S2C1: Cow In Sunflowers | Arlene Murphy | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

16 Lessons (1h 47m)
    • 1. S2C1 Cow in Sunflowers Intro

    • 2. S2C1 Supplies List

    • 3. S2C1 Getting Started

    • 4. S2C1 Under Painting

    • 5. S2C1 Painting the Sky

    • 6. S2C1 Finishing the Sky

    • 7. S2C1 Stems and Leaves

    • 8. S2C1 Sunflowers 1

    • 9. S2C1 Sunflowers 2

    • 10. S2C1 Finishing Sunflowers

    • 11. S2C1 Touching up Leaves

    • 12. S2C1 Sketching Hamish

    • 13. S2C1 Painting Hamish 1

    • 14. S2C1 Painting Hamish 2

    • 15. S2C1 Painting Hamish 3

    • 16. S2C1 Finishing Up

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About This Class


Meet "Hamish" a gorgeous Highland Cow living his best life out at Charlotte's Freedom Farm and the muse for S2C1: Cow in Sunflowers.  This painting is the first in Series 2 and there is no fluid acrylic pour background, although you are always free to create one if you like.  In these paintings you will start with a vibrant "under painting" and then add additional colour on top to create sky, water, earth etc.

Cow in Sunflowers combines some of the skills you have already learned in Series 1 and teaches you new ones.  Like in Series 1, even if you have never picked up a paintbrush before YOU CAN DO THIS!  And have a ton of fun.  I look forward to painting with you.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Arlene Murphy

Artist and Instructor


Arlene Murphy, BFA

I love moving from one creative project to the next,

teaching and learning from other creatives. 

