Redshift for Cinema 4D Masterclass | Ozgur Gorgun | Skillshare

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Redshift for Cinema 4D Masterclass

teacher avatar Ozgur Gorgun, Adobe & Maxon Certified Instructor

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

38 Lessons (4h 17m)
    • 1. Redshift Masterclass Introduction

      2:00
    • 2. Customising the Layout

      4:42
    • 3. Redshift RenderView

      10:16
    • 4. Lights - Setup

      2:50
    • 5. Lights - Area Lights

      16:40
    • 6. Lights - Point and Spot Lights

      7:21
    • 7. Lights - Dome Lights

      7:18
    • 8. Lights - Sun and Sky

      7:51
    • 9. Lights - 3-Point Lighting Setup

      7:47
    • 10. Lights - Volumetric Lights

      17:05
    • 11. Lights - Shadows and Light Reflections

      5:45
    • 12. Materials - Creating and Applying Redshift Materials

      9:49
    • 13. Materials - Reflection

      12:02
    • 14. Materials - Refraction

      8:02
    • 15. Materials - Sub Surface Scattering

      8:21
    • 16. Materials - Light Emission

      11:15
    • 17. Materials - Applying Materials to Selections

      10:08
    • 18. Materials - Applying Materials to Selections - End Result

      0:28
    • 19. Materials - Material Presets

      5:11
    • 20. Materials - Shader Graph and Nodes Editor

      10:22
    • 21. Materials - Noise

      11:04
    • 22. Materials - Bump

      7:45
    • 23. Cameras - Intro to Redshift Cameras

      4:05
    • 24. Cameras - Redshift Camera Tag

      11:04
    • 25. Cameras - Depth of Field and the Bokeh Effect

      15:08
    • 26. Cameras - Pulling Focus

      7:25
    • 27. Rendering - Progressive vs Bucket

      6:30
    • 28. Rendering - RealTime Preview (RT)

      3:27
    • 29. Rendering - Using Snapshots

      3:42
    • 30. Rendering - Global Illumination

      6:07
    • 31. Rendering - Optimising Renders

      11:00
    • 32. Rendering - Denoising

      6:52
    • 33. Rendering - Motion Blur

      4:26
    • 34. Rendering - Redshift Object Tag

      2:49
    • 35. Rendering - Creating a Shadow Catcher

      5:10
    • 36. Rendering - Post FX

      11:06
    • 37. Final Render

      3:26
    • 38. Conclusion and Next Steps

      0:34
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About This Class

Are you tired of waiting for your Cinema 4D renders to finish? If your answer is yes, then this course is for you. The amazingly fast GPU rendering in Redshift is going to be a game changer in your workflow. 

On this course, you will learn how to use Redshift for Cinema 4D from start to finish. And by the end of the training, you will be able to create an amazing looking, photorealistic render. We will cover subjects such as customising Cinema 4D's interface for maximum productivity; working with Redshift lights; using HDRI images for lighting; working with cameras; depth of field and the highly sought-after Bokeh effect; materials and the Redshift Shader Graph; motion blur; scene optimisation; denoising and finally rendering a scene.

This course is packed with countless tips and tricks that professional 3D designers use every day. Together with the training, you also get access to all of the project and reference files so you can follow along by using the exact same content. 

I'm very excited to be sharing my Redshift knowledge with you and can't wait to see what you create with the skills you'll learn on this course. So if you're ready to learn how to use Redshift for Cinema 4D, let's get started!

Meet Your Teacher

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Ozgur Gorgun

Adobe & Maxon Certified Instructor

Teacher

Hello, I'm Ozgur. I'm an award winning filmmaker, photographer and motion designer. I've been been working in the film and TV industry both in the UK and abroad for over a decade. 

I'm an Adobe Certified Expert, Video Specialist and Instructor. I'm also one of the very few Maxon Certified Cinema 4D Trainers in the world.

I've taught and worked with some of the biggest names in the industry such as SKY, BBC, Sony Pictures, ITV, Google, Microsoft, to name a few.

