jump excitedly. The shepherd was surprised, brought the fruits home, roasted them, and so the coffee was discovered. You will find this story on the Internet, but, despite its beauty, it is absolutely incomplete, because it does not explain how people began to make coffee? After all, the goats couldn’t cook it, right? How was it roasted, how was it ground? How did it all happen?.. So, in Ethiopia they told me the full version of this legend, where all bits fall into their proper places. It explains the real truth of origination of coffee that later conquered the world. This happened somewhere in the 8-10th century AD. At that time, they created Holy Roman Empire in Europe, and the Maya civilization in America was at the peak of its prosperity and glory. But in Southern Ethiopia (then Abyssinia) those were goats who started it all. The goats (we must pay tribute to them) indicated Kaldi that there was something magic in those unknown berries. On making his discovery, Kaldi picked up the berries, brought them home and showed them to his wife. His wife also liked the berries. However researchers strongly suspect that at first she liked the taste, but by no means the invigorating effect - just because the skin of a coffee fruit tastes sweetish. The woman said it was a message from heaven and that Kaldi should take those magical fruits to the nearest monastery. He did so. But the monks were not as optimistic as the shepherd or his wife. The rector who tasted coffee, instantly called it "a devilish creation" and angrily threw the berries into fire. This is where the most important things started, things that are related to our trade. In the fire, the coffee beans roasted and started to produce an incredible aroma. You know, how freshly roasted coffee smells - this magical fragrance can really be sometimes mistaken for devilishness. The monks were even more scared - they took the smoldering beans from the fire and began to trample them, thereby crushing, and, therefore, grinding them into powder. But as the coffee continued to smolder, they collected the fuming leftovers and put them in a jug, and, for complete certainty, flooded them with water – in order to properly extinguish the beans. Here we come to the final and the most important phase of preparation of the drink. Coffee was kept in the jug for several days and, accordingly, it brewed. Then one of the monks incidentally tried it, thinking it was just water. A brisk night followed, which the monk passed in prayers, and his admiration was boundless, because his brain worked clearly and vigorously. Both taste and effect of the newfound drink were fully approved by the colleagues who admired all night the invigorating effect of this incredible potion, which later helped them stay awake during night prayers. And so coffee, as a coffee drink, started its triumphant procession around the world. Would you agree that this version is different in terms of its amplitude from a simple story like "The goats tried the berries - and cheers, so coffee was discovered"?.. I would very much like that you fully realize the length of this legend and how complete it is now in explaining the genesis of coffee as a drink. 3. ETHIOPIA: Other Coffee Legends: (music playing) In this lesson, we will continue to discuss the coffee legends and will explore other versions of discovery of coffee in Ethiopia. While at first glance the knowledge of the alternative versions of the basic coffee legend will hardly bring material feasible benefits to an ordinary coffee lover, it will definitely expand your erudition and, again, will allow you to use coffee knowledge more professionally. The story of shepherd Kaldi and his goats remains and, I believe, will forever remain the main version. Nevertheless, some sources claim that Georgian researcher Paul Merab (who studied Ethiopia in detail and even opened the first pharmacy in Addis Ababa) wrote that at the beginning of the 20th century he had not met anyone who had heard the legend about Kaldi. But 100 years later, all the Ethiopians themselves without exception believe in the truth of the story with goats and repeat the words “Kaldi” and “goats” as a prayer. Apart from the main legend, there are at least 3 additional hypotheses on the origin of coffee (all of which are “made in Ethiopia”). The first of these is called “The Fire.” I called the second legend "The Bull." And the third one is a story about "The Scholar Khalid." Version one: The Fire. One of the simplest, but at the same time the most rational stories about discovery of coffee (naturally, in terms of credibility it follows the goats legend), is the forest fire story. Fires periodically occur in the tropical forests of the hot Ethiopia (and, naturally, in the Kaffa region). One of these fires once reached an implantation with wild-growing coffee. In the fire, coffee tree fruits dried out and then roasted. The wonderful aroma of roasted coffee reached the nearest village, and people wanted to find the source of the mysterious fragrance. They went deep into the forest, and that way the coffee tree was discovered. The next version - “The Bull.” This is a kind of "Zoological version.” An Ethiopian peasant had a herd of cows and bulls. Once he noticed that one of his bulls smells differently - not like the rest of his herd. Because this bull had a different, more pleasant scent than any other ordinary dirty animal. The owner followed up the bull. It turned out that the animal entered the forest and ate the leaves and fruits of some unknown tree. You can guess the end of the story - of course, it was coffee with all the ensuing consequences. In general, this version is close to the goat story, except that, so to speak, it is more "masculine." "The Scolar Khalid." This is my favorite, or, as I call it, “linguistic” version. Ethiopian Muslims call Kaldi “Khalid” and offer their own version of the legend about the origin of coffee. Kaldi (or, more precisely, Khalid) was not a shepherd, but an explorer. Once he noticed the same thing, that the shepherd Kaldi did - the way goats got overexcited after eating some unknown fruits. He harvested the berries of the unfamiliar tree, roasted the beans, crushed them with a stone and made a drink. Khalid liked the invigorating drink. He took the coffee beans and brought them to Arabia - to Yemen, situated across the strait from Ethiopia. When he came there and they asked him what his commodity was and where from he brought it, Khalid responded: “I don’t know what it's called, but it's from Kaffa.” Then the Arabs began to call these berries "kaffa", which was later transformed into "coffee." I will admit that I like all the three versions, although they have one weak point, and it’s the same one that was inherent in the version with goats. They explain the discovery of the coffee TREE and its FRUITS and BEANS. But they do not explain the history of the origin of the coffee DRINK. Perhaps, only the fire version advanced a little farther, because it explains even the roasting phase. By the way, they told me that the Arabic for “brown” sounds like “bunaa”, and in the Ethiopian language Amharic “coffee” does not at all sound like “coffee”, this word is pronounced “buna”. And in Yemen coffee beans are also called "bunn.” But the third version, the one involving the wise Khalid, much better explains the coining of the word “coffee” (and its origin from the name “Kaffa”) in the Arabic language, and, later, in the rest of the world. Indeed, it is the word "coffee” that is the most widely used on the planet. And we will talk about this word during our next lesson. 4. Origin of the WORD "Coffee": (music playing) Any coffee lover knows that the word "Kaffa" originates from the name of the eponymous Ethiopian province, where the well-known shepherd Kaldi first discovered, with the aid of his goats, the secret of coffee. This is so, but very few people know where this name itself - Kaffa - came from, and how it evolved later. Moreover, this version is questioned from time to time because of the increasing popularity of another hypothesis, according to which the word “coffee” derives from the Arabic word “gahwa.” In this lesson, we are going to clarify the meaning of the word “coffee.” Obviously, it does have to do with the place where the Kaffa region was situated. I would only make a small correction that Kaffa was a "kingdom”, not a "province”, at the time when coffee was discovered. The kingdom of Kaffa existed from the end of the 14th century till the very end of the 19th. Very sadly, today, there is no territory officially called Kaffa among the provinces of Ethiopia. From 1943 until 1995, when Ethiopia adopted the system of provinces, Kaffa really was one of the provinces. In 1995, however, the country was divided into regions. Thereafter, one part of the province of Kaffa became part of the region of Oromo and another one became part of the region called "the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region.” By the way, let's be totally objective and specify that, hearing that "Coffee comes from Ethiopia", you need to realize that at the time when coffee showed up there, there was no mention of Ethiopia. These lands were called Abyssinia, and they did not have any clearly marked borders. Today, scientists even assume that actually coffee came into existence in the triangle that includes not only the south of modern Ethiopia, but also the territories of southeast Sudan and northern Kenya. That is all well and good: Kaffa is one of the probable sources of the origins of “coffee,” but where did this name in turn originate and what is the meaning of its appellation? The most beautiful of the versions, undoubtedly, is the one that originates from another famous Ethiopian province - Harar - where they have been growing coffee long since. The residents of Harar jealously guard and stake a claim to all of Ethiopia’s coffee traditions and its coffee fame. Especially now, for no apparent reason, all the merit of shepherd Kaldi with his goats goes to Kaffa. By the way, according to the story about Kaldi-Khalid mentioned in the previous lesson, he was born in Harar. This is not meaningless, because Harar is populated mostly by the Muslims, and is very close to Yemen geographically. Though Harar did not have the prestige of having the drink named after it, according to the deep conviction of the local residents, it was precisely Harar that was responsible, indirectly, for giving the drink the name "Kaffa". It happened this way. In the middle of the 16th century, the emir of Harar, by the name of Nur, was prosecuting one of the numerous wars taking place on the territory of the divided Ethiopia of the time. The most long-lasting and bloody battle of this war took place precisely when the emir and his soldiers were fighting for the region that would later be called Kaffa. Much blood was spilled, but still there was no victor. And so, one night the emir had a dream that he must lay the foundations for peace and put an end to the war. On waking the next morning, he appeared before his army and announced: “Kef!” which in Arabic means “Enough!” And so, the place where this took place was given the name ”Kaffa.” Despite the incomplete coincidence of names - "kEf" and "kAffa” - for me personally, this version seems very plausible, because I many times heard the Ethiopians to pronounce "Keffa” rather than "Kaffa.” And in the same way, this name is also indicated on the official Ethiopian maps (and is often spelled with one "f", by the way). Once it was borrowed by Arabic, “kaffa” transformed into the word “gahwa.” And since these are the Yemenis who gave the name to the product, linguistically, “gahwa” from time to time pushes “kaffa” into the background. But the Arabian “gahwa” drink is not really coffee. We will talk about it during our next lesson devoted to Yemen. 5. YEMEN: Moka and Monopoly: (music playing) In the center of the capital of Yemen, Sana, there is a bazaar called "Bab al-Yaman" - "Gate of Yemen.” This symbol, the gate, perfectly describes what this country has done for the promotion of coffee to the world. And in this lesson we will discuss what was the main merit and role of Yemen in the coffee history of the planet. For the first time, coffee left Ethiopia through the already familiar to us city of Harar. Firstly, this city had always been inhabited mostly by Muslims who had connections with the Arab world, and secondly, geographically, Harar is located in the east of the country, very close to Yemen. The first coffee contacts between the two countries date back to the 11th century. In the 14-15th centuries, coffee trees were already actively planted in Yemen, and in the 16-17th centuries, coffee became the largest item of the Yemeni exports. The port of Mocha, situated on the coast of the Red Sea, had for several centuries been the main sea gate of Yemen’s foreign trade. And, because of the port, the coffee variety that was cultivated in Yemen became known as “Mocha.” Undoubtedly, the motherland of coffee is Ethiopia. But the fact that this child was raised by a very good nanny named "Yemen” is alsoindisputable. By the way, the Arabs use one more, poetic name of coffee - “Bint al Yaman,” “The Daughter of Yemen.” Due to the fact that coffee came to the hands of talented Arab traders, Yemen presented it to the world as a commercial product, becoming the first exporter of coffee beans in history. In 1633, after an Anti-Ottoman uprising, an independent Yemeni state was created. The country saw a short period of relative stability and active economic development. Yemen established direct trade ties with some European countries and began to supply its coffee there. This period became the heyday of the port of Mocha as the center of world coffee trade. Traditions attribute the prosperity of the city of Al-Mukha to the name of Sheikh Omar Al-Shadli, who, according to the legend, was cured by a local bedouin who gave to the Sheikh a broth made of ground coffee beans. They say that after that Omar came up with the happy idea to expand the plantings of coffee trees in the Mocha region. The new commodity was promoted extremely successfully, and the small village grew into a prosperous town, where coffee trade played a key role. Even the mountains around the city, all covered with coffee plantations in the form of terraces on the slopes, were called "coffee mountains." It should be noted that the Yemeni coffee trade boomed largely due to the existence of monopoly in coffee production. In this context, coffee followed the path of most tropical spices that were owned exclusively by their vendors. The Arabs have always been proud of their superdrink and kept the secret of its preparation. It was strictly prohibited to export unroasted coffee beans from the country. This measure was taken to guarantee that not a single seed capable of sprouting were appropriated by strangers who were forbidden even to visit local coffee plantations. Thus, for nearly 300 years, the Yemenis had possessed the global monopoly on supplies of coffee. And the port of Mocha gave its name not only to the most delicious variety of coffee. For at least a couple of centuries, the word "mocha" for the whole world has been synonymous to the word "coffee.” In those days, this alternative name was often used instead of “coffee” in other countries. In the mid-17th century, the now-famous in coffee circles Muslim Sufi named BabaBudan managed to obtain 7 green coffee beans and secretly took them out to South India to plant them there. The stolen seeds produced the first trees that laid the basis for the cultivation of coffee in India. And the Indian district Bababudangiris, named after the Sufi monk, today is one of the most famous coffee regions of the world. The loss of the monopoly position triggered fast decline of the Yemeni coffee trade business. And by the 19th century, coffee exports from Yemen accounted for only 1% of the global production. But just as it is no longer possible to deprive Ethiopia of its biological priority, so Yemen has forever secured the status of the pioneer in the trade in coffee. And despite the fact the domination of Yemen in the coffee business was lost more than five hundred years ago, the world trade in coffee began precisely from there. 