Rigging and Animating Images in Moho Pro | Chad Troftgruben | Skillshare

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Rigging and Animating Images in Moho Pro

teacher avatar Chad Troftgruben, Freelance Animator and Screencaster

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

29 Lessons (3h 40m)
    • 1. Intro to Moho Image Rigging

      2:37
    • 2. Designing Your Character

      2:53
    • 3. Reducing File Size with Photoshop Script

      17:23
    • 4. Reducing File Size Through Layer Exporting

      1:32
    • 5. Importing Character PSD into Moho

      5:52
    • 6. Adding Main Bones

      3:30
    • 7. Binding Image Layers with Smooth Joint

      4:54
    • 8. Correcting with Constraints

      5:08
    • 9. Anchoring with Target Bones

      5:35
    • 10. Assigning Head Pieces to Layer

      4:10
    • 11. Creating Bones for Hair

      7:56
    • 12. Creating Smart Warp Mesh for Hair Strands

      9:17
    • 13. Creating Smart Warp Mesh for Back Hair

      5:27
    • 14. Applying Hair Meshes to Side View

      9:03
    • 15. Applying Meshes to Front View

      10:22
    • 16. Creating an Optional Eye Switch

      6:12
    • 17. Re-drawing and Masking the Eyes

      16:46
    • 18. Adding Controller for Pupils

      4:28
    • 19. Controlling Eyebrows with a Dial

      5:54
    • 20. Creating Blink Dial

      10:59
    • 21. Creating a Mesh for Subtle Head Tilts

      9:22
    • 22. Linking Layers Appropriately

      5:28
    • 23. Adding Smart Dials for the Head Tilts

      23:47
    • 24. Adding Controls to Other Head Phases

      2:00
    • 25. Polishing the Character

      11:02
    • 26. Creating the Main Poses for Animation

      7:17
    • 27. Finishing Animation with Lip Syncing

      15:12
    • 28. Exporting Your Animation

      4:33
    • 29. Conclusion

      1:06
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About This Class

With Moho, you can import images or Photoshop Documents, add bones and create detailed rigs for 2D animation. This process can be different from rigging vector based characters. This course showcases all the important steps needed to effectively rig a PSD for Moho animation.

More specifically, you will learn how to:

  • Set up layer structure for a character

  • Reduce PSD file size

  • Set up body bones appropriately

  • Create dynamic hair movement using Smart Warp meshes and special bone properties

