Russian for Serious Beginners | Lesson 2 - Nouns | Jekaterina Kotelnikova | Skillshare

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Russian for Serious Beginners | Lesson 2 - Nouns

teacher avatar Jekaterina Kotelnikova, Artist & Language Tutor

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Lessons in This Class

21 Lessons (59m)
    • 1. Intro to Russian for Serious Beginners | Lesson 2 - Nouns

      0:22
    • 2. Gender

      1:18
    • 3. Articles

      0:30
    • 4. The Three Genders

      1:44
    • 5. How to Describe Nouns

      2:10
    • 6. 5 Masculine gender

      7:46
    • 7. Feminine Gender

      5:25
    • 8. Neuter Gender

      3:20
    • 9. Singular and Plural

      1:37
    • 10. Masculine Plural

      5:58
    • 11. Masculine Exceptions

      7:06
    • 12. Neuter Plural

      3:56
    • 13. Feminine Plural

      2:56
    • 14. Plural vs Singular

      3:47
    • 15. Animate vs Inanimate

      2:24
    • 16. Personal Pronouns

      3:24
    • 17. Professions

      3:02
    • 18. Verb To Be

      1:11
    • 19. Places of Employment

      0:36
    • 20. Nationalities

      0:29
    • 21. Verbs and Adjectives

      0:24
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About This Class

In this class, you will learn about nouns in the Russian language. We will take a look at how to describe the nouns, cases, genders, and how plurals are formed, as well as you will learn the most common exceptions and rules that will help you use the nouns in Russian the right way.

This is Lesson 2 from my new Russian for Serious Beginners course. Stay tuned every week for a new lesson & learn Russian with me!

All the best,

Kate

Meet Your Teacher

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Jekaterina Kotelnikova

Artist & Language Tutor

Teacher

Hi there! I'm Kate and I am an artist and an illustrator (and a mom of a wonderful 5-year-old). I live and work in Jelgava, Latvia. 

When I was very young I went to art school but did not finish it as I got really tired of everyone telling me what 'the right way' to do things is. I believe that in art there is no right or wrong :)

I returned to drawing and then painting after I started having problems with my health. Right after I gave birth to my daughter I was in pain 24/7 for over a year and a half when I was finally diagnozed with fibromyalgia (for those of you who are lucky enough not to know what that is, it's an illness that makes your nerves transmit paint which is not there). 

I run my YouTube art channel, Patreon, my little online art school... See full profile