6. GAHVA: the Coffee Dinosaur: (music playing) During this lesson, we analyze one of the principal myths of the coffee. And will also study in detail what exactly the Arabs call “gahvah.” In addition, we’ll learn what is "geshir" - a drink that has a direct relation to coffee history. I want to tell you a story from the central market of Sana, the capital of Yemen, where a salesman named Ali, who comes from an ancient family of coffee traders, told me what is "geshir.” In addition he explained me what is "gahwa" - the word that is called the parent of the word “coffee.” Unfortunately, I have to upset millions of coffee lovers who are living today and expose the myth that the word "kahwa" (or "gahwa") in Arabic means “Raising the spirit" or something similar. Honestly, I myself more than anything would like that it is so. But in reality, everything is much more prosaic: the Arabic for "geshir" means "the skin of the fruit." Moreover, the "skin of the fruit" as a whole - not even necessarily coffee fruit. And the word "Gahwa" means a DRINK made of the dried skin of these fruits. I think many lovers of coffee will be surprised to learn that it did not start quite normally. What we love today in coffee - that is the beans - at the beginning were thrown away in Yemen, and coffee was prepared in a totally different way. More precisely,; at first, they didn’t even brew coffee at all, they just chewed the leaves of the coffee tree. But then for a century, the Arabs used to consume a drink made from dried skin - geshir. Coffee traders in Yemen told me that some varieties of coffee were selected not because they had high-quality beans, but because their skin allowed to make decent geshir. And only somewhere in the 17-18th century, people started to use coffee beans for preparation of coffee as it was conceived in Ethiopia. The recipe of brewing the beans became widespread, although today geshir is still popular in Happy Arabia. It would be fair to say that the term "dried coffee skin" is also not completely correct - no one dries the skin separately. The only thing you need to do with husks before making a drink, is to roast them a little. The geshir I drank in the area of the central market of Sanaa, struck me with its color - because people around were drinking tea, and I drank geshir. So, their tea was a couple of times darker than my geshir - this is the specifics of this drink. Geshir is most often prepared as tea - in a large cezve jug. Ground geshir is poured over with hot water and cooked on a stove, after which it is poured into glasses. Interestingly, the phrase “a cup of coffee” in Yemen traditionally means “a glass of coffee” which is understandable, because it's a glass, not a cup, which is the basic kitchenware in Yemen. The Yemenis say the word "Gahwa" existed in their country long before the appearance of coffee. Which is clearly illustrated by a small pack of coffee - "gahvah" I bought in an ordinary supermarket in Yemen. The inscription on the pack said: "gahwa tnahyl", which means "coffee made of dates.” To be precise, this coffee is made of dates HUSK, rather than of dates. That is, any product whose skin turned into a drink, was called "gahwa.” There is even "gahwa" made of cereals. An important detail: when translating the word "gahwa", the Yemenis kept repeating that the term stood for “a HOT drink.” Perhaps here lies the nuance of explaining the word gahva as “invigorating, uplifting” - because hot drinks traditionally produce such an invigorating effect. Most likely, that was how the word "Gahwa" passed into the coffee world. You cannot rule out the possibility they just adapted the name of some unknown fruits which the Ethiopian (probably our friend Khalid) used to call “kaffa.” That’s it, the "coffee dinosaur" - geshir drink - coffee that has become tea, and tea that has become coffee… 7. How Cofee Took Over the WORLD: (music playing) What is the difference between a professional and an amateur? A professional knows all aspects of his trade, and always sees the general picture. And when he understands the gist of the game and clearly sees the way things are related, he is stronger than other players, which means that he has more chances to succeed. This cartographic lesson, in which we are going to study the ways the coffee tree spread around the world, turned out to be big in size and quite complicated. But it is critical for you to understand, how a small coffee tree from faraway Africa could take over the whole world, turning into the most beloved beverage on Earth. To do this, we will need a map on which we will trace all the routes of movement of coffee on the planet. We will need to return to our starting point, to the location where, the scientists believe, coffee takes its origin - to the Kaffa region, even a bit to the south - to the borderline between Ethiopia and Kenya. The coffee trees that grew here did not have any variety or brand name - they were the original source, kind of Adam and Eve of the world coffee history. They gave birth to the entire coffee race. This is why, today, the original and the foremost variety of coffee (the primary source mentioned above) bears the scientific name "Typica", which in this case could be translated as "typical, basic.” As we have already learned from Ethiopian legends, from Kaffa coffee came to Harar, and from there - to the Arabian Peninsula, to Yemen, with which Harar had long-standing trade ties. We talked about the life of coffee in Yemen during our last lesson. Now, in the 1600s, happened the above-mentioned story with Bababudan who stole and brought coffee beans to India. From that moment, a new era began in the coffee chronology, the era of not just trade, but also of wide commercial cultivation of coffee. This 300-year long period consisted of two parallel lines of evolution. These are the Typica Line (the prime source discussed above) and the Bourbon Line. Boutbon is a variety that derived from Typica. But the history of its independent life was so rich and influential that “Bourbon” was classified into a separate line of development comparable to “typica” in terms of importance. Before moving on to these stories, I want to dwell on one episode, which, unfortunately for the coffee world, has remained just a benchmark in history. I regularly meet people who are not aware that Sri Lanka and “Ceylon” are one and the same country. Sri Lanka has been the name of this South Asian country of 20 million inhabitants since 1972, before which it was known by the Western name for the island, Ceylon. Tea is part of the national culture here and, as local people say, “For a Sri Lankan not to drink tea would be like for a Frenchman not to drink wine. Coffee is fine at the end of the meal, but tea is fundamental to the whole meal.” You probably ask – this course is about coffee - Why is he going on at such length about a TEA country? Well, because in the mid-19th century it was COFFEE, not tea, that was Ceylon’s first export to international markets! For several decades, coffee was a major export here. Moreover, for some time Ceylon remained a leading global supplier of coffee. But in the second half of the 19th century disaster struck, with the appearance on the island of one of the most feared diseases of the coffee tree, a fungus known as “coffee rust” (this topic by the way, will be separately covered in my next course – the Botany of Coffee). Within a few years, the fungus had destroyed literally all the island’s coffee plantations, and with them an entire industry. The place of coffee was gradually taken by tea, which went on - to become the pride of Sri Lanka. Today, this country is one of the world largest tea exporters and the phrase “Ceylon Tea” has long ago been recognized as a respectable brand name. But history remembers that in the 19th century Ceylon was one of the leading global producers of COFFEE. 8. TYPICA ▪ Variety that Started It All: (music playing) Now, let us move to the mainstream of dissemination of the coffee tree around the world generally called as “Typica Line.” It began 100 years after the BabaBudan’s story, when at the very end of the 17th century the Dutch sent coffee seedlings from India to the island of Java in Indonesia, then called Batavia. Surfing the Internet, you can encounter information that the Dutch brought coffee trees to Java directly from Yemen. But this is not so. Such attempts were really made, but to no success - all imported plants perished in an earthquake. Thus, it was in Java where the first commercial cultivation of coffee began after Yemen. And since then and up to now. Indonesia has always been one of the Top 5 global coffee producers. In 1709 the Dutch brought several Typica trees from Indonesia to Amsterdam and handed them over to the Royal Botanic Garden. By the way, it was Сarl Linnaeus who studied and cataloged them there. At this point, the paths of the Typica variety diverged. The Dutch exported Typica to Dutch Guiana, their colony in the northern part of South America - today this country is called Surinam. From there, coffee cultivation reached the southern part of Brazil, where Typica prospered during the next 150 years. From Brazil, coffee came to Peru and Paraguay, and then, through Colombia and the Caribbean, it got to Central America. But this was not the only route of Typica. The French also played a significant role in its dissemination. In 1714, after conclusion of peace between France and Holland, the mayor of Amsterdam gave a coffee tree to the royal botanical garden of King Louis XIV. In 1720, the French planted this tree in MartinIque. By the way, this story also involves abduction. We know this from another fairly well-known coffee legend - the story of Gabriel de Clieu, a French naval officer, who actually stole the coffee tree from his own king. King Louis was not interested in the coffee production, so the tree remained a useless museum exhibit. Our officer instead saw a business opportunity in coffee cultivation and asked his beloved, who served at the royal court, to solicit coffee seedlings through the royal doctor allegedly for medical treatment purposes. There is an entire book describing the adventures of the brave officer and the challenges he faced. His ship barely escaped a meeting with pirates and nearly crashed in a storm. During the voyage, the crew ran out of fresh water, and all the coffee trees, but for one precious seedling, died. And de Clieu, who so desperately craved about coffee plantations in the New World, shared half of his daily water supply with the only surviving young tree. Nevertheless, when the ship finally reached Martinique, the coffee tree took root in the island perfectly, and 50 years later there were already about 20 thousand coffee trees in Martinique. From there, coffee culture migrated to Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Mexico and Colombia, and then, at the end of the 18th century, to Central America - Cuba, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and other countries. Until early last century, most coffee plantations in Central America were planted by Typica. But from 1940s, the growers started to replace Typica trees with more fertile and disease-resistant Bourbon line plants. Typica is still present in many countries of the world, in particular, it is widely represented in Peru, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica. But in general, it can be said that the primeval form of Typica, which is slowly becoming extinct, played the same role for coffee culture as the antique art, having engendered a whole modern coffee growing culture of the world. 9. BOURBON ▪ French Kings & Coffee: (music playing) In this lesson, we will analyze the second historical line of dissemination of the coffee trees. It is called “Bourbon Line.” Just like Typica, Bourbon coffee originates from Yemen. Because, as I already said, the same old Typica became the basis of Bourbon, and these were again the French who played a key part in its appearance. When the Royal Courtyard of France appreciated the taste of coffee at the beginning of the 18th century, French East India Company instructed naval officer Guillaume d'Arzel to make an expedition to the Yemeni Mocha, to take hold of coffee trees there, and to plant them on the French island of Reunion. Until 1848, this island in the Indian Ocean& was called Bourbon - after the name of the ruling royal dynasty of France. In September 1715, the Sultan of Yemen gave to the delegation of d'Arzel 6 coffee trees, which were later planted in Reunion. French East India Company organized the coffee production process including parent stock procurements and warehouses, and roads construction. The authorities offered preferences and support to all settlers who would agree to keep at least 100 coffee trees in bearing. If in 1704 only 734 persons lived in Reunion, 50 years later, when the French brought slaves to support the coffee production, there were as many as 17,000 residents on Reunion. In 1728, the Governor of Reunion reported that "the number of coffee plantations is growing steadily, and the island will be able to meet the coffee demand of the entire kingdom." Had Typica just continued to grow in Reunion, remaining the same variety of coffee, it would have never been called “Bourbon.” But the fact is that the local farmers began to notice differences in their trees as compared to the classic Typica plants. The leaves had slightly different color - they were not reddish, as usual, but greenish. The structure of the tree and the fruit also became slightly different. In fact, it was the first Arabica coffee mutation in history and the first appearance of a new variety, which received its name after the name of the island - Bourbon. Interestingly, this coffee had not left the island for almost a century and a half, until 1862, when so-called “French mission” - the Vatican's religious Catholic mission - transported it to the African continent and planted it in Kenya, neighboring Ethiopia. This is surprising, because despite the proximity of these two countries and the fact that the north of Kenya was in the area of the original spread of Arabica, coffee was brought into Kenya by the French from outside after so many years. After a long while - in 1937 - Bourbon came to Tanzania, having thus returned to the countries neighboring Ethiopia several centuries later. In 1860, coffee from Reunion comes to Brazil (district Campinas), and in the mid-20th century it rapidly captures entire Southern and Central America, replacing traditional typica there. It is noteworthy that in recent decades, Bourbon, in turn, has also been in large quantities replaced by its new varieties, such as Caturra, Catuai or Mundo Nuovo. Nevertheless, it is still widely cultivated in whole a number of countries, such as El Salvador, Guatemala or Honduras. So. we have looked at the chronology of the spread of the coffee tree around our planet. I would like you to understand that in principle the whole world owes the appearance of coffee to a single country, and this country is Ethiopia. All other coffee varieties came from there, and all of them are either brothers, or sisters, whatever you prefer. Therefore, while playing the game "Which coffee is better”, try to refrain from derogatory criticism in respect of other coffee varieties. Indeed, in reality it cannot be said that they lose to each other, just each of them has its own specifics. And please, remember that all Arabica coffee, growing in different corners of our planet is nothing else than Ethiopian Typica (including the Bourbon mutation) and its derivatives obtained as the result of its natural crossing, mutation or artificial selection. 10. OTTOMAN Empire: First Marketers : (music playing) During this lesson, we will analyze the part that the Ottoman Empire (today’s Turkey) played in the establishment of the coffee culture of the world. I am tempted to say that this role is no less critical than the role of Ethiopia, which gave coffee to the world, or Yemen, which laid the foundation of the coffee beans trade. Because thanks to the Ottomans, coffee as a drink managed to actually pave its way into the rest of the world, first of all, to Europe, from where its lightning-fast development could no longer be stopped. The Turks brought it from the origins (from Ethiopia and Yemen) to the markets of its consumption (Europe). Therefore, I never fail to reiterate that the role of the N1 global market expert in the history of coffee rightly belongs to the Ottoman Empire. But let's move on step by step. By tradition, the end of the Middle Ages is associated with the capture of Byzantium by the Ottoman Turks and with the fall of Constantinople in 1453. They made this city the capital of their Empire, which lasted until the beginning of 1922. The Ottoman state became a real empire in the 15th century, which played the most important role in the development of Turkish statehood, as it helped them finally gain a foothold in Europe. This event has up to this day remained an important characteristic of modern Turkey. The reign of the Ottoman Dynasty lasted 623 years from 1299 to 1922, when the empire was abolished after the defeat in the World War One. The state reached the peak of its power and influence in the 15-17th centuries. During this period, the Ottoman Empire was one of the mightiest countries of the world - a multinational, multilingual state, stretching from the borders of the Holy Roman Empire in the north to Yemen and Abyssinia in the south, from Algeria in the west to the Caspian Sea in the east. The Ottomans controlled most of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Today, some historians describe the Ottoman Empire as “the Muslim Rome,” considering it a Muslim version of the Roman Empire. This great state became familiar with coffee after having borrowed the traditions of its drinking from the Arabic world. But the main driver of the coffee drink promotion around the world was the fact that the Ottomans adopted the culture of its daily consumption. Therefore, it may be no accident that the period of the most active penetration of; coffee into the world coincides with the heyday of the Ottoman Empire. And since this powerful state controlled both coffee growing regions (Ethiopia, Yemen) and potential markets (first of all, Europe), the Ottomans actually became a kind of bridge that paved the way for coffee into the future. In the 17th century, strong military and administrative structures of the Empire were weakened by the anarchy that existed in the times of rule of weak-willed sultans. Nevertheless, the Ottoman Empire continued to remain a militant country until it was defeated in the famous and very important battle of Vienna in 1683, which put an end to the advance of the Turks in Europe. I emphasize once again that it was the Ottomans who, using the language of modern marketing specialists, positioned coffee for the future. And when they were defeated in the battle mentioned above - even that defeat turned into one of the most important milestones in the history of dissemination of coffee But we will talk about this during our next lessons. 11. World Coffee FORMATS: (music playing) In this lesson, we will switch from the chronological part of our course to the history of coffee FORMATS and will try to find out, what coffee formats exist today. First, let me explain what are “the coffee formats.” The word “format” refers to the forms of historical development of coffee that have turned into recognized business concepts. In other words, these types of coffee drinking have so firmly rooted in a particular culture that the vendors began to offer them as a service. I note that in this case it is not about methods of making coffee (there are thousands of them) or about the forms in which the coffee culture developed in a particular country. For example, despite the fact that the Ethiopian coffee ceremony was the first and one of the brightest cultures, today, it does not belong to the global coffee business models. According to unspoken classification, there exist 4 main world formats of coffee establishments. They are: 1. Oriental coffee house, based on oriental-style coffee. 