  • Control the face using a series of dials

  • Create head turns using a Smart Warp mesh

  • Polish and correct rigging issues

  • Apply animation with an image based rig

  • Export animations out of Moho

Meet Your Teacher

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Chad Troftgruben

Freelance Animator and Screencaster

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Transcripts

1. Intro to Moho Image Rigging: Hi guys. My name is Chad trough carbon. And you are watching how to rig and animate a PSD file inside of MOHO Pro 12. More specifically, with MOHO, you can animate out vector-based characters and image-based characters. And we're going to focus on the image-based part of the rigging process. And this requires some different methods. And we can also take advantage of other features that are exclusive to image layers. In addition, we'll learn how to add bone dynamics, head turns, and more just by using a PSD file. More specifically, in this course, you will learn how to first create a character and set it up for proper structure. Then we will go through the process of reducing file size and doing any final touches in Photoshop before bringing the file over to MOHO. Then we'll move onto rigging the character. This includes adding bones, binding the layers appropriately, as well as adding constraints and target bones. Then we can add some dynamic hair movement. First by creating bones for the hair. Then we can assign a smart warp mesh to any area we wish to effect. And then we can apply both Dynamics and link to the mesh. From there, we'll create an optional I switch just in case you're looking for a simpler way to control the eyes. But then we'll move over to reconstructing the eyes, creating a smart dial for your pupils, as well as your eyebrows and blink functions. Then we'll create a subtle head turn. Once again, using a smart warp mesh. You'll learn how to create the mesh as well as link your layers appropriately. And then of course, assign all the actions to dials so they can easily be invoked at anytime. Then we will wrap up by polishing up the character. We will create an animation to test the character out. And then finally, we will export the animation for the world to see. By the time you're done with this course, you should have a strong understanding of how to rig image-based characters inside of MOHO. I hope you're ready because we're about to get started. 2. Designing Your Character: For this video, I'm working off of my iPad Pro. And I want to go inside of Procreate. Procreate is where we designed the character will be using for this course. And you can use other applications to design your characters. It's really up to you. But for our case, we're just going to tap on the drawing folder, locate, procreate, and then tap on that to go inside. You'll be introduced to the gallery. This is where all the products you currently have saved are located. I'm going to tap on character animator to go inside that one. This rig was originally designed for the character animator course, but we can also use him in MOHO as well. If we tap on the Layers button on the top right, you'll see how this character is currently made up. And for our purposes, this is going to work just fine. We have multiple head phases, as well as phonemes for the three-fourths. Head view. Come down here and tap on mouth so you'll see it right there. In addition, the limbs are separated. So you had the front arm, you have front hands with multiple phases, and then you have your legs in the body, separate it out as well. So as you can see, we have all the pieces here ready to go. We might have to rearrange some things, but for the most part, this will work just fine. So what we want to do is save this as a PSD. With MOHO, you can import PSD files and retain the layers. And so through Procreate, if we tap on the Actions button under share, you'll find PSD. Go ahead and tap on that, and you'll get the exporting dialogue here. And depending on how you set up your iPad Pro, if you have, for instance, Dropbox or your iCloud files, or perhaps you even have Google Drive. You can share the files that way. Or you can even use AirDrop. You can see for instance, we have chads MacBook Pro popping up right there. And I could just airdrop this file right to my computer. So however you choose to do it, you can just go ahead and save the file. I'll choose my iCloud files. And I'm just going to save this inside of the exercise files for this course. That way I can include it in the next lecture for you to download. So there we go, We'll add that, and we are good to go. So in the next video, we'll jump over to Photoshop because we have some work to do when it comes to compressing this document. 3. Reducing File Size with Photoshop Script: For this video, I'm working off of 01, Chad stark dot PSD. Feel free to open up this file. We're now going to start the process of reducing the file size of this rig. If I come over here to my file browser and just bring up the exercise files I've created for this course. You'll see here that the first file, the one that we're looking at, is almost 25 megabytes. And then I went through the process of reducing the file size and guide down to close to five megabytes. And that is a big difference, especially for certain animation software. Moho Animate CC all have issue with really big file sizes. So going through this process is essential, especially if you're using an application like Procreate to design your characters. If you use another application that's Adobe certified, such as draw or sketch, which are both available on the iPad. Or if you designed the character in Illustrator or Photoshop itself, you may find that the file size is more forgiving. But if you're ever having file size issues, there are some things you can do to help reduce it. First, we can use a script to help this process and speed things up. And that is what I definitely recommend you do. But if for whatever reason, you cannot use a script, you can't install it, whatever the case, you can go through this process manually, but it does take a lot of time. First, you'll want to make sure you have all of your layers exposed. This also means making sure they are revealed. So making sure all of your layers are revealed. And then you can right-click on a layer and create a smart object for it. And then go through the process of doing this for all your layers. And then once you're done, you're going to want to go through and rasterize them back. Now again, doing this for every single layer can take awhile, but you'll find once you save the file, everything should be smaller and it will be easier to work with in your animation software. But again, that is very tedious and not all of us have that much time. So we're going to use a free script that can speed things up. If we jump over here to our web browser. And I'll provide this link in the lecture. That way you can jump right to this. And see here we have a few files here that we can download. Don't get confused. Just come over here and click on the Clone or download button and then choose to download the zip. This will combine all the files here into an easy to manage zip. So that way you have everything that you need. Next in my incredibly messy downloads folder, you'll see that I have the zip file that we just downloaded. Extract the zip, and then you'll get a folder that looks like this. I'm just going to copy this folder with Command C or Control C if you're on Windows. And we want to jump over here to the applications. Now keep in mind that this is on a Mac. The Windows setup is just a little bit different. You need to locate the program, in this case, Photoshop. And we'll go into Photoshop. And under presets, you'll have a scripts folder. So right down here, click on that. And then we're just going to paste this right into this folder. I'm actually not going to do it myself because I already did it. You'll see it's right here. But once you paste the script in, restart Photoshop, and now you should be able to access this next step. First, let's come up here to File and then go all the way down to Scripts and then choose Export Layers to files. It's right there. If for whatever reason you're not able to get it into the application, you can always browse for it. And in this case, go to the Downloads folder and grab the script. But since we installed it, we can just click on it and bring it up just like that. So with this script, we have something that looks like this. The first thing you'll want to do is browse and create a new folder specifically for these assets. Because you're going to be exporting out every single layer individually. And it just makes sense to have everything more organized. So in my exercise files, I'm just going to really quick make a new folder and call it Chad layers, and then hit Create. That way. I know where all the files are and then I can choose Open. Now, you have a few options for how you want to export things out. You can choose all layers, which will just export out every layer you have listed. Visible only so if you have hidden layers, as we discussed, this will only export out the ones that are visible. You can also choose selected groups. So if you have selected groups here, such as chat or heads or heads side, you can choose to export those out just as they are without exporting out any other layers on the list. And you can also choose to ignore certain layers if you want by entering in certain values here. So if you don't want layers to export out starting with H or perhaps an exclamation point. Maybe you go in and label those with exclamation points. You can do that as well. But for our purposes, we're going to select all layers. And for the filenames, we're going to name them the same as the layers. That way it's easy to know what is what and when we re-integrate this, nothing should change here in terms of naming. You can choose if you want to allow spaces or use an underscore or hyphen, that's completely up to you. And if you want to keep the case of the lettering. Now coming down here, I'm going to check on groups as folders. This is going to export out every layer as we see it as folders within our file browser. In this makes it easier to re-integrate the rig into groups. Once we bring it back to Photoshop. You don't want to trim. If you trim, then your positioning will be all different when you re-import these pieces back into Photoshop. So make sure trim is turned off and everything else should be good to go in terms of default settings, make sure that it's a PNG and you have transparency turned on. And once you're good, you can go ahead and hit Run. Now this can take some time. It depends on how detailed everything is, depends on how many layers you have. But as you can see, it's going through the process right now, exporting out every layer. So that way we don't have to worry about going through the process of converting to Smart Objects and rasterizing and doing all that fun stuff. So we're almost good here. And we have confirmation. So it saved 53 files. So let's good. Let's go ahead and click. Okay. If we come over here to our file browser and let me just jump back here to my tutorials. So under my exercise files we have that Chad layers folder. Double-click on that. And here you can see we have the background, which is also within Photoshop, right there. And then we have Chad. And if you drop that down, we have all the layers that we organized right here, organized into folders, replacing the groups within Photoshop. And the next step is to come over here to recreate the rig. So let's go to File and New we can make a new document. In this case, I'm going to go to 0, 4, 8 by 273 to, as that is the screen resolution for my iPad, and also the same resolution I use to create the character. You can see it's the same size. And the next step is to come back to your file browser. We're going to start at the top. But before you start at the top, you want to come in and make sure you arrange the files so that we are in descending order. Basically the bottom layers on Photoshop are going to appear at the top. My back hair layers are at the top. And then from there, the most front layer is at the bottom because of how we arranged by date modified. So from here, you can choose if you want to bring in everything at once, or if you want to take it piece by piece, I prefer to take it piece by piece. Starting with the back hair layers right here. I'm just going to click and hold Shift and click on back here, front and drag it over here to that new document. And then just hit enter and then enter to confirm those two layers. You can see they are now in place on the Layers panel and everything is looking good so far. Coming back here to the files. Next is back hands, just going to drop that down. And we're just going to grab back hands here and holding Shift and just move it over like so and release. So come in here and just hit Enter three times to establish those hands. Since this is a group, I'm just going to come in here, click on fist holding Shift, and click on point, and then group the objects into a new group. I can click on the name and name it back hands and then hit Enter. We'll bring in the next grouping of layers. So right here, just click and drag and bring them over. Again. We're just going to hit enter as they come in to establish the positions. Once again, going back to your browser, we just have a few more left. Your front hands. We can come in and just drag and drop. And with those front hands now, in. I'm just going to click on them and group them, double-click and name it front hands and hit Enter. Coming back here, we have the front arm, so we'll just bring that in, get that established. And then you have the heads. So starting with head three-fourths, we have a few things here. We have, of course, the original layers themselves, but then you have the actual mouth sub folder, which contains all the mouth poses. So to make it easier, I'm just going to grab that head three-fourths dot PNG and bring it in and then hit Enter. Come back to your file browser. I'm going to bring in all the other things first, and then I will bring in the mouth pieces. So we'll just grab everything else and bring it in. Hit Enter to confirm all of the new positions. Now coming back here to the file browser, I wanted to expand the mouths. And now we can bring the mouths in just by dragging and dropping. And you can see that these malloc poses that are being placed above had three-fourths, which is where I want them. Just gonna go in here and add all those mouth poses just like that. And then select those mouth poses just by clicking and holding and shift to click on all the layers. Create a group. Name it mouth's. Now I can come over here to have three-fourths holding Shift, click on front eyebrow, come down here and group this into the head three-fourths group. So now if we expand that down, we can see how that's looking. We just have a couple more things to do. So let's go back here to the file browser. We can close head three-fourths, expand head front will bring the head front pieces in. Just like that. You can see if we hide had three-fourths. We have it right there. So we can come in. And we don't have individual mouth poses for this phase of the head, where you only have mouth poses for head three-fourths. So we only have to worry about head to hair. And just command and group that. Name it head front. There you go. And then we have one more right down here, head side. I can just drag that in and quickly put in all of the poses that we need. And then come on in here. And then just group it altogether. There you go. Now, just some final things you might want to keep in mind. If we come through here, you'll see that some things didn't quite match up. For instance, the eye is behind the head on head side. We can just grab the eye and bring it up so that way it's above the head and where it needs to be. And you'll also notice that there might just be some other minor issues. You can see here that the back foot should be above the back leg. So that way the SOC is an overlapping. And we can come in here and remove this background. And just like that, we don't need that anymore. And that is looking good. The final thing you can do if you wish. It's just come in here and select all of these layers and then group it into one more main group and name it Chad. And that way we can drop things down and take a look. And this is how it's looking. And if we come back here to the original, and if I were to just drop some things down here and clean up the panel just a little bit. You can see that it's all arranged very similar. The only other thing I probably forgot to do here was just group these heads into another head group. So it should be Chad heads and then the head phases. Not a big deal. You have those right there to select them and put them into the heads group. Then there you go. You now have everything lined up and good to go with the work we have done and with the file saved. If we come back here to the exercise files, you'll see that this has reduced the original file size. We went from almost 24 megabytes down to 8.5 megabytes. And that is a big difference. You'll see here though that the original method I used at the beginning of the video where you go through each individual layer has even a smaller file size than that. And we can get there. The last step is to go through each layer. And luckily, with this part, we can select all the layers at once. So we just wanted to reveal every single layer within the PSD. And in this case we're just going to go all the way up. And using Shift and clicking, we can go from the bottom-up to select all layers. And then right-click on any of these layers, making sure you're right-clicking on the name and not the thumbnail. And then come down here to rasterize layers. When you do this, it's going to go through and convert everything over to a rasterized image layer. So now, if I were to save this file by using Command S, We can come back here to the exercise files and you can see now that it has reduced it close, very close to where I had it before. So once you go through that whole process, just remember to rasterize your layers and you'll get a very workable file size, which will allow you to then easily work with in MOHO without too many issues involving leg and other resource issues. And once again, you don't have to use the script. You can go through each layer and convert to smart object and then convert them all back to rasterized layers. But this is quicker in the long run. 4. Reducing File Size Through Layer Exporting: If for whatever reason, the smart object to rasterize layer method isn't working for reducing the file size of your rig. You can also go through the process of exporting out each layer as a PNG. And this is actually pretty easy to do inside of Photoshop. The complication arises when you go to MOHO. You will have to go through and put all of the pieces back together to complete the rig because it won't remember the positions that you'll be saving. So to export out every layer as a PNG, I'm just going to select hair strand, go all the way down here to the bottom holding Shift, and then click on back hair three-fourths and just make sure that every single layer is visible. And looking good. Then I can right-click. And right down here you have Quick Export as PNG. You can just come in and choose the destination and then save the file. And you'll get all of the PNG images right in that folder, where you can then import into Moho and then piece the rig together. In our case, for this course, we'll be using the PSD method I showed you in the previous video. But I figured it would be best to show you a couple of methods of reducing file size just in case you need it. 5. Importing Character PSD into Moho: For this video, I'm inside of MOHO and I need to create a new document. You might have one of the preview documents up or perhaps a new document has popped up for you. If it hasn't, just use Command N or Control N, if you're on Windows to create that new document. The next thing we want to do is ensure that this document is set up and ready to go. We're going to use this document as our main scene. So we'll want to make sure that the resolution and frame rate are set up so that way we don't have to fiddle with that later on. We can use Command Shift P or Control Shift P if you're on Windows to bring up the project settings. Here, you'll want to come up and choose your dimensions. In this case, it's currently set to 10 ADP HDTV. And that's where I want it. And we also want the frame rate at 24. Now if you're creating a custom project, then by all means put in whatever dimensions and frame rate you plan to use. But for this course we'll stick with something basic and we can leave all the other options as is, the end frame might change, but we can change that near the end. So once we're good, we can come over here and click Okay. So you now have your scene setup and ready to go. The next thing I'm going to do is import my PSD file. We can use Command Shift Y or Control Shift Y if you're on Windows to import. And this will do a general import. For MOHO. You can do specific types of imports and that might be something you need to do. But in this case we can just do a general import to grab a PSD file. I'm going to come over here to my exercise files and you'll find O2, Chad reduce dot PSD attached to this lecture. So once you have that, you can go ahead and choose Open. And Moho is going to ask you, how do you want to import this? We're going to go with individually because that will allow us to keep the layer structure from Photoshop. The other two options either allow us to select layers which we want all of them. So there's no reason for that, or it will flatten everything into one image. That's what composite will do. So in this case, let's go ahead and choose individually. And it will bring the file in and it's looking pretty good. Now, the one thing I want to do right off the bat, you'll see here that we have basically two groups. We have O2, Chad, reduced dot PSD, and then Chad, and then heads and then so on and so forth. But really there's no need to have O2 Chad reduce dot PSD, at least not right now, I can't find a need to put this into a group. And if we need to, we can easily do that later on. So to simplify the layer structure, I'm just going to collapse all the layers for Chad and then click and drag and bring Chad above that empty or now empty, I should say group layer. We can then click on that group layer and come up and delete. I'll now reposition the character. First. It'll be easier to zoom out. I can do so by holding down Shift, holding down the right mouse button, and moving to the left. If you move to the right, you'll be able to zoom in. Now, I'm going to first before I reposition, come up and grab the origin tool. You can also use O on the keyboard. And I'll place the origin near the bottom between his feet. That way when I resize and rotate heel go from the feet, which I feel is better than going from the center. Now, using the transform layer tool, I can come in and just shrink him down, move him up, and just get them into position. So that way he is within the bounds of the canvas. The last thing I want to do is convert some of my layers. So let's right-click on the chat group and convert to bone. Since we plan to add bones to this character and only makes sense that we create a bone layer. And the great thing about groups is there easily convertible to bone layers. And the same goes for creating switches. For heads. I can simply right-click and then choose Convert to switch. This will create a switch for the head. So that way, I can choose which phase of the head I want to show at any given time. I can do the same for my hands. Right-click and convert a switch for front hands, and then go down and right-click and convert to switch for back hands. So there you go. You now have some organization in place for this. And we could organize further. We could group the body, we could go ahead and group the limbs if we wanted to, just depending on how much detail you have. But I think this will work for our purposes. 