See full profile

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1. S2C1 Cow in Sunflowers Intro: Hello and welcome to my studio. My name is Arlene Murphy and I'm an artist and an instructor. I am so excited to be able to bring my paint Louisa classes to you online on this amazing platform. I have been moving from one creative project to the next for my entire life. I love a new challenge and I have done a lot of different things along the way. As an instructor, I teach primarily in my studio, but I also do paint Pluto classes live. So you can gather, friends, family, coworkers together, decide on an image, and I bring everything that's necessary for you to make your own painting. So now we Skill Share, I am bringing those classes to you online. So whether you ever picked up a paintbrush before or not, you can do this. My videos will take you through step-by-step how to make your own mini masterpiece. And often in my live classes, the people who've never picked up a paintbrush before have the most fun, even though at the beginning they're very nervous and very tentative with what they do. Most of my classes involve me coming back to do more. So as we go through the videos in each class, you'll be able to build upon skill sets and learn new things and new ways of making the mark on the canvas. And that's really what making a painting is. It's a series of marks that you make on a canvas or a surface you can paint on rocks, on a piece of wood, whatever you want. So my initial series of offerings for classes will include what's called a fluid acrylic pour backgrounds. So each class, before you start to paint the image on top, you will want to do your background now. You don't have to do a fluid acrylic pour background, but I absolutely encourage you to try. It makes a stunning result. So the videos for that, we'll always be included in these classes. The next series of classes, which we'll be serious two, will be images that you paint on top of a background that you have also painted yourself. So you'll learn about under paintings, you'll learn about how to create your own background. Down the road. We'll start using oil paints because that's something that I do a lot of in my fine art practice. I use oil paints primarily actually. I also use a palette knife, so I'll do some classes on that. So we're going to have a lot of fun together. We're going to make a lot of great art and how a lot of learnings along the way. So I encourage you to reach out and ask questions, share work in progress, and talk to each other, of course, on the discussion page. And I am so excited to, to take you through this series of classes that we're going to do. I look forward to painting with you. 2. S2C1 Supplies List: So before we get started with our painting of Hamish the cow, cow and sunflowers, I want to just review the materials that were going to be using. So this particular painting is number one in Syria's two, which is where you don't have a fluid acrylic poor background. So the background behind Hamish here you are actually paying yourself. So one of the things you're gonna want to get is a smaller palette. This is just a plastic dinner plate from the dollar store, and it is perfect for the under painting, which is what we're going to start with. So the under painting is the color in behind the background. So in my particular painting and I'm gonna show you is, I'm gonna in red. So I've chosen a red now in my bag of tricks, which is my container where I hold all my paints. I have a variety of different paints from a variety of different suppliers. So I don't want you to get bogged down and what supplier I'm using for paint. Because honestly, acrylic paint is pretty basic. There's a lot of basic opportunities for students that are beginning, and if you get better at this, and you want to become more professional painter. You may want to improve your line of paints, but for now, about the basics. Liquid text basics is perfect for what we're doing. So in this particular instance, I had a red that I liked in my drawer. It's an orangey red, so that's what I chose. So I'll show you a little bit more about the, um, actual process of under painting in our first video. But you want a small plate, some red that you like, and you're going to be putting a a very small amount of paint in your palate and then quite a bit of water and mixing it around so you'll end up with something that's a ink like consistency. So that's for the under painting. For the actual college. You're going to use its the same dinner sized plate. You get these at the dollar store on, and you could put your paints on. So the paint that we're going to use for Hamish you need a white you need to lose again. It doesn't matter to lose that you like a darker tone and a lighter tone. This happens to be fail a blue and cerulean blue, but you use what works for you. I have a yellow and the yellow will do you have to dislike the yellow. I have, ah, light kind of like, um, a line green. So if all you have is a darker green and this particular green is just a a basic green and it's a medium tone green, if you don't have a lime green than you, simply mix yellow with your green to get that color. But if you have that, then that's that's that's great. So then I have a a bird number, which is just a basic brown, so you're gonna need some of that. I have a burnt sienna. I have black. I have a raw sienna, which is a yellowy around the orange tone. That's a popular color. I would suggest you get a raw sienna in your in your lineup. Um, I have a yellow Oakar and I have a plane yellow and I haven't orange so again, oranges mixed with yellow with a little bit of red. So if you don't have an orange will, we can get you there as well. Respect to the different colors we're gonna use. So brushes we've in Syria's one video, one where we did Marblehead Lighthouse. I talked to about brushes there, the same brushes, but we're adding one to the mix, so we've got a medium sized flat brush and a smaller flat brush Flat just means that bristle school straight across the top. And then we have a round brush, just small round brush. But we're adding a larger flat brush, so this just makes it easier for you to do your under painting and your background. It's just a larger version of what you already have. If you don't have that, you can still use what you have. You will just take you a little longer, so, as always, you'll want a bucket full of water. You'll want some paper towel handy. I use a palette knife for mixing my colors. You don't have a palette knife yet. Then you can just use your paintbrush. So that's pretty much what you're going to need to create cow inside flowers. I look forward to painting with you 3. S2C1 Getting Started : Hello and welcome to Siri's to Class one. This series of classes will be completed without starting with a fluid acrylic poor background. So you get to paint your own background, and our first painting in this series is behind me. I'm going to title it. Cowan Sunflowers. This is a Highland cow living his best life, Charlotte's Freedom Farm in Chatham Kent, And, uh, he's amused for this painting, so it's gonna be a lot of fun. So the first step in this painting is going to be doing what I call a under painting, and an under painting is just a swash of color across the white canvas to come through the background of your paintings. So in this case, I have blue sky, so I have used a red tone for my under painting, so that's going to be step one, so we will be coming back, and I will show you how to do that 4. S2C1 Under Painting: Okay, so today we're going to add a paintbrush in. If you have been following along from the beginning and have already painted Marblehead Lighthouse, you'll know that we use flat brushes and round brush is so today we're gonna add a bigger size flat brush. So the flat brush the Brussels just go straight across the top. So the the larger one I'm using will just help me get more, uh, paint the background faster if all you have is your medium sized flat brush than that will work just fine and also include a smaller flat brush. We're going to use thes small round brush again as well. So then what I have done is I have chosen a bad. Now I've chosen a smaller size plastic pain palette, which is just a plate, and I have a ready orange on my on my plate so you can decide what color red you like. You might like Oh Pinker read or um or purple red, and then you add a lot of water in it, and I have a squirt bottle that I can just keep adding Once I see how it's going to hit the canvas so you're gonna mix it around really, really, really well, it's It's very it's very thin. So then, as we know, we want to keep our paintbrush damp. So get that happening, and then you just start painting. There's no there's no right or wrong way to do this, and you see how the paint is actually starting to drift and fall down the campus, and that is fine. And so you just keep going back and forth, back and forth until you have what the entire canvas covered, and I'm going to be adding water along the way. If at some point I find that