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1. Intro to Russian for Serious Beginners | Lesson 2 - Nouns: Hi there, My name is Zach and welcome to the second lesson of the Russian for a serious beginner course. In this lesson, we will talk about the noun in Russian language. You can watch the first lesson about the pronunciation of the alphabet in Russian as well, and then follow with this one if you still haven't seen the first one. But for now, let's start learning. 2. Gender: The noun in Russian. What is the first thing that you should know about the noun? Well, in Russian, unlike in English, we have three genders. So we have feminine, masculine, and neuter. Now, this is important. All the adjectives that describe the noun will agree with the nouns gender, and not with the gender of the subject of the sentence. So very important, if the noun is feminine than the adjective is going to agree with it in its gender. For example, if we say how to deal with Chicka, hot or Sharjah. This is an adjective for a feminine noun that is geometrical or grow. The same. We could say hot or shrubs mulching hot or SRY might check. This would be a good boy. But we can hear the difference between huddle Sharjah and huddle Shri. So we have the feminine version of the word and the masculine one. Hot or show you. Must try VGA, card washer year, musta Union. In this case, we have the new term gender and how to wash right here is an adjective that is also in the neuter gender. 3. Articles: Another thing is that in Russian there are no articles whatsoever. So in English, we are using a and the bot in Russian, the articles are absent. You would understand from the context, if the object is a determined one for the use of love, or if it's an undetermined object. For example, if you're saying a girl or the girl in Russian, it would still sound the same. Theologica. 4. The Three Genders: In Russian language, there are three genders, feminine, masculine, and neuter. Let's take a look at some words and try to understand how they divide into these genders. In Russian, on, on means H0, which describes the masculine gender. On Yvonne. Yvonne. This is a person's name. Yvonne, which belongs to the masculine gender. Please idiom, but easy, different. Computer. Computer. Ana in Russian means she on that belongs to the feminine gender. Mighty. Yeah. Miley. Yeah. Vasa. Vasa, Rosa. Rosa. Next we have R naught. R naught. R naught means it. And this is the Russian neutral gender. With unknown, we have words like the moral, vino, sold, set, sold set. Now let's take a look. How do these words differ? What is so particular that allows us to determine which gender they belong to. Look at the endings of the words. In the masculine gender. We have a consonant at the end. In the feminine gender, we often have at the end or, yeah. And then the new term gender, we have all or year. 5. How to Describe Nouns: Let's talk about Russian nouns and how we can describe. Russian nouns have gender, number, and they can be feminine, masculine, or neuter, singular or plural, and appear in any of the nominative, accusative, genitive, prepositional, dative, and instrumental. Then nouns can refer to animate things, and there are nouns that indicates only inanimate object. Animate nouns refer to living objects, and inanimate nouns refer to things and objects that are not aligned. Speaking about Russian syntax, we have to say that Russian language, like Greek and Latin, is based on its endings in English, which also previously was based on a system and now is a lot more simplified than it used to be in older times. We have still some cases, but in these cases, we have only the pronouns. In Russian, we have all these six cases that help us understand the meaning of what someone is saying. Let's look at the English. For example, we have three cases for AI in English. The subjective case I, the objective case, me as an object in a sentence. And my, the possessive case. This we see only in pronouns in English, whereas in Russian, every noun has six cases. So what are the six cases in Russian? So the first one would describe the subject of the sentence. The second one would describe a direct object of the sentence. Then we have an indirect object, location, means, and possession. So when we are changing the case of a noun, this process is called the clinician. So we declined our nouns. The first case that everyone learns in Russian is the nominative case. So this is kind of the basic version of any noun, mama, didi, that Olga. This is the simplest version of any noun in Russian, the nominative. 6. 5 Masculine gender: So let's talk about Russian gender. Gender for the nouns in Russian is very easy to deduce from the ending of the word. In other languages, like for example, in Italian and in Spanish, you need to know the gender of the word in order to actually use the correct article in the correct gender for that now, but in Russian, you can simply look at the ending of the word and you will understand what gender that word actually is. So it's kind of a bit simpler than in other languages. From this point of view. Obviously there are some nouns that describe, for example, people and maybe a profession that we do understand that even though if the noun is masculine gender, we still refer to woman. And this noun, even though it has a masculine ending, will still mean the female when it is used for a woman. But this is usually an exception and not the rule. And usually you will see that depending on the ending of the noun, you can immediately understand which gender is belongs to you. Let's take an example. Dia by Chicka. Chicka, my mind. So here we have two nouns, one of which is feminine, the other one is masculine. And