See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Redshift Masterclass Introduction: Hi, and welcome to this Redshift for Cinema 4D masterclass. My name is Ozgur. I'm a Maxon-certified instructor for Cinema 4D. I use Redshift in my production workflow pretty much every day. If you have been using Cinema 4D for a while, and you're just too tired of waiting for your renders to finish, well, then this course is for you. The amazingly fast GPU rendering capabilities of Redshift, as well as its close to real-time previews will blow your mind away. On this course, you'll learn all the important functions of Redshift and greater photo realistic render from start to finish. I'll be the first to admit that Redshift can be quite a difficult software to learn on your own. That's why I simplified all of its functions and explained them in a way to make sure that you can start using Redshift as soon as you complete the training. We'll start the training by setting up a custom layout. [MUSIC] We'll then move on to working with lights, where we'll create both realistic and stylized lighting setups. [MUSIC] Once we learn how to work with lights, we'll start talking about materials and create some complex surfaces. We'll also be exploring the amazing cameras in Redshift and the sought-after bokeh effects. [MUSIC] Finally, we'll talk about optimizing and rendering our scene out. [MUSIC] Together with this course, you'll also get all of the project and reference files that are used so that you can follow along with the exact same content as you watch the lessons. I am super excited to be sharing with you all of the industry tips and tricks about Redshift, and I cannot wait to see what you create with the skills you learn on this course. If you're ready, put your rendering hats on and let's get started. 2. Customising the Layout: This is the scene that will be working with on this course. But before we actually get to the scene, let's go and make a few adjustments to the interface. We need to go and customize the interface so that it's easier to work with Redshift. Firstly, I want to clean things up by getting rid of some panels that I know that I won't be using. For example, since this is all modeled and I won't really be moving stuff around, I can go and get rid of this coordinates manager here. I can do this by right-clicking on the three lines here and then closing the manager. Now some of the panels, I don't want to get rid of, but I just want to hide for now. Because I know for a fact that I'll be using them later on. For example, the materials manager here is going to be quite a crucial part later on, but I don't need it just yet, so I'm going to go and fold this panel by holding down Control or Command on Mac and then clicking on the three lines here, the panel is now folded. I can do the same for the timeline controls here, control-click. Then the same for the timeline itself. If I ever need those panels back, I can come down here and then click on the lines here. That will reveal the panels again. I'll go and fold it again by control-clicking here. I also want to open up a panel that's going to be crucial when working with Redshifts. The panel I'm talking about is the Redshift render view panel. That's under the Redshift menu up here, and it's the Redshift around their view. This panel is where we see our work. This is similar to the interactive render region that you normally get in Cinema 4D. Since I'll be using this all the time, I actually want to block this somewhere on the interface, let's say maybe to the right-hand side here. I can do this by clicking on the three lines again and then dragging it to the right here, and let go. Now that the panel is docked to the rest of the interface. I can also go and resize things by clicking and dragging around like this. I'll make a bit more space for my attributes panel here. I'm going to come up here and then click, and then just drag this up so that I have more space for the attributes panel as well. I'll also go and change my renderer from the standard renderer that's in the render settings to the Redshift render here. I'll come out of this. I can also go and adjust the position of this renderer by holding down Alt on the keyboard and clicking and dragging this around, like that. I now want to save this as my custom Redshift layouts. For that, I'll go to the Window menu up here, down to customization, and then going to save the layout as, and I'll rename this to be Redshifts, I'm then going to hit Save. Now, this gets saved as my Redshift layouts. If I ever want this back or if I screw things up, let's say, for example, I go and close this panel. If I fold this up by mistake, let's say and close some of the other panels, move them around, do whatever. If I ever want that layout back, I can go to layout and choose Redshift again, and that's going to reset the layout here to show me what I'd saved. Now, this is how you'd customize the interface in our 24 or an earlier version of Cinema. Then we switched to R25 and I can show you how that works there as well. Here we are in R25. You'll notice that the interface looks a little different and it's actually a little simplified, which I really like. One thing you'll actually notice is that the materials manager down here is no longer here. They moved it up. Here now. If I click on this button that reveals the material manager and hides it again. Also, the coordinates manager, which used to be here, is no longer here. It's actually hidden inside this button now so if I click here. That's where the coordinates manager is. I'll hide this as well. The timeline and its controls are still here, but I can well fold this again by control-clicking on these lines, like that. I'll also go and open up the Redshift Render View by going to Redshift, Redshift Render View. I'll go and look this, let's say here again, like that? I'll make it a bit more space for my attributes panel. I'll go and save this as my custom layout. I'll go to Window, Customization, save layout as, and I'll call this one Redshift. That's our new Redshift layout in R25. As long as you are familiar with the main interface of Cinema 4D, there isn't really that much of a difference as far as Redshift is concerned, between R25 and R24. With that, we are now ready to learn how Redshift works. 3. Redshift RenderView: Everything you'll be doing with Redshift will be visible inside this panel here called the Render View. Remember we've got this panel from the Redshift menu up here and then we just came down to Redshift Render View. This panel is really going to be seeing all your work. In order to launch it, we're just going to hit this Play button here and this will send whatever information we have here on the left, to the right hand side to the Redshift Render View. Now, the great thing about this Render View, is that it will constantly keep updating. Here's what I mean. If I come up here to the left and then just fly around, see how the right-hand side view, the rendered version here also updates. This is a fantastic feature of Redshift. If I zoom right in that say to this branch here, you see this view here is updating right away as well. Let me zoom back out. Now this near live preview is what makes Redshift a fantastic tool to work with. If you only been working with the standard render in cinema 4D, this hopefully by now, should already blown your mind away. The fact that you can just fly around with almost no delay is amazing. Let's go through some of the settings inside the Render View. The button I just clicked on is what you use to start or stop the interactive render so If I uncheck this, next time I fly around, you see this view here won't update. If I turn this back on, it will keep updating on the right-hand side and I'm now seeing whatever I see in the perspective view here. This button here refreshes the view. Sometimes you make an update and the panel here gets stuck. You can just hit this button here to refresh the view like that so it forces it to recalculate and next to it you have what are called AOV passes. Right now we haven't got any setup but if you use multi passes before in cinema, this is very similar to multi passes in Redshift they're called AOVs or Arbitrary Output Variables. To the right of that, you had the different channels. Right now I'm seeing the composite or the RGB view of the render. If I click on the arrow here, I