2. Vienna coffee house, based on Viennese coffee style. 3. Italian bar, based on the pespresso we are already well acquainted with. 4. American coffee shop, based on filter coffee. We will analyze each of these formats in separate lessons. On my part, I will add that I am genuinely sorry that such an incredibly powerful concept as the Ethiopian coffee ceremony does not fall into the list of the most popular formats. Yes, it is very complex in terms of its procedure, and it’s not easy to perform it in a business version. However, in reality, the Ethiopian ceremony is both the most authentic way of making the drink and the most complete one. At least because only this method includes roasting coffee beans during the ceremony. And only during this ceremony the client is supposed to drink several cups of coffee at a time. But I do not doubt for a second that sooner or later the demand for the Ethiopian ceremony will increase many times. In the meantime, as a bonus for you and respect for the homeland of coffee, I am attaching to this lesson a very informative and detailed film about the Ethiopian ceremony - the oldest coffee tradition of our planet. 12. ETHIOPIAN Coffee Ceremony: The most important country in the world coffee history is undoubtedly Ethiopia. It was here that our favorite drink was born in first prepare it. Ethiopian coffee ceremony was destined to become the beginning of all coffee traditions on our planet. Stunning in its death, emotion, solemnity, and in the same time simplicity, procedure. Here is the most complete and detailed explanation of all its main elements. Let's start with the name. Foreigners often call it the buena coffee ceremony. Such a title is not entirely correct since the word Buena already means coffee. Therefore, it is more accurate to say either a coffee ceremony or a Buena ceremony. Guests and friends, I usually invited to the ceremony with the words newborn knotted too. Let's go drink coffee. It begins with arranging chairs in a circle inside an open area where the ceremony will take place. They woman who holds this ceremony as a rule, the hostess of the house, because only women may coffee, scatters leaves and grass. Or an Mussolini occasions flowers on the floor. Vegetation is a symbol of hospitality, gratitude to nature, and the sign of respect for the guests. And since the venue of the ceremonies sacred, it needs to be decorated. Then the woman Guernsey fire to roast coffee beans. It can be like a little bonfire or a compact call burner, or a modern gas burner, which is becoming increasingly popular because of its practicality. Another fundamental point, our instances, the lady puts them on a small saucer mirror with some bark. It is believed that the small coincidence makes evil spirits leave the house. The plate with glowing mirror is placed next to the burner, coffee roaster. Thus this males are mixed, given a peculiar constantly changing aroma from roasted coffee to incense. Their last usually pronounces much stronger. After that, the hostess washes green coffee beans to be roasted. The main idea of this step is evidently to clean the beans, but also to motion. Then this contributes to their better roasting. Next, the woman quickly peaks and throws out low quality beans. Now the coffee is ready to start the procedure. Next phase is not an obligatory part of the tradition, but often, while women are busy with coffee, Men offer guess and themselves as short of something stronger than just coffee. For example, a local gene, ARRA K, inefficient mood razor and communication facilitator. The hostess meanwhile starts the roasting process. She puts coffee beans on a large middle dish and set it on fire. Traditionally the platter was solid, but lately, a kind of frying pan with holes often replaces the irregular one. The lady is continuously stirring the coffee beans with a metal stick similar to a small fire iron, bringing them to a dark color. There is no any special requirements for lighting, but most of the ceremonies are passing in the twilight. There is a lot of mistake in it, especially when the smoke from roasting beans begins to swirl inside the room, it moves slower than usual as if hypnotized by the melancholic rhythm of the whole ceremony, coffee is roasted fairly quickly, six to seven minutes after that begins what I call the acquaintance with coffee. The hostess removes the Friend pen with steaming coffee, shifts them to another plate, clay Austro, and alternately brings it to each of the guests. Every guest makes several movements with his poll, as if pushing the aroma of freshly roasted coffee beans towards him and inhaling deeply, enjoying these fragments. At the same time, the guest says bottom to know very good. Their fragrance tickles your sense of smell. Indeed, Ethiopian elders believed that the buena ceremony without sniffing is incomplete. Before starting to grind crash coffee, the hostess selects all under roasted beans, the valid beans go into a vertical mortar grinder called McCutchen. The sound chair here is pronounced with a click of the tongue, like MOOC data. The lady takes a short pestle in her hands and begins to crash the beans in the mortar with precise movements. This technique is not easy at all. Definitely stop feel in your hand after 15 to 20 seconds of heating. Moreover, it is not only hard physically, but also requires fantastic accuracy skill you have to beat very precisely in order not to hit your fingers at full speed. After grinding the coffee, she puts it on a piece of paper and then throws a handful in a jar with their legendary named Giovanna. She does it in the same way as in the old days. Gunpowder was poured into the gun barrels. Sometimes various spices can also be charged in the Giovanna, cardamom cloves or seen among then the lady pores called water into the port. Sets it on fire. Digit banana, standing on the fire, seems to be one of the most beautiful images of the whole ceremony. Interestingly, the hostess also pour some water into a small plastic cup and places it near her. When a few minutes later, the coffee starts to boil and almost gets out. The lady pour some cold water from this cup into the coffee pot. Then she pours some coffee back into the cup. And then she hits the cold liquid again to bring down the boil. And she repeats this cooling operation from time to time. After brewing coffee, the woman removes the coffee pot and allows it to cool for about five minutes. During this time, grounds depositing into port, Gemini is placed on a small round stamp. Woman from Dr. banana tree leaves. The same leaves, only green are also used to hold the hotpot by the handle. Guests, Alford light snacks, local injera, spongy flatbread, or traditional bread or popcorn. Most often the status are served from the very beginning of the ceremony, spreading them in large plates. But at first, they guess take quite a bit. This is not to eat, but to refresh the taste buds before coffee. Well, the bread is okay. But how did the choice fall on popcorn? I would venture to suggest that not only thanks to its taste, but also because of its appearance, dishes with white flakes consistently attract your attention for creating particular color contrast with coffee. A mixture of roasted barley seeds with some other cereals is often used as a snack too. Sometimes it is prepared right during the ceremony. The coffee has infused down a bit and the woman starts pouring it into cups on a small table in front of her, the capsid, the ceremony can be clay as well as WuDunn, bamboo or porcelain as a modern version, in most cases, Ethiopian coffee cups have no handles. The proper way to hold them is not from the bottom. It can be hot With fingertips at the top. Sometimes the hostess puts in the cup a herb sprig called tenor Adam. Adam's health. It has a calming, relaxing effect. Sugar is served with coffee, but in the depth of the country, it can also be sold. Salted coffee is a common thing in Ethiopia. Important node, guess, do take cups with coffee from the hostess with both hands. I would even say 1.5 hands because the cup is taken with one hand while the other one supported by the elbow. The Ethiopian greeting looks similar by the way. Traditionally, the cups are distributed starting from the eldest most respected person in the ceremony. Almost always guess, praise coffee after the first sip. Expressions can be different. One of the most famous is yebbeuda snazzy. But to MFA, only hot coffee can be enjoyed. The hostess adds a handful of ground coffee to the Giovanna for some water and says the coffee pot on fire again. At this point she uses a curious tool, a little stick with something like a cork at Damn. It is used to plug the port for preserving coffee aroma and sometimes also for pushing through the coffee grounds stuck in the JEB Anna's neck all these time. Guess a socializing, laughing, discussing something, or just sitting. The hostess meanwhile, can repeat a couple more times her popcorn offering. So it is the first part of the buena ceremony. Then the woman pores, we're into the port and the whole preparation procedure is repeated. Guess a served this second cup of coffee and after a while, they drink the third cup. To complete the circle, the first gap is named a bowl, the second is tonight, and the third is called Baraka. The names of the cups may variety in different regions of the country, but their symbolism remains an alternate. The first cup is drunk for taste as it is the strongest. The second copy is run for good luck. Third, the weakest is for a blessing, because with the completion of the ceremony, you are blessed. By tradition, you can drink one cup or three, but not to. Older people use the same cup for all three sets. Well, the younger generation washes them or uses the clean one for each session. Due to its length, the ceremony nowadays is often reduced. Only one cap can be prepared for a guest. In a trimmed version when customers have very little time, roasting is excluded from the ceremony. Coffee in such cases, used already roasted young people in a hurry during this way, mostly in a commercial coffee ceremony, Somewhere in his city coffee shop. Nowadays you can even catch a very light Buena ceremony version with coffee port from a thermos somewhere. A miniature Giovanna can be served to your cup of coffee. So you pour yourself some drink. Obviously, in this case, the procedure loses a descent part of its charm. But what can you do? The modern world dictates its conditions. However, the buena has always belong to almost sacred traditions. The Ethiopians say that if someone had suddenly died during the ceremony. Everyone would have finished their coffee first, and only then they started to take care of the dead. At first glance, drinking three cups of coffee for an hour, looks like a huge dose, but here, there is a nuance. Each subsequent cup turns out to be weaker, since the main part of the brute grounds remains the same. I repeat the same portion of ground coffee is brood all the time. Just a little bit of fresh coffee and water is added to the. Thus you consume three cups and get the threads of 1.5, maximum of two cups of coffee. Another unique point is the Ethiopians attitude towards drinking coffee by children. It seems that they studied the effect of coffee on the child's body over the centuries, the children in Ethiopia start drinking coffee from the age of 14. Probably it is related to the physiology. But the Ethiopians explain that as by the age of 14 years old, a child is considered an adult and can earn himself a coffee. In other words, the moment one starts drinking coffee is a kind of acquisition of official adult status. But in reality, Ethiopian start slowly giving coffee to children from five to six years of age. And this is done very prudently. The child is first allowed to drink from the third, the weakest cup. Later he begins to try a stronger second cup. And then when he is already coming of age, he's allowed to drink the first cup, the strongest one. The coffee ceremony in Ethiopia can also be held in the evening. It always surprises foreigners. How can they drink coffee at night? It can be explained by the same progressive loosening of coffee strength mentioned above. The third cup already has a prominent character. The whole ceremony usually lasts about an hour, but as they say, in good company, it can take a couple of hours. Nowadays, a ceremony can be performed even right in the condominium apartment. We must admit that along coffee ceremony in our days begins to lose two fastest press, at least in cafes and bars. However, this victory will never be either undisputable or complete. Never. Because the most ancient coffee ceremony of the World will undoubtedly live forever. Ethiopia has 83 various ethnic groups. They are so different that only the coffee ceremony unites them all. It doesn't matter if you are a Christian or a Muslim. Buena has no borders. Actually in all languages of the country where the coffee was born, there is an expression, may you always have plenty of coffee in BCE, heavy and attended the ceremony at least once. You definitely fall in love with it. In quite difficult to explain the reasons why. Most likely because everything is perfect in history, aesthetic procedure, communication, delicious taste of coffee. But most importantly, it has a soul. 13. ORIENTAL-Style Types of Coffee: (music playing) During this lesson, we will discuss two basic Oriental-style coffee drinks. It should be said that this term is applied to several coffee cultures at once,; but these must be distinguished very clearly. It is important because this term is understood somewhat differently in different parts of the world. In particular, for Europe, the symbol of Oriental coffee today is the technique of making Turkish coffee. But Middle East is the territory of many Muslim countries each of which has its own unique culture totally different from that of making coffee in cezve. Basically, there are two kinds of Oriental coffee. The first one is making coffee in the Dallah coffee pot, which was commonly used by the Arab population in the Middle East. The Bedouins used to carry such pot with them. It is very easy to use, and you can quickly prepare coffee right on the open fire. One specific feature of such a drink was the use of a great deal of cardamom due to which the coffee mixed with it turned yellow rather than brown, this is why they began to call it “Yellow Coffee.” By the way, just now, when I'm delivering to you this lecture, the 1st ever Gahwa Championship is underway in the capital of the United Arab Emirates. The second kind of Oriental coffee is Turkish coffee prepared in cezve. They brewed it applying one of the oldest methods of making coffee, which, as we have already mentioned, has become a centuries-old tradition in the Ottoman Empire. Therefore, it would be more correct to call these kinds not just “Oriental coffee”, but to specify - “Arabic coffee” or “Turkish coffee.” And once you decide to go on saying “Oriental coffee”, then you need to be correct and remember that this term is categorical and includes several coffee cultures at once. As regards Turkish coffee, it should also be noted that while this culture originally comes from Turkey, it is not the only country where coffee is prepared in this way. For example, do you know the difference between “Turkish coffee” and “Greek coffee”? The question seems to be straightforward one, but a lot of specialists whom I posed it were at a loss to answer. I must say right away that in fact we are talking about the same drink, it's just that it is called differently in these countries. Both in Turkey and in Greece, such coffee is made in a pot, which the Turks call “Cezve.” And the Greeks call their coffee pot “Ibrik” or “Briki.” Until 1974, coffee in Greece was also called Turkish coffee, but then all of a sudden the Greeks began to avoid naming it “Turkish coffee” and quickly promoted the status of the “Greek style coffee.” And today, if you call coffee "Turkish" in Greece, and "Greek" in Turkey, you will if not offend, but surely touch the national feelings of the residents of the country in which you ordered coffee. So, what happened in 1974? In 1974, a part of the Cyprus island inhabited by the Greeks was occupied by Turkish troops. And now, as you know, it is divided into two parts. One is called the Republic of Cyprus, and the other is the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Since then, relations between the two countries, including their coffee cultures, have taken different, at least autonomous courses. And for political correctness reasons, international Oriental coffee competitions are today called “Jezve - slash - Ibrik Championships” to show respect to the coffee and cultural specifics of both countries. We’ll talk about creating original corporate and national drinks in my next course devoted to coffee marketing. And for now I just would like you to understand that creation of a new national coffee beverage is, first of all, an element of self-determination, state self-identification and, in the end, an element of self-respect. 