6. Adding Main Bones: For this video, I am working off of 03 PSD Moho rigging dot Moho. Feel free to open up this file. I'm now going to go through the process of adding in the bones for the bone layer, I can hit a on the keyboard to bring up the ad bone tool, making sure of course we're on the chat layer when doing so. Then I can zoom in. And starting with the pelvis, I can click once to establish a one-point bone. From there. I can click and drag to move up to about the center of the body and release. And then click and drag and move up and release. So now we basically go right below the neck or close to it. Then we can go and add one more right here. For the head. Come down. I'm going to Alt click on the top torso bone to select that. Come in and click and drag and move down here on this arm. Go to about the middle, click and drag, bring this one over to the wrist, and then click and drag one more time so that we can establish the hand Alt click once again on the top torso bone to select it. And we do this so that we can link the bones properly. We're going to come in and do the same thing now we did on the other side for this arm. Just go to about the middle and release. Click and drag, come to about the middle and release. And then of course, add in the hand bone for the legs. We're going to want to come down. But instead, this time alt click on the one-point bone we established. And then come in and start adding in the leg bones. So there's one right there. Add in a second right there. Go about right there. And then we can add in a final bone link. So holding Alt, click on the pelvis once again, come back. And we're just going to add in a second row of bones for that back leg. Actually let me redo that really quick. That top bone wasn't as long as it should have been. Probably about like that. Come down that looks better. There we go. About right there. And then we can finish up by adding in this last bone right there. So there you go. We now have the main bones in place. I might add more bones as we continue for different physics and such. But for now, this should work. If you go through and try to move any of this stuff, you're going to find that it's a mess. But don't worry, we plan to correct that as we continue along. 7. Binding Image Layers with Smooth Joint: For this video, we are working off of 04 PSD Moho rigging. And I am inside of MOHO. I now want to go through the process of continuing to refine the rig because right now if I were to test this out and you can see that it's not working quite right. And this all has to do with binding your layers the way you want them to work. The first thing I'm going to do is come in and expand Chad so I can access heads. Now we might need to go through the process of binding each individual piece in these layers to the bone. But for right now, I'm just going to click on the main group and then bind it to the head bone. And I'm going to do that for anything that needs to be layer bound because that's what this tool does. Where does binding it directly to the layer. So if I come over here to the front hand, I can click once on that front hand bone to bind it. Your front foot. Same thing. And we want the back foot to also be the same. And we have back hands. So come in and bind that to the backhand bone. So now everything else needs to be done through smooth joints. If we come over here and click on the front arm, you'll see that we have the bones right here that we can use to bind this particular image. Now to do a smooth joint binding, you need to have pretty straight bones in order for this to work. We couldn't, for instance, have this bone if I were to come over here and click on it, look like this because it just won't work that way. You need to make sure that the bones are straight on and you'll have more success with this. So let's click on the front arm once again and you need to be on the layer that you want to bind for this. And then using the select bone tool. I'm just going to come over here, click once on the top arm bone, holding Shift, and then click on the bottom bone. Then I want to come up here to the top and locate bone. And then you'll see there's an option called create smooth joint for bone pair. And once again, if you don't have this, take a look at how your bones are situated. But once you assign that, you'll see we have this sphere that appears in the middle of the arm. And if I were to come back here and try this out, it might not work because of the way we have the strengths and we don't have the body or these other parts assembled yet. But if you just pay attention to the arm itself, you can see that it bends nicely and naturally. So let's go ahead and keep going so we can fix those other parts. We want to come down here next to the front leg. Let's go in order of our layers. And you're just gonna do the same thing you did before. Click on the Select bone tool, select both bones for the leg, go up to bone, and then choose Create smooth joint for bone pair. You're gonna do the same for the body. So we can come up and just click once on the body holding Shift and then click again, come up here to bone and then create smooth joint. We have the back leg. Just come down here, repeat. And then the back arm. And there you go. So now, if we come back here, let's click on the chat layer and then choose the manipulate bone tool. And if we come in and start playing around with this, you can see now just by going in and doing that, everything is separated out. And it's animating nicely. And the body can bend and do all It's things. And we have the legs working as well. So just with a few clicks of the button, we now have a rig that's actually very usable in its current state. But there is more that we can do and there are more corrections to be made will keep continuing on in the next lecture. 8. Correcting with Constraints: For this video, I'm inside a Moho and we are working off of 05 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. I want to focus on fixing some of the motion for this rig. If we come back here and if I grab the manipulate bones tool, and if we play around with this, some of the things are looking okay, such as the arm movement and the body movement. But when we start to play around with the hands, you can see there could be some issues here. And especially with the feet, you can see as we start to move around, there's just a lot of give to what's going on. And we can make some corrections simply by adding constraints. First, let's click on the Select bone tool. Come in and we can start with the hands. Click once on the front hand, and then come over here to bone constraints. Under ankle constraints, you can turn this on. And you can see here, when we do this, we get a visual representation of the constraints. So we can come in here and we can start to work with the constraints. And as we dial this forward and back, you can see it's visually changing that marker on the bone. So I'm going to put this at around 40 to 50 on each end. Let's go down to about 41. There we go. And then I can close it. Now. I'll take them manipulate bones tool once again. And you can see the hand can only now go so far. And that helps then keep the animation in check. So that way you don't have glitches occurring as you're going through the animation process. But it also gives the wrist some leeway. So it looks like it's actually able to move. Let's do this now. For the other hand, just click on the Select bone tool, click on the hand bone, come in and I'll put it to negative 4141, just like the other side. And I can come in and test it and it's looking good. So now I can come down here and do the same for the feet. Click once on this foot, come in here and we can set the constraints. Now I'm not sure how constrained I want this. It's probably going to be more though then what I did for the hands. So I'll come in and let's try at around 17. So negative 17 and 17, and close that. So now if I come in and move this, you can see that there is some give, but it's not broken like it was before. There might be a little bit too much going on. The downside, if that's the case, all we have to do is come back, go back to that constraint, and then just punch that up to about 13. And we can close that and try again. And that's looking a little bit better. And actually maybe the give up is a little bit too much now that I'm looking at it. So maybe put that to negative, let's say 15. So negative 15 and 13. And we can come over here and apply it then to the same side. Oops, yeah, 1300134. There we go. Come in here now and that's looking better. Okay? So now if we come back here, we could do the same with the head. So very quickly, just come in with the head bone selected. I'll try negative 30 and 30 and see if that works. And I think that looks better. There could be maybe a little bit more on the down, but I think it's okay. You can see there's a little bit of a curve right there, but maybe about right there. So once again, we'll come back here and we'll dial the other one up a little bit more. Let's try about 18. There we go. That looks better. Okay, so now you have that set. And of course when you're doing the heads, you can always cycle through your different head poses. Just right-click on heads and then choose the head pose you want. And you can see here we can come in here and move this around and these are all looking good. Once again, go to three-fourths and just grab the main layer and also looking good. So keep that in mind as you're moving through to check all the phases. If you have multiple phases in this case of the head or the hands, to ensure everything is looking good. 9. Anchoring with Target Bones: I am inside of MOHO and I'm working off of 06 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file if you wish to fall along. We now want to add some targets to this rig. And targets essentially allow us to anchor in the rig, which is great when we want, for instance, to do a walk cycle and you really want those feet to look like they are hitting the ground. Or if you want to create bends that allow you to go from the feet very easily. So we need to first make sure we are on the Chad bone layer. And we want to also make sure that no bones are currently selected. So all the bones are blue. Now you'll want to take the add bone tool, which is also a on the keyboard. I'm going to zoom in. And I want to zoom in on the feet. And you need to figure out where you want to anchor your feet in. And you can do multiple anchors on the body. But in this case, we're just going to place one anchor on the heel. And we can come in here and click off to ensure when we add the second anchor that nothing is selected. So we can come in here and click to add that second anchor. Now, when it comes to adding target bones, there is a little bit of a caveat. You need to focus on this bone in order to connect to that bone. And in order for this to really work, we need to have this bone bend down that way. Now, it's harder to do this and then add in smooth joint binding because smooth join binding relies on a straight connection with your bones. So this can result in some funkiness after you've applied the smooth joint binding. But we should be okay. I'm going to come down here first, grab the transform bone tool. And I'm just going to enlarge this bone and then rotate it so that it's closer to the center of that pin bone that we just added. And this is also going to alter the foot as you're doing this. So once you do that, you'll have to come back and reconnect the foot and just bring it up like so. And I wanted to do the same now for this side as well. I'm just going to come in and we're just going to get that as close as we can, rotate this back and bring it down and reattach. So if we come back and look at this, we can see what it's currently looking like. And we might need to bring over these top layers just a little bit to make sure that the bones are all within the legs. And if you do that, you can also come down here and just make sure that you're getting those as close as you can to where the targets need to be. Now, you can name bones, and in this case I will just so it's easier. If we click on this pin bone at the top, we have a name field. I can come in and I'm just going to name this front foot target. That way it's easier for you to recognize. Click on the back one back foot target, and then hit Enter. Then to apply the targets, we'll start with the front foot. Click on the bottom bone for that front leg. Come over here to your bone constraints option. And then there'll be a target area. We hit the drop-down menu, locate front foot target, and then close. And then you're going to repeat for the back leg, except here you're going to select back foot target for its target. So now if we page forward, we should be able to test this out. And if I click and drag on my pelvis bone, you can see how this is reacting. We're able to target in an anchor in where we need to be. And I'm also able to move the legs. Again, there's a little bit of distortion. But for the most part it's okay. And everything is looking pretty good. The last thing you might wanna do when adding targets to your feet is we can click once on the back foot holding Shift and then click on the front foot. Come over here to your bone constraints and then enable independent angle. You might also want to enable squash and stretch. So I'm just going to click on both of these sets of bones. Come over here to my bone constraints. Click once to enable squash and stretch scaling. And then for maximum IK stretching, set that to two and then close. So now as we move this around, you can see that we have a squash and stretch effect that occurs, which is really nice. And that's how we apply targets to our rigs. 10. Assigning Head Pieces to Layer: For this video, I'm inside of MOHO and we are working off of 07 PSD Moho rigging. And we want to begin the process of separating out the head pieces and attaching each of those head pieces to the head bone. When we originally set up this rig and I believe I mentioned this, we went through and used the head bone as a way to bind the entire heads group. And this does work. If we come over here and we use the manipulate bones tool and just animate things out. You can see that the head and all of its sublayers are animating along with it. But the problem here lies, if we want to do more within the head, if we want to control the eyes or the pupils or the eyebrows, which I do want to do. We're going to have to separate out all of these pieces and attach them to the head layer. Later on, certain pieces won't be attached to the head layer. But by attaching everything to the head layer within the heads switched layer, we know everything will be accounted for and it will make it easier to switch over to other bones later on. So the first thing I want to do is click once on the heads layer and then locate the bind layer tool. Click off somewhere on the canvas so that the bone is no longer read. This means that the heads group is no longer linked. And if we come back here and play this, you can see that it is true because we're working with bone strength. You can see that it's kinda warping and not doing what it's supposed to do. So now we can jump in and expand the heads. And I want to start with the first image layer. You don't want to link any of the groups. So find your first image, come over here to the bind layer tool, and then just click on the head. And again, we will be doing different things with these bones, for instance, with the hair. But for now, just to make things easier in to ensure that everything is going to be linked. I'm going to go down this list and click on the head bone. And again, pupil's eyes and eyebrows will be handled differently. So it was come in and keep moving. So now that I'm done with the head side, I can move to head front. And again, it's just the same process. Avoid the group layer, jump straight to the individual assets and just start binding them. This is a very tedious process. It's not so much that it's hard. It's just that well, it's tedious. So onto head three-fourths, we don't have too much left. Just keep going. Adding in all of your bones. Just nice and easy. I know it's tedious and I know it's boring, but it's part of the process. If you want to create dials and other interactive elements for your character. So just a few more. And yes, the mouth poses also should be done this way just in case we probably won't have to do it that way. But since we are here, we might as well. And there we go. Then had three-fourths. Make sure that we attach that. So that should cover all of the head layers and we can collapse that. And if we come back here and test it really quick, the motion should not have changed the hedge and move just like it did before. The only difference now is every single layer within the head is attached versus just the main layer. So I'm going to pause the video here and up next, we're going to move on to adding our dynamic bones. 11. Creating Bones for Hair: For this video, I'm inside of MOHO and I'm working off of 08 PSD Moho ring. So feel free to open up this file. I now want to go through the process of adding bones. So that way, the hair that we have situated on the head will move whenever we bob the head or the body. Essentially we're just going to add some physics to it. And in order to do this, we'll need to create some bones so that way we can assign the individual hair pieces to those bones. The first thing I'll need to do is zoom in so I can see the head a little bit better. You'll notice that I have the head bone currently selected, and I want to do that for this particular exercise. So make sure that the head bone is selected. And then using a on the keyboard, or you can come over here and grab the ad bone tool. I'm going to start with the outermost strand and will come down. So just click and drag and move it down. And then we'll do a second one by moving it down like so. I'm now going to hold an Alt and click on the head bone once again. And we're going to come in and add two bones to that second strand. Just like that. Now there are other hair pieces we need to consider. We're currently looking at the head three-fourths view. And you may recall, within my layers, I have a back hair three-fourths image layer. And if I enable this, we can see it right there. So we're going to add bones for that as well. I'll hold Alt and click on the head, ensuring that we have these selected bone tool first. And then making sure of course you're on the chat layer in order to add bones, will go to the Add bone tool. And then starting right about here next to the corner of the mouth. I'm just going to come in and draw out two bones like so. So there you go. We now have the head three fourths bones taken care of. We could add more to this as well. If you feel there are other spots, perhaps this little piece right here that you want to add physics to. You can definitely do that. But I think this will be good for our purposes. Now the thing to keep in mind is we have three head phases. So we added bones to the head three-fourths view. But we have the ability to change different head phases with this rig. And each of those head phases are going to have the hair strands in different spots. So what I would recommend just to make this a little bit easier to work with is I'm going to select all of the bones I just added. So all six bones just like that. And then come over here to your color option. It's currently set the plane. I'm just going to switch it to blue. That way, it's easy to tell that these belong to the head three-fourths group. And to make it even easier, I could come down here to the head three-fourths group layer, double-click to go inside. And right here next to the name, we have layer color. I'm going to toggle this to blue as well. And then click Okay. And you'll notice now that this head is highlighted in blue. And this will make it a little bit easier to determine which bones belong to, which. Once we add the bones and bind them, we can hide them. So this is just a temporary solution for our purposes. So now I want to right-click on heads and then go to head front end. We're just going to repeat this process, except this time we're going to make sure that the bones are offset. So first, I want to also come down here to hair three-fourths, hide that, and then put in hair front. So that way we can adjust the bones for that. So now let's come back up here to the chat bone layer. And we need to access the ad bone tool. So hit a on the keyboard to do so. Now hold an Alton click on the head bone. And once again, you're just going to come in and add these strands. So we'll click and drag from the top of this main strand down to about the middle. And then we can repeat by going down like so. Hold on, Alt, click on the head bone and repeat for the second strand, and then add two bones or the back hair. This time we're going to angle it a little bit differently. Since it is a different angle, we can kinda come down like that. And that should be good to go. So once again, I want to come in and just select these bones I added come up here to my bone color. And I'll choose green for this. Again, just so it's different than blue. And to make things easier, I'm going to go into my head front settings and then choose to make this green. And then hit Apply. There we are. Now the last one. We just gotta jump to head side. In this case, we don't have to worry about any of the back hair pieces because the back here p is tied to head side. So if I switch to head side, you'll see we have that back hair piece associated with that group. And we did that because the hair is away from the body, which means we don't have to worry about it looking like it's overlapping or anything like that. And we're just going to repeat the same process. So making sure you're on the chat layer. I'm going to come up here, click on the head bone, and then come in and start adding in my other bones. So I'll start right here to add in this one. And now this one might be a little bit more tricky because this bone is currently visible. So what I might do for this one is click once and then holding Shift, and then click again to select both of those bones. And then come up here to bone, and then choose hide, selected bones. And they're still there, but we just don't need them right now since they're kind of in the way. So now we can once again click on the head bone, come in here and add in the two bones for that strand. And then once again, we can hold an alt, come in. And we're just going to apply two bones like this, situating it like so. And we need to come in once again just to make sure everything is accounted for. We'll highlight those new bones and then come over here to our color. And we can change this one to yellow. And once again, right-click on head side, go to Quick Settings, go to layer color, and then make it yellow. So there you go. You now have all of your bones drawn in. Ready to go. We'll pause the video here and up next, we will start binding these bones to the proper areas. 