can switch the channel to red so I'm only seeing the red channel, the green channel, the blue channel, or the alpha. I'm going to switch back to RGB or a composite view. Next to that is this button that we use to turn off the noise reduction function, which currently we don't have so that's why it's grayed out now. This button here, which looks like the crop icon in Photoshop, allows you to crop or interactively render just one region. If I turn this on, only this section is being rendered. If you have different things like lights and materials, Redshift will only calculate whatever is inside this area. You can move this area by clicking and dragging it. You can resize it or you can turn it off by pressing R on the keyboard or by pressing R again it can reveal it again. You can also hold down Shift on the keyboard and then click and drag to create a new section like this. Since we don't have anything in the scene like different lights or materials, this isn't as useful as it will be later. For now I'm just going to turn this off by pressing R again on the keyboard. Next to this button is your camera selection. If you have a camera in the scene, let's say for example, if I go and create a camera, if I'm looking at the scene through the perspective of the camera and if I fly the camera in and out, let's say like that. As long as this camera is set to my camera, as long as this is locked, if I now come out of the camera, this view will remain the same but I cannot fly anywhere I like, like this. If I now switch back to auto, we're now using the perspective camera inside the Render View as well, so If I fly around, you see this one here updates as well, but if I switch back to my camera, it now shows me whatever this camera is looking at. We also have a couple of other options. If I'll knock this, I can switch my camera from camera, which is the name of this camera, to let's say the front camera, the top camera, or let's say the right camera. These are just different orthographic view options that you get. I'm going to switch this back to auto, which means that whatever camera I have selected here, it's going to be using that, or if I don't have any cameras selected, it will just use the perspective camera like this. For now, I'll go and delete this camera. There are some other buttons here, which we'll spend more time on later on. But there's just one more feature that I want to show you before we wrap this lesson up, and that's the zoom or the magnification level of this view. If I click on this double arrow or if I make a bit more space here, I should be seeing more options. I'm just going to squash this back and then simply click on this double arrow here so the rest of the options are here. The one I'm interested in is the magnification levels here. Now we can either use the original size, which basically is going to be the size of the render here so that's 1080 by 720 in my case, and once that's rendered, it's then being scaled by this much so If I go and set this to 100 percent, that's that final size, or I can switch this to fixed scaling, and now this gives me a two magnification values. This one on the right is the resolution down sample or up sampling factor. What I mean by that is this. If I go and set this to 50 percent, it's now rendering at 50 percent of this resolution here. I can then go and zoom into it at 200 percent. It's not going to show me a half res version at a 200 percent magnification. If I go and set this to, let's say 25 percent, that's making four times smaller resolution wise. But if I then go and set this to 400 percent, so it's making it four times larger magnification wise. It's the same image size that I'm getting, but the quality is worse. You can think of this like quality and the zoom level. This gives you a lot of flexibility when it comes to look developments or look dev. For now, let's go and set this back to 100 percent, and I don't want to see that at 400 percent magnification, so I'll go and set this to a 100 percent as well. You can also zoom in and out from this using the scroll wheel on your mouse. If you zoomed in more than what your monitor can display, you can hold down Alt or Option on Mac and then click and drag to see different parts of this. This would be like holding down spacebar in something like Photoshop. You already looked at the original size. There are two more options. One is fit window, which is going to render the whole thing at its original size so the size of the render here but then it will scale the resolution by looking at the width or the height of this window. The last option, fill window, is going to fill everything up and it will only change the resolution based on the width of the window so If I go and make this shorter, the resolution changes based on the width. The height here, won't have any effect. Let me just go and put this, let's say here. As I change the height of this window, the resolution here remains the same. Whereas if I go and set this to fit window, the resolution changes depending on the height or the width of the window here. Let me now go and tidy things up and bring everything back to where they were before so I'll go to the layout and reselect the Redshift layout that I had created in the previous lesson, and that should reset everything. I'll also switch this back to original size and you can see now that my Play button is turned off. I'm going to turn this back on and if I leave this turned off and I fly around here, you see this window won't update but as soon as I turn this on, the window on the right here is going to show me whatever I'm looking at here, like that. Let me also go and click on this double arrow again. Finally, if I go to the View option here, you can actually see some of the things that we talked about, like this crop icon here. That's the region tool. You can turn this on and off with our key. But there's one more thing I do want to show you, and that's called the IPR under sampling. That's the quality of what happens here as you fly around. Let me show you what I mean. As I fly around, let's say like this. You see I'm getting a pretty much real-time feedback. But the more complicated the scene gets, or the worse your hardware is. Let's say if your graphics card isn't up to it, you might get a bit of a delay when you do this. However if you compromise on the quality of what you're seeing here, you can actually get close to real-time feedback again. If I go to view, go down to under sampling and as I increase this, let's say to three. As I fly now, the quality isn't going to be as good, you see, the quality changes. But I'm getting a much more fluid feedback. As I increase the under sampling, the quality decreases, but the speed at which the feedback is created is pretty much real time. In this case, since I'm using an NVIDIA RTX 3080, I don't really need the under sampling for this scene. We might need to turn this up later on, but for now, I'll go and set this down to zero so that when I fly around, I'm getting still a pretty much close to real-time feedback and I'm not losing any quality here. That's the Render View in a nutshell. There'll be a couple of more tools and buttons that we'll discuss later on but for now, the ones that we have talked about should be enough to get us going. 