14. VIENNESE Coffee and Kulchytsky: (music playing) The next mainstream coffee format we are going to analyze is Vienna coffee house. Its addition to the list of the leading coffee models of the world raises a question from many baristas and coffee lovers: "Why?" After all, this name is not so popular outside of Austria, right?.. But the whole point here is that today the term "Viennese format" is used more to call the artistic and commercial STYLE of a given coffee shop rather than specific geographical location or type of drink. The ancestor of the Viennese style was Yuri (or, in the Austrian way, Georg) Kulchytsky. My legendary compatriot who, with no exaggeration, played a part in the development of the European coffee culture no less important than the one the Beatles played in music. He undoubtedly went down in coffee history, but his real role, in my opinion, is much more important than what Wikipedia describes. From the age of 20, he lived with the Cossacks in the Zaporoska Sich, which was their famous military and administrative center. In the late 1660s Yury was captured by the Turks. He steeped himself in the Turkish language and traditions (including coffee culture). After his release from captivity, he moved to Vienna. Kulchytsky was a first-class linguist and, apart from Turkish, had excellent command of German, Hungarian, Romanian and Polish. In 1683, a 200,000 army of the Turks under the command of the Ottoman vizier Kara-Mustafa besieged Vienna. After a siege of many days famine and epidemics began in the city, and the authorities were almost ready to surrender Vienna to the Turks. In this situation, Kulchytsky and his friend, disguised in the Turkish costume, made their way past enemy patrols and guided the forces of Austria’s allies to relieve the beleaguered city. The ensuing battle, which took place on September 12, of 1683, ended in a complete victory over the Turkish army. Yuri Kulchytsky became a hero and was generously rewarded for his services to the city. In addition to a large amount of money, he was appointed as the personal translator of the Austrian emperor from the Turkish language, and his company was exempted from taxes for 20 years. He was given ownership of a house in one of Vienna's districts. What’s important for us, when the Turks were defeated, there were plenty of spoils for the victors, including a famous 300 (some say 500) bags of grayish-green beans of unknown purpose. The Austrians assumed they were fodder for camels. But these were so much loved by us today, but unknown at that time for Europe, coffee beans. The Turkish military leader carried them with him in large quantities in order to warm up the bodies and souls of his soldiers before the battles. When Kulchytsky was asked what reward he desired for his heroic feat, rather than privileges or gold, he asked to be awarded the sacks of mysterious grain. When he had been a captive of the Turks, Yury Kulchytsky had learned all about coffee, and he had no difficulty in recognizing them for what they were. He had the idea (as it turned out later, the brilliant idea) not only of opening the first coffeehouse in Vienna, but also of making coffee more popular. At that time coffee was used only as a medicine, and was really rather expensive. In order to advertise a drink the Austrians had never before come across, Kulchytsky dressed up in Turkish costume and hawked it through the streets in jugs on a tray, and then, in 1684, he finally opened the first coffeehouse in Vienna. It was called "The Blue Bottle Inn." The license to open the first coffee shop in the city to the hero of defense as a privilege was granted personally by King Leopold. At first, however, the unusual, bitter taste of the new beverage was not to the Austrians’ taste. Worse, coffee was a Turkish beverage, which hardly endeared it to the inhabitants of Vienna after their recent privations. They bought a cup of coffee only out of respect for the owner of the coffeehouse. Analyzing the situation, Kulchytsky hastily wrote and published a book in German titled “The Tale of an Eyewitness Who in Turkish Dress Did Cross Through the Enemy Camp and Returned Back, First Bringing the News.” The book became a best-seller, and its publication attracted new customers. The resourceful Cossack, playing up to his image, began welcoming them in “the actual” Turkish costume he had worn. Kulchytsky was a very talented market promoter and clearly saw what the main problem was for the wide distribution of coffee. As already mentioned, the drink was invigorating, but very bitter. And taste, as you know, is everything. Then chance gave him a helping hand. Once Kulchytsky added sugar to a cup of coffee and liked the sweet drink much better. The first pioneer of coffee trials in Europe continued his experiments and added a little milk and thought that was even better. Thus was born “Viennese Coffee,” a beverage destined to occupy a prominent place among the world’s greatest coffee cultures. Prepared to the new recipe, coffee was hugely popular. It became fashionable to drink a cup the moment you woke up. The doctors of Vienna declared it beneficial for health. According to contemporary accounts, many ladies took coffee with them even when they went to church. After dinner, officers took coffee as they smoked their pipes. The new beverage even managed to put pressure on wine! The coffee craze became so big that counterfeit coffee made from roast wheat, peas, and even acorns, appeared. Meanwhile, the only authentic coffee continued to be served at Kulchytsky’s, and he proved skilled at exploiting his monopoly. He taught those wishing to learn how to make coffee properly (for an appropriate fee), and demand grew to such an extent that he set up a kind of coffee college. Its female “graduates” were much sought after by wealthy families and, unlikely ordinary servants, they worked only at brewing coffee. Gradually, with the aid of the enterprising Ukrainian, similar institutions sprang up in many parts of the city and Kulchytsky headed the “Coffee Sellers’ Guild”, an association of Vienna’s coffee traders. Speaking modern language, Kulchytsky created in Vienna a network of barista schools and founded the Speciality Coffee Association of Vienna of that time. By the way, in the Kulchitsky’s establishments, they served coffee with a glass of water. This tradition was borrowed from the Turks and has remained a distinct feature of the Viennese coffee style. Serving Viennese coffee (with whipped cream) is invariably accompanied by a mandatory glass of water. Meanwhile, Yury Kulchytsky continued to develop his business. He commissioned crescent-shaped pastries from a famous Viennese pastry chef, and served these with a cup of coffee. Now his customers had the satisfaction of drinking Viennese Coffee while consuming a bun resembling the hated crescent on the Turkish flags. Visitors flocked to the Blue Bottle Inn to take their revenge on the Turks by eating a crescent-shaped cake (aka “Kipfel”) what came to be known by its French name, a “croissant.” Austrian officer Auguste Tsang founded a Vienna Bakery in Paris, which included a selection of kipfel. It became so popular that Parisians began to copy it everywhere. As I've already said, for its shape, the French version of the kipfel was called "croissant" ("crescent") and over time has become one of the symbols of France. So even in this matter the authority of Kulchitsky played a role. The fact is, however, that the first coffee houses in Europe were opened in London and Venice about 50 years earlier than the Kulchytsky’s coffee house. He did not promote coffee outside Austria, but worked in the Vienna area only. And he was far from the only one who added coffee and sugar to milk - both French and Italians did this. But why, then, it was Yuri Kulchytsky who became such a bright historic personality?.. I think, first of all, because he was, as they would say today, a "marketing genius.” Not only Kulchytsky significantly modified coffee as a drink, adding sugar, milk and a croissant to it and retaining the water supply - he became the first committed coffee promoter in Europe. Dressing in Turkish clothes, writing a book to attract customers, organization of coffee training courses, turning the Turkish crescent into a bagel brand - is this not marketing in its classic form?.. Moreover, Kulchytsky was a very strong personality - a Cossack, a warrior, a hero. And, most importantly for us, Yuri Kulchytsky single-handedly created the Viennese Coffee style, which was soon adopted by many capitals of Europe. Like any entrepreneur who gained global fame, Kulchytsky was lucky with the time when he was doing his business. After all, historically, his success coincided with the battle of Vienna, one of the most important fights in the history of Europe, which stopped the Ottoman conquest of the continent and actually ended the Turkish domination. It is significant that this was the moment of beginning of just flash-like flowering of coffee culture, and coffee literally in 20 years conquered the entire Europe. So Kulchytsky in a sense became the successor of the coffee business of the Ottoman Empire. It turns out that even with their defeat, the Turks helped develop the coffee culture - the 300 bags of coffee left by them became the seeds of the future glory of coffee Europe. This lesson turned out to be a bulky one, but we have analyzed the Vienna Coffee House format in all details. 15. Espresso: History of the MACHINE: (music playing) In this lesson, we will move on to the modern history of coffee. After all, it was Italy that created the culture on which rests today's coffee world development. As in many other branches of human activity, the central point of this new universe became a MACHINE in the form of espresso coffee machine. Therefore, we will analyze the next stage of development of the coffee culture of our planet through the evolution of the espresso coffee machine. Most experts who take interest in the history of coffee know the name of Luigi Bezzera as creator of the espresso machine. In recognition of historical justice, you should be aware that it is entrepreneur from Turin, Angelo Moriondo, who can be considered the true father of the espresso technology. It was him who in 1884, 17 years before Bezzera, presented the first model of a coffee machine with a completely new system at the Expo exhibition. The machine’s name was "la Brasiliana.” Moriondo patented it as “A new steam machine for economical and instant conversion of coffee into a drink, a method by A. Moriondo.” In the coffee makers that existed up to that point of time, coffee for customers was infused in the simplest way, and it took 10-15 minutes to make a cup of coffee. The new machine was driven by the steam power generated thanks to heating a 150-liter boiler filled with water using a burner under it. The newly designed machines solved the following key problems: a) increasing in the number of servings produced, since the new coffee makers were intended for bars and cafes; and b) improvement of quality of coffee - the greater power with which the water was forced through coffee meant a better extraction. Using steam allowed to achieve significant improvements in terms of both of the above criteria. The machine was designed in the form of a vertical column, and thanks to the power of the steam it was now possible to prepare a coffee in 1-2 minutes. In general, the machine was capable to make up to 300 cups of coffee per hour. In fact, this was the beginning of the "Espresso Machine Revolution.” Angelo Moriondo installed the new coffee machine in his bar under the slogan saying: “Drop in, and we will make you a coffee in 1 minute!” However, Moriondo’s invention had never been commercialized. The entrepreneur made literally several machines, which he used only in his own establishments. That is probably why the contemporary public is hardly aware of Angelo Moriondo’s name. Until recently, even coffee historians began their accounts of events not from Moriondo, but from a Milanese engineer Luigi Bezzera (Italians pronounce his name as “bEzzera”). 17 years later, in 1901, Luigi Bezzera presented to the coffee industry an improved model of the Moriondo machine. A few years later, he sold the license for serial production and distribution of his coffee machines to Desiderio Pavoni. And already in 1906, during annual Expo exhibition, Pavoni and Bezzera presented a new coffee machine named “Ideale.” And, most importantly, that model was launched into mass production. Then the term “Caffè Espresso” first appeared over their exposition stand& (we will analyze the full meaning of the word during the next lesson). It should be said that it was by no means the espresso familiar to us today. The coffee, which was prepared in the first coffee makers, had no crema at all. Due to the heating on an open fire, the coffee acquired a burnt taste, and by consistency it resembled modern filter coffee. At this point, one more subtlety needs to be explained. Before appearance of the Bezzera and Pavoni prototype, the coffee machines then used in cafes and coffee bars (especially in England and Germany), prepared coffee in the most primitive way. They didn’t even brew it - the client’s cup was simply filled with hot water from a large heated tank, after which some ground coffee was added right into the cup. The Italians called this beverage “instant coffee” (“caffè istantaneo”). Interestingly, today, the Italians use this term to denote soluble coffee. In addition to speed, one great advantage of the new “espresso” coffee makers was that they produced the already PREPARED drink, ready for use by the client. After the invention of the “instant machine”, the number of the new producing companies began to grow very quickly. Pierre Theresio Arduino founded one of the firms that played a critical part in further development of the espresso technology. Arduino, well-known to many coffee lovers by the figure of eagle mounted on tops of his coffee machines, made a huge contribution to the design and aesthetics of the coffee machines. To a large extent, thanks to his efforts, the Arduino coffee makers not only became widely spread in Italy, but were also actively imported into neighboring France and other European countries, thereby promoting the espresso coffee culture there. I want to draw your attention to another interesting fact. The attendant who was operating the coffee machine at that time was called not “barista”, but “macchinista” - “operator, mechanic.” Because he had to constantly operate the machine, to monitor the vapor pressure, etc. At that time, to be eligible for employment as coffee vendor, you had to hold a stoker certificate allowing to work with boiler equipment rather than to have knowledge of coffee or barista diploma. Looking ahead, I have to say that the term “barista” has long existed in the Italian language, but it came into wide use only in the 20th century. Mussolini's patriotic influence on the country resulted in adjustments to the language vocabulary. In particular, the word "barman", considered too American, was replaced by "barista", which sounded more Italian. At the same time, let us keep in mind that initially the term “barista" meant the OWNER of the bar, who, naturally, was involved in the process of coffee making too. And only at the very end of the 20th century this word began to denote “a person who makes only coffee.” Meanwhile, the coffee machines of the new type continued to evolve. In the 30s of the last century, in line with the spirit of the era of rationalism, the design of coffee makers became more simple, the pompous elements of the art nouveau style began to go out of fashion, and the machines themselves changed their shapes from vertical to horizontal. September 5 of 1938, became the greatest day in the history of the espresso coffee machine. On this day, Achille Gaggia, owner of a Milanese café who was looking for new coffee preparation techniques, patented his piston-driven or, as it is called, “lever” coffee machine. Instead of steam, to extract coffee, Gaggia employed the manual power of the operator, who used a lever to pump the pressure, which forced hot water through coffee. By the way, the English term “pulling a shot”, which means “to prepare an espresso”, was coined at that time. Because you had to “pull a handle” to prepare a serving of coffee. The innovation was that thanks to the creation of higher pressure, a dense golden-nut-colored foam was formed on top of coffee, which Gaggia called “crema”, the Italian for “cream.” If earlier the foam was just a layer of whipped-foaming coffee, now it has become “a natural layer of coffee oils, forming a dense foam on the surface of coffee.” By introducing his technique, Gaggia had radically changed the quality of the foam. From that moment, they began to use high pressure for making coffee, and the famous "9 bars" have already become a dogma. However, at that time such a method (and such a foam), like everything new, were not readily accepted by the customers. And the inventor had to promote his brainchild. To do this, while installing coffee makers in the Milanese bars, he additionally installed in the windows of these establishments huge signs advertising a new type of coffee: “CREMA caffé di caffe naturale” (“Coffee CREAM from natural coffee”). It was a drink without excessive bitterness and free of taste of steam, it was thick, tasty and rich - the authentic espresso that we drink today. Perhaps the only drawback that his coffee machine had, was that it required physical strength to operate it. That’s why only men applied for the barista position of that time. The difficulty was that if the operator worked without due diligence, the released lever could hit him, making baristas of that time easily recognizable by the characteristic scars on the chins. At that time, by the way, they were more often called not “baristas” but “banconistas” - from the word “banco, bancone” (“bar counter”), that is, “person who stands behind the counter.” Unfortunately, the war suspended the mass advancement of the Achille Gaggia's invention, but in 1948 he created the globally renowned today Gaggia company, which began serial production of his revolutionary coffee machines. Italian coffee experts, who realize the epoch-making meaning of the Achille Gaggia's invention, call him “Copernicus of the coffee machine” recognizing the great part of his invention in the progress of the coffee industry. Coffee machine E61 released by Faema company founded by Carlo Valente in Milan in 1945 became another key milestone in the evolution of the machines. Later, in 1948, Valente purchased from Gaggia the copyright to his invention. The views of Valente and Gaggia as regards the future of coffee machines in the market, were fundamentally different. While Gaggia considered his invention a luxury article, Valente sought to reduce the cost of the devices. The