12. Creating Smart Warp Mesh for Hair Strands: For this video, I am working off of 09 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. We now want to start the process of drawing out a mesh and linking our hair to that mesh. We'll start with the head three-fourths view. So I'll come over here to my head's switch. Right-click, then choose head three-fourths. Now we have several bones situated for this head, and that's due to the three head phases. So forehead three-fourths, it might be in our best interests to hide the bones. We don't need to look at that way. It's easier to see what's going on. So while we are on the Chad bone layer, I wanted to come in and select all the bones that are either yellow or green because those are the bones we currently do not need. So we'll just come in and grab all of those. Come up here to bone. And then choose hide, selected bones. So now let's come down and make sure we also enable back here three-fourths that way we can see what that's doing. I'm going to come back here and let's create a new vector. I'll click once on heads, come up here and create the new vector. And I can click once and name this one. Mesh three-fourths top for the top part of the head and then hit enter with this mesh. I'm going to grab the Add Point tool. Zoom in just a little bit here. And with the Add Point tool, I'm going to come in and start adding in an outline, a swords around the hair. So you can see I'm just kinda coming in and loosely putting a mask of sorts around the first major strand. So just like that. And I can also come in on this little strand right here. We're just going to come down and include it within the mesh. And then I can come in and I'm just going to outline all the way down here to the side burn. And then I'm going to come all the way up and just reconnect the mesh with the starting position. Now, with the mesh connected, I'm going to come in and start adding some points between these two bones. So you can see I have two points for here. I'm just clicking and dragging and adding a line. And I'm going to do that all the way down. Just like that. And I will repeat the process for this part as well. Just come in and add in those points. The next step is to bind these bones to the mesh. The first thing you'll need to do when creating a mesh, once you have it drawn up and you're satisfied, is to click once on that mesh layer and then go all the way up to draw triangulate 2D mesh. You can see that this now changes the way the mesh looks. Next, let's click on that mesh once again. And I want to click on the bind points tool holding Command or Control, and then hit a to select all your points. Now alt click to select the bone. And if you do this, you might have to select all the points again, just ensuring that that middle head bone and all the points are selected. Now come all the way up here to the top and click on bind points. This will ensure that the entire head or the hair is bound to the head. But we wanted to isolate certain spots and enhance those. So with that tool in that layer still selected, I'm going to hold an Alt and click on this top bone, and then click and drag. And I want to create a selection going all the way around the bone. Just like so. And then bind points. Hold an alt, click on the next bone, come in and bind your points. You're going to do the same here in this one might be a little bit harder to pull off, but we're just going to come in here like that. And bind points. And that top bone should be okay. We shouldn't have to worry about this one right here. Now. If we come over here and play this out, come over here to the chat bone layer. And if I move these things around, you can see that we have nothing occurring yet. That's because we need to link the mesh with the hair. So going in here to your head, three-fourths layer, come all the way down and locate your hair. Double-click to go inside, and then go all the way to the top and click on Image. And then on the bottom is smart warp layer. Click once and then choose mesh three-fourths top from the list. And then hit Okay. Now if I come back here and play this, we're going to get something that looks like this. You can see that the mesh isn't quite working, although we have some movement going on with the hair. The reason for this is because when we originally set this up, we layer bound hair to the head. But now we are point binding the mesh to the hair. So in order to make this work, we need to click on the hair, choose Layer binding and then click off. Now the last thing we need to do to make sure this works is take our selected bone tool. Make sure you're on the chat bone layer. I'm going to click and I'm holding Shift and then click on these bones just like that. Come over here to a bone constraints. Go down to bone dynamics. Ramp up the damping to, to reduce the spring force to one and then close. So now I'm going to advance on the timeline to test this out. So let's go to six. I can move like this. Come back like this. And then we'll just straight, not like so. So let's see what this looks like. It looks like it might be a little bit too much, especially with that middle strand. And if that's the case, all we have to do is just come over here. Select those bones. I'm going to increase the damping force to four. We can try this now, still looking a little bit off. And it might be the way the mesh is working as well. But I'm just going to keep working on this. I want a little bit of movement and I think it can work the way it's set up. I just need to find the right formula for the movement. A little bit more here. I'm just going to come in, reduce the torque force to like 0.3, the spring force to 0.4. Close that. And you can see now that we have a little bit of movement occurring with the hair, It's not much, but I think it works because it's a little bit of movement. But also we have more drastic movement occurring with the long strand. Now one thing you could point out as an error with this is when the strands moving, you can see that it's sort of detaching from the side of the head right there. And that's again, the way we had the mesh set up. We could be more diligent with the mesh. But I could also just come in here, go to my bone dynamics. And for that top bone on that large strand, maybe increase the damping to four. And you can see it's starting to work a little bit. It sort of slows down the movement, but we might have to come in here and just play with this a little bit until you get something that works. But as you can see, playing with the dynamic bone settings can really allow you to hone in on the effects that you want. So between videos, I might adjust this value so that top movement is less drastic. And I'll pause the video here and up next, we will continue binding bones to our hair. 13. Creating Smart Warp Mesh for Back Hair: For this video, I'm working off of 10 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. Between videos. I added one little thing and I'll show you what that is. I simply created another bone that's linked to the head. And I stuck it right here. And then using point binding like we did in the previous video for that mesh, I went in and I bound these four points to this bone right here. There is no dynamic functions on this bone. It's simply static. But you can see that it covers these points in this area, keeping it static. So that way we don't have this part flapping up and down anymore. And if I come back here and play that out, you can see we have a little bit right there. But I think it's a lot better than it was before. And I could keep going in and playing with the mesh and adjusting that. But just know by adding in bones and adjusting how everything is bound, you can quickly make corrections to any errors that might be occurring with the mesh. So speaking of the mesh, we want to now come down here to the back hair and create a second mesh for that. We could have done this all in one, but given that these are two separate layers, I find it easier to create two separate meshes for this process. So first, let's go ahead and create a new vector. And this time we're going to come in and name it, mesh three-fourths bottom, and then hit enter. Now, once again, I want to come in using the Add Point tool. In this time. Let me scroll down here in my Layers. And hide had three-fourths, just so I can get an idea of just how much this hair covers. Come back here now to the mesh three-fourths, bottom layer. Grab your Add Point tool. And I'm just going to come in and draw a mesh around this piece of hair. I could also hide the body to, if I find that easier. However, I think when I'm doing here should be fine. Just come in here and complete the selection. Now. I'm just going to come in and connect these points like so. Just doing what you can. There we are. Now with mesh three-fourths bottom selected. We can come up here to the top, go to Draw and then triangulate 2D mesh. This will now create a mesh for the hair. Next, I want to come in and bind my bones. So we'll use the bind points tool. We are enmeshed three-fourths. I can Alt click on this bottom bone and then use Command a to highlight all of the points. And then I'm just going to come up here and by my points, holding Alt and click on that top bone. And I'm just going to select within this area here just like that. And then bind points like so. Then let's select those two bones. I can click on the chat bone layer to do so. Click and hold and shift and click to select both bones. Come up here to bone constraints. And we'll turn on bone dynamics. I can leave everything as is for right now, we'll play with those settings as soon as we're done here. So now if I were to come back here, I'm just going to reveal my head once again. Come up here to the Chad layer. And we're just going to play this out and see how it looks. You can see there's a little bit of movement, but it's not a whole lot at the moment. So I can just go back here to my bones, come in here and just increase the torque in the spring a little bit and see how that performs. Could do a little bit more here. So I'm just going to come in and just keep adjusting my values here. Bring that back to one. Let's bring the torque force up to five. The spring force is a little bit too high now, so we're going to come back to with that. And you can see now that there is some movement with the hair. Now again, we could continue to play with this. We could add more bounciness to it. We could increase the size of the bones and do all that. But ultimately, it's just there, it moves. And the main focus is that long strand of hair anyway. So I think for the most part what we have here is going to work. So with this now covered, we can move over and apply the same techniques to the side and front views of the head. So I'll pause here and up next, that will be our focus. 14. Applying Hair Meshes to Side View: For this video, I'm working off of 11 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. We're now going to go through the process of setting up the other head poses with the dynamic bones. So let's first decide which one we want to do first. In this case, I'll go to heads and right-click and choose head side. We'll start with head side. And then we can go from there. Let's click on the bone layer and then come up here to bone. And then choose Show All bones. That way we can see the other hair bones that we had before. Head side is associated with the yellow bones. So now with all bones exposed and on that bone layer, with the select bones tool, I'm going to come in and select every bone that is not yellow. So there we go. We should now have all bones except for the yellow ones selected. Come up here to bone and then choose hide, selected bones. And there you are. Now we want to start drawing out our meshes. And if we come in here to head side, you're going to see that this strand right here is separate as well as the back hair strand. So what we can do here is actually create two separate little meshes as opposed to one big mesh since they are separated out. We'll start with this strand of hair, the front most strand of hair. I can just jump right back up here to my mesh list. And we will create a new vector layer. I'll name this one mesh side F strand. So the side view of the front strand. And I want to come in with the Add Point tool. And we're just going to draw out a little mesh going around this strand of hair. So this all the way around. Come up and release. I'll come in and add in my lines for the mesh. Just like that. And I can do one more like that. Right there. There we go. So now once you have that set, we can draw out the 2D mesh by going up to draw triangulate 2D mesh. Next, I wanted to come down here to my hair strand. Double-click, go over to image. Make sure I set the smart warp to mesh side front strand and then click Okay. The other thing you'll want to do is make sure that your hair strands are not linked to the head. If I come up here in, just show all the bones really quick. You can see that this particular hair strand is linked to the head bone, so we don't want that. So with layer bind, make sure you click off and go all the way down here to the bottom and make sure that your back strand is also turned off for that. Now I can come over here to mesh side, front strand, making sure everything's okay. Come back up here to the Chad bone layer. And just to make this easier really quick, I'm going to hide these bones so that way we don't have, again issues trying to figure out what's what here. There you go. Hide all selected bones. Let's now make that second mesh. Let's come over here and make a new vector. Once again. Mesh side d dot strand for back strand. Using the Add Point tool. It's going to come in here and start drawing this out. Even strokes throughout will go up like this and around and then down like so. Then we're just going to add lines to help triangulate the mesh. Just like that. Here we are. Click on this New Mesh, go up to draw triangulate 2D mesh. Come down here to your hair, the back strand, double-click. Go to image. Make sure Smart warp is turned on to back strand. And then click Okay. We'll also need to make sure that we enable our bones to be dynamic. So I can come over here to bone constraints and then turn on bone dynamics and then close that. So now if we play this, you can see it's looking like that. The damping could probably be turned up a little bit. So I'm just going to go back here to bone constraints. Maybe up that to three. And we can see that it looks like that. And it's looking good. We could go and play more with the physics, but I think this should work. The other part we need to take care of, of course, is the back hair. And once again, we're going to make that new mesh mesh side. And we'll just put this as ponytail. With that selected. I'm going to grab the Add Point tool. And to make sure that I am capturing everything, I'm just going to hide the main hair really quick so I can see the ponytail. And then come in. And I'm just going to draw once again a mesh around this pony tail. And just to make sure I can see what I'm doing, I'm going to come down here and hide hair three-fourths. So now using the Add Point tool, we're just going to come in and finish this up and add all of our points like so. Then it's a simple matter of coming in and adding your points to triangulate that mesh with that layer is still selected. Go up to draw triangulate 2D mesh. Before we forget, let's go down here to back hair. Make sure it's not linked to the head. Also, while we're looking at that layer, come in and set the smart warp to ponytail. Click OK. Come up here to your ponytail once again. I'm going to zoom in here. Select the endpoints tool. We're going to bind the uppermost hair right here to that first bone. So it's come in and bind points. And you can do the second bone, just the same command. And we will make sure we add some dynamic bone functions to this. Select both bones, come down and choose bone dynamics. Come in here and make sure we re-enable the hair. So it looks like that. And we can see what this looks like now. And you can see that the pony tail is animating out and it's looking pretty good. Coming back here really quick. I just want to look at one more thing with my bones. And my command in adjust the torque force a little bit for this uppermost one. And I think that actually works a little bit better. So there you go. We now have bones attached to the side view, making the hair animate out using meshes. I'll pause the video here and up next, we will finish up with the front view. 15. Applying Meshes to Front View: For this video, I'm working off of 12 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. We're going to basically repeat the steps from the past two videos, except this time we're going to focus on the front view. So first, let's come in, right-click on our heads and change this to head front. Next, come over here to the chat group and come up here to bone, and then choose Show all bones. The head that we're focusing on is head front, which is the green head. So let me come down here and also enable back here, front so we can see that. And we want to hide the bones that we don't need to work with. So anything that's not green. Coming over here to the chat layer, we're just going to select these bones. Anything that isn't green. Come up here to bone. Hide selected bones. We also click on that one right there and also hide that one. I always forget about that patch bone. There you go. So now we have this setup. Also forgot those. Guess I'm not really on the ball today when it comes to hiding bones, but there we go. All green. All good to go. So next we want to come in and look at how head front is set up. So you have this time hair strands on one layer versus separate layers like in the previous video. And that is completely fine. We're just going to use that layer as the means for creating our meshes. Let's come up here and we're going to make that new mesh. We'll call this one mesh front strands and then hit Enter. Using this mesh, we can come in and I'm also going to hide these other meshes to so it doesn't get too confusing. That way we can concentrate on what we need to concentrate on. And we want to just focus on the front strands. So we'll start with the biggest one. Come down. Just going to add in the mask around this. Just like that. Come up and around. And we're just going to repeat this process by coming down here is adding in strands like that. And then we can come over and finish off. We're just going to add in our connection points so we can create those triangles. And then on this side as well, just come in, add in your lines. So that way we can create a triangulated mesh. There we are. So now head front strands, make sure it's selected. We'll come up here to draw and then choose triangulate 2D mesh. Let's make sure when we come down here to hair strands that it's not bound to the head. So I'll just click on Layer bind and then click off to make sure that's the case. Come back here now to mesh front strands. And I want to click on bind points. First, we will Alt click on the head, and then use Command a to bind the points to the head. Then Alt click on the top hair bone. And it's going to come down and select around that area. And then bind points. Come down here to this one. Select and then bind points. Then of course you have this one right up here. So we're just going to click come in, bind points. And then you have this one right here. Just come down and bind the points. So if we come back here and we play this out, we can see it currently looks like this. And that's because we need to come over here to hair strands and double-click. Go over here to image and make sure that smart warp layer is set to mesh front strands. And then click OK. So now if we come in, we play this out and you can see that it's all linked. We just need to add some movement to the bones. Just come in here, select those bones. We can apply some dynamics to it. So you play out like that. You can see it looks like this. We need to. Adjust that a bit. We're going to put the damping up to three, the spring force down to about one. Try that again. It's looking a little bit better. I might leave it there for right now. Let me just play it one more time. I would say that this long strand is fine. This smaller strand, I'm just going to select those two bones. Could probably use a little bit of decreasing. Playing with this. Bring down the spring force a little bit. And maybe