I've got my paint color is getting a little bit too transparent, I can add so more paint from my tubas. Well, so we just keep doing this and I'm going to close the video often. Come back and show you mine completed. Just carry on and get paint on your entire campus 5. S2C1 Painting the Sky: Okay, so you all have your background under painting done and allowed it to dry so it will look something like this, although your color will be different, so don't expect for it to look exactly the same. And as you can see, there is still some campus coming through, so it's not a solid color. It's just a It's just a layer of color that we're going to be able to utilize and pull through into the blue sky when we paint it. So on your palate you're going to want a have a nice large pile of white you're gonna want This is yellow ochre, a little bit of yellow and yellow that you like a little bit of orange. If you don't have warns, you just a little bit of red with your yellow. A little bit of raw sienna, tiny bit of black. You've got to blues are cerulean blue and our failed blue But any two blues will do Just make sure they're different tones and we have to green. Same thing. Two tones of green is all you want, um, andare brown. And so we've got a palette here that we can work from and mix in in different colors that we're going to use along the way. So the first colors we're gonna mix are the blues for the sky. Now, I have not actually taught this class live yet. I did my sample painting and now this video painting that I'm going to do with you. Today is only the second time I will have painted this, so I'll be working things that would as well along the way. And, um, you know, you'll see how I go through that process of discovery, and my painting today will not look like the painting over there, and it will not look like your painting. So the goal is always with painting to be happy with what you have created and not to try and make it look like something else. So that's we're gonna do. So we're gonna have some fun Now we're gonna mix up some sky color now what I have done, and you probably won't be able to see it terribly well in the video. But I will post a photo of the painting as well as as the completed one, but I can see a beautiful red hue coming through, certainly in the middle area of the of the painting. So that's kind of what we're going for. Creates a lot of and a lot of depth to a painting. So I'm going to take some of my cerulean. I'm just gonna move it into the middle here and then grab some white. I'd like to have several tones of paint available on my palette when I'm painting, and I don't wanna have to stop in mix. Although I do a lot of mixing on the canvas. Andi, I can show you how to do that as well. So it's gonna scrape that off so I don't waste it. Another trick is to take your brush once you've got a damn and just slide the pain off your palette knife so that you're not wasting the paint. Okay, You didn't have to change your water either, because red include and blue play nice together. And if we end up with some purple e shades in our sky, that's not about so Making sure my Russia's nice and damp. The first thing I'm gonna do I'm gonna load it up with the color I just mixed. Remember how we flatten the brush on both sides so that we don't have gobs of paint. And then I'm just gonna touch into my fellow blue. One of the tricks that I use when I'm creating a painting is I kind of make the four corners a little bit darker, which keeps the I in the campus. Now, I've also added a highlight area on my painting here with some white. But I'm going to start with with doing that so you can see that the sale of blue is coming off quite nice. Now, I don't like to super mix my paint on the canvas. I would much rather how I've got streaks and things. I'm already starting to see the red coming in. You need a lot of pain for this, so don't be shy. I went over to my other corner. You notice I'm going around here? I'm going to be dealing on my painting. I'm going to be dealing with the bottom after I finished the entire painting. So we're not gonna worry about that If you're painting on a table, of course, you can deal with your bottom right now. It does take a fair bit of water I also like to have the bottom of the painting just a little darker in the corners. So I have a little bit more my fellow blue coming in here. So now I haven't cleaned my brush. I want to keep that that dark paint on. I'm gonna go into my blue, But I'm also gonna grab some weight and I'm going to kind of go into this middle area. I'm I'm mixing on the canvas as well as on my college. And what happened? I think I've referred to the term portion full on previous videos. And what happens is you. You paint, you decide whether you have to then out even more. And do you can change things up. So really, just get going, have some fun. Loosen up. You can't make a mistake with this. I don't know if you can hear, but there's a scraping noise. And when you hear that, that's often the sign that you need some more water. You're now some of you might like uneven, lighter sky, and you might like to put some clouds in your sky so you could do what you want now where if there's an area where you want this guy to come through more So the under painting just takes in water without paint and just go over an area. It actually pulls the pain off, and I've done that here. So I've got some some red really coming through here, which I like. Every campus is going to look different. It's just a matter of getting it to the point where you like what you see. You can even leave whole sections of your under painting showing if you want. You don't have to cover it all up. It can actually look like there's some a setting sun. It's kind of where I was going for when I make and I decided on this color and you'll have a smaller campus so you'll get through this quicker than I will. So I'm gonna cut the video for now, and I'm gonna come back and show you what I have done because it is gonna take me a while, doesn't have a larger campus, so we'll be right back and we'll see where we go from here. 6. S2C1 Finishing the Sky: Okay, so carrying on here, we'll take a few minutes to get this to where you like it. - You also. We'll also look nice on the bottom for us to have the darker blue because the beasts and yellow Teoh to, you know, come through in the sunflowers. So that will be nice to she had more to do more book blues, and so you're constantly I do. Anyway, I suggest you pull back from your painting, sometimes even getting up, walking around, looking at it from far away because you want to make sure while it's still wet that if you want to take any pain off of any areas, you can still do that. So I just went in with just water because I'd like to have some areas where I can see more of the red coming through. Ah, highlight area over here. Kind of like what I do on that other sample painting. So this is part of the reason I I do my Siri's one classes with the background already done , it does take a while, and often my life classes. I try and I try and get them finished in two hours. So as you can see here. This this is taking a while now again, you might be painting on a smaller campus, but it does still take a while to get all the paint on. So that is definitely a benefit to having the fluted pillars for back. But that's all right. We will persevere. Holed up there, you may have even decided to make your sky have different colors altogether. You might have yellows. You might have, You know, different colors of blue. You get to decide when you make your own background colors you want to use. I am seeing quite a bit of red coming through my canvas, and I like that. So I'm going to be careful not to over work this because I like the differences that are coming through here. There's a lot of different textures when you have when you combine colors, it does create texture and depth. I'm actually going to start getting a little darker as I go down here, although the cow is gonna cover this area anyways, this is the part of the painting where you could just be what I call loosey goosey, because it doesn't matter what it looks like we're gonna be putting a lot of stuff on top of it. So again, just to review if there's any areas while it's still wet that you want to have some or red coming through, just put some water on your brush. You clean a lot of that paint off and just go back and work a little bit. Just be careful. You don't tickle your read off. I can see some more red coming through here like it was quite a bit of red coming through on mine. So I'm gonna leave it at that. I like that. So play around with yours. Once you have something that you really like, let it dry, and then we'll carry on to the next step. 7. S2C1 Stems and Leaves: Okay, so now we're going to mix some greens because the next step is going to be to mark in our stems for our flowers or stems in our leaves. So I like to have three different tones of green. So what we're going to do is we're gonna I cleared away a little space where I have a lot of blue But I don't have to be