latter reasonably assumed there was no need to rely on the manual power of the barista and designed a mechanical pump capable of providing a stable pressure of 9 bar. This device was first embodied in the legendary Faema E61 coffee machine released in 1961 (“E” stands for “Eclipse” in honor of the solar eclipse of that year). In the 60-70s, the espresso coffee machine becomes really Italian and begins its association with world of fine arts. To create new models, coffee machines manufacturers began to work closely with leading designers and architects. Meanwhile, a cup of espresso in the bar becomes an integral part of everyday life for the Italians, turning into their sacred ritual, which could be performed any time and in all bars of the country without exception. Since the 80s of the last century, having firmly entrenched in Europe, the espresso coffee machine began to vigorously conquer the rest of the world, and became both a fashion and a business. And, most importantly, it became the symbol of coffee "Made in Italy.” In 1995, an important merger of two strong players of the coffee machines market happened in Italy: LaCimbali has took over its longtime rival - the afore mentioned Carlo Valento’s Faema. Having thus acquired not only an additional market share and a reputation of a giant, but also a part of the espresso legacy (recall that earlier Faema purchased from Achille Gaggia his revolutionary invention). But LaCimbali deserves historical recognition just as it was: the company has gone all espresso way from the very beginning, since it was founded back in 1912. LaCimbali celebrated its centenary not only having released a new model of the coffee machine, but also by opening of the MUMAC Coffee Machines Museum. I strongly recommend visiting it to those who take interest in the history of espresso when you happen to be in Milan. The museum does not charge any admission fee, you only need to pre-register to visit it& (the link to their web-site is attached). The new millennium brought the integration of computer and touch technologies with the coffee machines, the programmable proportionment of beverages and adoption of the strictest demands to all quality parameters of the prepared espresso. Espresso turned into “Hi-Tech in the cup” and was available everywhere - at airports, hospitals and shops on all continents of the planet. This lesson, during which we studied in detail the history of the espresso coffee machine, also turned out to be rather lengthy. Because today the whole world is extensively practicing the Italian coffee business model. And this model has become even more popular and viable over the past half century. No other coffee technology is currently capable to compete with the efficiency of the espresso industry. And considering the technological superiority - its key commercial advantage - this format will apparently remain the most attractive for baristas and coffee entrepreneurs for a long time to come. 16. WORD "Espresso": True Meaning: (music playing) In this lesson, I am going to tell you about the origin of the word "espresso.” Fortunately, its authentic meaning has been significantly clarified recently, but some beginner baristas old-fashionably think that “espresso” has something to do with “fast”, like a train, method of its preparation. In fact, the essence of this coffee term is different. I have every right to discuss this topic, because I am a linguist according to my original university education. In addition, I have extensive practical experience of living in Italy, and I not only speak fluent Italian, but I am also well acquainted with all realities of this wonderful country. You can find translation of the word “espresso” from Italian into English in various articles and books and on many web-sites dedicated to coffee. As I have already mentioned, this term is defined as “fast”, “quick”, “compact”, “compressed”, “expressed”, etc. But for some reason no one gives its exact translation in accordance with dictionary. Any linguist knows that the first thing he should turn to, is an academic dictionary, which is effectively a language’s written constitution. That is why a specialist, instead of trying to come up with a pet theory based on guesswork, or believing some nonsense he has found on the Internet, will go straight to that source. From the dictionary you, for example, learn that the word "espresso," meaning "a train", comes to Italian in 1852 from the French "exprès," which means not "fast" but "on purpose, specially." Between us, there is no letter "x" in the Italian alphabet - when Italians do meet it, they just pronounce it as "eekess". That’s why "eXpress" train had to be changed to "eSpresso", like the English "eXotic" in its Italian version transformed into "eSotico.” To get the answer, we only need to know, which is the most authoritative dictionary in the language? For English, it is the Oxford English Dictionary, and the Italian equivalent is Zingarelli dictionary. The dictionary clearly explains us that "espresso" is the past participle of the verb "esprimere" - "to express (oneself or an opinion).” So is the literal translation of "espresso" - "expressed, pronounced"? This is often interpreted like that by the coffee traders, which, in principle, would be logical, given the technological strength of the espresso method. True, one of the meanings of the verb “spremere” is ”to squeeze something out” - for example, the Italian for “fresh juice” is “spremuta”. In this case, however, “to squeeze” would rather mean “to force out”. So do we have to settle for “expressed”? Not quite. “Espresso” has an older meaning, closer to the French, which is why linguists now not just translate literally but also look at etymology, the history of a word. In Italian, something made “espresso” is made “expressly, especially at a given moment.” The Zingarelli dictionary’s second meaning of “espresso” points us precisely toward this translation. Older Italians have told me that “spaghetterias” sprang out after the Second World War, analogous to today’s “pizzerias”, except that their main offering was fast spaghetti. Uncooked pasta would hang in bunches above the counter in a spaghetteria and, when a customer ordered a dish, the spaghetti would be taken down and cooked to order. It was called “spaghetti espresso,” which did not mean just “fast spaghetti” but “spaghetti cooked here and now specially for the client.” This, of course, implied the term "made fast" too, but speed in this case was a consequence rather than the essence. So with all our romanticization of espresso coffee, you can’t throw words out of a song - the history says that even spaghetti could be “espresso.” Accordingly, the linguistically correct translation of “espresso” is "Something made this very moment and specially for you." A somewhat complicated translation for one word, but the most accurate one. Accordingly, "caffè espresso" is “coffee made right now and specially for you.” I go along with that as a translator, and can assure you that this is currently also the understanding of Italians in general and of Italian coffee experts in particular. 17. First Steps of Coffee in AMERICA: (music playing) During this lesson, we will analyze the last, 4th coffee format that exists in the world - the American coffee shop. At first glance, it may seem the youngest of all coffee business models. Actually, this is not totally so. Historically, American coffee culture was laid down by the Old World, in particular, by the English coffee houses, which were one of the first to open in Europe. Moreover, the North American continent itself has a very long and rich history of coffee consumption. And the American technique of preparation (filter-coffee) is not technologically complicated, which in this case is an advantage. In addition, this business culture originates from one of the richest and the most developed countries of the world in terms of marketing activity. Over the past few decades, American coffee vendors (toghether with their colleagues from Australia whose contribution in the shaping of the global trends is also very significant). have noticeably changed the rules in the coffee segment. They succeeded not only due to the marketing control of the speciality industry, but also thanks to the borrowing of many aspects of the Italian espresso culture. The first person to bring coffee knowledge to North America was John Smith, an English ship captain, who founded a colony in Virginia in 1607. This is evidenced by the entries made in the captain’s ship journal, where “coffee” and “devices for its grinding” were listed among other cargoes carried by his ship. Smith became acquainted with coffee drink during his travels in Turkey and made up his mind to borrow the Oriental coffee tradition. Incidentally, John Smith was one of the first to introduce the word "coffee” in the English literature. In his "Travels and Adventure” book, it sounded "coffa.” Smith mentioned it when describing Turkish traditions: "Their best drink is "Coffa" of a grain they call "Coava."” The first references to use of coffee on the North American continent date back to 1668. They were about a drink that was prepared from roasted coffee beans with addition of sugar, honey and cinnamon. The first coffee houses in the New World opened just a little bit later than in Europe. Initially, it happened in 1691 in Boston, the oldest city of the United States, which then was unconditionally recognized as coffee capital of America. Soon after, the first coffee houses based on the English prototypes opened in New York (1696), Philadelphia (1700), and other cities. Here I would like to make a small digression and touch upon another period of the coffee history, which we have not discussed yet. More specifically, I want to talk about coffee in England. The role of this country is extremely important, and since coffee history in England actually served as a basis for the coffee development of America, I think we are simply obliged to dedicate to it a part of our course. 18. ENGLAND: Coffee and Newspapers: (music playing) During this lesson, we are going to sort out what English coffee houses were like and how the first European coffee house was opened in England. Also, we are in for an interesting story about how the phrase "voluntary additional payment for high-quality services" began to sound as "tips." It was England, an entirely “tea” country of Europe that became the ancestor of coffee houses on the European continent. The first coffee establishment in Europe was opened in 1650 in the university city of Oxford by a Turkish Jew named Jacob (unfortunately, history has not preserved his family name.) A couple of years later, the British capital followed the lead, and the first coffee house in London was opened in 1652. This happened also thanks to the efforts; of another Turk named Pasqua Rosee, who opened an establishment bearing his name. Very quickly, not even dozens, but hundreds of coffee houses opened their doors in London, each with its own frequenters. The drink became popular so sweepingly that in the 17-18th centuries the number of coffee houses in the English capital was comparable to today’s count. In total, there were more than 3,000 coffee houses in England in 1675. Such success was primarily due to the fact that coffee houses turned into the focal points of the urban life. They took on the role of offices, venues for business meetings, auctions and trading floors, where merchants, brokers and clerks could pursue their businesses. The coffee houses themselves were always crowded, noisy and smoky. They attracted actors and artists, intellectuals and merchants, bankers and politicians. The first chess competitions, by the way, were held in the coffee houses. English coffee houses were nicknamed "Penny Universities", because a mug of coffee cost there one penny. And it was also believed that in a coffee shop “you can get more useful information in one day than in a month of reading books.” At that time, women did not visit coffee houses, while men could get lost there for days. And since strong beverages were also served in the coffee houses, and pimps were constantly sauntering around these places, it was natural that the female part of the English society grew utterly irritated with such state of things. Their displeasure resulted in the famous “Women's Petition Against Coffee” published in 1674. It was a public request to the authorities to prohibit the drink given the tremendous damage from the “...excessive use of that newfangled, abominable, heathenish liquor called COFFEE... which has so crippled our husbands that they became as impotent and unfruitful as those deserts whence that unhappy berry is said to be brought."The males paid back in their own coin having immediately released a counter petition justifying their favorite potion and places of its consumption. The Internet is full of stories that having heard of the women’s grievances King Charles II banned coffeehouses. This is not entirely true. It is enough to explore a little relevant historical documents to find out that on December 29, 1675, the king did issue the "Proclamation for the suppression of coffee houses.” But he did this not to support the women's petition, but due to the high risk of rebellion. Coffee houses became gathering places for progressive minds, literally - "seminaries of sedition", which meant a threat to the authorities. However, the proclamation caused such a storm of anger that the king was forced to urgently cancel his ruling. It was a unique instance when a royal ruling on suppression was canceled after only 9 days of its release. At the beginning of the 18th century, coffee houses acquired such an authority and were so important sources of public information that they even began to demand from the state the right to the newspaper license. The request for the license went that "...regular newspapers were no longer objective and were stuffed with advertising..." (sounds familiar, right?..) To support the freedom of the press, it was proposed to begin to publish a bulletin named Coffee House Gazette. Revenues from the publication, of course, were supposed to be allocated for the benefit of the owners of coffee houses. But this idea didn’t work. Nevertheless, we know a great deal of samples of the printed masterpieces created by the coffee houses. They include the first coffee leaflet dated 1652 and the first advertisement of a coffee house printed in a newspaper in 1657. And even the first ANTI-coffee leaflet of 1672 that called for boycott of coffee because drinking it meant betraying the homeland - literally, “getting engaged to a Turk”. In the 17th century a very interesting trend was observed in the London’s coffee houses. Due to the deficit of small change, they devised coffee tokens, a sort of new currency. They were not a common instrument of payment - each establishment “minted” its own tokens. They were made of brass, copper, tin, and even leather. A token indicated its nominal monetary value as well as the name and address of the issuing coffee shop. Whereas in London coffee was believed to be a Turkish drink, the tokens often featured the Turkish Sultan Suleiman or traditional Turkish cezve coffee pot. The coffee establishments unfailingly accepted the tokens as payment at their face value. Usually they circulated only in the area of the issuing coffee house and, occasionally, in the nearby streets. A Royal decree issued in 1675 stopped their circulation. The culture of coffee drinking, like everything else in the English society, was highly developed then. It allowed for both a professional and social class division of customers. Ordinary customers, for example, when they ordered, had to wait their turn for their coffee to be brewed. But a more elite category of customers (whom nowadays we would call “VIPs”), expected preferential treatment (or, “service” in the language of today), with a special place in the coffeehouse, more attention from the staff and priority service. Accordingly, brass urns were placed in coffeehouses with the inscription “To Insure Prompt Service.” Money was dropped in before the service was received. The inscription on the urn was long and there is a belief that over time “To Insure Prompt Service” became abbreviated as T.I.P.S. - linguists use the term “acronym” to describe this kind of abbreviation. Thus in London coffeehouses was born one of the best-known commercial initiatives to improve customer service. So this term pleasing any barista fully owes its appearance to the English coffee houses. Unfortunately, due to the sharpening of coffee competition and the impact of the governmental regulations on East India Company, which strongly encouraged the tea trade, coffee houses had almost completely vanished from the life of the English society. Only a few of them have evolved into a kind of clubs for the wealthy. But the part that the English coffee houses played in history and further development of coffee on the American continent, can simply not be overestimated. 