up the damping a little bit as well. Let me go ahead and just look at this again really quick. Instead of binding just these few points, I think I need to bind a couple more just to make sure everything is going the way I want it to. Let's go back here to frame 0. And I'm going to click on that bone. Then use the bind points tool. Just come in here and I'm going to try to bind all of these like that. And then bind those points. Now come back here and play this out, and that's looking better. Sometimes when you're having issues, you might want to look just to make sure that your points are being bound correctly because that was the issue I was having right there. Now really quick, I'm just going to create the last mesh for the back hair for the front phase of the head. So a new vector, mesh, front pony tail. Let me come in here. It's gonna go down to head front and hide the head just for a moment so I can see exactly where all the hair is. Come back up here to mesh front ponytail, grab the Add Point tool. Come in and just add in your points like so. Again, we've done this a few times now, so I'm sure it's all second nature, but and it's going to show you all the steps anyway. And just come in. Add in your lines. There we go. We're going to draw in, triangulate the mesh. We want to come down here to the back, hair front. Make sure that it's currently not linked to anything including the head. And then once you're good there, I can double-click to go into the Settings, go to Image, and then switch it to front ponytail and hit, Apply. And hit. Okay. Come back up here to my mesh. And we're just going to come in here now and select the areas that we want to select so we can do point binding. So we're going to first select the head bone and then select all points, bind the points. Select then the first pony tail bone coming here. Select some surrounding areas and bind the points, and then come down here and finish off by binding your points. Also make sure that we come in and we set the bones to be dynamic. We come back here, re-enable my head so I can see everything. And you can see now that the pony tail is animating out along with everything else. It's maybe a little bit too jumpy. And we've had that issue before. I can come in here and increase the damping, decrease the spring force. And I can play with that a few times here too. I think I actually increase a spring force. I wanted to decrease that. But I can just keep playing with this here until I get it exactly how I want it. And there you go. You now have your bone dynamics set in place for the hair. The final thing I recommend, once you have all of your bones in place for the hair, is just to come in, select any of the hair bones that you currently see. And then bone hide selected bones. Because we really don't need to see that anymore. And the same goes for your meshes. I'm just going to come in here and hide all the meshes. So that way as we continue to work, you can see that it's animating out. But we don't have that mesh stuff in our way and it's easier to see what we're doing as we continue to work. So there you go. You now have bone dynamics in place for all phases of the head. You can see it's working here. And even if we were to switch halfway through, come over here and just switch just ahead three-fourths. You can see that it's going to continue to animate no matter what. 16. Creating an Optional Eye Switch: For this video, we are working off of 13 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. What I want to show you here is a method you can use to rig up the eyes. Now, throughout this course, we're actually going to set up the eye is a different way. It's going to be a little bit more complicated. However, if you're looking for something just simple and quick, here's what you can do. So first, we need to go into one of the head poses. I'm only gonna do this for just one of the head poses. And that way you can apply it to the other poses if you wish. But here in head three-fourths. And let me just right-click on heads and make sure it's on head three-fourths. That way everything is highlighted here. I can go in and we can locate the eyes. So we have our eyebrows right here, we have our eyelids, and then we have the eyes themselves as well as the pupils. So let's say you designed a blink pose that you want to bring in with a switch? Well, first, I would recommend not going back to the PSD file and adding layers. The reason for that. And I've tried this in the past and maybe it's just an isolated issue on my end. But it never seems to work. Whenever the PSD file updates, it completely screws up the layer order inside of MOHO. And so if you plan to update a PSD file, I recommend you add the images directly to the rig. So in this case, I have exported out two eyes that look like they're blinking. I'm going to use Command Shift Y to import these. And you'll find that is attached to the lecture as well. You can see that they are right here. So I'm just going to click on both and then choose to open. So now what I want to do is start grouping the i's together. So looking at this again, you have your back eyelids and then your front eyelids. Well, I believe right blink. If I bring this up. Should be right here and you can see that we're going to have to reposition it just by coming up in, placing it down like so. And it's not perfect. I could probably enlarge it a little bit. And we have the left blank as well. I'll just bring that above and come in and place it right there. So now I want to start grouping these things together. In the case of the eyes, Let's come in here and first bring ripe link below the front eyelids so that it's next to left blink. I'm going to select both of these and right-click and group with selection. And I'll name this to blink and then hit Enter. Then I'm going to do the same with the eyelids. So here we are. We have back eyelids. I'll just holding Command and click on front eyelids. Right-click, come down here and group with selection. And I'm just going to rename this right now to eyelids and hit Enter. Then I want to come down to eyes, which is the eyeballs for this. And then duplicate that layer. And then take eyes to and bring it into the eyelids group that we just made in place it as the bottom layer. And I want to do the same for the pupils. Saw come in, duplicate the pupils and then bring those above the eyes. And then we can collapse that. Then finally, I want to group the eyes and the pupils. So right-click, group with selection. Come in and we can just rename this two eyes and then hit enter. Now what I might do looking at this, since we have blink eyes, eyelids coming in, I might actually rename that to wide instead of eyes and then half for eyelids. Then finally I'm going to click on wide holding Shift and then click on half, right-click. And then group with selection. We're just going to come in here now. We'll click once to rename it to eyes and hit Enter, and then right-click and convert this to a switch. So now whenever you want to invoke an I oppose, All you have to do is right-click or you can go up to the switch selector if you wish. And in this case, if I want him to blink, I can invoke that. If I want it wide, I can do that without the eyelids. And if I want them at half or if I want it with eyelids, then you can rename those however you wish. We can do that as well. Now from here, you could keep going. Perhaps you want to have all sorts of different AI poses. Maybe you want the pupils up, down, left, right, or whatever angles you plan to use. You can keep building up your eyes so that you can invoke any phase as you need it. But again, we're not going to be going with this method in the course. I want to show a more complicated way of approaching this, which will create a smoother experience. So I'm going to pause the video here and up next, we'll move on to that step. 17. Re-drawing and Masking the Eyes: For this video, we are working off of 15 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. Now in the previous video, I showed you an optional method you can use if you want to create a switch for your eyes. So you could create different poses, a blink, whatever you want. But if you're looking for smoother control so that you can actually move the pupils around. You can control the phase of the blink. This is a process you're looking for. So first, I've reverted back a bit. We remove that switch that we created in the previous file, 15 PSD Moho is actually the same as 13 PSD MOHO. Just so you know, that switch is no longer there and we are reverted back to where we were. The first thing I'll do is come over here to my head's switch and set this to three-fourths. Let's collapse these two top folders and then bring up had three-fourths. And I can come down here and start looking at my eyes. I'm going to go through the process of recreating my eyes. And the reason for this is so I have more control and I can mask easier. But we'll use the original eyes as a reference. First in head three-fourths, I'm going to come up here to the new vector layer option and select that. And while on that vector layer, I'm going to zoom in so I can start looking at my eyes. Now it might be a good idea to place this new layer above all your eye assets. And I want to come in and basically trace this. So using the eyedropper fill, I'll click and hold and come over here and select the white closest to the pupil and release. I also want to be able to create line widths that are similar to these. Now, this was done using Procreate and an iPad and of course the Apple pencil. So the results are going to look a little bit different, but hopefully we can get it close enough so that it's not too noticeable. We want to use the draw Shape tool. Come over here and we will use the oval. And we can also turn on auto stroke for this. We'll start with the front most. I. I'll click and drag and start to create an oval like that. And we can release. Now that's looking pretty good. We can come in and hide this just to see what it's all looking like. And maybe it's a little bit too big. So we could come in here and try to just get it as close to the lines as possible. It's about like that and like that. And you can also see that there is a little bit of variation in the line width. And we can control that somewhat. We can come down here and select the line width tool or W on your keyboard. And we can come in here and just play with that a little bit if you wish, just to kind of add that variation that was present before. Now, we're going to focus on the islands next. First, I'll come down here to this vector layer and click once to rename it to eyes, and then hit Enter. Next, I want to right-click on eyes and then group with selection. Then I can click once on layer 11 and rename this two eyes. And I made a mistake here. I want to click on this one and rename it eyeballs instead of eyes. That way we can differentiate the two. We're just going to keep building up the eyelids. And we can add in the highlights and shading once we're done here on all these assets. So we will make a new layer. We're going to make this a vector. Come down here, click once on layer to rename it to top lids. And then hit Enter. Coming over here to your style panel. Click and hold on. Phil. Come over here to the eyelids for the back I, and select an area where there's no highlight. So now we have that color. We can come in and with the Add Point tool, we're just going to try to match this as best as we can. So starting right about there, I'm just going to come up and wrap around like so. Yes, we are above the eye, but don't worry, we are going to correct that here soon. So come down like this. And we can come up like so, and then down like that to wrap it around. And I can come in here and do some adjustments with where I want my lines to be exactly. So about like that. And then I can come in with the curvature tool and try to adjust just how this is looking. Maybe I'll spit it out a little bit like that. There we go. That looks better. So I'll get it about like so over like that. And that's looking pretty good. And you can do any final adjustments you feel is needed. Now once you have the shape that you want, you can use Command a or Control a to highlight all the points for that layer. And then go to the Create Shape tool U on your keyboard. And then come up here to create shape. Click that. And the eyelid has been filled in Eclipse. We're missing our stroke here. Let me just come in, make sure that that is enabled. And that's looking pretty good. And once again, with the line width to become down here, we can come in and adjust how that looks. And that might be something we do at the end here as well. Now, simply because it's kinda hard to tell until we mask the eyelids. Before I continue on, I want to add in the details for the eyelid. And the reason for this is because we're going to duplicate it. So let me come over here and select the Add Point tool. And I want to recreate this line right here. Just going to come over and click and drag and come out about like that. And that should be pretty good. I might have to move it back a little bit because it's actually going more outside the eyelid than I first realized. There. There we are. That's pretty good. Now we're just going to lasso this with the create shape tool. And then create the shape, making sure it's on stroke. Before you create the shape, we need to adjust the width. So I'm just going to come in and play with the width until I get something that's close. I would say too is looking about right. Let's come in here and adjust the shape a little bit. Bring it down. There we go. Now we're going to add a shape for the highlight. Let's click on the top lids layer and then use Add Point. And we'll start right over here. I'm just going to zoom in a little bit. And actually I'm not going to try to connect this line. We're just going to start right here and add two points like so close to the black line. And looking at this now I'm just going to reduce that a little bit and I can adjust the position in the shape more as I add these points. But we'll come up here and add a point like so. And then come down like this. I'm going to select the top point here and then use the curvature tool. And then this time just using the numbers on the top. I'm going to scale this back. So we get more of a point, kinda like we have here with the original. Then I'm just going to come down and move this stuff in a little bit. And then once again we can adjust the curvature. Might even go into the negatives with this one to create the shape that we want. And we can play with this last one as well. So click on that last point. We're going to go in here and adjust the curvature a little bit too about, I'd say point to. And you can bring this down like so. And the curvature on this one might be a little bit too much now that I'm looking at it. So I can click on that one again. Just kinda bring it back a little bit so it's not looping over itself. Let's bring this back and get it as close as we can to that line and bring that one over. And that's looking pretty close. And I can adjust more of needed. I'm going to click on the Create Shape tool. And then come over here and just click once on the outline of this shape to select it. Then I wanted to click on fill within the Create Shape option. And then come over here to my eyedropper, an eyedropper, the highlight, and then create the shape. So now we have something that looks like this. Again, close, maybe not the closest. And I can already see, I'm probably going to adjust the position of that highlight and that's completely fine. We'll know more once we create the mask. Okay, So from here, we want to build up the bottom lid. And I'm just going to use the top lid to do this. Click on top lids. And I'm going to duplicate. So we have tuplets too, but we'll rename this one to bottom lids. And then using the transform layer tool, I want to come up here to the top and find flip layer vertically. So we can flip that. And I believe my origin point was a little bit off. So when you flip it, it's probably going to move down like so. So I'm just going to bring it up and get it close to the eye. Now you can also see that we might want to just adjust this line right here. And we can bring it over and move it down like so. And again, I'll have to kinda line this up with the masking once we get there. But for right now, we have something like that. And the last layer we need is the pupils. So we'll make that vector. Name this one pupils. And I want to select the Draw shape tool, select the oval, making sure we have the pupil color, which is black. And I can come in here and just draw out an oval about the size of the one we have over here. Place it into the center or a little bit offset right about there. Now, we're simply going to copy and paste everything that we did over to the second eye. So we can just start with the pupils. Since we're here. I have the transform points tool, and I have the pupil selected using Command C and then Command V. I can copy and paste and then just click and drag and bring the pupil over. Before we copy and paste this, I want to correct this issue with the line. There is actually a shortcut key to bring this asset above the other on the same layer. I honestly can never get it to work. Which is really weird because I'm always asking him like so it's this right? And it's like yep. And I just never can get it to work. So all I'm going to do is just use Command X and then Command V to just cut and paste that so that it goes above the highlight. So now once again with the bottom lids, we're just going to highlight all those points with Command a or Control a using the transform points tool. Then use Command C or Control C and then Command V to paste. And then we're just going to bring that bottom lid over and bring it up just a little bit. And will probably shrink it in a little bit as well. Solves come in and we're just going to bring it in like that. So it's a little bit closer to the size of the other eye. And we're just going to repeat now for the top lids. So copy. And then paste, bring it over. Reduce the width. That should be good. And then the eyeballs would be the last thing. So just copy and paste. Bring that over. And we're just going to shrink this up now. And we're just going to shrink this up. So I'll click and drag and bring this down a little bit and come in in readjust like so. And that's looking pretty good. Okay? Now, the final thing, of course, is to mask this layer. So we're going to double-click on eyes, come over here to masking at the top. And then come down. We're going to click on Hide All and then hit Apply. Now you're going to see we have something that looks like this part of that weirdness right there has to do with the fact that we are seeing the original eyes and eyeballs. So let's just come in here and hide those eyes, those pupils and those lids. So we have this looking like that right now. And you can see it's masking. But the only issue is we lost the stroke for the eyeball. So we have the stroke here but nothing on the top or bottom. To change that outline issue. Simply double-click on eyeballs to bring up the layer settings. Once again, go to masking. And here you can see it says exclude strokes. Just click on that and then hit Apply. And then click Okay. And you can see now that we have the strokes and tact, I might have to make some corrections with the positioning here of this back. I it seems like it's a little bit too low. And that's not a big deal. I can just click on the eyeballs layer and just come in and adjust the mask and bring it up so that it's closer to where it needs to be. The only other thing is we had that shading on the pupil. I kind of forgot about that. It's not a big deal. You just apply it like you do with the highlight. So between videos, I'll probably go in and add that little shading effect. But up next, we'll keep working with the face. 18. Adding Controller for Pupils: For this video, I'm working off of 16 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. We now want to add controls for the pupils. As you can see though, just to update you between videos, I went through and I cleaned up the eyes even more. My highlights are a little bit off. And this line was outside of the mask. So I just went in and grab these things in this move them around and got them situated such that they looked more in line with the original. So with that, we can come out here and start playing with this. So because of the mask, come in here with our pupils and start to move this around. You can see once the pupils leave the boundary of the eyes, they disappear. And the same goes for the eyelids. Just as long as you have the pupils below both of the bottom and top eyelid layers. So now we're just going to create a control that makes it easier to access the pupils. We could just have it like this. And whenever you want to move the pupils, you could go into that layer and then grab it and move it around and place your keyframes. But it does become kinda cumbersome every time you want to access the pupils that you have to jump into the Chad layer and then the eyes layer and so on and so forth. So what I want to do is come out here and click on the chat layer. Zoom out a little bit here, and then use the select bone tool. And then click once on the head. We want to link this bone to the head. Then using the bone tool, you can choose if you wanted to do this on the left or right, it really doesn't matter, but I would put it close to the eye. So right about here. I'm also going to hold down Shift when I do this. So holding Shift, click and drag and go up. And you can release. Now, we don't necessarily need a traditional bone for this. I'm used to doing a traditional bone, but honestly you could just come in here and you use a pin bone just by clicking once. And if that's easier for you and if it's cleaner for you, then I would recommend doing that. And in fact, I'm going to do it myself just to kinda train myself to start doing it. So now you can come up here and we can rename this to pupils. So that way we know what this bone is going to do. And we can also turn on labels later if we wish. But now it's just a matter of coming down here to your pupils layer for the head three-fourths phase, click on pupils. And then we're just going to come in here and click once on that bone to lock it in. So what this will do now, let's say we are animating our character out. Because the pin bone or the pupils bone is linked to the head. Anytime you move the head, the pupil bone is going to move along with that. And since our pupils are now linked to the pupil bone, it's not going to make any difference if we move the character around, that's going to track just fine. But now we have the added benefit of taking the transform bone tool when we want to move the pupils and we can move them around just like this. So it gives you more control. So you can have in looking over here. But at the same time, his head is animating and it all works pretty seamlessly. The other thing you can do with pin bones as you can rotate if you wish. And I'm not really sure what that would do for us in this case, but as you can see, we can do that. You can also enlarge. So we could enlarge the pin bone. And as you can see, we can try to line this up. It might be a little bit difficult. You might need to create two separate pupils for those, but you could, for instance, make the pupil's big. Maybe he gets surprise and you could do that sort of thing as well. But by being able to come in with a bone and control our pupils, it allows us to easily change the eye gaze while working with the rig. So I definitely recommend doing this if you wish to have more control. 