4. Lights - Setup: Now that we have our scene and the interface ready, let's have a look at how to work with lights. Before I do this, what I actually want to do is to go and create a basic material and apply that material to everything that we see here. That's just so that it's a little easier to explain how the lights work. We'll actually spend an entire chapter on materials. But for now, I'll just go and create a simple material and apply that to everything on the scene. I'm going to come down here and open up the materials panel. Then to create a redshift material, again, we will spend an entire chapter on this, so I'll just keep this quick. To create a redshift material, we got to Create, Redshift, Materials, and I'll go and create a simple material. I'll then apply this material to the objects here. That's going to apply to everything. I'll then come down here and fold this panel again by Control or Command clicking here. If you're using R25, let me show you how that's done here as well since the materials manager is no longer down here. We'll come up here and click on this button. You go to Create, Redshift, Materials, and Material. I'll just simply go and drag this from here onto the objects. All of these objects now have a Redshift Material. Let me switch back to R24 now. It's also going to create a plane that we can use as the floor. I'm going to go and click, and create a plane here. As long as I put the plane inside the same null that should be receiving the same material. If I go and drop this in here, in fact, I'll go and rename this to be floor. Then I'll go and collapse this null. You'll see by default, redshift materials already have the reflection turned on here. Again, that's something we'll talk about in detail in the materials chapter. One more thing I want to do is to go and reveal the lights. Redshift lights are all inside this redshift menu here. If I come up here to lights, these are all the available redshift lights. One quick way of accessing these lights would be to tear this panel apart by clicking on the dots here. Then I can go and dock this, let's say, to the right-hand side here, by clicking and dragging the dots just here. Now whenever I want to create a light in Redshift, I don't need to keep going up to this menu, and then down here, and then select the light here. I can just simply click on a light here. It would actually make sense to save this as our new custom layout. I'm going to go back to my window menu, down to customization, save layout as, I'll leave the name as it is, Redshift, so that it will overwrite the old one. If I hit yes, this is now my new redshift interface. With this ready, in the next lessons, we'll have a look at the different types of redshift lights and how to use them. 5. Lights - Area Lights: In this lesson, we'll talk about some of the settings that are shared by pretty much all of the redshift lights. I'll first show you the settings of the lights. If you're using a version of redshift that you downloaded before September 2021. Then at the end of the video, I'll show you how the settings work, although they're not that different, I'll still mention them, if you're using a more recent version. Let's start by maybe creating a point light. You see everything goes dark, because the light gets created in the center of the world here. I can lift this up and down and then push around, and then you see the view on the right updates pretty much real time. Let me lift this up a little more. Then on the right-hand side in the attributes panel, I can actually go and change the type of the light from here. If I didn't want this to be a point light, but let's say an area light, I could just go and click here and that turns that light into an area light. Then if I go and pull this light back, then just go move around like this and then put the light back and then lift it up maybe a little. Then we had the wireframe option here. That is, if you didn't want to see this boundary, the white wireframe, we can just go and turn it off like that or back on. You can also turn off or on the illumination, which means that the light here won't have any effect in this view, in the perspective view, but it will still work just perfectly fine in the render view here. If I go and turn off the illumination, you see here the light has no effect on the shading of the object, but it still works on the right-hand side. I'll go and turn on the illumination. Then the illumination adjustment, is how bright this light is in the perspective view. If I go and increase this, you see that gets brighter on the left, but that has no effect on this final view here. Sometimes, especially when you're working with multiple lights, you need to lower this number down, so that the image isn't super bright here on the left-hand side. If I go and increase this, you see, this gets super bright. If I decrease this, this is a little more manageable now and we can still see what's going on without things looking white. What if you actually wanted to adjust the brightness or the intensity of the lights? Well, you can do that in a couple of different ways. You can either make the light bigger. If I get my scale tool, I can scale the light up. As the light gets bigger, you see it will get brighter here. I'll scale it back down. It gets dimmer here. Or in the light settings, under the general tab. I can come down to here where it is intensity multiplier and exposure and play with these numbers. The intensity multiplier is a linear value. For example, if I want this to be twice as bright, I'm just going make this two. The light now is twice as bright. If I want this to be, let's say five times brighter, I can just go and type in times 5, and that makes the light five times brighter. Whereas exposure here works a little differently. This is what's known as an exponential value. If I go and change this from, let's say zero to one, I just made the image one stop brighter. If you've ever done any photography before, you'll be familiar with what are called exposure stops. This number is what that is. If I want this to be, let's say five stops brighter, I can go and type in five. This is not going to make the image five times brighter, but it's going to make it five stops brighter. The way this works in cinema, is that every time you increase this by one, you make it one stop brighter, you're actually doubling the exposure value. If I go from five to six, that's going to be twice as bright as five was. If I go and set this to, let's say zero, that's just using intensity multiplier now. But if I want this image to be twice as bright, I can go and increase this to one. That makes it one stop brighter. Although exposure in photography isn't controlled by just one setting, you can use something like aperture, ISO, shutter speed, and so on to control the exposure. In Redshift you just add one value. If I go and increase this to four, I'm making it 16 times brighter. It goes from normal brightness twice as much, four times as much, eight times as much, and then 16 times as much like that. I'll go and lower this down to one again. You'll find that you'll be using a combination of these. It's not a matter of which one's better or more useful, you'll actually be using both of them at the same time. If I, for example, go and make my light smaller, like that, what if I still want the light to be bright? I can either increase the intensity multiplier. I'd have to go to crazy numbers you see if I go and increase this to, let's say 300 to get some result. But instead of going crazy with this intensity multiplier, I can just go and increase this by, let's say, five stops. Then lower this down to something a bit more manageable. I don't have to use super high numbers. By the way, if you don't want the size of the slide to affect its brightness or its intensity. You can come down to here where it says normalize intensity. Turn this on. This means that the size of this light has no effect on its intensity now. If I go and increase this, you see it just doesn't get brighter. In this case, to make it bright I'd have to come up to where it says intensity multiplier or the exposure, and then play with these numbers. If I go and let's say set this to 10, and then maybe increase the intensity multiplier as well. That's how I would affect the intensity, not by changing the size of this. I actually like the size of this to control the intensity. I'm going to uncheck the normalized intensity option here. Then lower this down to, let's say 50. Then the exposure maybe down to four. Then I'll just go and make the light smaller. Now this area here, you can see is super bright, but here it isn't. To make this view, the perspective view match the render view, we can go to the illumination adjustments and then just lower this down. This looks more similar to what we have in the final render. You can also control the color of the light in a couple of different ways. You can either go and pick a color here on the right. If you're not seeing these color settings, you might need to click on this arrow here, that's going to be pointing towards the right. Then as soon as you click, that's pointing down and you can now see the colors. Or you can go and simply click on this color chip and then pick a color, let's say, something like that. Or if you're more photographically inclined, you can go to where it says color and change it to temperature. Then down here, you can change the color by using the temperature. This is measured in