we see that D-latch ends with an r, which is one of the feminine word endings. And my chick ends with a consonant which has one of the masculine word endings. So how do we and masculine noun? Usually in Russian, it's a consonant at the end of the word. As we said, My Cheap with occur often it would be a hard consonant. If you do not remember with a hard consonant is do take a look at the previous lesson where we discuss hard and soft consonants. Let's take a look at some nouns, masculine form in Russian, not, not computer. Computer, after, after, stall, stall. Masculine nouns can also end with soft consonant that has, or it can end with a consonant and a soft sign. For example, Mozi, Mozi, slushy, sludgy, or Carol? Carol would, she would cheated. All of these nouns are ending with a soft consonant, that is E, or a consonant, and the soft sign, once again, to learn about the soft sign, you refer to the previous lesson. Although there are exceptions in Russian language, and we have some nouns that end with an ending that is suitable for a feminine noun. For example, yeah, daga, daga. So this word means uncle. And even though that attends with a yap, it does mean a male object. So a male person data. The same goes also for person names, banana, The Ada, vice versa. So all of these are also masculine names. For example, my brother's name is Ben new law. It ends with an a, but it's a name for a male in Russian language. The same goes for other nouns, such as cima, know Sheena, which means a man. And it still has an ending. Baba, baba, Zia Dukkha, dukkha. And then we have some words that end with, which can refer to both feminine and masculine. So these nouns are nouns of common gender. For example, one of these nouns is Siddhartha. Siddhartha, it can mean both a female and a male. So how do you understand if boy or girl is meant when you say shut up that? It depends on the adjective that you're using for that word. And the pronoun. For example, one, be suddenly sera. Sera data for a feminine version. On not be at night. Yeah. I'm not, I've not yet. Interesting thing about these words is that most of these words which have this double gender, the common gender, were previously used as a pejorative. So for example, such words as pizza will be sung or beyond you. Yeah. I'll wrap up short run. So these can be both used for feminine and masculine gender, but they will still have the same ending. Although there are also some nouns that you have a positive meaning that end with and can belong to both genders. One of these would be psi. Rabbits, got a rabbit through Jagger. So these words, they are positive, but they also end with, and they can be used for both men and women. And obviously this couldn't be too easy, right? So there are some words that have weird endings that you belong only to masculine, gender. So these words would include such words as a Tasha, Tasha, mice, mice, Kim guru, him, guru, chimpanzee, funds, and others do check in the class materials. I will leave the list of these words so that you can memorize them. Then the interesting thing is that Chicago, Chicago. Chicago is also a masculine noun. The same way if we went to refer to Mississippi as a state, it would also be masculine, even though Mississippi, the river would be feminine because river Erica would have a femininity. So do remember that. So if you come from Mississippi, your state is a masculine noun. Another thing just to remember is that all the nouns that end in which she reported his TA will always be masculine. And for the female version of this. And then we would have to meet up with cheating is be writing and so on. And then a very useful word that everyone usually learns in the beginning when they start learning Russian is Cauchy. So what this word, even Russians, they make mistakes and coefficient is considered to be a masculine noun. But you can also hear Russian people refer to it as a noun and also use according adjectives. So for example, school sleep, or would be a masculine version of this noun, which is the correct one, schools me or FM. But you could also hear people say schools my year, Koffi, who's my year coefficient, which is the wrong version, but this is what you can actually hear in this book in Russian. Also, co-author keeps its case. You do not the client coefficient. So you might also hear sometimes someone decline the word, but that would be wrong. So remember coefficient stays quarter in any case. 7. Feminine Gender: Now let's talk about the feminine noun. For the feminine nouns, we have two differences. So we have one kind of nouns that end with up. Yeah. And then we have the other kind of nouns that end with a soft sign. So for example, let's take a look at some of feminine nouns. Associate with cheating me. Sang. The same one that we already mentioned before when we were talking about the masculine nouns, which he didn't say. Short. Sure. Yeah, blind, yeah, yeah, blind, yeah. But do keep in mind that some masculine nouns, as we mentioned before, do end with and yeah, and those usually are the ones that refer to mail people. So that is just something that you will have to remember, like for example, PABA. Now let's talk about the feminine nouns that end with a soft sign. Here, again, we have a division. So these nouns, they fall into two groups. One is the ones that we can actually predict the gender and note that it's a feminine noun. And the other one. Unfortunately, they have to be memorized. Yes. So which nouns do you have to memorize? Let's start with one of the most beautiful words. Little boy. He has a feminine noun or sing or seeing. Create. Metaanalysis, maxima, tip. Law, should soil, soil or should it fortunate? Then also, There's one more thing