19. LONDON: Coffeeshop to Empire: (music playing) This lesson is a case study of a London coffee house, which will clearly demonstrate us how British coffee houses of that time operated. First of all, I must repeat that representatives of literally all professions, crafts, estates and political parties of London had their own coffee "headquarters." For example, attorneys gathered at Grecian Coffee House. By the way, Sir Isaac Newton himself was a regular customer there. They say that once he even dissected a dolphin right on a table of the coffee house. Doctors used establishments not only for coffee drinking, but also as offices for consulting patients. In the coffee shop called Bedford, the one near the Covent Garden Theater, a thermometer was installed with marks ranging from “excellent” to “desperate.” Playwrights were afraid to drop in the night after the premiere, fearing devastating criticism. Priests went to Truby or Child near St. Paul’s Cathedral, while at Lunt’s you could even have your hair cut while sipping a cup of coffee. Politicians gathered in Smyrna and Cocoa Tree - each party members in their own coffee house. Stating all these facts, I mean to say that even then the British understood that social value was one of the key values of their national coffee shops. Not that much delicious coffee, but heated debate and communication were the gist of 17th-century London coffee houses. Enviable future awaited some of those establishments. For example, Jonathan’s Coffee House, where stock brokers gathered, eventually evolved into London Stock Exchange. And Edward Lloyd’s Coffee House in Lombard Street has become the center of the global insurance business and the headquarters of Lloyd’s of London. Let me dwell upon the latter in more detail. Lloyd, I must say, was a truly savvy entrepreneur. In those years, only ships could be insured, and it was a bridge that became subject of the first non-marine insurance transaction of the brilliant insurer. He came up with the idea of insuring Tower Bridge as ... a ship. In the time of Lloyd, insurance became widespread in England, where maritime trade was developing rapidly. Venturous people with tight wallets saw money in this area of business. So, before sending their ships to the sea, shipowners started to meet in coffee houses (well, where else?..) to take the risk of financial loss in the event of disappearance or damage of a ship or cargo in exchange for a small fee. Have your ever noticed ship bells hanging right inside some of the English pubs? Today, it’s just an element of the interior, but then the bell spread information and news: when an accident happened with any vessel, the personnel of the coffee house tolled the bell, removed from a sunken frigate. One stroke of the bell was good news, two strokes brought bad news. If the bell tolled three times, that meant that a ship had perished. Ever since the time of fragile sailboats, this bell has been called the "bell of doom.” Lloyd was a brilliant merchant and an excellent promoter - having sensed a demand for information, he began to publish newspapers - leaflets containing all sea port gossip and rumors, information about arrivals and departures of ships to and from the port, prices for colonial goods, and a lot of other information. Those wishing to read the reports paid Lloyd one penny. In addition, a coffee shop employee with a good articulation read aloud the latest commercial and shipping industry news. Before such a summary report was read, the owner personally rang a silver table-bell to order silence. Edward Lloyd quickly realized that his non-core activity in the form of providing interested parties with important information, related to shipping, generated much higher income than his coffee house, and that underwriting insurance policies gave him a chance to get wealthy quickly and without much risk. Therefore, he began to conclude agreements and to underwrite policies on his own behalf. In addition, Lloyd organized auctions selling colonial goods, foreclosed ships, and ships seized from pirates. In particular, he came up with an idea of conducting a new original type of auction. We all know what is "gavel sale" - the auction (it is called "Dutch auction"), when the final price is approved with the last, third stroke of the gavel. Lloyd began to organize sales called "candle auctions.” Such auction took place with a lit candle, into which a steel needle was stuck an inch below the candle-wick. The bargain lasted until the candle flame expired, and the item put for sale was sold at the price declared immediately before the needle fell into the candlestick. A great innovative step for those times was Lloyds News, a leaflet launched by Lloyd in 1696. It was published three times a week with a circulation of several hundred copies. Given that at that time, there was only one printed edition in all of England, this made Lloyd’s name widely known in the country. You must agree it was not a bad progress - from a small coffee house to a company with a turnover of several billions. Even if it took 325 years to make it. 20. How AMERICA Switched To Coffee: (music playing) During this lesson, we will return to the New World and we end this section dedicated to formats with the story about how America became a coffee country. Many coffee lovers heard the term "Boston Tea Party", although not many understand what kind of tea party was that, and moreover, what does coffee have to do with this event. Meanwhile, for the United States of America this event has become symbolic and is one of the country’s historic moments. Since the United States was a British colony at the beginning of its development, tea, traditional for England, prevailed as the national drink in the country for many years. At the very end of the 17th century, the English Parliament granted the East India Company the monopoly on the supplies of tea to the UK. And, to suppress competition, at the beginning of the 18th century, the Parliament passed a law ordering North American colonies to purchase tea from the UK only. Due to high excise duties, it became more economically feasible for the population of the colonies to buy tax-free smuggled tea instead of the tea from Britain. Sensing a business opportunity, French and Dutch coffee merchants started to aggressively penetrate the American market offering cheap coffee beans. In response, in 1773, the British Government initiated the Tea Law that allowed the East India Company to directly sell tea in North American colonies at a price twice less than the prices asked by the local tea traders and smugglers. The law has led to the sharp reduction of the price of tea in the colonies, but it aggravated political risks and gave rise to the revolutionary sentiments. The Americans considered the tea dumping as an artful attempt of the British Crown to influence the local policy in the North American colonies and to interdict the movement for independence. Then Samuel Adams, the leader of the American revolutionary group named "The Sons of Liberty” called on consignees of tea and intermediaries of the East India Company to cease their operations. Warehouses, shops and even residential houses of those who did not support the rebellion were pogromed. On December 16, 1773, a ship named Dartmouth arrived in Boston Harbor with a cargo of tea from the East India Company. More than 7,000 out-raged Bostonians gathered in the port. A conflict broke out between the port administration and “The Sons of Liberty.” The revolutionaries quickly gathered several rallies where the speakers demanded to destroy the tea. The owner and the captain of “Dartmouth” promised to return the cargo to the UK. However, the governor of Boston ordered to block the harbor and to prevent departure of unloaded ships, insisting on payment of taxes. Then 200 members of “The Sons of Liberty”, dressed in Indians' national costumes, got on board the Dartmouth and two more ships that had just arrived with tea, quickly emptied the holds and threw overboard about 45 tons of tea worth almost 2 million dollars in current prices. Some urban residents made attempts to collect the precious tea leaves from water, but the tea was already damaged. This event went down in history as "The Boston Tea Party” and became one of the triggers of the American War of Independence, reinforcing the strive of the people of Thirteen British colonies on the North American continent to become independent from the British Crown. Thus started the American Revolution, which further escalated into American War of Independence. It was this event that firmly bound Americans with coffee. Drinking tea became unpatriotic, because it personified British evil. In sign of solidarity, many colonists gave up tea replacing it with coffee or “aromatic extract” brewed from raspberry leaf and other herbal extracts. Coffee drink began to enjoy increasingly higher demand until it rather quickly became the national drink of the new state. That is how the United States of America became a coffee country. 21. The King of Coffee with ALCOHOL: (music playing) During our two next lessons, I will tell you about beverages, which most coffee lovers, I can bet, have never heard of before. But first, let us talk about the Irish Coffee that is well known to all of you. Why did I decide to discuss this drink? What is unknown in it? – you may ask. Speaking of Irish coffee, I would like to not only mark a date in history when certain event took place in Ireland. I mean to say something different. The history of different aspects of human life, be it coffee, weapons or cinema, is not just a description of a sequence of events. First of all, these are EVENTS that occurred somewhere on this or that day and year. And event is something special that happened at some moment. Something that changed the usual course of events in the world. And while in the history of a country this may be a battle or a political milestone, in the coffee world it is most often some kind of invention or a new drink. Irish coffee became such invented drink that gave birth to a whole new culture of mixing coffee with alcohol. Despite the fact that today there are hundreds and even thousands of coffee and alcohol drinks, they have only one king - His Majesty Irish Coffee, the Irish-style coffee with whiskey. The most renowned and the most respected coffee and alcoholic beverage in the world. The history of its invention is short, but very colorful. Someone named Joe Sheridan used to work as a chef and a barman in the airport of Foynes, Ireland. In the 30s and 40s of the last century, Foynes served as a transshipment base for the planes making Transatlantic flights between Europe and America. Well, in 1943, after 5 hours of flight, a plane going to New York, was forced to return due to bad weather conditions. The shivering passengers, of course, rushed to the restaurant for hot coffee, and here a brilliant idea crossed the mind of the savvy chef. To quickly “warm up” his customers, he decided to add his beloved Irish whiskey to coffee, which made the drink twice warming, because the warming effect of coffee was reinforced by the strength of whiskey. When he was asked by the passengers if he had used Brazilian coffee, Sheridan proudly replied: "No, it was Irish coffee!.” In 1951, a reporter for a newspaper in San Francisco tasted Sheridan's Irish coffee at the airport before flying. He liked the drink so much that, on return to San Francisco, he went to his favorite establishment “Buena Vista Cafe”, where he experimented all night with coffee and whiskey, trying to find the right proportion of the ingredients. When the establishment started to serve the new drink, “Buena Vista Cafe” in a matter of days became the most popular place in the city. A year later, the owner of the cafe offered Joe Sheridan to move to work for him. The inventor of the “Irish-style” coffee agreed and worked at Buena Vista Cafe for as many as 10 following years. Today, they prepare 2,000 servings of Irish coffee per day in this iconic establishment. During the Final of the American Football Championship of 1982, Buena Vista made a record - they prepared 6,000 Irish coffees in one day having spent more than 100 bottles of whiskey. From America, the popular drink began to quickly spread in the world. Thus began the era of the Irish-style coffee, which transcended into the epoch of the widespread combination of coffee with alcoholic beverages. If you cast a mental glance at least for a second at that time, you will realize how revolutionary the attempt to combine coffee and alcohol was for the world of drinks. Today, we are delighted with this combination and try dozens of other, most incredible mixes. But at the time there was a fierce criticism from both coffee lovers and fans of whiskey: how could this Joe commit such a sacrilege? But Joe Sheridan was an innovator and a marketing expert: this is why he went beyond and created a new unusual drink, realizing it was logical, tasty and beneficial for customers. It may sound pompous, but for the coffee world, Joe Sheridan’s invention is comparable to the one made by Steve Jobs, who combined telephone with personal computer. Unfortunately, not all baristas understand the real power and technical subtleties of this marketing masterpiece, but we will definitely analyze it in my next course of Coffee Marketing. In the meantime, I would very much like you to understand that the "hot Irishman" is a worthy coffee son of his nation and participant of the global coffee movement. Today, Irish coffee is inevitably present in all, without exceptions, coffee menues of the world along with the mighty espresso drinks. 22. Father of Coffee with CHOCOLATE: (music playing) During this lesson, we are going to trace the history of a drink, which is almost unfamiliar to most coffee lovers, although it played a really vital role in the history of coffee. It is called “Bicherin", and it comes from the Italian city of Turin, the capital of Piedmont region, located near France. It’s difficult to taste Bicherin in other places of Italy, but they know it very well. They make Bicherin in a rather simple way: first espresso, then hot chocolate is poured out in coffee, after which whipped cream is laid out on top, creating taste and visual contrast to the dark-colored chocolate. Bicherin is a legendary drink. And its value is that this very drink in essence became the progenitor of all kinds of combinations of coffee with chocolate. The most renowned of them is Mokko, coffee with chocolate, with chocolate chips, or with chocolate crumbs. Despite either Arabic or Asian sounding of the name, neither chocolate nor cocoa beans could be found in Asia or in Africa. They came from South America, and only then Europeans spread chocolate all over the continent. And right here, in Turin, one of the first traditions of serving coffee with chocolate was born. In Italy itself this region is considered “the chocolate land” - first of all, thanks to its proximity to France. Because when we speak about chocolate, France has always been more advanced. Of course, Spain was even more advanced because it was the Spanish conquistadors who brought from South America the cocoa beans and the chocolate making culture which had been practiced by the Mayas and then by the Aztecs for several centuries in succession. The Aztecs added pepper to it, and their drink was very spicy and bitter, which is why in the Aztec language the word "chocolate" means "bitter water.” After it was brought by the Spaniards to Europe, chocolate moved to France and further to Italy, reaching our Piedmont. When chocolate was brought to the city, it was already sweet - of course, Europe started to consume it in a totally different way. Now, on the border of two countries and two cultures, including chocolate culture, in which France excelled, and coffee culture, in which Italy was traditionally strong, a coffee and chocolate drink was born. It is important to know the history of the ancestor of coffee with chocolate for one more reason. The thing is that today there is a highly credible hypothesis according to which modern coffee processing techniques were borrowed from the Aztecs based on their original methods of processing cocoa fruits. But I am going to discuss this in detail in my course "Botany of Coffee". In general, one of the goals of this lesson was to draw your attention to the fact that both the case of Irish coffee and the case of Bicherin demonstrate us that new and very successful drinks appeared not so much through invention of something in an artificial way, but thanks to an unusual combination of already well-known separate ingredients, such as coffee and whiskey or coffee and chocolate. But if Irish coffee has already deserved a reputation among the coffee elite, chocolate still remains a contender. And given its powerful marketing, gustatory and commercial potential, it is easily to predict inevitable success of this amazing product already in the coming years. 23. How COLD Coffee Was Born: (music playing) During this lesson, let me tell you about one more "original ancestor.” We will discuss the original version of the beverage which toda is called “ice coffee” (or “cold coffee”). Like Bicherin became the first in the family of coffee with chocolate, in Algeria a drink was born that became the progenitor of all versions of "cold coffee.” Again, these were the French who made a significant contribution in its invention. Few professional have heard the name “Mazagran”, although the French know it very good. This word comes from the name of the city of Mazagran in Algeria, in the fortress of which French troops were based at the beginning of the 19th century. From Europe, the French brought the tradition of drinking coffee. But since they drank coffee with milk, and milk was not the best product for hot Africa (where it spoiled quickly), the French came up with an idea to replace it with cold water. Not just plain water, but necessarily cold one. It was a very important novelty, because in hot climate such a drink was not only invigorating but also refreshing. They also added a slice of lemon and some brandy or cognac to the drink. And they started to drink this cooling beverage from small glasses called "Mazagran” in the contemporary bartender art. By the way, the French drank it in those same coffee houses with pictures of which all photography archives were filled at the beginning of the past century. These are the so-called "Moorish cafes." All the celebrities of that time, including writers, actors and travelers, used to pass time in those colorful establishments then. History has kept a great deal of these photos. So, the tradition of making the cold coffee, which then proliferated around the world from Europe, was born here - in North Africa, Algeria - thanks to French traditions and the fortress called "Mazagran.” In fact, the world needed a "cold coffee" drink, and this, as they would say today, marketing technique, was very well-timed. That is why it conquered the world so easily especially during the hot summer months. 