fussy with this cause blue and green, they play happy together. So it doesn't matter. So you can just take some of your green, put it right into your area That has a do on it. It's not going to matter. Then I grab some brown and I mix it around and I just see what it looks like. I'm trying to get like, a nice, dark shade of green, and that's exactly what I have here. So that is awesome. So now I have my three tones of green and we can carry on and make our stems are leaves. Now, I'm gonna show you a brush stroke technique when we're doing the leave. So as I mentioned in my introductory video as we go along, I'm going to show you some little tricks of the trade. So you're going to use your round brush? You're gonna get damp again. I haven't even seen my water. I've got a lot of blue in my water. I'm not worried about that right now. Once we've done, the green bits will break and I will clean my water. So So what? We're going to do one of the things as you have discovered already with my painting technique is I like to load the brush with more than one color at one time so you can actually get all three colors on now. We're probably gonna have to make our marks more than once, but that's okay. So I've loaded with the dark. Then I on gone and loaded on the right side of my brush with the medium tone green, and I'm going to flip my brush and on the left side of my brush, I'm going to have my light green. So in my painting, I want the light source coming this way. So the light side of my stems is going to be this way, so you can't make a mistake on this either. So don't worry. We're just going to make a line down. So my first flower is coming in right about here. So we're just gonna put the brush onto the campus on that? I flipped the brush around. Pull it back up. This is basically what I call a sketch line of my of my stem. We're going to go back over again, but I'm gonna carry on and do the same for the rest of them. So dark green. First put some light green on the right puts, um, sorry. Medium tone green on the right and lighter tone on the left. You got all three on your brush. Put it down on the canvas were the light side is on the left or your light source, which in this case, is the left. So then I have another little stem lips. You get to watch me work all this out. I have paint over me, but that's okay. We have a stem coming kind of on an angle up here. And when you're flipping your flipping so I've still got the light color green on the left side of my stem. So there's that one and we just carry on. We load with our dark bring, but the medium tone on the right, the lighter tone on the left. And now we'll do. The next one is kind of angle a little bit the left. We'll make sure we keep our space where our cow is gonna be. So we gotta pay attention to that. Just kind of come down. Can you get the hang of that? We're just gonna carry on. We're not worried right now about the final. What? It looks like the final product because we're going to go over them one more time. So then we have one more. What? We've got one here. Let's put this one on again. You're you're stems might land in a slightly different position than mine. And that's okay. Doesn't matter. So we're gonna load our brush again. And then Now we've got the last one, you know. Well, lots of room for Hamish. Right here. So we have another little flower here. We have Hamish coming in over here, so just go over all of your stems one more time. You don't have to wait for them to dry. Load your brush in the same way, and then we'll do some leaves. So you're just gonna go back over your stem, flipping it the other way, And you've got some nice father on there. If the mark you made looked really good from the beginning, you don't have to do a second. I'm gonna actually just come into the middle of this one because my bottom seemed to be fine. I need a little more. I just got a little thicker there. That's OK. Nothing in nature is the same. Everything have its own unique shape. So So that's the stem. So then the same thing I'm gonna get you to clean your brush. I used to get over the gooey pain toad, and lots of paint is the trick here for both the stems and the leaves. You want lots of paint on your brush. So it's the same idea. I'm gonna load my brush the same with my three greens. And for this particular hurt, you may want to have your cameras off oven easel and or on flat on me on the table, But I'm gonna flip it, so I'm gonna deal with this hurt first. First leaf. So one of the things that I like to do when I'm painting a leaf is pulled the paintbrush towards me, so I'll show you what I mean by that. So it is a action where you put the brush onto the canvas and you pull it towards you and left at the same time. You got a lot of a lot of pain on here and you don't want to be shy. So in this case, I want my light part of my leaf at the top. So my light green is is positioned that way. So I'm setting the brush down and I'm pushing on it. And then as I move, I let I let up. And again, if I don't like the way that that turned out, I'm gonna go back and do it again. Now what I want to do is I want to make it bigger. So I'm gonna load my brush again and I'm gonna go back, and I'm gonna just carry it off a little more there. So it's the same for the other leaves. You want to just do it again so that you can see so you land the brush on the canvas, push it You're pushing all the bristles of spreading and then you're going to slide it towards you and then let up. This takes some practice, so you may want to get, you know, it's a piece of, um, sketch pad or something where you can actually practice this. I was doing this on ceramic skosh 35 years ago, so I've done a lot leaf over my time. This one had this flower has a cup, three different leaves coming up the top. That would suggest that there's another flower in behind that we don't see. So but we're still gonna put those in for some interest. And when I did this painting, I did put leaves in before I did the sunflower. So I'm gonna do that again. It might be a bit of a challenge for you to do it this way, but again, when we're doing the flower, if we need to make some changes, we can do that for that. One of the very top because of the angle of it, I flipped my campus a bit of a curlicue to it so I can play with that later when I do the flower. And I might shift things around a bit there. So there's a couple down here. I'm also spinning my brush a little bit When I when I come around the corner of the leaf kind of spin it. That helps a little bit. It is. It does take practice. Don't be discouraged. Are frustrated with yours. I can still add to the the size of these once way put the flowers and we see where we're at . So I am going to also put these Believes here. Okay, So give your brush a good clean, and then we'll come back and start painting some flowers. Also clear your water and we'll start with the next step will be our yellow tones. So that's why I wanna have nice, clean water. 8. S2C1 Sunflowers 1: Okay, So here's a learning opportunity for me to share with you if you notice in my painting. Um, after we broke from the last video, I noticed that this leaf was in the wrong place. So that is this one here that's coming from behind me. The flower. So what I've done is I've not worried about this, and I have just painted another leaf coming over here. This area is going to be sunflower, so once it's dry, that's fine. You can just go over it. So that's an opportunity for you to just remember that when you're making your painting is that if you think you've made a mistake, sometimes you can actually just move forward and paying over it. I've also changed the direction of this flipped leaf. I'm not gonna worry about it. It just happens to go the other way. So this is This is what happens when we make a painting. They'll never look the same twice. Okay, so carrying on, Let's, uh let's take a look at how we're gonna deal with our yellow. So I like to put some white in my yellow because yellow is a very transparent color and it really does. Um, Doesn't show well, unless you're a little bit of white with it so mixed mixed in white with your yellow I don't trying to grab that blue cause if you do, you might get a green tone So you've got some Some white in the yellow there. I've also got my full pile of yellow I've got my, my oh, Oakar And I've got a little bit of orange So all of these colors and my burnt sienna So which is just a ready brown? I've got all these colors at the ready so that when I go into painting my sunflowers, I'm gonna about to grab all this. So same round brush. I think I want to start with. Yeah, Mr we'll start with this guy right here. So that's this one here. So one of the things I do just to help me orientate how I'm gonna position the pedals as I start with a circle in the middle. So the circle in the middle, I just I grab some brown, um, And then I go in and I grab my burnt sienna. So I've got two colors on my on my brush and I know I'm going to come up a little bit and over from where the stem is. I'm just gonna I can't even see my browns and go back to