Kelvin scale. As I go towards left, it's warmer. As I go towards right, it's cooler. The last option here, is if you want to combine the color and the temperature, this one here, this, I don't really find very useful. But if you wanted to use it for some artistic reasons, feel free. You can just go and make, let's say red. Then combine that with a cool color. I think it's a bit too over saturated. I'm going to push this back a little. I'm combining this pinkish color with a cool blue. That's giving me a purple tint here. I tend not to use this very much. I'm going to switch this back to color and I'll make it white. Then we had this texture option here. This allows us to add an image as the light. This is quite interesting. If I go to where it says path here, and then pick one of these images. Let's see if I go and pick this one here. It's asking us if you want to copy that file next to our project. No, we don't. Now our scene is lit in the shape of this image. Let's see if I fly around and see if I can see the reflection of this actually. Maybe if I select the lights and move this around and then maybe bring it down. I'm just trying to see if I can see the reflection of that light somewhere here on a flat surface. I'm just going to go fly around a little more. Here it looks like it's coming on. I'm just going to fly to a different angle. There's my light here, and I'll zoom in to this frame. There's the light. If I actually select the light now and then make it bigger. If I get my Scale Tool, make the light bigger and a bit more maybe, and of course now the whole scene is a bit too bright. I'll go to my lights, come down to exposure. Let's say we back off by two stops, and now the light it's actually showing here. Let's go and pick a different one. Let's see if I go and select our second soft box here. That's what that looks like. If I zoom out here, you see now, the whole scene has a tint of that soft box. Although it's not very obvious at first, this neat little trick can be really useful. Make sure that you check this out. There are a couple of other settings I want to go through, so if I come down here, there's the decay option. This is something that we'll probably never touch. This controls the brightness of the light based on its distance from the objects, and to make things more realistic and physically accurate, you want to leave this on the inverse square. What inverse square means is, let's say the distance between this light and this jar here is one meter. If I push this light back by one meter, the intensity of it on this jar, won't be halved, it'll actually be a quarter, so it's the inverse square of the distance between the objects. This is how real lights work, but you can of course change it. We can say the distance shouldn't have any effect on its intensity, so there will be none. Which means, as I put the light back and forth, this has no effect on the intensity of the lights. Of course, the shadows are changing, but the intensity doesn't. If I go back put the slide as far as I can, let's say here, it's still just as bright along do this. The last option here is quite interesting actually, if I come down, change it to linear, I can actually dial in a fall of start and a fall of stop. What this means is this, if I'm going to increase, let's say the fall of stop to a 150, that's how far it's reaching out now, and if I go to the fall of start and let's say we set this to 145. I now have a ring of lights. As I increase the fall of stop to let say 180, the outer side of the ring expands, and if I want to push out this inner ring, I'd go to the fall of starts, increase this as well to let say 175, and now this ring is thinner. You can use this for some artistic reasons, but in order to keep things realistic, I'm going to switch this back to inverse square, and now the distance of the light has an effect on its intensity. Like that. I'll undo this. I'll make the light a little bigger so it gets brighter. Like that. I'll select the light again. Couple more options with area lights. First, you can change the shape from a rectangle, which is the default shape, to, let's say a disk. Now the light looks like a disk and it has an effect on this final result as well. Let me zoom in. If you look at the rectangle shape versus a disk, that actually changes how the light is emitted. I also have the sphere option, which is going to be a softer light like this. Then we have the cylinder or the mesh option. The mesh is an interesting one. If I go and set this as mesh, I can then go and assign an object to be the light. Inside my objects group here, I have a light bulb group. Let me go and turn this light off for a second. Turn on my light bulb by holding down Alt or Option and then clicking on the traffic lights here. There's my light bulb if I go into it. There's the glass. This is this here. If I go to that light, turn it on, and if I then come down and then send the glass as the mesh, like that, the glass becomes the light. Since we didn't make it visible, we only see its reflection here. If I go and make this light visible, the glass actually becomes visible light as well. This is quite an interesting alternative to luminous materials, which we'll talk about in the material section of this course, but for now, we'll just switch this back from mesh to rectangle. Since I made the light visible, it actually shows up in the final render as well. Since we are seeing the backside of the light, it just appears black. If I fly around here to see the front of the light, you see that's white, but it's not really white, it's this image here. If I go ahead and delete this image, now it's white. If I actually want to be able to see the backside of this as well, I can go and make this a bidirectional lights, and now the light shines towards the positive and the negative Z directions. I'll uncheck this bidirectional. I'll zoom out. In fact, I quite like that image, so I'm going to go and bring that image back again. Maybe this time use this one. I'm going to uncheck this visible option so that this black background doesn't get in the way. The other option here is the spread. If I go and lower down the spread, you see the light will spread less, so it's almost like pointing a spotlight towards a specific direction. If I go all the way towards left, it's going to be very much like a spotlight. Let's see if I can increase the height of this and then rotate it down, and then go back to my lights and then lower down the spread. Now I'm seeing a sharp version of that light, so it's not spread or blurred anymore. As I increase the spread, you can think of it like a blur or feather in Photoshop. I'm increasing the spread of that. Let's see what that would look like with the other image. That's what that other image looks like. It's a bit too bright, so I can go down to exposure. Let's say, maybe lower this down to one, and then maybe the intensity multiplier down to 25, so it's less intense now. If I zoom in, it's still a little bit overblown. I'm going to and lower this down, even more, to let's say five maybe. So it's not as bright anymore, and now all of the details of this texture will show through the light. Let me switch over to Cinema 4D R25 and there I have the redshift version, 0.58, that's as of October 2021. Now in here, if I go and create a light, let's say a point light again, you see most of these tabs aren't there anymore. Instead of the general tab, especially we now have this object tab. Let me just go and lift this up a little first. On an object tab, we have the type like we had before, so we can change this from say, a point light, an area light. I can pull this back a little more. We had the preview settings here. Again, these are the same and the brightness of the light is controlled by the intensity settings here. Instead of having the intensity multiplier, we now have just intensity. It does the same thing. They just removed the word multiplier there. I can still make the light more intense or less. We also have the exposure EV, EV being the exposure value. We can make the image again say one-stop brighter or one-stop darker, like that. Instead of having a drop-down, we now have this key option with three settings. They also replaced the phrase inverse square by the word quadratic, but it does the same thing. We can have the decay set to none, linear or quadratic, or inverse square. Finally, the texture tab, which used to be up here somewhere, is now down here on the "Color" tab. So if I go and click on this button here, I can pick an image again and use that as my texture, and that does the same thing as well. So as far as area lights are concerned, those are the few changes they've implemented. As you can see, the tabs here have also been simplified. That's how you use the basic settings of a light, in particular an area light. In the next lesson, we'll have a look at different types of lights. 