to add here that nouns that end in Austin are usually feminine. All of these, they are still feminine and they are ending with horses. For example, Median list, list, list. So these are the words that end with moist and you will find others as well. But they do belong to the feminine gender even though they end with. So what about the predictable nouns that do end with a soft sign? And that you can understand that our feminine, these are the words that in the ending preceding the soft sign have letters such as shoe. So these words, you can understand our feminine just because the soft sign is preceded by these letters. Do you remember though that the masculine nouns there will be no soft sediment the ends. For example, we write it with a soft sign. So we know as it ends with a and the soft sign, that MOOC is going to be feminine, but couldn't dash. Dash as we write, get dash without the soft sign, we know that if it ends with a consonant, then it means that it's a masculine noun. Let's take a look at some other examples. Elite, elite, look, look. Meal edge, milage, fish, dish, and then there are some nouns which are in decline double the same way as coffee, so which stay the same in every case, these are exceptions that you should remember also, and they do mean a female. And such words are usually borrowed from other languages. For example, such as Miss, Miss Madame, Madame, lady, Lady, Alma Mater. Alma mater. So these words is something that you should remember. But it is clear. Speak for example, English and you know that lady is a female in English. So the same way, you would know that in Russian, it's also a female gender. So a feminine gender, lady, even though it ends with E. And then you remember that we were speaking about Mississippi, the state, which is masculine, but Mississippi as the river is feminine. So why is that? Because these words, so this other exception, they take on the gender of the general denominator of these words. So for example, river, Mississippi, River at RCA is feminine. In this case, we have Mississippi, the river as a feminine noun in Russian, so Mississippi, mississippi, this would be a feminine word. The same goes for the translation of names of things. For example, if we have the newspaper times, which would be Reza Shah in Russian, then times, times would be also a feminine noun just because it means a newspaper. Also such words as such, which would refer to fly. So HA is feminine, so subset would also be feminine. So these are the exceptions that you will learn along the way as you learn Russian. So don't get too worried about those. And usually those are the borrowed words from other languages. 8. Neuter Gender: Now let's talk about the new turn nouns. So this is the interesting part about Russian language, whereas we have feminine, masculine, and neuter, I can hear you asking, why do they have to be neutral amounts? Let's take a look. We have four different endings for the neuter nouns in Russian. The first one is 0, or the second one is your, your, the third one. And then one more. The fourth one, which is the most rare of all four of them, is met. Let's take a look at some examples. Billy, your belly, your molecule. Molecule picks your PTO, marching songs. Songs. He saw, he saw Lightyear lights, you ping, ping. So let's take a look at the mutual announced that there are not a lot of them and let's look at the most common ones. Remap, Blia, Brianna, Bullying, Buena, Lima, Peru, Lima, Samaria. Samaria. Three, Amen. Amen. So these are the words that end with math. And all you have to do is just memorize them. Some of them you will use more often. Some of them you may not use it all. But yes, these, these are the words that you should know and should know that they are a part of the neutral gender. The most common ones, obviously, E-mail viremia. So these are the two that you should definitely remember. And for the rest of them, I'm sure that with time, as you learn Russian, you will learn these along the way. Also, you can remember that there are no nouns in feminine gender that end with, yet. There are announced that and with yeah, but with map, there are no feminine nouns. So Rena will be neutral gender. Just so that you can remember, there is this easy Bu. And before we finish talking about gender for now, I would like to also show you the words that are in decline of oil. So the same way as we would use coffee and not change the spelling of the word. Depending on the case. We would have these words that would remain the same as well. Just said, gradual, gradual buddy. Buddy, taxi, taxi in therapy you interview cough cough cough. Cao. Cao, Cao. 9. Singular and Plural: Now let's talk about singular and plural nouns in Russian. So it might get a bit more difficult than in English where you simply add the S to the ending of the noun and then rushing. It might be a bit more confusing than that. But let's take a look. How do you transform a singular noun? Plural, the good news is, as usual, there are exceptions and some nouns and Russian changed the stem of the word. So the most important part of the word completely. This is the case for words such as rebuke, gonna review, or MAC with changes into THE, so it's a completely different word, but it means a child. And children. These are the words that you will unfortunately have to learn by heart. And then there are nouns that in singular have a hardening and in plural they acquire a soft. And so, for example, CICD, CICD, CD here, masculine nouns are the ones that behave badly and half the most exceptions while the feminine runs and the neutral ones are usually irregular. And then there are some nouns that like in English, have only a singular or plural form. For example, molecule, molecule, city, bro, bro, and the plural ones would be set. So remember NOR gates, it does not have a singular version of itself. The same would go for Boolean. Boolean. 