lug around and just I'm just sketching a circle doesn't have to be perfect. That's one place for a what you call middle of the sunflower. We know there's one going down here and it's coming off that came off the canvas, so we only want half circle down here. These are sketches. This is not finished. The finished product. Same thing again with next one which we're gonna position in a boat here, paint over here free again. If we have to make adjustments to our leaves later, we can do that. This one's gonna cover up some of my mistake. So we're gonna go write in a vote here. So then what I do is I just with all my paintbrushes wet, I just kind of grab some of my orange and I just come back in here and do a little bit in the middle. That just gives my eye a reference point for how big that ISS and it does make a difference when you're putting the pedals on. We're gonna play with these middles a bit more, but that just gives my eyes something to go with to give you brush a good wash, and then we're going to start. We'll start painting some of the pedals. Now, the pedals are the same idea as the leaves where you're gonna load your brush with a couple of colors and you're gonna pull towards you and lift up. Now, I have done these pedals in more of a Monet style. Um, even, actually, Van Gogh was a better reference, So none of them are perfect. Some of them have really cool little squiggles to them. Some of them fade out into the background. They're not a for perfect point. I don't go for perfection in any of my paintings, So I think the more imperfecta it is, the more interesting it is to the I. So think about that when you're doing your flowers. Because I actually went over a few of mine several times, and so we'll see how they land on the canvas, and and I'll show you how you get to the point where you can look at it and say, OK, you know what I like that. So making sure your brushes damp. So I'm gonna go into the to the straight yellow, and I'm gonna load really well and I'm gonna go into my It doesn't matter how I put it on the brush is not like the leaves where I wanted you to put three different colors in a certain place. I've just now gone into my yellow with the white and it doesn't matter. It's on the brush. And then I like to go into my my burnt sienna just a little. Just tip his tip it now. Same reason we did with the leaves. You're gonna spin your canvas around based on where you are, So I'm gonna start with this flower. Same thing of putting my brush down on the campus. I'm pushing down, I'm sliding towards me and then I'm lifting up the step one looks something like that. We're gonna go back over these a few times, so just start laying in. Sometimes you can get to strokes before you have to reload. Now, at first glance already, my pedals are way too small. So because I have them bigger on this campus when it's actually a smaller campus. So I'm gonna stop and I'm gonna go back over them and start again, and I'm gonna be mindful of that as I go now to really make them a little bit bigger. A big old paint there. Now, one of the things we're gonna do when we come back around the second time is we're gonna go in between some of these areas that we leave blank just to fill it in. For now. Just make your way around the painting. It doesn't matter if they are exactly what you want them to be. You'll get there. So I'm gonna put the cameras up here, make sure you can always see me. As you can tell. It was a challenge for me there for a minute. I like to actually move the canvas around, but for the video, I have to realize that have to be with a little bit static. There's gonna be a stem coming in here. That's okay. We could put that in later. I can actually paint these on now for the most part without flipping it around. But that's because I've been doing this for many years. So see how around paint there, so obviously it's better back in a reload. And I don't like the way that looks, but I don't care right now, because I know I'm gonna go back over it there. So pedal number one has been sketched in. Now you can see a big difference between what that looks like and what that looks like. And that's because I've worked on top of that painting or that Pam Flower several times. So let's tackle this one on the bottom now. So it's just the same thing over and over and over. You put your rush down, push it, call it and slide it. Worth you. We're not going for uniform color or shape. It's gonna fall off the side of the cameras. Way go. We've got the illusion of a pedal on the edge there. Okay, so it's starting to take some shape. We've got another interesting little partial flower happening over here. I'm gonna do that one this way around because my brain will not allow me to figure out which direction that's going upside down. I don't know if any of you are like that, but I struggle with that. So I have to actually see what I'm doing. So I'm going to just so the opposite. Then I'm gonna put the brush on the campus and pull up. That's an advanced technique, so you may not wanna play with that one. So what's happening here on this painting? I got it. And coming around personally around the the stem, this was probably gonna overlap this one, which is fun, which is different than my other painting. Well, Mark just in here, so that's good for that one. I'm gonna give my brush a clean. 9. S2C1 Sunflowers 2: Okay, so moving along, Um, just filling in tells, um this was gonna be a bit interesting, so let's tackle this one. So this one's going to include the mistake that I made, so I'm going to go right there. Niinisto. What off with my finger. But if we end up with a green pedal, that's okay. We will go over it. That work. Do it. Okay, clean my brush. So if you didn't pull any green off your stem, just make sure you wash your brush. Oh, before you go back into your yellow, - it's one talks in other side. We'll touch up the stems if you happen to down to your stem. So don't worry about a lot more. We're gonna make the rest of those pedals bigger when we come back for our second go around . So for now that works. It's again. We're just We're just sketching men right now. And now let's do the one up at the time. So I like the the squiggle on these, uh, these talked to so I would start with the It's just it's very that's a very mango style to make the leaves squeal here because here right now a little bit coming behind their just cause of where my stab landed on this pain. And compared to the other painting No, I will go back over my stem later with every painting finishing touches off often. Make it pop. You go. Wow, That looks fantastic. So this is just early days. Okay? So we have all of our sunflowers sketched on for their first coat, and we're gonna be in the water and come back and I will show you then how to highlight the pedals and also highlight the stem so that we have finished flowers. 10. S2C1 Finishing Sunflowers : Okay, so I'm highlighting, so I'll show you what I'm doing here. So I'm gonna I'm gonna look at this one here. When we highlight, we want to take a two dimensional object and make it three dimensional. So we add some some lighter tones and I'm not going to cover completely what I've already got because that will form are darker tones, which helps to make it. I feel like it's got four. So again, we've got our 33 or four colors here. So we've got the yellow that's got white in it. I'm gonna grab some of my burnt sienna again, but I'm also gonna put just plain white on my brush. And I got a lot of God is happening here, but we'll see what how this goes. So I'm not going to however completely what I've already done kind of going in the middle of these marks, and I want to make this one a little bit bigger, and I might come back and make changes even more now with the second code. As you can see, I was able to do three pedals there with it, adding to my and so you're just gonna go around and it just because you're adding a white, it just makes it a little bigger and brighter and more pronounced. Just go around. I like the fact that I got pedals that I can see and behind. You might do a few funky extra little bits with your pedal that you're going around. There's no there's no right or wrong Good, interesting. Do a little bit of a squiggle. There goes squiggle another square there, so that's looking a little more substantial. They're not going to come as close together as that other painting, but we're just gonna have to live with that. So we just keep going around and doing that playing with color. I'm gonna go in between these and it just really night makes it start to take shape each time I go over my pedals and making them a little bigger as well. And that's another trick I taught you in Marblehead Lighthouse, and I picked up a little bit of green watch my brush. Um, start your image is smaller than what you ideally want, because then you can make them bigger. You can't make them smaller because then as soon as the paint dries. We can't take it off, so they're added a little squiggle there. So you see how you can. You can start to shape things and again, if you're new to this, it's