6. Lights - Point and Spot Lights: Right in this lesson, we'll have a look at point and spotlights. Now, it looks like I already have a point light here from the previous lesson. But this actually is our area light that we've assigned this texture to. If you remember, I started the previous lesson by creating a point light and then turning it into an area light here. I must have left the name as it was. But what I'll do now is I'll just go and select this and then delete. I can create a standard point light, and the point light gets created here in the center of the world, just like anything else. I'll just go and click and drag this up. You see by default it's quite a small light, so I'm going to go and select the light again here, and then come down to the Intensity Multiplier, and then just click and drag this up. You see as I do this, the light actually gets bigger, and of course, if you want to, we could just go and play with the exposure as well. If you don't want to use super high numbers here, you could just go and play with the exposure, which was an exponential scale on the lights. Whereas the intensity multiplier is a linear scale on the light like that. That allows us to use smaller numbers here. The point light is nothing more than a sphere, an invisible sphere that emits light in all directions equally. If I go and lift this up a little bit to create an overhead lighting effect like that, I can also come down and increase the intensity or the exposure, and that's our point. The point light don't have specific settings like the area lights did. For example, if I come up here and then change this from 0.2 area, you see down here at the bottom, we have some settings for area lights, but this doesn't exist for point lights. I find myself not using point nights as much, but it's there. If you want to go and play around with it, feel free. The next type of light I'll show you is a spotlight. I'll just go and delete this point light, let me then go and create a spotlight. You see the spotlight is a specific direction towards which it's pointed, and if I go and put the light back and maybe let me zoom out a little bit and then pull it back a little more and then lift it up, I'll also rotate the light down actually by using the Rotate tool like that. Now on the spotlight, if I go and select it, we do have some settings specific to a spotlight. First we have the cone angle. Cone refers to this shape here. If I go and increase this, that's going to be wider, or I can decrease it to make it more directional. Let me just go and find a slightly wider range here, let's say something like that. Then there's the fall of angle, that is the actual softness of this fall off here. If I go and increase this, you see it's much softer. Let me zoom in a bit more. You see the transition between the areas that are lit and the areas in the shade is much softer. Whereas if I decrease this, it makes those areas sharper. It's either lit or not lit, there's a sharp line here. That's what the fall of angle is, the softness of the transition. The last one, the fall of curve is a really subtle adjustments. It just changes the way the fall of actually is calculated. If I go and increase this, it softens it even more, and if I decrease it, it makes it a little sharper. It's almost like a diffused sitting here. The higher this number, the more diffused it will be, the lower this number, the less diffused the fall of is going to be. Of course, just like area lights, you also have the color settings for this spot and point lights. If I go to the Mode here, change it from color to let's say temperature, I can then come and play with the temperature. Let's say if I pushed his towards left, I'm making the whole thing warmer. As I push it right, I'm cooling the image down. The same would apply to the point lights as well of course. Let's have a look at how else we can use point or spotlights. Let's see if I go and select the spotlight and delete it. Let's say I'm going to create a stage like setup, so I'm going to have five spotlights pointing down. For that, I'm going to start with a brand new spotlight, and then I'll go and create a cloner. Drop the light inside the cloner, and then on the cloner I'll go and change the mode from grid to linear. Now what I have, if I just zoom out from this, I have three lights on top of each other. I actually want them to go sideways, so I'll select the cloner well to this Y position here, set this to zero so that they're not going up. Instead, I'll increase the X amount, let's say by that much. I'll then select the entire cloner lift it up, and I'll point it down like this. I'll then select the cloner again and then I separate them away a little more. Maybe until they're just touching like that. I'll move the whole lot towards left a little bit, and I can now have two or more copies. If I go to the Cloner, I'm going to add two more copies here. Now they're a little too wide, so I'll grand scale the whole thing down so that the lights get closer to each other like that. Then I can go to the Spotlight, increase the cone angle, so it covers a wider range like that. Now I can go and change the color of the light. If I go to the Color, change the temperature to, let's say, a warmer temperature, and if I want to mix and match now, I can go and duplicate this light just by selecting this and then Control or Command, dragging it up. I have another copy here. This copy can be cooler like that, and if I want one more, I can Control drag again to create one more copy, and I can make that even cooler like that. Now the whole image is a little too bright, so I'm going to select all of these lights and then come down to the Intensity Multiplier and just drop this down just a tiny bit, like that. This is the result we get now. I quite like the way this looks, but not too happy with the way that the front side of these objects are pretty much black. I can just go and add one more light here, let's say a point light and then I'll just go and push this light in front of these birds, like that, lift the light up and also maybe make it a little brighter by selecting it and then increasing the Intensity Multiplier, so that light gets bigger like that. Let me zoom right back in. That's looking better now. Mind you, we don't really have any materials applied apart from the default ones, so things will look much better once we start playing with materials as well. That's how we use point and spotlights in Redshift. 7. Lights - Dome Lights: Let's now talk about using dome light in Redshift. A dome light is perhaps the easiest way to add some realism to your scene. It's a way of lighting up your scene based on an image. In particular, we use what's called an HDRI, a high dynamic range image. Let me show you how that works. Here I'm going to go and create a dome light. You see by default, the dome light just lights up the entire scene with white. But like I said, we usually go and add an image to this light so that the whole scene is lit up with the colors from the image. If I come down to the dome light settings, so if I go to general down here, there's an option where it says don't map. I'll change the path to one of these images. Let me actually show you what these images look like. Let me switch over to Photoshop for a second. This is one of them. This is an EXR image. As you can see, the extension is EXR. You could also use an HDR image. The other two here are also EXR images. Let me put them side-by-side so we can have a look at them all. Now, the fact that these are EXR or HDR images means that they can store much more data, which we can use later on in Redshift, in particular, the exposure and color data. As you can see here, since all of these images look quite different from each other, they'll all give us different results. For example, if I use this image of Canary Wharf in London, that's going to