10. Masculine Plural: So let's talk about masculine nouns. Plural. How do we transform masculine nouns that are singular into its plural form? Well, it's very easy and you simply add at the end of the noun. But do you remember the rule that we spoke about in the first lesson about the seven consonants that require you to write e instead of even if you hear the hard version. So these consonants are good. So remember these consonants, and remember that every time you transform a male noun into plural, these consonants will always be followed, not by him, but by an EQ. So let's take a look at some irregular nouns, masculine gender, and transform them into plural. So I will give you a minute now, pause the video and look at the list that you have on the screen and try to convert these into plural yourself. Then restart the video and we will convert them into plural together and see how many of those you got right. Let's begin. Pause the video now. Okay, so I hope you have written down all the words that you had in the list here and try to convert them into plural yourself. Let's see how you did. So let's read the words Jordan and list. The block not black, not the Poshmark. Poshmark, very gruesome. Gurus, civic, flag, flag, garage, garage, billion Berlin, the Qur'an dash, current dazu, batsmen know I smell nor you. Mature, mature telescope, telescope, Bu, rach, what are cheap? So I hope you did well here. If you do have any questions and maybe are not very clear about how to actually transform regular masculine nouns into plural, then do ask questions and I will happily answer them. So then there's this other case where you have to remember how to actually transform these nouns into plural. This happens two nouns with endings such as yet and walk. These have to be nouns of more than one syllable. And let's look at how they behave when you transform them into parallel. So what happens here? So we see the bowel before An Qu, that kind of disappears. So it please away, runs away from us. And what we're left with is the addition of UX, but the exclusion of that vowel before. And so for example, now you will understand it better when you see the example, I teared up soon. So in this case we have year before that disappears and so moves closer to two. And this way we have the ending up soon, and this transforms our noun into a plural form. Let's take a look at some other nouns. Immediate kind yet, I mean, the same thing happens here. Could be a cool. So now again, pause the video and try to transform these nouns that you see on your screen into the plural form. Then restart the video and we will check together if you transform them, right? So welcome back. I hope you have written down your nouns and try to transform them into plural. So let's check. Kenya can see who's sock, whose key? Guard dog. Get up. This sooner. Really soon. Key is not shock much. I'm gone bugging me. I hope that you managed to transform these nouns using the knowledge that you just learned into plural and that you have no mistakes. But if you did or if you have any questions, as I said, do not hesitate to ask and I will gladly answer. Then we have some masculine nouns that end with or the soft sign. So what happens with them? With these nouns? We drop the E or the soft sign and we add. So let's try noisy. So here we see that e disappears and it's places taken by E. That way we see that Mozi is transformed into its plural form, which again, pause the video here and try to transform these words into their plural forms. And then restart the video. And we will check if you've done a good or maybe you need more practice. So I hope you've written down all the words and now let's check them. Have boy, boy, girl, currently, goose, goose you. Besides besides side study, coming, coming from bye that I'm bi, here there is a trick word, timing. So timing, it has this fleeting vowel the same as an examples we've looked at it with yes and AUC. And here this vowel runs away. So instead of k-means, which would be wrong, we kind of remove the year from the equation completely. And that way it transforms into Come with me. 11. Masculine Exceptions: Now comes the most interesting part about our masculine nouns, which we transform into plural. And those are the exceptions. Yes. There is a saying that in Russian there are more exceptions than actual rules. And yes, I can say that probably that is true. But don't get discouraged. Slowly, little by little, you will learn all of them. As they say, practice makes perfect. Let's take a look at some exceptions that end with onion, Yangon, and glitch anion. Unglued China. Slightly anion. Live Danielle, Kristina, Christiania, garage. Garage than you. Then there are some words that end with that also are exceptions to our masculine nouns. Let's take a look at some of them that titin, that bulk garden. Well God, but in buttery GAS by gene GAS spot that by Jaron, by Jadi gruesome, guru Zim, Hi Zion, high Ziba. The next one will be masculine nouns that end with Joana. So you would lose its ending and instead would acquire data. So these words would lose their endings. And instead of Yona could acquire yadda, yadda, yadda, yadda, yadda, cut you wanna, you wanna read data would show on OK. Would you wanna read data? Given data? So these are some examples for these kind of exceptions about their grammar. You do remember that we said that review or knock has the plural form. But in this case we can also say read data, which also is the plural form of this word. So there could be two versions. One would