It is easier if you canvas around and pull it towards you. We don't frustrate yourself. I need to have some more filling in here. It's theirs to money gaps. So that's another little trick. Schist, just freehand it. And once we've fiddle with the middles and reform the middle's, it will make them pop. This is going on down here is pretty good already, so I don't want to do too much. It's like about with too much what's in there. Looks good. I'm gonna give my brush and wash because I just I found that when I was moving along the canvas, it was scraping. So that's a real good sign that you need to wash. Your Russian should move freely across the journalists. Let's tackle this. Still want to be coming in behind? I want this. Yeah, - Sometimes you have to flip it back. Just actually see what it looks like that's coming. This top flower. I like to put extra highlight extra white just because it's at the top of the canvas and it just draws the eye there. So that's what we'll blue here. We'll just make sure we have extra white on our pedals. Yeah, so then I just with my I got my brush still went with some of my yellows. I'm just gonna go right into my burnt sienna. Not with a lot, but just on the end. And just I'm just gonna pull through some of this color randomly through through some of these pedals, get some more. It's ideal to do this when the yellow is still wet so that it doesn't form a solid color on top. It kind of mixes in with yellow underneath. Well, looks like I need some off. Oops. Now, see, I don't like that you like, go. It's not bad. And always walk away from your painting and you come back to it tomorrow. You find that you like a whole lot more. We stare at these when we're making them. Analyst Lee just start to really go. I don't like that. But then when you leave it and come back, it's amazing. So we're gonna clean your brush. One more time we finished. Our pedals are middles. There's a word for those, and I'm sorry I can't recall. Well, I've got dark brown on my brush and just starting with that and I'm making my circle kind of cover all the beginning strokes of mine pedals. And if I pick up some yellow and it forms, it comes into the brown. That's a good thing again. We don't necessarily want a solid color anywhere. Any areas that are whoops is we can go back. So then I go. I'm going to go right into my orange, and I might need to add orange if you times circle it around. It's very random color you choose may not be orange. You might like something else but just create a difference in the middle of the from the flower. Okay, so we'll become basket your brush. A good wash will come back and we'll finish up touching up our stems and our leaves 11. S2C1 Touching up Leaves: Okay. So again I pulled back for my panting I've taken a look in it Spirit obvious to me that my leads needs some work My stems I'm OK with but my leaves needs So I'm gonna load my brush again with my three break three greens I've got the darker green I might even I'm gonna actually pull a little bit of brown in here just just for something interesting I'm gonna Then put my medium green on the right side of my brush and my light green on the left side of my brush I'm going toe create more interesting leaves. Now, the one up here is gonna be a bit of a challenge. Have a flower here, but I can also touch up my flower almost like it needs to be bigger. So it's the same process for all the leaves. I want to work on Aiken. A little bit of brown and little better work on this one. Yeah, that works a small In order to make that when bigger I have to deal with the fact that I have a marked down here. I'm twice. I'm just gonna grab my light green. It's the top there. It's better still 100 issue with us. So again, in a live class, you can appreciate that we would have to keep moving on. But because we're in our comfort of our home or wherever we are, we can spend a little time and fiddle and there can be a point where you go too far. So you have to be really careful. Just adding a little of extra brown in here every now and then just just to break up the green There, that's more interesting. So I feel like those flowers are pretty good. The only thing I'm gonna do we gonna put a little bit of yellow and white on my brush. Just touch. Yeah, just some of these ones up here just because this is where the highlight is supposed to be online. And it just has a way of making it. Tricks that learn as you go along and painting just random If you notice. I'm just randomly going in with some white just marking it. Every some of my flowers ended up coming together a little too much. So this just really rates of paddles. I always instructed my classes. Be carefully. Could go too far. Okay, so we're gonna call that done, and then we're going to start. Hamish, Hamish is a lot of fun, and he might look a little intimidating at first glance, but honestly, it's not that hard. Once we get the initial shape positioned, we carry on with just more Lucy, you see, and, uh, flowing color. So we'll be back and we'll start, Hamish. 12. S2C1 Sketching Hamish : Okay, let's start a mish. Now. One of the things to think about right off the bat is that he's coming up and into the left of the campus. Now, that is actually a bit of a challenge just to yet that shape. So we're gonna work on this together because, as I said to you have only done this painting one other time, so I'm learning as well. So what I did when I did this when I did, this original painting was I went into one of my I would say one of either your yellow Quirt or your raw sienna or or your yellow, some some kind of paint color that will show up for a sketch. So then what I did was I looked at my campus and I determined I kind of started with the nose to me. I thought, if I get the nose right, I can give, I can go from there. So I looked at my campus. I know that the bottom of his body is going to be around here. It's a little space. And so I started to mark out kind of where his nose was gonna be in the counties of just like a little dots. And so if I'm gonna start sketching the nose, I know the basic shape All of this is gonna be covered with paint. So it doesn't matter if I make a mistake here. We're looking the the shape of that piece of the of the nose and is it the right tilt? And it seems to me to be pretty close, So we're gonna leave it at that for now. I can adjust it as I go. I absolutely did when I did this other painting. So that's kind of the nose area. We know there's a little bit of hair down here, you know that his body comes down here and then it kind of goes off camp was over here. So this have toe what? My brush gets a more pain. So that's that part. Now, the next thing I have to think about is the eye so the I probably be somewhere in here. So for now, I'm going to sketch in the I and just see now it's already the wrong angle, so I'm gonna change it so that it's bettering again. All of this is gonna be covered with paint. So it doesn't matter. Just gives my my visual to go by. Is there enough space between the nose and the I on and this point? I think so. Because my eyes gonna be smaller than what you see on the campus. The next big consideration is he's got years coming out the side and he's got horns. So the ear kind of comes out like this. Yes, I know. You have to consider that its head is tilted, so it's gonna be up over here. Oh, my gosh, it's really sticky and get some more paint. So again, these sketch marks are probably gonna change and move as I go along. But it's something to start with when I elevate his ears a little higher here already. So I'm already changes. Okay, so then just gonna rough in a horn and one that hard to hard to be a nice are up. They're so there is one. You're right off the campus there, and that's probably going to be smaller than what we end up with. But that's OK. It's ideal to start smaller. So then the top of this had roughly year Hey, Syria, just so You know, I I'm not a portrait painter. I don't I don't do people. Well, I do a lot of pet paintings if you have a photo of a pet that you want is a painting. I do a lot of those as you can see on my website. But one of the things you have to think about is the perspective and the proportions. And the nice part about this style of cow and all the colors we're gonna put in is that you're gonna hide a lot of whoops is so we don't have to worry too much, but this just gives you a general idea of what we're working. So then again, you pull back and you look is his nose in the right place. Do we like where his nose is? And the nose is going to get a little bit bigger as we go along. We've got this nice area here too. So we gotta think about that. This isn't the whole thing. So I think that that's pretty good. And I know right now that this form is good. Come in war like this. Okay, So clean your brush and we'll come back and I will just review what colors We're gonna work on our have on our palate and we'll start creating Hamish. 