24. – 1st Wave: Gold Coffee RUSH: (music playing) Well, we have the last module ahead of us, and it’s the modern history of coffee. We will divide it into lessons based on a slightly different principle: we will discuss coffee waves. In general, this topic is a broad one, but it is necessary to attend it, because not even all professionals know the history and understand the real meaning of the coffee waves. And those in the trade need to be on top of this issue - at least to be able to figure out in which direction and how the coffee world will develop in the future. Perhaps, it is necessary to begin with the recognition of the fact that, with all love for our native Europe, the terminology of the waves was introduced into usage by coffee experts from America. For this reason, Folgers is almost exclusively featured in the tales about the first wave, although it would be fair to say that the contribution to the world coffee development made by such brands as Nescafé or Maxwell House is by all means none the worse. But since the "waves" are coming from the other side of the ocean, and their history was written there - let's start from America. The first waves date back to the mid-19th century, the time of the Gold Rush, when someone James Folger founded Folgers company in California. Numerous gold diggers became the first customers of a new product imported from Latin America. The brand, by the way, is still successful, and the expressive Folgers red-brick building in San Francisco is included in the National Register of Historic Places of the USA. But in reality coffee began to become a mass consumption product much later - approximately from the beginning of the 20th century. During these years, Folgers launched production of cheap instant coffee and thus ensured its penetration into every home. These were the events later defined as “first wave.” The company has always boasted brilliant sales representatives and an impressive approach to marketing. The heroes of their advertising campaigns then were famous characters (such as, for example, “Mr. Coffee” performed by the great baseball player Di Maggio). And, where it comes to quantity, Folgers has always held more than large-scale advertising campaigns. The market was growing, and coffee trade developed rapidly until the middle of the last century. These developments have laid the basis for the movement of the 60s later called “2nd coffee wave." 25. – 2d Wave: Birth of Coffee SHOP: (music playing) In most “coffee-wave stories”, second coffee wave is described as “The Starbucks Time.” But in reality, it is recognized that its epic moment coincided with opening by a man named Alfred Peet of a small coffee shop called Peet’s Coffee & Tea in the Californian town of Berkeley. Alfred Peet is a true pioneer of the US specialty industry, a personality enjoying mega respect of all American coffee experts and traders. In contrast to the mass production that dominated at that time, Alfred's style featured small batches of always fresh coffee, higher quality green beans, and darker roasting of beans (unlike traditionally light American roasting). Still, the subsequent heyday of the movement founded by Peet is actually connected with Starbucks company - a coffee roaster and retailer established in Seattle in 1971. Thanks to the aggressive policy of its manager, now famous Howard Schultz, in a little over than a decade, this company began to open several new coffee houses in the country each day, and today the corporation owns almost 20,000 retail outlets all over the world. The speed and scale of opening of the new establishments gained such a pace that they gave birth to the popular joke saying: "Last week they opened a new Starbucks in the old Starbucks!” Few people know that in the first years of his business activity Schultz co-owned the company with two partners, and they served only coffee supplied by Alfred Peet. At that very period, Howard inherited an ample part of Alfred’s knowledge and his love for coffee, and also employed his organizational development model as the basis for his business. A decade later, Schultz’s partners became new owners of Peet’s Coffee & Tea company, but Schultz decided to run his business independently, based on developing a retail network. And, apparently, his choice came up trumps: while today the name of Howard Schultz is known around the world, Alfred Peet’s name is, unfortunately, known only to the coffee industry experts. But the latter is undoubtedly recognized the "godfather" of the American specialty industry, which today confidently leads the way of all global trends. In his turn, Howard Schultz, having demonstrated qualities of simply an outstanding marketer, became the father of the second part of this wave (it can be called "corporate element"). He began by going to Italy, where he studied operating models of more than 500 bars (in Italy, "a bar” is a synonym of "a coffee shop") and thoroughly understood the strongest sides of the most successful coffee industry in the world at that time. Today, it is impossible to deny the resourcefulness applied by Schultz to popularize Italian espresso-based drinks in the Starbucks he opened and managed in America. Still, it should be noted that, while using all the magic and marketing power of espresso, Howard still placed his bet on another drink. Having ingeniously figured out the psychology of the American consumer, Starbucks did not focus on the miniature bitter espresso (it would have taken too long for America to accustom to this beverage), but started to serve large portions of cappuccino and cappuccino-based latte. The taste of milk came in handy for softening the bitter taste of espresso, and the quantity of the drink is in principle the most important factor for the pragmatic American consumer. Moreover, in addition to the competent approach to the product itself, Starbucks very knowingly and timely created a channel for its promotion. Their coffee houses became not just places where one could “pop over” for a coffee, but also the so-called “3rd place”, which made a company to the two previously recognized traditional values - home and office. People began to pass much more time in the coffee houses - in particular, to carry out their office duties and to hold business meetings. And the image of a lady with a laptop and a cup of coffee became a symbol of the coffee shop of our days. 26. – 3d Wave: Coffee as Personality: (music playing) In this lesson, we will analyze the last, 3rd coffee wave. This term was coined back in 2002, again, thanks to the easy state of mind of the American coffee industry. It was allegedly first used in an article by Trish Rothgeb from the same glorious San Francisco. Today, the term "Third Wave” is interpreted in a variety of ways: as “Small private coffee houses with an individual approach to coffee”, or, as “Small artisan coffee shops with roasting beans, selling them and making coffee right on the spot,” or, as “Coffee houses that purchase coffee directly from plantations, and where baristas know everything about coffee.” There is no wonder in such a diversity - after all, it is not a case of a mathematical or chemical formula, it is a social and cultural phenomenon, and there are no clear borderlines or strict classification in this domain. Therefore, it is actually not much easier to describe the term “3rd wave” than to define such subjective and complex term as “speciality”, which is the basis of that wave itself. And most likely, it will be possible to qualify 3rd wave as accurately as possible only when it is over and becomes history. The new trend, however, is obvious. In the same way, obvious is the most characteristic feature that all third-wave coffee houses practice without exception: it is the attitude to coffee as a PERSONALITY, a character - a product with its own image and temper, and not to an element of the mass industrial consumption. In other words, the 100% emphasis is on coffee. It is all about quality, taste and freshness of coffee, eventually - the accent is on knowledge of coffee and even on love for it. But it is always the product that takes center stage. Phrases "Presenting coffee as special beverage", "Treating coffee as wine" and "Turning coffee making into art” became slogans of third wave. In other words, it is about treating coffee as a delicacy, as opposed to the standard coffee products available on the mass consumption market. This approach is implemented through a number of aspects. Firstly, thanks to the FRESHNESS of roasted coffee (which, in my opinion, is one of the main achievements of third wave). During third wave period, coffee vendors began to constantly use a number of neologisms, such as “microlot” and “micro-roasting” meaning small-sized, individually purchased lots of green coffee beans. And more and more often, those were the lots purchased directly from the farmers. If earlier the green coffee distribution business was the lot of commodity exchanges and large intermediary companies, today, small roasters are more often than not, increasingly pinching off larger pieces from the unshakable monopoly share that until recently belonged to professional wholesale merchants only. The same thing happens in the roasting business that earlier traditionally was the prerogative of medium-sized companies that operated production halls and huge green coffee beans storage silos. From now on, to start your own roasting business, it is enough to have a small roaster, a computer to find a supplier, and the drive to learn. The word “simplicity” (in terms of both starting a business and future operation models) reflects one of the main principles of third wave that stimulated the design and sales of a wide range of simple but efficient and fashionable coffee making devices. Coffee makers benamed "alternative" (meaning they are alternative to devices used to prepare the traditional espresso and filter coffee) started to explode minds of not just coffee lovers, but also the brains of professional baristas. New models and dozens of variations of chemexes and aeropresses, pour overs and syphons - from Kalita, Clever, Yama and Hario the number of holes should be in a coffee filter induced thousands of disputes and originated a whole new universe of tastes and acquired thousands of admirers of these innovations. On the one hand, all these developments enlivened the new coffee game called “Third Wave”, on the other hand - they brought about certain chaos. But in any case, they advanced the coffee business, generating new opportunities, and, in general, reflecting the ultra-dynamic progress of our life today in all its areas. Baristas became one of the key drivers of success of third wave (or at least one of the drivers of its functioning). I will not be mistaken if I say that the generation of the baristas who make up today's global basis of the industry was born precisely in the period of third coffee wave. And barista championships, which gained popularity at the same time, facilitated the evolvement of baristas into a class of the coffee industry and origination and recognition of a new profession in our society. Today, few people remember the fierce debates held about 10-15 years ago around the question “Is barista a profession or not?”, but at first sceptics really teased those who were trying to use the word “barista” in the meaning of a profession. And now the baristas movement has become so much respected that true fans of the craft, passionate about their own job, sometimes fall into sort of Coffee Nirvana and even fail to perceive customers as the final element of the whole chain and often consider themselves the only important instance in the Coffee Kingdom, forgetting their consumers as the ultimate goal. Trendy baristas enthusiastically talk about thousands of tastes, sometimes forgetting that most of their expressive descriptions are, unfortunately, incomprehensible for ordinary coffee lovers. And any, even the most profound knowledge, not translated into ordinary consumer’s language, are not totally explained to a layman, is often perceived as snobbery, and sometimes as insult. It is important to understand that to be able to appreciate “spicy notes”, “jasmine fragrances” or some “fruity aftertaste” one needs to develop his taste for a long time and through a great deal of repeated trials. And such expertise is unattainable for ordinary coffee lovers - they do not taste hundreds of cups of beverages, because for them coffee is not a trade but just an affection or a habit. That's exactly why consumer education is being increasingly considered the most important task of the contemporary coffee industry. And third wave in this sense is, although not totally sufficient, but obvious step forward. 27. – 4th Wave: Look into the FUTURE: (music playing) This is not a usual lesson. Today, we will go beyond the course of history and will look into the future in search of an answer to the question “What the next, 4th coffee wave, will be like?” First of all, speaking about the future, I should make one important excursus to the past. In almost all articles dedicated to the "Coffee Waves", they claim that the term "Third Wave" was authored by Trish Rothgeb we mentioned earlier. But the Americans themselves say that Trish sort of only made this term popular having applied it in a timely manner and on a suitable occasion. In reality, it sounded earlier - in particular, a few years before Trish, it was used by Tim Castle, a reputable international expert, American coffee merchant, consultant and promoter. But when he mentioned third wave, Tim had in mind something different. According to his own words, by “waves” he understood changes in the nature of coffee consumption by customers rather than historical stages of the coffee evolution. To be more precise - changes in the BENEFIT that any particular wave brought to the end consumer. For example, the gist of first wave in this sense was that while in the 19th century people used to buy green coffee beans and roasted them at home or in local shops, Folgers resolved the problem of logistics and convenience for their benefit. The company roasted and ground coffee, after which it packaged and delivered it to the consumer. Second wave made an attempt to revisit the issues of quality, freshness and diversity of coffee, which had become a characterless mass market product. This job was completed by Peet and then by Starbucks, but most importantly, they created the image of a coffee shop, proving to the consumers that good coffee could be prepared for them not just at home, but somewhere else. The increased consumption outside home created the prerequisites for the origination of third wave, which further focused on quality and at the same time revealed the strength of an individual approach to the client: dozens and hundreds of thousands of brains and energies were awakened and started to ardently develop the individual coffee segment. I repeat: each wave brought certain advantage to the customer and simultaneously brought the coffee consumption culture to a new level. So, what could 4th wave offer in this sense? Undoubtedly, this should be something epic, an invention that will allow transition to a new coffee reality. Not reality attractive for the owners of coffee shops or baristas, but a reality that will bring serious benefits to the consumers. Something comparable to the benefit of iPhone for today's consumer, which was inconceivable just 10 years ago. Apple combined in a phone absolutely all useful functions that you could only imagine. There is a chance that fourth wave will be the product of the key advantages of the three previous waves multiplied by artificial intellect and the state-of-the-art technologies. For instance, some gadget called i-Barista will make you coffee when you take a glance at your wrist watch. Or, say, the coffee shops will become “do-it-yourself coffee shops” - the client comes in, chooses coffee, grinds it and prepares his favorite drink for himself?.. Or maybe the client will even become a barista himself? And he will not only grind and make coffee, but will also independently grow beans and roast them on his own? Coffee houses with drone waiters, robot baristas, interactive tables and virtual augmented reality effects, where you will be able to drink coffee in the company of hologram of any celebrity taking selfies in the process. Is there a probability that the fourth wave establishments will deliver coffee to customers directly via the Internet based on some new ultramodern technologies?.. It is difficult to guess the future, especially in such a rapidly and vigorously developing world as ours. In any case, something else will be definitely offered to the public. One of the experts said that the difference between 4th and 3rd waves must be comparable to that between 2d and 1st waves (such as difference between Starbucks and Folgers services). That is, we can recognize certain new services as a new “wave” only if they really seriously change the existing coffee landscape. Most likely, we should expect something we have no the vaguest idea about today. Simply because some required element does not even exist yet. But these must be some dramatic changes that will turn around the industry quickly and on a large scale, not within half a century, but literally within 7-8 years. By the way, besides the speciality coffee shops and their waves, there are other, much stronger players in the coffee game that are up to every move. Starbucks vigorously adapts and implements changes – recently, the company opened in Seattle a mega coffee shop named "Roastery", which size is comparable to the size of a small factory. Nespresso and Tassimo with their capsules are also competing fiercely (and these guys have advertising budgets larger than those of the entire third wave combined). Finally, the last years have been marked by a number of serious global takeovers initiated by German holding named JAB. As the result of a number of market transactions, a new global coffee megastructure has been established, which size is comparable to or could be even larger than the size of Nestlé. By the way, this structure caused a great stir in America by a series of very significant mergers and acquisitions. In particular, JAB bought Alfred Peet's company and acquired controlling stakes in Intelligentsia Coffee and Stumptown Coffee - two companies of “The Big Three” that had started 3rd coffee wave in America. So, we can definitely anticipate an intrigue and interesting times. Undoubtedly, everyone should be ready to a difficult period in business. Nevertheless, it is clear that the end consumer will only benefit from the upcoming changes. 