be DT and the other one would be adding data. The third exception to our role is some words in masculine gender that would take on a stressed or Yap at the end. So let's take a look at the most common ones of these words. And you don't get afraid slowly, little by little. I am sure you will memorize them. Don't Dhamma, normal voice. We use that rule is glossa, muster, must era cry. Korea address AT there is some severe severe Ostrom. A Strava bus, but postpartum, Barber, Barbara, Lee acid, Lys idea, Gora, Gora Dan, Glass, glossa, paths. But OSA, VHS, sweeter. Who cheated. Which Italia, this exception which actually becomes more and more wide as there are more foreign words borrowed into Russian. And mostly words such as computer, computer, computer. You can hear that or maybe put in third, but intera, even though sometimes you can hear a Russian person say putting through also, but mostly the foreign borrowings are in this group of exceptions. Do not get scared if you don't manage to memorize all of them because the list is ever-expanding. And I am sure that when you get to use a certain word, you will remember how to actually use it when you hear it more than once. The next exception is a group of words that acquire a soft sign and the Yap at their endings will transform them to plural. Unfortunately, these words need to be memorized. But I can, yes, I can. Easier, least, least Shia. Druze. Yeah. Julia SOC, satya, syn, synesthesia. So let's take a look at some words that have different meanings, but they have the same form in singular form. So we would transform these into plural, and we would give them different endings and different stressors. Then let's talk also about the fact that the stress actually can show us what noun, what object is actually meant by that noun. But our posca and grew up askew. So we have stresses, purpose car, which means permits, and Roku scheme, which means a mission. You would say in singular purpose, the same for both meanings. But in the plural it would get two different stresses. So posca would be for ProPlus, which actually means a permit. And propyl scheme would be for purpose, which means a mission. Let's take a look at this list and try to pronounce the words with different stresses, just to understand that they have different meanings. Miho a Brazi orbitals them for USA, which would cheated least tier list. Maria Zuber. Zuber shifted coordinate, cutting. Next exception is that there is a certain amount of words that end in which give a soft sign where the ending should actually be added to the plural form. Let's take a look at some words. Mura, mura, what I B, but RB, ROCE, saliva, saliva. And now let's talk about the last exception rule for our masculine nouns whose plural cannot be predicted. So these are the words that you should memorize. Let's take a look at this list. Sheila via ionic. This one you should know by now, civic talk. You get the short CRT, CSAT. 12. Neuter Plural: Now let's talk about the neutral nouns plural. So here the good news is that this is easier than actually forming girl in the masculine noun. What you do is simply removed the endings or year and replace them with yeah. You will also notice some stress changes happening. Usually it's with nouns that have multiple syllables and then that end with OU. And when they are transformed into plural, you will see the stress change as well. Let's look at some examples up more. Ok. Now, Mr. Mr. Danny, Danny MOOCing poorly. Phyla us three, your Austria. Copia. Good suit our schema. This Hidatsa sliver here. Pay attention how all changes into, but you still pronounce it very similarly because or in the singular form is not stressed. Bada, bada, club, club Bishop. Here we go back to our first rule about the seven letters to seven consonants that actually require, instead of written after them. Luxury your glutes up. But my CAD, but my stereo, or 0. Then there are some nouns that dropped their ending or year and acquire the ending of soft sign and the letter yeah. Here also the stress change can happen. Gingiva, GDPR law, milia Piero Della VMO. Now let's talk about the pleural exceptions in the neutral nouns. The first exception is the nouns ending with map. So we have six of those and let's see what happens to them. Viremia really mean that senior seminar, email, immuno, streaming, streaming. Now, the next exception is for words that end in core. So they will drop the o and add e at the ending. Key. Video for the Akha college, college GPA. Then we have exceptions for nouns that are usually considered to have a pair, so they usually come in two. So these nouns would be such nouns as ritual, really cheap. Car, Leanna, mean Orca, auch. So these nouns, they are usually thought up in pairs. And this is easy to remember because eyes and ears, for example, we always have a pair of them. Next we have three more exceptions. And those are Nuba, maybe some shoulder to disarm. And the last one, Sedna, Sudan. As I said, don't get scared by all the exceptions in Russian. Slowly with practice, I am sure that you will learn them all. 13. Feminine Plural: So now let's talk about the feminine nouns. And here the good news is that the feminine nouns have almost no exceptions in them. They are surprisingly regular. And thus the good news, as we had enough exceptions with our neutrals and masculine ones. So let's take a look. How do we form a plural with a feminine nouns? The first rule we have is if a noun, the feminine noun in singular ends with. We add. Instead of. The next rule is if our noun ends with Yang, we substitute with e. And the same goes for the soft sign. So if we have a soft sign and the ending of the word, it is substituted with E. But here, remember, as