13. S2C1 Painting Hamish 1: Okay, so I still got the pellet that we originally started with, and we're going to be using a lot of these colors. So are our, um, yellow Oakar are raw. Sienna are burnt. Sienna are brown tone, lots of white. Um ah, a little bit of black. We're gonna actually make a gray. I'm going to suggest that we use to the two other flat brushes. So we've got a a large flat brush, and we've got a smaller flat brush. And so even these squiggles, when we get to them, I started making them with the larger front flat brush. And then I came back with the smaller flat brush and did some more on top so that we had two different sizes of for hair for knows how. Have for I think it does. So for and so that's how we did that. But I'm going to start with my small flat brush. I like this paintbrush, even for detail. If you're more comfortable with your round, then please do that. Is that I haven't bothered to change my water. I don't need to. At this point, I'm probably gonna change it before we do the final highlights because those are white. But for now, we're fine. These are all darker tones, so we don't have to worry about dirty water. So again, I start with the nose. I just I just find that if I could get that nose in there than everything else pills from there. So I'm a lot of different colors on his nose, and I start off with a few colors on my Russia's well, so I want to have a tone that looks kind of like I don't know, it's not a skin tone because it's a cow. But so I start with my burnt Sienna go a little bit of brown. I'm gonna put in, and I'm gonna just touch this. Um, I'm sorry. The name of the paint paint car has just escaped me, but it will come to me. So I have what looks like a ready brown, and then I'm gonna grab my white on. You see, I'm using the corner of my eye palette. I don't have to to use the new palette all the time. I got lots of space in here, so I like this color. I'm gonna scrape most of it off my brush and then I'm going to go just into my my brown. I still got that color on my brush and just go into my brow. So I'm just going to start the general shape of his nose. And again if you if you don't like the shape, don't worry, cause we're putting a lot of pain on top. Don't get bogged down on detail right now. Just start mapping out what his nose is gonna look like. And, you see, I've got different tones coming through here, which is what I like so already I can see that That's looking pretty good. It's not. There's no huge cause for concern with respect to the shape of it. This and we'll come up a little higher that now I'm gonna clean my brush cause I want to know fuel highlight areas and make the bottom a little darker. Some going into straight into my brown and I'm going to go around the bottom. Actually, I'm gonna touch a little bit of black into my into my brown. I'm gonna create a new pile over here with Brownie Black. So I'm gonna go under here with that color because I wanted to look a little bit darker under here. So I got my burnt sienna. I've got my regular Brown and I brought my later, fleshy tone that I made. So I know this is gonna be primarily what's going into the main area. I'm not covering entirely all the color I put down before my lower paint color. My dark color is still wet, Some going into that. And I'm just creating an opportunity for colors to mix together a little bit. My brush. I'm going into straight black. I'm gonna get these nostrils in after I don't like not in love with shame getting roughed in right now. Fact, You could come back with your round brush and just do some finer detail. It gives me a sense of what's going on there. I'm just gonna play with the colors on my palette. So right now I want to put some marks over here. I don't have to have anything. The same is what the other painting is. But I just want to add a little bit of interest on a school straight into white, and I'm gonna get some highlight areas because it's very light up over here on the cow too far right now, so it's gonna go back in with my other color. Careful. Not over anything that you like. I'm just touching my brush onto the campus and just adding some nice little marks. Here, there. Let's really talk about what you just played. Don't like it. You let it dry and you paint over it. So I'm gonna grab my round brush, and I just want Crispo news. It's good. It's good again. It's not supposed to look exactly like the other sample. All right, It's a little bit of burnt Sienna here and there. Sure. Right. Okay, so I have a nice highlight on here. It's just plain white. You may want to use your round brush a little bit easier just touching you spots, but you can use the corner of your flat brushes. Well, yeah, Just just next. Interesting for the I. Okay, so I would say that that knows it's pretty good. So now I can look at my panting and kind of see it's starting to take shape. So then I focused on this bottom area again. It helps to get you warmed up, so we know that the initial areas quite dark. So my black brown to make some more off, mostly brown. A little bit of black black does take over any color. You added, too. So you just have to use a little bit. Actually, I'm going to go right into straight black area because it's in shadow. You know, there's some wispy hairs down there after, so I don't have to fully paint that section block area. I just cleaned my first in there. So now I'm going to use some of my black ground. I like having lots of paint on my brush, So I'm just going to start these dark areas, and you just It's a loosey goosey. Now, you know what, honey is my bigger brush. We'll come back in with the smaller brush like but big brush gives us lots more bridge, so just putting your brush on on its edge on the side so you're not hitting the canvas flat on your hitting it on the side, and you're just making making works, and you leave a little bit of your your blue coming through because we'll fill in around with other colors. We know the very topless highlights highlighted so we don't need to put too much in there now. And this is very random. And you look at your pal. If you look at the colors that you have and you decide I want you like I got four colors going on here and you just start coming in and around completely cover what you've just done around already looking different than my which is you're different. Gonna mix up a gray, which is mostly we'll see white and a little bit of what There is great coming into this quite a bit me as we go along too much, you could do what I call pushing whole. So if you put it's a paint on an area and you don't particularly like it, just add something dry a little bit. So now I'm gonna switch to my small brush for I lost a little bit of my dark, so I'm gonna go back and just add a little more here in there. I'm just gonna add a little bit of white to my raw sienna. That's a nice highlight color. So just come in, you there. You just have extra white to the very end just to really make the areas that are kind of right in highlight there. That's a good start. Okay, So clean your brush, and then we'll come back and we'll start going up upon to his face. 14. S2C1 Painting Hamish 2 : Okay, so now let's work our way up his face. Now, one of things I'm noticing about mine is that I think my nose needs to be just a little bigger. So I'm going to just do that quickly. Before we carry on. You may find you have to make adjustments as well as you go along. And I might have to wait, actually. Kind of what? So wait. This is again good for you to see me working these things. His What happened? Painting. It's It doesn't come out of the gate. Perfect, you fiddle. Okay, let's leave that for now. And I might still do some more adjusting. So first I'm gonna do right now is I'm gonna get that I rendered. Because if I could have the I in the right place, a lot of the rest of it'll work out. So I'm still not 100% sure I got in the right spot. But let's just put it in here and see right. Some of you may prefer your your round brush. - Okay ? I'm cleaning my brush, and I'm going to add white bit too, because important so sense of water in the right place I'm just gonna use my round brush just to to shape. Yeah, was part of me two things. I'm gonna move over and what I could do. Like when I bring the for around, I can cover this side, Guys, it's going to be is too big. Okay, so I only got that for now. We'll see where we end up before I put the highlight in. So then I'm gonna do the horns, because that's another fairly simple part of it all. So I'm just going to go into my block to start with, because we know the bottom part of the horn is gonna be the darkest just paint a block area , both sides. I'm just gonna go right into some We have some. Great. But if not, I'm just gonna grab some white and I'm gonna grab some of the white that has blue on it from earlier, because it's not gonna matter. Whenever you have black, you can put whatever color you want. So then we just finish off shape of the horn sides. Yeah, making it smaller in the beginning, if you so that if you have to make adjustments, you don't end up with two big. So while the black pain is still what? I would work the great tone right into it. I don't have a hard line and then stand back to take