make our entire 3D scene a bit too bright because we can see the sky here is almost bluish white, and then the rest of the scene is a bit too overexposed as well. That will end up looking a bit too bright in Redshift. In contrast, if I use this image where the top part is pretty much black, that's going to make the whole scene a little darker. Then down here, these will add different tints to your image as well. All of the details that you see here, like the sofa here, the backdrops, the buildings and the paintings and so on, these will actually show up in the reflections as well. Let's see how they work, and I'll compare the different [inaudible] so we can make a decision as to which one looks best. I'm going to switch back to cinema now, and I'm going to select, let's say, the Canary Wharf image to start with. This is this bright image here. I'm going to select that and then open it. It's asking us if we want to copy that file next to our project file. No, we don't. What happens now is that the image, this one here, is being used to light up this entire scene. Without doing anything else, I'll simply go and change my HDR image to an EXR one. I'll select the dome light, come down to path, and, let's say, we this time select the art studio. Bring this in, don't need to copy. Another whole image is going to look different like this. Let me pick a different one. Let's say the small studio. I'll pick the last one as well so we can compare. I quite like this, actually. We've got quite a few different details here and the reflections. If I zoom in here, you can actually see how the different details reflect off. Let me zoom my account. We also have a few different options that are specific to dome light as well. If I come up here and select my dome light again, under the dome map, you saw that we could already load up an image. I can flip this horizontally, like that. I can also come down to exposure and increase this. This is a little too dark, I can make this brighter. I can change the hue as well. Or, if the whole image has a bit too much color, you can desaturate it by dragging this one towards left. Eventually, if you push this all the way towards left, you'll end up with a black and white image. I'll push this back up. At this point, let's switch over to our 25 so I can show you a few new updates. Although they're not that big, it's still worth mentioning these. I'm going to switch over to our 25 now. Here we are in our 25 with a more recent version of Redshift. The first thing you notice is with the dome light highlighted, again, there is no general tab that's been replaced by the Object tab here. You can see the type is still set to a dome light. Now, you have the more unified intensity and the exposure values down here. Instead of only having exposure in the previous versions, you now have the intensity and the exposure. This looks similar to the other types of lights. If I wanted this to be brighter, let's see if I go and increase the intensity to 10, that's going to make the scene 10 times brighter. Or, if I'm going to set this to two, that's twice as bright. I can, of course, go and make this darker or lighter by one stop. Let's see if I go and set this to one, that sets the exposure value to be one. It's brighter by one stop. I'll reset this by right-clicking here. You'll also notice that the dome map is no longer an option. There is no setting here called dome map. Instead, we have a more sensible name here, texture. If I go and click here, I can just load up any texture I like. Apart from these little things, there are not that many changes as far as dome lights are concerned. I'm going to switch back over to our 24 now and continue from where we left off. Here we are in our 24 again, and then down here there's an option to enable or disable the backdrop or the background. It's referring to the background here. If I go on and check this, now, the lighting effect remains the same, but we now have a transparent background. We can actually replace this with a different image. If I come down to here where it says back plate, I can enable this. If I scroll down, I can go and pick a different image. Let's say this time you go back. I'm just going to go and pick a random image, let's say, of Istanbul. Now, we can see that image is showing through the background. Mind you, this image doesn't have any effect on the lighting or the reflections, it's just to replace the black background here. I can still come down to exposure, increase or decrease this. It's only affecting the background and not the foreground. I'll reset this by right-clicking on the arrows so it goes back to zero. In fact, I'll actually bring the original image back. I'll disable the back plate. The background is enabled. Another way of moving the dome maps around is by going to the coordinates of it. You can tweak the rotation of this. If I go to the heading, for example, I can just update this, and you see the result changes, or I can just simply go and get my rotate tool and then rotate the dome itself, here. You see, as I do this, the entire lighting scheme of the scene changes. Both the bright and the dark areas of this HDR image reflect differently on the floor and also the objects. That's how you use a dome light in Redshift. It's a great way of lighting up a scene realistically without spending too much time or effort. 8. Lights - Sun and Sky: We'll now talk about the sky and the sun. Let's go and delete this dome light here from the previous lesson. Here we have the physical son, which I'll go and create, and you see right away, this makes the whole scene much darker. If I select the sun, I can see its settings down here, the most important of which is the sun disc scale. In this instance, you can see the sun is getting bigger that way. You can also change the intensity, of course, to make the whole thing brighter or darker. But really to make the most of these settings here, we need to combine the sun with what's called the Redshift Sky. To create a sky, we go to Redshift and then down to Objects and Redshift Sky here, and you see that the sky gets created. Then we have to assign the sun as part of the sky rig. You do this by selecting the sky and then coming down to where it's say sun, and then you drop the sun inside this field here. If I go and select the Sun, drag and drop it here, now the sun becomes part of this Redshift Sky set up. But instead of doing this manually, there's a quicker way. If I go and delete both of these objects, if I go to Redshift, Objects, I can go and create a sun and sky rig. What that's going to do is to create a sky object inside which you'll also find the sun object. This sun is now added as the sun of the sky. This is already set up. Let's now go and talk about the settings of this. Let me first go and collapse these color swatches, so we have a bit more space down at the bottom here. One of the interesting things about this rig is if I go and select it, and then if I rotate it, not only will the shadows update, the actual color scheme changes as well. You see as I rotate this, the colors change and the shadows get longer and eventually it goes to sunset and it goes completely black, once the sun is over the horizon. If I keep rotating it, the sun rises again and it's the noon and then the afternoon, evening time and the sun sets again. I'll undo that. This one here, turbidity is the haziness of the air. If I go ahead and push this towards right, this is like the dust pollution, if you like. As I push this towards right, the air becomes hazier. As I push this towards left, it becomes less hazy. The default value of two represents a very clear blue sky as Redshift puts it and as I increase this, the sky gets a little dirtier and turns a little orange. One way to think about this is the lower this number is the bluer the sky and the cleaner it will be, the higher the scores, the redder or the more orange the sky is going to be, and the dirtier it will look. The default is two, so I'll leave this around about about two or maybe a little less actually, let's say 1.5. Then you have the ozone here. This specifies the amount of ozone you have in the atmosphere, so values going from zero all the way up to one. The default is 0.35, which is the default for Earth. As we increase this towards right, this will give us a bit more of a blue tint, then just lower down the turbidity so we can see