we're changing up to OU and the young to remember of that spelling rule that we had with our seven letters. So you remember that ooh, ooh, ooh, ship, cook, good, could, you will always, right? So remember that seven letter rule about which letter you have to write after our seven continents. So let's also mention the exceptions that we have in the feminine nouns, and those will be free. One will be much, much hidden. Dutch door cheating and cool. It also pay attention to the fact that when you are transforming a singular into a plural with feminine nouns, we have a stress change happening. The stress change is important. It's important to notice where you actually put the stress in the word because this is going to help us to distinguish between the cases if it's a genitive or nominative case of the word. So let's take a look at how do we form the plural of these words. And also, let's take a look at the genitive case of these words in singular form and how the stress actually changes between the plural form and the genitive case. Systrom. Source through this, through a RecA, Eliakim, very key goddamn, gory got to visit them. Viewers. The Gullah, Gullah, sera. Sera. As you've noticed, in genitive case, the stress falls on the last letter of the word. So this could be a general rule for you to remember that if the stress is falling on the last word, last syllable of the word, then it's mostly the genitive case and not the plural form, form of the word. 14. Plural vs Singular: Let's talk about singular versus plural nouns. So in English, we have some nouns that do not have the plural form. For example, silver. We do not have a plural form for silver or milk furniture. So these words, they simply do not have the plural form of the word in Russian though we have this difference from English that when we talk about certain things, we prefer to use the singular form over the plural one. So if I were to say, I like potatoes, in English, I'm using a plural form of the word, but in Russian, I would say yellow, blue, carciofi. Kirchhoff's here in this case would be a singular form of the word. Let's take a look at the list of the words that are preferred in singular form over the plural form in Russian. Molina, guttural. Morocco. Cartography, Anika, the Mishnah. Look, vinaigrette, your CLA is young, men died. So these words will be used with a preference to singular form over the plural one. And they do take adjectives and verbs that are also in singular form. If you would like to say that you like one particular carrot, for example, and not all the carrots, then you would add a diminutive form to it. So Markov, Markov would express a plural meaning, but it would still grammatically be a singular noun. But it would immediately show us that the carrot is only one. The same would be for Godot, got ocean character Joschka, CARTO, a few, these humans and so on. And then we have some fruit and vegetables the same as we did in the previous example, that do you prefer the plural over the singular form? These would be for me, door, I PCM, Bannon, Agouti, it's goodie. Pfc out of booze. Good Arusha. Another's, the best way here to understand which form to use plural or singular is to check the dictionary. And then as we said, some nouns appear only in the plural form. Some of these nouns that I will give you an example, having no plural counterpart in English, so they should be memorized. So in the first list we will look at the words that are plural, both in English and in Russian. So only the plural form of these words is used. Northern itself through SIM card, which Kim, much scheme analogy. So these words are also in plural in English as well as in Russian. The next group of words has the plural form in Russian. But in English we do have a singular form for them as well. So these words should be memorized. Paul, the belief in soup, Kim, do here. Sooner Kim signing up, boy. Vice versa. 15. Animate vs Inanimate: Now let's take a look at the animate and inanimate nouns. So in Russian, we have to divide our nouns in living objects and not living object. Sometimes we can't speak of inanimate things as animate ones. So sometimes when we speak about the child's toy, we pretend that it's actually alive. Or when we read a fairy tale and some object actually speaks and we give it animate emotions and animate traits. We need to know this when we are actually declining our nouns about the collective nouns. So collective nouns, generally speaking, are not animate. These nouns we'll have the accusative case the same as nominative. For example, metal, but the vice versa. These words are collective nouns and they can not be considered animals. Also, for example, if we speak about God as Mars and Jupiter, they are considered to be living things, so they are animate. But at the same time, if we speak about planets that have the same name, we speak about them as inanimate objects. Just running ahead about the nouns and their cases. Let's say that animate nouns when used the direct object are identical to genitive case. But this works only with this singular applied to the masculine nouns in the plural form. This rule applies to all genders, even the neutral one. Let's take a look at two sentences on who will miss school, maria, on wellness economy. So in the first case here we have Missy coma year, which is like the nominative case, the word in the second case, when it's used in plural, we see that the direct object here is identical to the genitive case of the word. But don't get worried. We will get to cases and explore each and every case slowly. And also another thing to say is that only neuter nouns have this peculiar behavior. So they are used as an animate object in the singular case and as a non-living inanimate object in the rural case. But we will talk about this more in the next lesson, where we will take a look at the accusative case and how to actually decline our nouns. So stay tuned and I will see you in the next lesson. 