19. Controlling Eyebrows with a Dial: For this video, I'm working off of 17 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. I now wanted to add a dial to control the eyebrows. And this is similar to how we set up a bone for the pupils, except this time we are going to use a traditional bone. So what I'll do here first is make sure I'm on the chat bone layer. And I want to also make sure that I have the chat head bone selected with the select bone tool. Then we will use the add bone tool. And you can choose again where you want to place this bone exactly. But I think I'll place it once again on the left side, just above the pupil. Just come in and bring it up like so. I'm now going to come in here and double-click on the bone name to rename it to eyebrows. And then hit Enter. Next. I will click on the Select a bone tool, making sure that that bone is selected. Then come up here to bone constraints. And then we want to enable a constraint for this. So negative 70 and 70 should be just fine. You can, of course add in any angle you wish. But for our purposes that will work. And then we can hit Close. Now, we want to create a smart action for the eyebrows. To do this, we first need to bring up the Actions panel. A shortcut for this is Command K or control K. If you're on Windows. And you can see we have something that looks like this. We want to come up here and click on the New Action button. Since I have eyebrows currently selected, that's the bone that's highlighted in red. It's going to automatically put in the action name eyebrows, which is great because that's what I want. If you don't have this happen, make sure you name it eyebrows. So that way Moho knows to link this bone to the action. Once you are set, you can click Okay. And we are now inside the action. And you can see this because we have a red arrow pointing to it on the actions panel. Not to mention the timeline changes color. So here we're just going to come in and add in. Basically a range for the dial. Will click on the transform bone tool, making sure we're using this dial. I'm going to scale it all the way back here to the left on frame 1. Then I'm going to go to frame 24 and go all the way up like this. And then we can move it back like so. Now the other thing I'm going to do is locate the eyebrows. So we have to go into our heads here and go all the way down here to head three-fourths and locate front eyebrow and then back eyebrow. So here you have to decide now just how you want this to operate. When the dial is all the way to the left, how do you want the eyebrows to react? Well, in this case, I'll put them closer to the eyes. And then when it goes to the right, I'll lift them up. So I can select both layers once again on frame one and then click and just move them down like so. And we can even go a step further if we wish. We could come in and angle them down a little bit as well. So that way he looks like perhaps he's angry. And we can come in and do the same here and just bring it over like so. Now if we go to frame 24, we can do the opposite. So we're just going to kinda go up like that. And the back eyebrow. Let's raise it up and go up like so. There we go. Now, if we page back through this, you can see what's happening is the eyebrows are animating from one to 24 and the dial is falling along as we do it. So now, if we double-click on main line on the actions panel, that will take us back to the regular timeline. Come up here to the Chad layer on your list. And we're just going to go to frame 1. Notice how the eyebrows snap down. That's because once we go to frame one and animation begins, it's tracking the dial, which is now set in the middle. So it's in the middle of that animation I just created. But as I come in here, I can lower and raise the eyebrows as I see fit. Now the other thing I notice here, you're going to see that I have some distortion with the eyes occurring as I move this up and down. I believe that has to do with my bone strength. So I'm just gonna come in here and just reduce that. So now, if I come back here and we play with this, you can see that it's no longer doing that. 20. Creating Blink Dial: For this video, we are working off of 18 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. I now want to go back in and add some more smart actions. This time we're going to focus on the eyelids. So let's zoom in here. And bird going to basically create a smooth motion where the eyes go shut and all the way to open. I want to click once on the head bone. And then we'll use the add bone tool to create a new bone. This is going to be a traditional bone. And when you do this, I'm going to place it this time on the right side. That way things don't get too complicated on the left. Holding Shift and drag up to create a perfectly straight bone. Once you're satisfied you can release. Come over here to the bone name and we're just going to name this one eyelids and then hit Enter. We can also go over here and select the bone. Go to our angle constraints and enable this so that it's at negative 70 and 70. Then you want to bring up the Actions panel command K or control K. Making sure that the eyelids bone is selected. Click on new action, make sure it's named eyelids. And then click OK. On frame 1. We're going to grab the transform bone tool and bring this all the way down. Like so. Go to frame 24 and then bring this all the way up just like that. And then we can come back. Now. We want to control the eyelids and we essentially just have to decide how we want this to go. If we want the eyes to open or close. And in this case I think I'll start with the closed and then go to Open. So on frame 1, let me just move my actions panel over here. I'll come down here and we're going to locate the top eyelids. So I'll click once. And we're just going to zoom in. And again, we're going to close the eyelids. So I'm just going to come down like this. Let's kinda get it into position like so about like that. I wanted to slightly overlap the bottom lid. And while looking at this, I'm also going to bring top lids above the bottom lids on the layer ordering because that's how it should be just like that. Then I wanted to bring down the highlights as well. So that all animates out the way it should. And we should bring down this line as well. So this command and bring that down. And we can adjust the shape of that as well. Just like that. And the bottom eyelid can also be animated out. So we're going to click on that. And we're just going to come in and make sure we're clicking on this point. We can come down and we can make some modifications to it. Just to make it look like it's doing something else other than just kinda hanging out. So I can come in here and just make some quick modifications. And then maybe come back up here to the top lids and also just add that down a little bit more like so. Select all the frames on frame 0 for this, and then use Command C. Go to frame 24 and then use Command V. And we're going to basically put back the original positioning of the lids before we made any modifications. But I want to go step further with this. We're going to bring the lid up so that it's completely above the eye. That way we can create this Open AI. Or surprised, look if we really want. Now right now, I'm just kind of moving my highlights and everything up. I'm not sure how this is going to look. I'm I have to do some adjustments with how I am doing it. But for right now I'm just trying to get something down so I can see what's going to look like. So now we go like this. It's actually not looking too bad. I might come in and adjust the angle of that line right there a little bit. Just like that. But other than that, it's actually not looking bad. So you kinda have that going on now. However, looking at this, I'm wondering if maybe I should have the bottom lid animate a little bit more. So I'm just going to come back here to that bottom lid really quick. Move that up and move that up. And jump back here to the top lid. I'm just going to bring that up a little bit to match. And we just gotta grab that line right here and bring that up. And of course, the highlight needs to also come up a little bit. There we are. So now we have something that looks like that. The other thing I need to do I just realize is go to the bottom lid and copy frame zeros keys in place those on frame 24 as well. So that's also part of the problem I was having. So there we go. Now on frame 24 also, I should come in and adjust the lid so that it goes all the way down link bat. And we can bring that down, rotate it. As well as this highlight is come in. And so the highlight needs to go down a little bit more. There we are. So you kinda have this going on now. Okay. So that's looking pretty good. If I were to come back out here to main line just to test this and jump to Frame 1. You can see that the eyelid, when the dial is set in the middle, is pretty close to where it was. By default. It's not a 100 percent. But if we come in and we rotate this, you can see that we can get it pretty close so we can get it right about there. And if we needed to, we could also go in and make adjustments so that it works exactly clear how we want it to work. So now it's just a matter of going back into the eyelids action and repeating these steps for the other eye. Once again, we can come over here. We're on frame 1. Let's just click on top lids. And I'm just going to select some points here, making sure I'm on lasso mode. There we go. It's going to come in and just lower that down. So put that one about right there. I can bring that one up then a little bit like so kinda get the same shape we had with the other eye. So about like batch public work. And of course is come in and make sure to adjust the lines to compensate. Written that down, go to the bottom lids, and we can bring those up and bring that up as well. So now we have both eyes closed. And let me just make sure. And then we have to bring this one to open as well. So just come over here, just going to repeat the same steps. Just gonna bring that down, bring that down, and that of course, bring that down. Perhaps rotated a little bit like so. And your top eyelids. Let's bring that up. And that's this line as well. There we go. So now if I page through, it's looking pretty consistent. Now, if we were to back out two main line and we're on frame 1 for this, making sure we are on the chat layer. I'm just going to grab the transform bone tool and play around with this. And it's looking pretty good. So there you go. We've now added the blinking action along with everything else. So you can have him looking around and you can blink. And he can have some different expressions simply by working with the eyebrows. So we'll pause here and up next, we're going to keep building this rig. 21. Creating a Mesh for Subtle Head Tilts: For this video, I'm working off of 19 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. We're going to start by creating a mesh for the head. So that way we can add in some subtle head turns in-between the main phases we already have set up with this rig. So if you wanted to go from three-fourths to a front view in between those frames, we could add in something small with the head to help smooth out that motion. The first thing you'll want to do is create a mesh for the head. And we'll start with head three-fourths. Since that's the one we've been working on. Let's come up here to the top, inside the chat bone layer. We'll, we'll make a new layer, make it a vector. And I'm just going to come in here and rename this to mesh. Had three-fourths. Looking at the names of my meshes, I probably should come in here and name this to mesh, hair three-fourths top, and so on. So that way, you know, these are actually hair layers versus this one, but hopefully that's okay. So now with this layer, I want to hit the a key to grab the Add Point tool. And we're going to come in and start drawing a mesh around the head. The mesh around the head just needs to go around so that we can start with the area that we want to effect. I'll come down here on my layers and hide the body. That way it's easier to see where every part of the head is. Because also keep in mind we need to incorporate the hair into the mesh. So going back here to the Add Point Tool, I'm just going to keep coming down here and adding points, going all the way around the head. There we are. Now you want it close but not too close to us. A little bit away from the head should be fine. So something like this is looking good. The next step, once again, using the Add Point tool, is to come in. Next, I'm going to start adding some points to the outline of the head and that includes the hair. So just sort of like this, I'm going to come down and add in my points. And I'll start with the outermost layer here of my head. Just coming in and adding those points go around the ear as well. And let me back up because I also forgot the hair. So I'm just going to come in here and just add some points to the hair. Just like that. And then keep moving up. Again, just every few pixels we can just add in some points like so. Now I'm going to keep going in. And I also want to make sure I cover this part of the head right here. Mixture. You get some points added in on that side in I already kinda come down here with all that, so that's looking pretty good. And the reason why you want these points here and there so that you have some separation when you're manipulating with the mesh. Now, we can go in and start adding points to all the little details that we want to work on here. So I can add some here too, my eyebrows, as well as this little strand of hair. And I can also add some to the outline of the hair here as well. Maybe a couple here. I can add a couple to the inner ear. And then for the, I will start with the pupil and then just do four points on the eyeball like so. So pupil. And then just four points like so should work for us. Then we can add some points to the nose. It can kinda go like that. And then to the mouth, maybe to the chin like so. There we go. So basically you want to start on the outside, get your mask, and then just work your way in adding the points and then eventually focusing on your main areas and of course, keeping the outlines in mind. So next, I'm just going to come in here and start attaching these outside points like this and that. And if we don't have points for the outside here, that's fine. We can just make them up as we go. Listen to that amazing snapping sound. It's kinda satisfying Actually. It's like, oh yeah, I'm animating or designing, whatever. Okay. So we're going to keep going here just a little bit more like that. And like that should be fine. Now we're going to keep moving in. So we can start, for instance, right here. It just come in and attach this point. And then come down like this. Come down like that. We can do this one right here. And then I'll also come in and add another one. Just like that to attach it to that eyebrow. I'm also going to come in and add another one like this. It's going all the way across. Come down here. I'm going to do one more on the edge and then come up and add one in like that. And we can come over like this. And we can go up like that, like that. And we'll go over like that. And then we just keep going. So we'll connect that one. Connect these two. You should we connect that? And we'll do that. And we're just going to keep connecting. There we go. I apologize if I'm out talking too much during this part, but I just figured you want to listen to these amazing clicking a sounds instead of my voice. And I could always turn the clicking sounds down. But what fun would that be? Let's just keep going here. Attach those. Come down like that. And we'll do that one right there. We're here in right there. And as you can see, we just have a little bit more left. So we're just going to come in here and just attach to the nearest point up like that. This, try to get symmetrical as possible. Come down here, make sure everything else is. Next thing here. I can probably go up and do one like that. Like that is fine. There we go. Looking at this on my add 1 here for the forehead, just to make that a little bit easier to control. Okay? So hopefully that should get us set up here. I'm going to pause the video here. And up next, we will draw out this mesh and link it all to the layers. 22. Linking Layers Appropriately: For this video, I'm working off of 20 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. The first thing we want to do when establishing this head-turn is come over here to the mesh, had three-fourths layer. And then come up here to draw and then triangulate 2D mesh. Next, we want to come down here and link up all the assets for head three-fourths to the mesh. And to do this, we first want to focus on the vectors. Since we can only link up images and vector separately. I can collapse the eyes for this. And down here you can see we also have some hidden images for the eyes that we use to reference when building the vectors. Since I no longer need these, I'm just going to come in here and remove those. And I also want to expand mouths out so that way we can include all the phonemes in the head turn. Let's double-click on head three-fourths to bring up the layer settings. And then with that layers still selected, I'm going to go all the way up through mouths and holding Shift and then click on grin to select all of those mouth poses. The only layer I don't want to include in this is hair. So I'm going to bypass that and select using Command B and F eyebrow. Now why am I skipping hair? Well, if you remember from the previous videos, we establish the hair with another mesh. And that mesh is controlling the dynamic bones. So if we remove the smart warp layer we already established for hair, we're going to break part of the rig. But don't worry, we can still work around this. But for right now, avoid hair, select all the other images, go to the Image tab, come down here to Smart warp layer, and then choose head three-fourths, which is at the bottom from your list. And then once you're good, you can click okay. So now let's just do the eyes really quick. I'll jump over here to eyes and we can double-click on top lids. I'll hold, Shift, click on eyeballs, go to vectors, come down to Smart warp layer, and then change this to mesh head three-fourths and then click Okay. So now you should have everything linked up except the hair with the mesh. So when it comes to the hair, what we actually need to do is link up the hairs mesh with the head mesh. And this just requires us to come up here to the top of our list here. And we want to locate the three-fourths layers. So in this case, mesh three-fourths top and bottom. So I'm going to hold shift and click on both. Then come over here to your vectors. And under smart War player, you're going to change this then too. Mesh head three-fourths and then hit Okay. So now this mesh shape control this mesh, which these meshes are controlling the hair that you have down here and in the head. So if we go ahead now and try playing with this, you can see it's still not quite working, right? And that's because we have yet to link the mesh to the head bone. So make sure that your head mesh is in fact linked to that head bone. And we should now have no issues with this. Now you can see that there's AI is still kinda doing some things. So what I actually didn't do during one of these videos is linked these AI is appropriately to the head. So I'm just going to come in here. And you can see when I try to layer bind here that they're actually not linked to the head. So I just gotta come in here. The pupils are fine, they're linked to their proper bone, but the eyeballs, bottom and top lids all need to be assigned to the head. And I just need to do that. And hopefully now if I come back here and watch the animation, you can see that it's looking fine. And if I were to, let's say as an animation is moving, come in here and manipulate the mesh. So you can see I'm coming in here and I can change the way this all looks pretty easily. And I'm just kinda distorting some stuff here just for the sake of it. But you can see that it'll retain all of the other attributes that are going on with the meshes. So that is how we assemble the mesh appropriately so that it's linked up to everything that we need within this setup. So I'll pause here and up next we'll add in the dials for the head turn. 23. Adding Smart Dials for the Head Tilts: For this video, I'm working off of 21 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. We're now going to go in and add dials and create actions for the head tilts. The first thing I'm going to do is just come down and re-enable the body that way I can see it. And the rig is more complete. Then next, we're just going to come up here to the bone layer and click once on it. And we want to use the add bone tool. But before we use the add bone tool, make sure that you have the head bone selected. Once you have it selected, you can come down and choose where you want to add in your dials. I'll do one on each side and I'll use the bottom of the head as sort of my guide here. I can click and drag and move it up to create one dial. Holding Alt and click on the head bone, and then move over, and then click and drag to move up on the second dial and release. Now we can come over here and rename these bones. Will start with this one. And this will be my left and right tilt. Or