a look at it. So already I can see that this horn is bigger than this one. So I'm just gonna grab some more of the great tone, and I'm just going to make it a little bit bigger. Gonna start down here just a bit more to it. Okay. Shoe. So what I've done is I've got now clean brush, and I'm just coming back and I'm just going lying down there. Okay? So that's pretty good. I'm gonna go back into my ally and come up from the bottom again into my white area. This is the pushing whole. You, you, your putting, your adding on and you're taking off. And you're going over and you're doing it until you like what you see. Finish that off. Just a nice white highlight. And I might have to wait a bit to come back and do another one just to let's try. Well, actually, let's let's let's leave. That's too OK, we'll come back and put our heart light on what's driving. So then again, you you sit back. You look at it this horny. Slightly bigger is a challenge on behalf, but we're going go. Okay. Really? That that famous doesn't have to be perfect. And already he's looking pretty cute. Okay, so now I'm gonna continue on the area around the nose, so we know that we've got a little bit of face coming along the side here. Just get some black on my brush. And I'm just gonna go around the edge of his nose on this side, But you don't see quite as much. This is gonna be wispy later. Know that the top of his A little bit of knows that we've already done. Got. I'm gonna fill that in. Okay. We're gonna clean the brush from the block. I gotta go back into my flesh tone. This is too. It's too pointy. It all that's better. Brown on my brush. That's better. Okay, so clean that off and then go back into your black and there's a nice little black area on top of his nose. Well, nice highlight. Do like I just how I did it again later. Then we have another little line up here, and these things may have to be gone over again after 15. S2C1 Painting Hamish 3 : Okay, so that's good. So just a little bit of white. I just too dark. Remember to add your weight as you go along and again. You can fiddle too much. So moving on now it's what I what I did here was I just shaded in this area. Could use a black brown, just random paint. It's not. You're gonna cover most of us, but it will come through. So this is his ear. Just make your area years right? So improvises We go along again. None of this is going to show. It's just gonna be an illusion underneath the hair. That's a big year. It's too big. OK, the magic eraser to show you how that works. So what, Right away before it dries, you just grab a little bit of water on. Careful, you don't pull off your blue. You just light strokes. You end up pulling it where you want. Do you have to do it right away? Dries, would you have wispy hairs coming over there? So it's not a big deal? Yeah. Better or not, you know often here. Okay, so that's a good rendering off going on behind his ears. OK, so now is where we go. Crazy goal. Open nuts, Loosey goosey. So again, I've got my large flat brush, and we're going to start to map in some of these marks, paying attention to the direction we go. So get your brush down. I'm going to start with a black brown. So I'm gonna add more black to my brown, Get my brush really well loaded with this nice, dark color. And I'm just going to start coming down, so we know that there's an area that's gonna be a little bit spiking it. So start just here. You've got some other areas come around those. And I know my freak You out at this stage of the game to start doing these random marks, But we have to have together going This allows us to start to see shape. And again, you're years is gonna look different than mine. And mine is gonna look different than what I did later. No, some dark areas here. And you got to keep your brushed really damp for this part of it to be able to get nice whiskeys that don't dry out on you. The only thing going on over his eye that I'm hoping to capture. I might need to do it with my other smaller one. That start. That's a start. Anyway, these are very large lines right now. Okay, I'm gonna color off my We'll take another color. I'm just gonna go right into my sienna already ground just to make marks. And you don't cover these ones up. Actually going to grab couple of colors off my power just works for you, paying attention to the overall shape we're trying to get here and I fiddled with this for quite some time. So this is not a one shot deal here. Does take some time to see a few little whiskeys. I'm gonna switch to smaller now. It's just a little bit easier. So I'm going to get my raw Sienna a little light. Also go into comes here just like to have more than one car. So I got around a couple brokers, so let's see what happens when we start. That's working. Well, do you end up with a lot of white after which really brings it out? Some of the ones coming off the face or a little intimidating, So just take a deep breath. Make sure your brushes well loaded. I'm gonna get a little wiggle in your in your arm. It's not a straight line. Any marks that you don't like, you're gonna be able to go over them. So just go for it started to form. And this is just a process you go through. Let's take a while. But ordinary here, above his nose. That's got some form to it. It's got a shape, like trying to her shapes on this putting that in now so I don't lose it. The tricks to and painting is to pick out the shapes. Never find that we start losing some of our dark colors. Then we just go back over and do them again. I'm gonna get some gray into the mix here. Okay? I'm gonna clean my brush, and we're going to carry on 16. S2C1 Finishing Up : is a white line of below his IMEs. No. Okay, because I is probably a little too big, so I'm probably going to being some around. It's great. - Okay , So great. Now I think this is in order. Great. Hamish Takao joined the share its Freedom Farm website. You could meet the rial Hamish, and he's quite he's quite brown. There's a lot of brown in them, but one of the things with making a painting is you can't make it exactly like a photo Or like the real thing. You have to make it interesting. And to do that, you gotta bring in other colors. So that's what we're doing here. We're making Hamish our version. He actually the door. All those someone A cute animals farm, though. Encourage it. Okay, I think we're at the point where we can probably just be getting mostly white happening. Just get white on your brush, and we're just gonna come in and around some of our mark. Some of them are still wet, which is good, so that that the colors will still blend of it. I've been also go into my brown. Just a lot of white on my brush I'm also not Go Brown, Let's get have some attitude around his face. We got rid of that Really nice little marks. Russian here. Black do there. That's a really interesting mark there. Perhaps more brown. My brokers flip you do down here, which is kind of cool. It's There is the little things that really add to the personality of the the image when you can get these hilarious coming almost there. You, almost to the finish line. Oakar white here. What things happen here? Do that in a minute, Dr. I want more white over there and your colors are playing nice together. They doesn't drive. So now I'm just pulling back and I'm just seeing where I need a little more hanging pieces here, here. So now I think I'm just gonna mostly white my brush Dirty white is fine. It doesn't have to be playing pure white Well, car. So I'm just gonna run some highlights through some areas. What did you do here? Worked very well. And then let's just touch top. So some of these other marks just to make them pop appear This is where you could go too far, so go slow keep looking. Just make sure that you're not and you're gonna have some really nice marks on your campus . Just don't cover them. No. Good. Look, okay? We never didn't do the black. They're supposed to be so good. I'm gonna touch up his eye is it's still bothering me. So any color. Really? And just feel I can see some of my book years a little bit here. Good. Put a white highlight in his eye that might help. Go still like this is what happened. You know, back when you play golf, if you can continue to try and hit the same wall sometimes you got a bit long. Come back to the still. No, I'm gonna bring some of these other colors up into their there. Okay. I was too big. So how are we feeling about this? I think he's come pretty darn good. This black line that we put in earlier has disappeared of its Let's try the highly. Okay, so that's pretty much it. That's how you paint Cowen sunflowers. And you have every option to keep feeling a little bit. Just be careful. Local too far. I do have some of my blue coming through and I could spend a few minutes here and kind of fix that. I'm not too worried about it. I don't mind things like that, but you look at your painting and see what you think. No more little random things here. That's it. That's pretty much all there is to making Cowan sunflowers Congratulations. You've just made your second your first painting in Syria's two.