16. Personal Pronouns: Now let's talk also about the personal pronouns. So how do you say all the person pronouns in Russian? Let's begin. Yeah. Yeah. The on, on I'm not I'm not unknown. Unknown. Here. You can already see that the friends in gender in on are not unknown. And you can see that on ends with a consonant and not ends within, which suggests that it's a feminine word. And unknown ends with an OR, which implies that it is a neutral gender. Ooh, ooh. I need, I need here. An important thing to remember when you are actually talking to Russians is that there is a difference between how you address someone that is your friend and someone that you are addressing in a more polite way. For example, if you were to address a professor, you wouldn't use a simple form. That means you, in Russian, you would use a form that would be, this is a polite way to address someone, which actually means you, but in a singular person. So we would not be speaking about multiple people, as in the usual pronoun you in plural. But we would be talking to one person. But if we have more polite way of actually talking to that person, then we would use, for example, if you wanted to ask a stranger for something, for example, if you needed to pass a ticket to the driver on the bus and you would not be able to reach yourself. You would ask a person to actually pass the ticket and you would say Mugler video that billion. So could you please pass might take it to the driver. And in this case, as I said, and is not used in plural, but is used in a polite way to actually say you in a single person. So to recap, we use only to address a person that you know. So a familiar person that is in a friendly context and maybe someone your own age. And the word UI we are using to address either people who you need to treat with more respect, as I said, for example, a professor or strangers. So that's just a matter of saying things politely in russian about on an unknown. So these pronouns on ANA referred to both people and things. So we can say on a chair it can be worn. But the pronoun and more in refer only to inanimate objects because it's a neutral pronoun. It cannot refer to anything living. 17. Professions: So let's talk about some simple nouns, such as professions. We have professions mostly in masculine gender. In English, you usually don't hear such a word as Professor rest or you hear is professor. Well, in Russian, we do have masculine professions and feminine ones as well. So we will take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson where we will discuss the most common professions and how to say them in Russian. So do not skip that part for the pronunciation and do practice that. But here I wanted to say that in Russian usually you will find the ending of the word showing you if it's feminine or masculine. Profession intended with that noun. In Russian, a noun has a gender, mostly because of the way it ends, not because of the thing that it refers to. So in case with Chichen Itza, we would have a feminine noun and which he take would be a masculine. Now, just because grammatically they end with gender specific spendings, feminine professions, usually you will find a suffix, neat, SAP, for example, as in which he or she didn't need sad. That will describe the object as being a feminine noun. Obviously, there are also other suffixes that will indicate the feminine gender of the noun, for example, but the sock, which meets the ending as Eugenia. But we will discuss most of the professions just so that you have an idea how to actually say professions in Russian. Let's take a look at some of the professions that you might find useful when speaking in Russian. Ok tour, bus, kid bellies. Let's keep police. Pka, biblioteca, businessmen, journalists, journalists. Garcia. Garcia. Compositor. System fits Lanka, pdfs, pizza beside. Besides program miss. Redox sheets are really short. Secret that sportsmen, sportsmen yamaka, then ACEESS, then I see is cheating. Some field loss of cookies. Hockey is PKA. Polygon. 18. Verb To Be: Another thing that differs in Russian from English is that the verb to be has no present tense in Russian. In Russian, you would say My mother, teacher. So you wouldn't say as an English, my mother is a teacher. You would say My mother teacher. My mama would Chichen Itza. My yeah, mama would Chichen Itza. We do not insert the verb to be in-between mama and legitimates. And the same goes for adjectives and not only nouns. For example, he is smart. One, UI. So we do not have the verb to be, in this case is between the noun and the adjective on only. You will also see that sometimes when you are describing an object to explain what it actually is, that instead of the verb to be, you will have a long dash. That kind of implies that one object is something else. So for example, my yeah, mama dash, which he didn't it. So this could also be used. 19. Places of Employment: Now let's take at the places where people usually work. Biblioteca. Consider bacteremia Institute, Libre, Magazine. 20. Nationalities: Let's learn some nationalities in question as well. I Medica anions America on Glitch anion and Bishanka, Italy. Italy, Bianca. Bianca for LCA from SUSE, from Susan is fun. It is fun. 21. Verbs and Adjectives: To add some more words to our dictionary, Let's look at some verbs and also at some adjectives as well. Let's grab both America ascii and glean key. Key is obviously cannot ski poles, ski, ski Italiana is Panofsky.