I might just create a right tilt in this case since he's more left. But we'll just name it. Had left. Right. And then for the other one, we can name this one head Up, down. Let's click on both of these bones and come over here and change our angle constraints. Now, we can focus on the head turned 1 first. So I'll click on this bone. Use Command K or control K if you're on Windows and then go up to new action, name the action the same as the bone. It should do that for you. And then you can click Okay to go inside. Now for the US head turn, it's going to be pretty subtle. But to start, I'm going to come over here to 24 frames in and grab the transform bone tool. And then I can just click once on the bone to establish some keyframes. I'll jump to 48. And I'm just going to move this down like so. And then jump back to frame one. And then we're going to move it all the way over like that. So the default is the middle. And then right here we can move it so that he's looking to the right. And then we'll just do a little bit so it goes to the left, but we won't do that too much. And again, this is something you can really spend a lot of time on. And so I'm going to try my best to get through it as quick as possible, but also try to get something that looks decent. So we're going to start here with the left pose. Click on the head mesh. And you can adjust the mesh really anyway, you see fit. But I'm going to be using the magnet tool for this mostly. But before we get too far, Let's come over here. And then on 24 frames in, use Command F, just to come in and establish key frames and Control F if you're on Windows, that should also lay down keyframes for this layer. That way the mesh is intact on frame 24. Now going back here to frame 1, we're going to grab the magnet tool. And the magnet tool works by pulling in anything that's within the radius, which you can adjust up here. But also it goes based on strength. So anything closer to the center is going to go further essentially. So I'm just going to come in here and try to move the head over a little bit. And again, this is going to be really subtle. We already have main head turns established for this image rig. And so there's really no need to go in and adjust too much because again, we have all this sort of set up already. Second is kinda come in and move things over and play with this and kind of see how it, how it's all going to look here. So you can see I kind of have something like this going on. Obviously we have some work to do. So I'm going to come in here. I'm just going to play out the perspective a little bit here and just kinda move the nose. We're going to move the mouth a little bit as well. It's kinda move some of this down here. Try and move that over a little bit. Then we have the pupil go that way. So now if we page back through this, you can kinda see what this is starting to look like. Now again, it's not perfect, but if you're doing a really quick motion, it goes. And Elson, your next thing you know, you're looking at the next phase of your head, which in this case would be the side view, then that could actually work. And you can push this as far as you want. Like I could keep going more and more and I could keep trying to adjust the perspective of this and try to get the head turn as far over as I can and you can really squish this stuff in so we could try to hide that I as much as possible when continuing to do the head turn. And again, I'd probably want to bring the hair in a little bit when doing this. But there are a little bit of the limitations to this and how I set up the mesh will also have a planet. But if I do this, you can see I can kind of make it work. So I'm kinda corner like that and that might be a little bit too much, but you can kinda see how this would all play out as you continue to move with this stuff and play with the whole rig in this way. So now let's just go ahead and do a quick turn this way. We're just going to go to frame 48. And once again, I'll start with the magnet tool. We probably don't have to move this side too much. I'll just move it a little bit. It's probably this side we really want to move. Now. The other thing we could do to help with this, and I probably will hear in a moment, is we could duplicate this rig and just use it as a guide to look at the the front view of the head. So that way you can get a more accurate representation of the phase you want to go to. So let me just do that right now. While I'm thinking about it, I'll use Command K to bring up the Actions panel and the Double-click on main line to go back out. And then just come over here and find the chat rig and duplicate it. We can keep it as Chad too. I'm just going to click and drag and move it over. Just like that. But also go into its heads and go to front. So now we can kind of use that as our guide as we continue along here. So I'm just going to double-click on head, right, left to go back into that action to keep working. So again, we're not going to get this exactly how this pose looks. It's just not probably going to be very effective to work that way. And again, you can try as much as you want here. And I'm moving in here. And as you can see, we can kinda squish this part up. And we can look at the hair here, try to get this part moved over a little bit. Just like that. And we can come in here and start to possibly reshape the head a little bit. So it's not looking like it was. And you can see right here as an example in this comes in with the mesh. I probably should have added a point to differentiate the line from the eye, but it's kinda hard given how close they are. And so it just kinda something you have to work with in that way. And again, it's not going to be perfect, but we can get it pretty close to looking like something at the very least. So just come in, try to center things a little bit more. We can move the eyes a little bit, try to stretch the nose out, kinda like how it is in that shot to kinda do that perspective. And of course, the biggest thing here is the hair, which I can try again do some things with. But we might run into some difficulties with given how the masking works here. But we can try some things out. It's just a little bit finicky, especially right there just the way I have that whole thing kinda set up. So you can kinda make it work a little bit like this. And if I come back here and just to kinda take a look, you can kinda see this shaping up a little bit. We look again. We kinda need to come in here and bringing some of this out a little bit. Perhaps a string, some of this in just like that. And just a little bit more. And again, you could play with this all day. If I were doing this, again for an actual project, I'd probably be spending a good chunk of time just coming in here and manipulating this, playing with the mesh, even redoing the mesh, given how this is kinda working right here, I might want to look at a different option is because it kinda links with the a little bit too much, but it's okay. Again, this is just a quick in-between motion that we're going to see as the character is turning essentially. And you know what the hair at this point, what I might do is just come down here. I'm going to insert some keyframes here on 24481 just to help with the positioning. And I can just come up like this. I'm going to just move the hair over when the when the heads coming like this. So you can kind of see what that's looking like. And I can back up and I can kind of do the opposite. Here. On Frame 1, we'll just kinda had a glottal little bit. So it's like this and like that. And that's looking a little bit, I would say 3D desk. And I just want to come back here to the mesh and play with this a little bit more because it's just not quite right yet. So it's going to come in here and keep playing with this to get it where we need it. So I think it was going to bring this top part of the head in a little bit more just to kinda help compensate for that little part that's stuck. That's looking a little bit better. This I write here could probably just move a little bit. And of course the eyebrow along with it. Oops, I accidentally went one frame over. If that ever happens, just highlight the frames you just made and back them up to where they need to go. It's not a big deal. So we have something that's looking like this. You could probably look a little bit better here, but I'm just going to leave it right there, as is. It's pretty close. And again, it's going to be a pretty quick motion. So what I can do is just back out here to the main line. Let's come in here. I'll advance unframed here, so I'll go to frame one. We're going to go to the chat mesh and let me just hide Chad two really quick. So we can establish a keyframe. And you can see we can go like this. And then we can go like that. And then right when he turns like this, we could if we wanted to snap then with our switch to head front. So it'll begin a quick motion. And you'd probably speed up the motion even more here. If I come back to my controls, you can see it's still kind of jumpy and we could go in and even move it more. But what we could also do is just come in here and make it a much quicker motion. So go right there, come over here to our head switch really quick and just knock back that frame. Just like that. So you kinda have like that now. So again, it's kind of a quick motion. It's meant just to kinda have that in-between effect. So you don't have just a quick abrupt cut. And working with the other dial is basically the same thing. Let's come back here to Chad. And I will click on this bone right here. And we want to make a new action which will be called head up and down. Click. Okay, we're going to go to frame 24. Establish that default angle. Come all the way down here. And then we can go back to frame one and then come down like this. So now you just have to decide which way you want it to be up and down. Come over here to three-fourths, and make sure we go to frame 24 first. Then use Command F or Control F to establish that middle frame for the action. Then come back here to the start. And once again, you're just going to come in here and I'll just start with the up motion. I guess you can kind of go up. And actually, I'm going to undo those last movements and increase the radius here. Kinda have it go up like that a little bit. And then we can sort of squish the rest up. Just a little bit. Again, I'm doing this pretty quick. I know this video is already pretty long. I try to keep my videos shorter, but has kinda wanted to blast through this and show you guys what this can do for you. So I would come in now and just kinda start to shorten things up. And we can take a look at this and see how it's looking. Obviously, the nose needs to move up as well. Give me down a little bit more. I can move the pupils up a little bit more. Again, the pupils will be controlled. On your own dial. The mouth can go up a little bit. Let's come in and try to get everything is smooth as possible. And of course, I need to work with the ears as well. So I'm just going to come in here with my magnet. Just kinda do a quick move of the ear down here. So it kinda goes like that. And of course it's a little bit messy, so it's going to come in and adjusted a little bit. The hair could be adjusted. So maybe as he's looking up, you can bring the hair up a little bit. Just like that. Make sure we get the ears pretty even. And that's the other thing. So I can kinda come in and use those two ears as kinda guides to check each other. So you kinda have this going on now. And then for the top of the mesh here, probably is squish that down a little bit. So you kinda have something like that now. And I could still definitely spent a lot of time cleaning that up. The eyes are just a little bit messy so you could come in and just tighten that up as best as you can. As you can see. It's starting to come into shape and it's looking pretty good. And then on 48, we can just come down and you just do the opposite. So grab your magnet tool and you can kinda start to pull things down. Since everything is going to be kinda going down more now. And it's just a matter of just feeling things out. The ear is actually going to go up. And it's kinda the thing you got to remember is you got to do the opposite. So if you brought the ear down during this part, it's gonna go up during that part. So it's going to keep going here. Now. I usually start with the magnet tool and I kinda just refine as I go with the transform point tool. So this Q kinda coming down like that. And like this. It's going to take a look here. Starting to shape up a little bit more than it was before at least. So we're making some progress, some progress as better than I guess, no progress or bad progress. So okay. And we can just again keep working on this stuff. Raise this one up. Like so. And there's a little bit of a distortion there. I would say that's more obvious than it was before. And I think it has a deal just with the eyes and again, getting those right. And again, if you find that the mask is too limiting or the mesh, then you can go back through the process of rebuilding it. Again. You can't add anything to it once it becomes triangulated. But you could go back through and make a new mesh and try to get it so that it's more customizable to your liking. There we go. So there we go. And again, I could just seriously record hours of this. He just manipulating and molding and doing all this stuff. It just really about going back through and playing around with that and finding the best match in terms of what you are trying to set out to do here with this motion. So again, I think I'm going to pause here just because again, I could keep going all day with this. I will do just one more thing though. Before I pause. Come down here again with your hair, the back hair. You can just kinda come in and kind of move it around to help with the whole movement thing in the 3D look of it all. So again, if you do that, we can kinda, kinda dealt with that. And then it can kind of go like this. So I'm going to pause here and up next, we're going to jump into the polishing phase. But between videos, I might actually go through and clean this up a little bit more just because it is still not quite right, but hopefully it gives you the idea. 24. Adding Controls to Other Head Phases: For this video, I'm working off of 22 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. I just wanted to take this opportunity to show you the Reagan its current state. Between videos, I went through and just spruced up a couple of things. First, I modified the head turns so that they're a little bit more smooth. As well as the up and down motion. I revealed the labels for the bones just so it's easier to see our dials. In addition, if we go on to the animation and we were to go to head side, I've also mapped all of the different bones to the eye. The eye is if you're looking at the front view. So you can see the pupil works here. We can also come in and adjust the eyebrows on the side view as well as the eyelids. The only thing that does not work as the mesh. I did not apply a mesh for the side view as well as the front view. I kinda figured since we showed that once, you hopefully have a good idea of how it works now, and you can apply that in your own time if you wish to go that far. And again, right now, I would just go through and play around with this to make sure everything is working correctly. You can come in here and adjust your certain things here you can see I'm swinging things around. I could come in here and we could change it to had three-fourths. So, you know, he's swinging around. And we could also come in here while he's swinging around. And basically you can see that everything seems to be working at least on some level. Now we do have some issues. For instance, we have two pieces of hair here visible which we shouldn't. We also have some other just small things that we should take care of just because there are small issues and they can amount to big issues if we don't take care of them. So I'm going to pause the video here and up next, we're going to focus in on making our final touches. 25. Polishing the Character: For this video, I'm working off of 23 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. We're now going to polish up the rig so we can prepare it for animation. For the most part the rig works. However, there are a couple of things we need to look at. So first, I'm just going to jump somewhere on the timeline. We can go to Frame 6 and come in here and just move some things around to make sure everything is looking good. Now, there's a couple of issues that come up right away. Basically. The first thing is as we tilt the waist down and I'm not sure if we would ever go down this far. You might just depends on what you need the rig to do. You can see that the leg is no longer connected to the torso. So that could be a potential issue. The second issue, let me just remove these frames so we can step back to something a little bit more natural comes with the arm. So as we start to bend the arm up, you can see that it's clashing with the color and those are just some things right off the top my head that I can see. So we're going to go in and correct those to make sure everything is looking good. So first, let's correct the arm. I'll come over here and grab the select bone tool and then click on the top bone for the arm. And then let's name the arm. I'll just come over here and we'll call it front arm. Hit Enter, and then bring up your actions panel command K or control K. And then we can make a new action. We can emit front arm and then click Okay, we're now in this new actions so we can set up a correction for what's going on. Basically, we're going to come in here using the transform bone tool. And on frame one, click and drag. And we're going to bring the arm up as far as we think we're going to need it. Now in this case, I'm just going to put it to about right here and we can see that the arm doesn't quite look right. It's clipping out of the body. So all I'm going to do is with the transform bone tool, grab this point and just move it down. Now it's kinda hard to see what's going on because we have that mesh in place. It's kind of hard to see where our highlights are. I can come over here to the layers and just hide that mesh. And we should do that anyway, because if we don't, it's going to export out with our animation. And we really don't need the C that mesh anymore since the dials control that part of it. So anyway, with that said, we can now jump over here back to the bone layer. And we can continue to move this to make sure it's lined up. And actually where it's ad is not too bad. I think that's actually about where we want it. So let's try right there and double-click on mainline to go back out. Now, I'll jump to frame one. And with the manipulate bones tool, I can come in here and start to move the arm. And you can see that it's auto correcting to an extent. We still have a little bit of an issue. So maybe right here, we could go in and do a correction. So let me come back here to front arm once again. And I'm just going to take the first frame and drag it out to frame 24, and then come over here to the middle. And that's about where we're having the issue with the arm clipping through the sleeve and we're just going to grab it and just adjust it slightly down like that. So now we have something that looks like this and there's a much more natural border when it comes to the motion. So we can come back out here now to the main line. And we can try some of this again to see how it all works. So just come in here. And you can see now that it's tracking the way we have it set up with that smart bone. Now the other thing we could do if you want is you could set up a mesh for the arm. And whenever the arm gets within range of the color, you could then manipulate the mesh, squash it down, have it mold against the body, whatever you wanna do. But this is just a quick and easy way to correct that issue. The other issue we want to focus on where the legs when we bend down. So let's come over here and grab the select bone tool, and we want to click on the offending bone. So in this case it's going to be the lower torso. I'll come up here and we can just name it torso and hit Enter. Then coming over here to your actions panel, create that new action. It's going to be torso and we can click, Okay. Now, once inside we can grab the transform bone tool. And I'm just going to come in and rotate this down on frame one to about where we think we would bend with the character. Now I can't imagine it going too much further. So we'll position it right there. Now we'll still on this bone layer. I'm going to come in here and grab this top part of the bone and just move it and connect it to where I think it needs to go. And the same goes for the backbone or the back leg, I should say. We're just going to come in and kinda move it up so that it looks like it belongs. So what about going the other way? Well, we can start here and then let's go to frame 24. And we're just going to grab that offending bone and go all the way back like so. And again, I don't think I would ever go this far back, but let's just do it anyway. And then come in here. And we're just going to once again correct the position of the legs. You can see that my feet are kinda floating up, but that's because the squash and stretch can't really then that far. I can correct that here in a moment. All I'm gonna do here is just come in and position this where I believe they should go. So right about there. And we can come in and sort of watch that trach out and see how it looks. So right about here. In between, we kinda have a slight issue with how this is looking. So I'm going to do is at around frame 12 is just kick this back a little bit like so. And I can also move that one down and kinda get it more into a neutral position. So you kinda have this going on now with the corrections. And again, we still have slight issue right here. So on frame 18, I'm just going to help it along. So it's not popping out of that coat. And we have it right here. So unframed 21, once again, just very light nudge over there we are. Let's look in pretty good. Now we can go back out here to the main line. And we can give this a test. But before we do that, I'm going to select both of these legs and come over here. We're going to make sure that squash and stretch scaling is enabled. And then we should be good to go. So now, if we were animating this out, we could come in here. And as you can see, you and I bend forward