28. The History of SPECIALITY COFFEE: (music playing) In this lesson, we will research the history of the most widespread, and, at the same time, the vaguest term used in the coffee industry. The size of this lesson turned out the largest in the entire course. But it is extremely important, because, oddly enough, many baristas do their job without proper understanding of the term under which their professional life goes. Not to mention the end consumers, whose coffee literacy is every day becoming more important for us, the professionals. Now, let us analyze the story of "Speciality Coffee.” I note right away that there are two spelling and pronunciation options for this word: a) "Specialty" – in this version the stress is on the first syllable); b) "Speciality", where the third syllable is stressed and additional “I” is present. There is practically no notional difference between these terms. Only the shorter word is the American English version. The New World (North and Latin America) use the term "specialty", and, respectively, this word is found in the names of all local and national coffee associations of this part of the world. The second variant - "speciAlity" - is the European version. European association has always been called SCAE - SpeciAlity Coffee Association of Europe, in contrast to the American SCAA, the SpEcialty Coffee Association of America. This difference, however, is not relevant anymore, since both structures have merged recently, and now the single global organization is simply called SCA - Specialty Coffee Association. The currently intriguing world "speciality" was coined back in 1974 thanks to the easy state of mind of American coffee trader Erna Knutsen. The legendary Erna, who later became a kind of icon of the speciality coffee movement, used to import into the States coffee from a number of countries. She was sourcing new coffee varieties to offer to the customers (let me remind that the substance of this coffee term has always been commercial in nature) and was constantly looking for some special coffees. This is when she used the term “specialty” for the first time. Obviously, the word “speciality” clearly derives from “special” that means “particular”, “unusual”, etc. This is exactly the kind of coffee Erna was looking for, with the only correction that she still meant "unusual” rather than “special” coffee. At first, it was only about green beans, that is, about the input product. But very soon the term “speciality” began to apply to the entire coffee supply chain, indicating that any particular coffee could become a fully “speciality” product only if it were perfect throughout its entire life cycle - from plantation to the beverage in the cup. 5-6 years later, in 1982, the American Specialty Coffee Association was founded. We can say that systematic development of the speciality coffee ideology began just from that moment. However, I have to note that no clear definition of the term "Speciality coffee” has ever existed and still does not exist. This is not criticism - there is an explanation to this, but you still need to understand that this fundamental term has not been legally defined anywhere up to this point. Next benchmark is 1998, the year of creation of the Speciality Coffee Association of Europe. We, Europeans, established our own association a decade and a half later, but this lag had its advantages. While the Americans negotiated a thorny path of trials and errors, Europe took the first steps consciously, relying on the experience of colleagues from the New World. And the founders of the European Speciality Coffee Association snatched the opportunity to use the American experience. All these persons do inspire great respect, but it is unlikely that anyone will contend that perhaps the largest contribution to the European coffee movement was made by Norwegian Alf Kramer, the tireless enthusiast who became the first president of our organization, and, most importantly, who has never ceased to develop the speciality industry. By the way, earlier we talked mostly about European and American speciality coffee associations, now we discuss a single global organization named SCA (Specialty Coffee Association), but in fact there are lots of other independent speciality coffee associations in the world. In Latin America alone, there are dozens of them, there are Japanese and Korean speciality associations, associations of South and East Africa, India, Singapore, New Zealand and so on. These associations exist not only in the coffee growing countries, but also in the consuming countries. The European Coffee Association has always applied more efforts trying to describe the term "speciality.” By and large, those attempts were just as unsuccessful, but we at least tried to work out our own definition understandable to a maximum possible extent. And our definition has invariably shined on the first page of the organization’s web-site. It sounded as follows: “Speciality coffee is defined as a crafted, quality, coffee-based beverage which is judged by the consumer (in a limited marketplace at a given time) to have a unique quality, a distinct taste and personality, different from and superior to the common coffee beverages offered. The beverage is based on beans that have been grown in an accurately defined area, and which meet the highest standards for green coffee and for its roasting, storage and brewing.” For a lay person it is less than clear, right? The words are familiar enough, but the meaning is somewhat blurred... It was only later that I came to see that the concept “Speciality” cannot in principle be defined. It is as hopeless as trying to define the state of happiness. For 10 years, I’ve been practicing karate of Kiokushin style, which is translated from Japanese as “Union of Seekers of the Absolute Truth.” For karatekas, “absolute truth" means something elusive - some unattainable goals that cannot be achieved. But they tirelessly search for this “something”, striving for improvement, even though they realize that the final destination point does not exist in reality. It is easy to notice that in the above definition the term “speciality” implies specificity of this coffee at all stages of its life path to the consumer. But it is practically impossible to “be specific in ALL aspects.” And, most importantly, it is not clear how one is to determine this state? Especially taking into account the fact that even a standard formulation does not exist, let alone any criteria. However, everything becomes much simpler if you try to interpret the word “special” as “different, distinct” rather than “especial.” Then we could say that any coffee that at a given moment represents something special for a given person (is different from what he drank earlier) can be considered “special.” In this case, evaluating each speciality coffee, you will have to find a specific explanation what is so “special” about this specific coffee. But this will be obviously more square than just to put the “Speciality coffee” tag on everything you sell. After all, coffee does not become special because it is so indicated on the certificate attached to it. It its true because at a given moment of time such coffee really makes a big difference for a person in comparison to the coffee he consumed before. That’s why every country and even every consumer audience develops its own understanding of the word "speciality.” Interestingly, some coffee producing countries claim that speciality coffee is about beans only and anything that comes next depends on their properties. Even if this assertion is true, it is true only for such countries. It is sad that even from baristas I occasionally hear phrases like “Only arabica that scored at least 85 points during tasting can be recognized as speciality coffee.” Yes, from baristas, who are at the opposite end of the chain and are called upon to convey to the end consumer exactly the result of the ENTIRE coffee chain. Yes, one of the methods (I emphasize: “one of”) of the technical assessment of coffee varieties is to measure their properties on a 100-point scale - SCAA does have such an official system. But this criterion is applicable to green coffee only, and it by no means is the only one. It can be considered as a kind of partial (technical) definition, but in no case it unveils the full meaning of the word “speciality.” For high quality beans alone cannot replace the requirement to coffee to retain its premium properties throughout the entire chain. Obviously, if coffee was grown in a correct way, properly sorted and adequately packed, and then barista spoiled it in the process of preparation of the drink - what is the use of “peculiarity” of such coffee at the initial stages? Fortunately, coffee-consuming countries always start from the appraisal of the product by the end-customer. For example, according to Japanese definition of speciality coffee, in the first place, coffee must be “special” in the cup. Which is absolutely fair, because, after its transformation at all stages, speciality product must ultimately turn into an integral picture for the end customer. And one of the most difficult aspects of identification of “specialtiness" is the fact of transience, temporality of this very speciality. Because even if a coffee is considered a speciality product, then tomorrow it will surely cease to be such. Like any other marketing advantage, “speciality” quality is limited in time. The above-mentioned Alf Kramer used to say: “You must be always able to clearly answer the question: “What exactly makes me I so special and peculiar?" – using simple words, without complicated, far-fetched wordings and references to different certificates. Therefore, we, coffee market players, must constantly look for things making us special. For if we are special today, tomorrow we will not be such, and we are doomed to search for our winning note non-stop. And this path of “Seekers of the Absolute Truth” is probably the greatest trial and the most interesting adventure in the professional coffee world. There is one more important point. It is entirely pragmatic, because it is about commerce. But money is an integral and essential element of our coffee game. Today's barista probably don’t even know that for many years there has been an appeal on the SCAE website written by the 1st president of the Association (the same Alf Kramer) entitled “Our origin.” In this small, literally two paragraph long message to the successors, he explains fundamental things - why the organization was born, and what was its mission. I would strongly recommend that young people, and the coffee community in general, periodically return to these instructive and reminding lines - then we will not forget why all this was created. Alf wrote a very simple thing in there: “As coffee enthusiasts, we will be better heard as a strong association than as individuals. As businessmen we will have the pleasure of enjoying an expanding total market for coffee both in value and in volume. We hope to become a “cake baking organization.” The essence of this term is approximately as follows: when you enlarge the pie/market being one of its participants, then a share of this growing pie belongs to you too. And the bigger this market, the bigger is your share of the pie. And yet another very important point was that in the second paragraph of his short message Alf Kramer wrote: "It will be a vertical structure, and we will be recruiting members committed to coffee quality from every level of the coffee chain - farmers and farmer associations, coffee boards, exporters and exporter associations, organizations and media, transporters, shipping lines and warehouses, importers, traders and processors, equipment manufacturers, roasters, retailers, coffee bars, and even end consumers." Quite so: "and even end consumers.” This is who should really be an element of the entire chain, in addition to manufacturers, coffee companies and baristas. I don’t know in what part of this chain coffee will become “speciality product.” But I know for sure where it will be determined: at the very last stage. And the final instance of such a determination will be the consumer and no one else (no matter how little he knows about coffee). In conclusion, I would say that I do not know if I will live long enough to see the time when ordinary coffee lovers are elected members of the Speciality Coffee Association, but in any case I hope I will. Because we really need an educated and knowledgeable consumer in our coffee game. 29. Coffee DAY: Why 1st October ?: (music playing) In order not to finish our history course discussing such a difficult topic as coffee waves, let's talk in this lesson about a pleasant event that took place literally several years ago. This was an important moment that the coffee industry has been waiting for more than a dozen years, and thanks to the initiative of the World Coffee Organization, it has become a reality. I am sure that, like me, throughout the year you repeatedly heard, in summer or winter or fall, that the planet is again celebrating Coffee Day. Then I discovered that the message came from Angola, Ireland or the United States, and I realized that this was another NATIONAL Coffee Day in this country, to which advertisers and newsmen famously screwed up the status of “international.” This diversity is due to the fact that until recently there was no commonly recognized International Coffee Day, the only one for the whole world. And the festivities that you heard about were the so-called "national coffee days" held in each individual country. For example, National Coffee Day in Colombia is June 27, and in Germany, Singapore and Japan it is October 1. In Peru, it is the 4th Saturday of August, and in Costa Rica it is the second Friday of September. In Indonesia, National Coffee Day is August 17, and in the main coffee country, Brazil, it is May 24. In the United States, the National Coffee Day is on September 29, which, incidentally, was most often confused with the International Coffee Day. Irish Coffee Day is celebrated on January 25. Let me remind you there is even the Instant Coffee Day marked on April 1. The Italians did not quite agree with word “coffee” in the name of the celebration. They just don’t need it. Therefore, for Italy, Coffee Day is the Day of the Italian Espresso (Espresso Italiano Day), which is annually celebrated on the third Friday of April. Italians are among the most advanced coffee roasters in the world. Naturally, they simply had to establish their own national Green Coffee Day (Giornata del Caffè Verde) - they celebrate it on September 23. And only in 2015 a common international holiday was finally established on the planet. The main coffee institute, the International Coffee Organization (ICO), made an official decision to hold an International Coffee Day each year on October 1. Why October 1? This is a very interesting date, and it was chosen not by chance. The fact is that the period of a "year” in the coffee industry is determined not in a quite common manner. The so-called International Coffee Agreement represents a kind of "constitution" of the global coffee trade. In the terminology of this fundamental coffee document, “Coffee Year”, like regular calendar year, consists of 12 months, but it begins on October 1 and not on January 1. This is due to the coffee growing specifics. In most coffee producing countries, they start harvesting in October and for the coffee traders around the world that is the reference point for the start of the new commercial year. The decision to celebrate the global Coffee Day made it possible to regulate the timing of the national coffee events held in different countries. And now, both professionals and coffee lovers all over the planet can celebrate the real, valid and the only International Coffee Day on October 1. For the coffee industry, this event has become, without exaggeration, a landmark. In terms of both for joining efforts in the marketing promotion of coffee as a global product and for realizing the fact that we finally have our own real and official, professional holiday. 30. AFTERWORD ▪ About Next Сourses: (music playing) Congratulations to you, my friends, we have completed the course of History of Coffee and studied the path of our favorite drink to its global fame over the past 1000 years. We examined the coffee spreading routes on the world map, the roles of all countries that were the most active participants of this process and discussed the main current global coffee formats. We gained an insight into the difficult term “Speciality” and studied all existing coffee waves. I do hope you enjoyed this course. I tried real hard, honestly.)) I want to thank you for your time and patience and to suggest you take a short 3-minute test so that you could check how well you have learned the basic ideas of the material presented. I will be most grateful, friends, if you send to me your appraisals of my online course. If you think that it was useful, I urge you to leave your comment below. This will help other coffee lovers to obtain insights and comprehend my worth as a teacher. And for me, your feedback will be very important as an indicator of how well my lessons were composed, and how useful and interesting they were to you. Also, please do send any of your ideas, comments and suggestions. I always answer all questions, so I remain at your service. I invite you to attend my next courses, including the Botany of coffee and the Anti-Crisis Barista – how to make money on coffee. I strongly recommend them to you – they are simply unique – both in content and in form. Thanks again for your time and attention and see you on my next courses!