now he's going to automatically have his legs track. And you can see now with the squash and stretch enabled, we no longer have that issue where the bones are floating up. So that is pretty cool. And in addition, we have this correction here. And everything else is looking pretty good. So from here we can go through and test everything out. I believe we've pretty much been doing that anyway, but you can come in here and just make sure that everything is working as intended. Maybe just add in some quick little animation. It doesn't have to be anything elaborate. But we can just come in here and kinda do something like this. So you can see the animation is playing out like that. The back hair is a little bit, maybe too much. So I could also go in at this time to the back hair bone, which I would need to reveal. So while on that Chad layer, I'm just going to go to bone, show all bones. And I'm going to go to each of these sets of bones, go to my bone constraints. And we're just going to kick this back to, let's go about to enclose. And I can test this out once again. It's looking a little bit better. However, I still feel that it is probably a little bit too much. So go back into your bone constraints. Let's up the damping. I think that's better. So once you have that rearranged, I can come back here. And I'm just going to hide all these hair bones once again, just because it's kind of a distraction otherwise, or at least I think it is. If you don't think so, by all means, you can keep these available. But once you have them selected again, we can just go to bone and hide selected bones. And there we are. So now that looks a little bit better. The last thing we'll want to do is setup a switch four-year back hair, and that's something I forgot to do initially. Let's go back here to frame 0. I'll come down here to the back, hair, front and three-fourths because right now we basically want to invoke them when we please. So I'm just going to select them both, right-click and group them. And then within the group, type out back hair and then hit Enter and then right-click convert to switch. So now when you have your certain head pose, you can also invoke which hair you're using. So we can put it to front. Come back here to our animation, make sure everything is looking good and it is. So there you go. We have now polished up this rig. There is, of course more you could do. We could always do more. The work is never done, trust me. But I think we have something that's present Hubble, and hopefully you've been learning along the way. So we'll pause the video here and up next, we'll create a short animation just to fully test the rig. And then we'll export it out for the world to see. 26. Creating the Main Poses for Animation: For this video, I'm working off of 24 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. I now want to create a quick animation so we can fully test the rig. And then we are going to export that animation out. The first thing we can do, just so we can establish an animation easier is add a background. Now, I already did a background creation course in MOHO and that was building 3D backgrounds. But here I'm just going to import a simple image that actually was a 3D background, but we're just going to use it as a 2D background. So using Command Shift Y, we can go into our exercise files and you should find this image attached to this lecture. Define BG, and then open it up. Make sure BG is below Chad. And we can zoom out and see what we are currently working with. So we want to click on chat here and just kinda rearrange things. We can move it up. We'll have him stand right about here. And we can also reduce the size of the character to about like that. The animation I'll create is something simple. So I'll go to 1 second in and then use Command F While on the Chad layer to insert keyframes. And let's come back here to frame one. And I can grab all the bones. So I'm going to just use Command a or Control a if you're on Windows. And then using the transform bone tool, come in and move the character up. Like so. I'm going to have him jump in. So right now, Here's the animation. Just because we move the bones along with everything else. So now it's all about creating that animation. He's jumping in. And so we should probably have him start with a pose of him flying in the air. So starting on frame one, we're just going to come in here and put the arms up in the air. I can go like this, kinda kick the head back. And perhaps we should start with a side view. So like that. And let's go back here to the chat layer and continue to move things around. We can move the legs kinda up like that. Just to kinda give something to start here. So now if we page forward, you can see it's like this. We want something a little bit more though. Let's first check the speed here. It's probably a little bit too slow. So already I'm just gonna come over here and grab each bone channel here, the first three and just move everything back to about 12 frames. That might be a little bit too fast. So let's go up to about 18. Let's start there and we can adjust as we continue if needed. So while he's flying through the air, we want him to eventually kind of go into a landing position. Of course, when he lands is where the apex will be for that particular position. So let's start there. So on frame 18, I'm just going to come in here. We'll have and go down like this. It's kinda move him down. Heaven, curl his arms up like so. Maybe he had his head go down. And I can adjust the dials here for the head turns after the fact. I'm just going to kind of get the main motions in place first. So if we come back like this, it kinda looks more like that. It's getting closer, but it's still kinda need some more. So let's come over here and go to frame 12. I'm adding a little bit more here. I'm just going to cock the waste back like so. And then sort of kick this foot out and maybe put this one back and sort of bring the arms up a little bit. Maybe bring the head down. And then when I come back here to frame 1, I'm going to actually cock this back a little bit more, raise the arms little bit more just to exaggerate the motion. So you kinda comes in like this. And then down. So let's try that. Let's take a look. We're getting their speed and everything is still a little bit off, but at least we're starting to get the main poses in there. So you, he lands and then he's going to straighten up after the landing. Some come in here and find my pelvis bone. We have to just zoom in a little bit here. There we go. Bring it up like so. And like everything else, we're going to exaggerate this a bit. So when he stands up, he's gonna kinda extend back first, just going to add a little bit of exaggeration. And then we will have them kinda come back down into a more default position. So we can kind of come in and adjust everything like that. Just lower the arms a little bit. So let's try it again. See how it all looks. I think it's looking pretty good. The downward motion here might be a little bit too much. So I might just cock it up a little bit like that. And second, I'm going to start playing with the speed. So I'm going to grab these four groups of keyframes and just scale it back to about Frame 6 to start. And they can come in here and try it again. So in addition, I exaggerated this a little bit too much as well. When he recoils after the landing. No big deal. Just going to come in here and just kind of correct it a little bit. So it kinda lands like back looking a little bit better. So he comes in and lands looking good. And then perhaps he will address the audience after landing. So we can go ahead and use Command F or Control F to establish key frames right there. And then we can do the rest of the animation from there. So I'm just going to pause the video and up next, we will keep building this animation. 27. Finishing Animation with Lip Syncing: For this video, I'm working off of 25 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. Here's what I did in the previous video. We come in, we can see this animate out and it's looking good. And we want to keep going. So I'm going to come in here and just reduce the amount of waiting he has between speaking and landing. I'm going to grab those three sets of keyframes and move it back to frame 30. So that way, he's going to start talking sooner. Speaking of talking, we need to implement the audio file. So if you use Command Shift Y or Control Shift Y, you can locate the audio file I have attached to this lecture and open it up. So here we can go ahead and listen to the audio file. Now, I'm having a little bit of issue recording audio directly from my apps. And so hopefully you can hear this. And if not, you can just listen to it on your end. Hey guys, it's time to read inside of mobile. So there we are. Let's go ahead and lip-sync this out first. So we have our character land, and we only have the mouth setup for head three-fourths. So let's come over here. And first, under heads, on frame 29, we might adjust this as we go, but let just go to frame 29. We can right-click on heads and then choose three-fourths. So now we have this going on. So the next step is to just lip-sync this out really quick, and we can do so using the switch selector. So starting at frame 32, Let's go over here to the miles and click once on it, and then come over here to Window and then go to switch selection. This will bring up the switch selection panel, which will allow us to animate out the mouth quickly. And so I'm going to go through and listen to the audio and just put it in the keyframes using the switch selector. We can go in and do this one. Going to find this one right there. There we go. So now if I close this, I can zoom in just so you can see this a little bit easier and I can play this out. It's time to rig it enemies inside of MOHO. And that's looking good. So now we just need to go through and animate out the rest of this sequence. So let's go back up here to Chad and we can keep going. Hey guys. So as he starts to say, Hey, we're going to come in here and start to add animation. Let's have him sort of recoiled down at 32 frames. I'm just going to come in here and grab that pelvis and just kinda bring it down just a little bit, not too much. So at then frame 35, I can come in and just kind of move this up a little bit. Move that out and move this down. And then let's go to frame 39. And we can sort of start to code down a little bit. Move the arm down a little bit. And then at 46, let's just kinda spring it back up and go up like this. And then the arm can be down at this time. And we can kinda bring that one over. And just kinda down like this and up like that. So we can test this out so far. Okay guys, and I will swap out that hand to an open hand in a little bit here, along with adding anything else, such as head turns and blinks. We're just focusing on the body animation right now. It's time to read it. So here I'm just going to do something else. Will come in and I can kinda do just kind of a repeat emotion here. He's just gonna kinda dip a little bit. Kind of Heaven go up. In this. I'm not going to use the pointing fingers, so I'll kinda just bring the arm out. Kinda like this down. And then kinda up like that. I want to go too far. Just kinda up like this. There we go. So about like that. It's time to read. And we can just leave it there because I think you kinda get the idea and we can go through and kinda polish all this up. So let's just do that really quick. Let's go in and add those hand poses. So when he's coming in, maybe we can start with open hands. I'm just gonna go through my rig here and close off the heads for a moment and come down here to front hands. Right-click and just choose relax for front hands as well as backends. So he's coming down and the Navy right when he lands or close to it. So at about frame 10, we can come in and add those phis. So he's making that impact. And then the backhand at around 33 should then be open. Okay. And then when it goes back down, we can have it go to fist again. And then when we have it go back up, we can just go to point. And we can just do something like that. So now you have your hands swapping appropriately. Let's now go back and focus on the eyes. At least for this portion right here. So as he's flying through the air, I'm going to come in here and grab that pupil bone and have him look down. I'm also going to do something else here. You can see, since I've been adding in key frames, we have all of these keyframes lined up in red indicating that this bone has all these keyframes and place. Meaning every time we hit that key frame has AI is going to bounce back to the default position. And I don't want that. I want to be able to control it as it moves. So all I'm going to do is from one on, come in here and just delete any of those other keyframes. So now as he comes in and lands, he's still looking down. And then he's going to blink. But we'll get to that in a moment. We're just going to focus on the pupils right now. And perhaps right about here. We can have a keyframe at 12. And then when he looks up, we'll have the pupil go up. And then we can kinda have it settled down with him looking at the audience. And then he kinda looks over and that's looking good. And we shouldn't have to move the pupils anymore. I think that's a pretty good example of how we would work with that. So now let's go with the blinks next. Anytime there's a major action, we should consider adding a blink. So when he lands would be a great time to add a blink. So right before he lands at about 10 frames in, I'm just going to click once on the eyelids bone to insert a key frame. And also, I'm going to come over here and once again clear out any of the red keyframes for that bone so I can continue to easily animate without it snapping back and forth. So let's go to 13 frames. And we can close the eye. And then add 16. We can open the eye. And then let's go to frame 19, and then we can put the I or the bone back to default. We'll also add a blink when he does the head-turn. So about three frames before the head-turn begins, we'll add in that key frame. And then when the head-turn is initiated, we can close the eyes. And then when he's moving up like this, I'll widen the eyes. And then we can bring it back down to about default for that. And we can come back here and play it out. Hey guys. Again, it just adds a little bit of something to the animation. And we can do it one more time here. Now as you continue to add blinks, you can eventually kinda cheat. So we have this blink right here that we created. I'm just going to highlight those keyframes and then use Command C. And then just Command V where I want to initiate the blink next. And you can of course control the blink if you want to adjust the timing and all that. And I am going to do that right here. I'm just going to nudge these two columns back right there. It's time to rig it. Enemies inside of. There you go. And we can also work with the eyebrows and the head turns. So coming back here, once again, the eyebrows, we might not have to do too much with, it's mostly kinda for emotion, but we can go ahead and let's just start at frame six. Make sure we have that keyframe. I'll remove any of the other keyframes for the eyebrows. And actually, let's add another key frame at ten. And maybe when he lands, we can just sort of have it lower a little bit. And then when he pops up, it just kinda goes up like that. And then back to default. Again, it just adds a little bit more something to the animation. And then when he turns like this, we could also, if you want, just add a little bit of motion to the eyebrows when he blinks. You don't necessarily have to, but we can just add just a little bit of emotion. And then when his eyes go wide, we can kinda just collect that and then bring them down a little bit more. And you can do the same thing here as well. So insert a key frame at 53. At 56. It's going to lower them, raise him up at 59 and then bring them back more to default at around 63. And now we can do the head turns and tilts. Remember, we can only really do this with the three-fourths view. You can by all means put in a head-turn motion for the other views. I just wanted to show you at least one complete version of it. But we can still use this. So what we can do here is when we have this switch occur, we can come over here to the head left and right switch, and then come over here and remove any key frames that we're going to need after that. So starting right here, I'm just going to knock this back like so. So it kinda goes like this. And maybe perhaps when he goes up like bat, we can bring it over. Even maybe a little bit more than the default position. And when he goes down, when he's reacting, Let's add a little bit of it. Just like kind of a head turn like this. It's very subtle, but it really does actually add a little bit. And then we can kind of bring it over like that and then maybe more back to default like so like that. And we can just leave it there. And we also have up and down motions alleles for, again, three-fourths. So let's come over here. And we're just going to move this down at again, frame 29 when the head turn initiates. And we're just going to come into that dial and remove those keyframes. And then when he comes up, we can kinda go like that. And then just kinda move it more into neutral positioning after that. So just like that. And we can do the same thing on this motion as well. So I'm just going to move it down a little bit. Move it up. And then we can put it back again more to neutral. Just like that. So now if I come back here and play this whole thing, hey guys, it's time to rig it. Enemies inside. You can see that for the little work that we did, it works rather well. And of course there's much more we could do here. But I'm hoping with this exercise, you've gained some knowledge into the process of animating out a rig. 28. Exporting Your Animation: For this video, I'm working off of 26 PSD Moho rigging. Feel free to open up this file. We're now going to go in and export this out. Everything is looking good. We can come back here and play it one more time just to make sure. Hey guys, it's time to read it. Inside. Looks good to me, at least for a tutorial animation, so to speak. Given, you know, again, it's kinda like I'm on a time limit going through all this. But anyway, enough complaining about how tutorials work. Let's go ahead and export this out. But first, I want to add some motion blur to the character just to give it a little bit of something else, I can double-click on the Chad rig to go inside and then come over here to the top and click on motion blur. Here. I'm going to turn on motion blur on. And I want to set it to sub-frame motion blur. This is essentially true Motion Blur versus just having the software repeat some frames. We'll start with these options, the frame count in frame percentage and then click Okay. And I just want to find an action scene where he's jumping in and test this out with Command R. So let's go right about here. And I'll use Command R to do a quick render to see what the motion blur looks like. Yeah, that's a little bit too much for my taste. So let me just zoom out to see this. You can see it's actually really blurry. So let's go ahead and come back in here to my layer and go to the motion blur settings, we can probably reduce the frame count to about 10. And let's kick down the percentage and try this. It's looking a little better. But once again, going back into that layer, I'm going to knock it back to, let's say 10 for the frame percentage and try that one more time. And that's looking better. Again, I just wanted some sort of Motion Blur applied to it. I think that's going to help with the motion, especially the head turns. One last small thing before I forget is if we come back here, you'll see that he loses his ponytail because we didn't apply the switch to that back ponytail when he turned his head, which isn't a big deal. We just come over here and we're just going to come down to the back hair and change it to three fourths. When he goes to three-fourths. There we go. So now that's looking good. With your rig now set, you can save the file. And I went ahead and just saved this file again as 26 PSD Moho rigging. That way, you can access the final file if you want to look at everything including the motion blur and that switch, I did. But once you're good, you can use Command E or you can use Command B to go to your Moho exporter, which the Moho exporter is great if you have multiple videos you need to export or multiple layers. In this case, we should only need to export the animation. So I'm just gonna go ahead and do that. And here you can see that everything is set up and ready to go. Our end frame is set to 144. That's where the animation ends. So we don't have any dead frames. We can do a MP4 format. Again, we can make this much more high-quality if we were gonna go further. But again, this is just for your purposes for seeing a quick final render. So I'll save it in my exercise files and of course I'll attach this to the lecture, but I can just name it Moho rigging, final example and then hit Okay. When you do a Moho Export, it'll bring up a new window and it will show you the progress as it goes. And this is a pretty simple animation, so it shouldn't take too long. But because we have motion blur that also adds a little bit of complexity. So to sit back, relax. And before you know it, it will be complete. And again, you can always reference this final video attached to this lecture. So I'm going to let this run and up next, we'll jump over to my final thoughts. 29. Conclusion: And that is how you rig and animate an image-based character inside of MOHO. Keep in mind that this really just scratches the surface. There is so much you can do with MOHO. It's really hard to cover in such a short course. But what I've shown you here should get you started with the process of rigging and animating characters. But especially with the smart warp abilities inside of MOHO, you can go really far with this. You can control mouths, you can control facial expressions. And much more simply by using that smart work mesh. And maybe that's something I will do for a future course, is just focus solely on the mesh so we can create some unique looking animations. But I also want to hear what you want to see. So by all means, send me a message on Udemy. Let me know what courses you're looking for and I'll see if I can accommodate. Thank you for watching. I hope you found this helpful and I'll see you next time.