what's happening. As you push the ozone towards left, we end up with a bit more of an orange result. For most part and all practical purposes, we can think of ozone like a finer control of turbidity. Just to compare it again, turbidity will change the actual appearance of the sky as I push this towards right, you see the skies dirtiness changes, whereas ozone has more of an effect on natural surfaces here. As I push the ozone towards right, you see the surfaces turn more blue, and as I push this towards left, they turn a bit more yellow. Let me reset these back to their defaults. We also have the horizon height, which is the height of this line here, you see the horizon increases or decreases. If this jump is a bit too extreme, you can hold down alt and then tap these arrows so it can move in decimal points. This could be useful if you want to get rid of the horizon line altogether like this. I'll put it back up. Then we have the blur amount. This is the blur between the sky and the ground. As I push the blur amount towards right, you see this turns more into a gradient in the background. As I push this towards left, it turns into a sharper change, like that. I'll increase this again. We have the ground color, which is the color of the ground here. Let me just go and disable my actual floor. If I go to the objects, disable the floor, this is the ground color here. Now this color will actually influence the lighting scheme. As I go and change this, let's say if I go and make this a little lighter, the whole scene is being lit up from underneath now. I can also give this some tint if I increase the saturation. Let's say you make this little warmer like that and underneath that we have the night color. The night color will control what the color is when the sun sets. Let first go and set the ground color to be less intense like that. As I select the sky and rotate it, so that the sun sets. When everything turns dark, because the sun is set, the dark pixels here can be influenced by the night color setting here. If I open this up, let's say I want these to have a green haze. If I go and push the green value up, you see these pixels that were black or really dark because the sun has set are now turning green. As I rotate the sun more, in the noontime, there's no effect of the night time color. But as the sun sets, we gradually start seeing the influence of the night color. Let me set the night color back to a black, and I'll get the sun to rise a little, and then fly around so I can actually see the sun. There is our sun here in the sky. I can then come down here towards the sun and then just collapse these colors again. We already talked about the disk scale, so I can make the scale bigger or smaller. Let me enable the floor again, so we get some shadows. You see as the scale gets larger, the shadows will be softer here. As I make the disk smaller, we'll have harder shadows like these. We can play around with the intensity as well, so the lower this goes, the less intense that disc is going to be here. It looks more like it's feathered. As I increase this, it looks sharper here, and then finally, we have the sun glow intensity. As I push this towards right, you see the sun will glow more, so it's got a softer shape around it. As I push the glow intensity towards left, you see it will have less of a feather and more of a circular shape or a disc shape. I'll increase the glow intensity a little more. Now as I go and rotate the sun, you see as it sets, it's going to look like it's got a different color and then eventually it just gets smaller and then disappears. That's how we use the sun and the sky in Redshift. It's a great alternative when it comes to lighting up your scene realistically without using individual light elements. 9. Lights - 3-Point Lighting Setup: In photography, we have something called the three-point light setup, or three-point lighting. The three-point lighting is quite useful when you have a single object in the scene that you want to light up and you want to have full control over your lights. It becomes quite tricky when you have multiple objects in the scene as each one will receive the light differently, so we tend to use three-point lights only on single objects. That's why I've gone ahead and deleted all the other objects, so I only have this bars and the branches inside and I usually start the three-point lighting setup by using an area lights. Let me go and create one. I'll go and fly around like that and then pull the light back and maybe lift it up a little, like that and you can see this is a little too bright, so everything's a bit overexposed. What I'm going to do is to get my Scale Tool and just make the light smaller, like that. This seems to be working okay, but I can see there's a bit of a discrepancy between the exposure values of the two views. This is a bit too bright and this looks fine. But if you remember from one of the previous lessons, we could go to the Lights and come down to General, Preview, and then we can lower down the illumination adjustments. Now, this changes how bright the light is in the perspective view here, but it doesn't do anything to the light strength in the final render. Let me adjust this a little more so they look a little more similar and I think this looks better now. The first lights we create is usually called the key lights. Let me go and rename this and the key light usually sits at an angle. Let me just go and push this towards left, and then maybe lift it up a little more, then rotate it towards the object, and then maybe pull back a tiny bit. The fact that there's only just one light here, means that there's going to be shadows on this side and everything else on the other side of the object is going to be in pitch black. If I just fly around to the back side to show you this, you see there's almost no detail here. Well, we get some detail because of the global illumination, which is something we'll talk about in the rendering section, but apart from that, there's pretty much no detail and it looks like it's left in complete darkness. The result of having a single light, like the key light, is that one side, the opposite side is going to be left in pitch black. What I'll do now is to go ahead and create a copy of this light on the right-hand side, and this is best done from the top view. Let me just go and switch to the top view. I can actually go and push this light towards here a little more and now to create a copy of this, I'm going to hold on Control or Command on the Mac, and then just drag this towards rights. Now, I want this arrow, the red arrow, to point right only. It doesn't point towards right because I've rotated this lights. Well, that's when you can use this button here or W on the keyboard to change your coordinate system from what's called the local or the object coordinate system to world or global coordinate system. These arrows when we tap W, will actually take the orientation of the object or if you tap W again, they respect the actual world coordinates. I can now control drag this towards right so I create a copy of it and then R, so I can rotate it towards the objects again. The second light is called the fill light. Let me go and rename this. Let me go full screen here, the purpose of the fill light is usually to fill in the areas that are left in dark as a result of us having a single key light. That's why the fill light is usually dimmer than the key lights. You can either make this dimmer by pushing this back, so if this goes further back, the light will get dimmer because this is physically accurate or an alternative would be to take the fill, come down to the Intensity Multiplier or the Exposure and lower these down. Usually, although this is not set in stone, the fill is about a third of the intensity of the key. I lower this down to about 30 percent. It's now obvious where the main light source is, it's on the left-hand side here. The left-hand side here is brighter than the right, but the right hand side isn't left in complete darkness, that's thanks to the fill light. If I go and turn the fill lights off, this is before, this is after. The third light in the setup would be the backlight or the rim light. Let me zoom out a little bit so we can see the backside of this. Again in this example, we still have some detail here, thanks to the global elimination, this area isn't left in pitch black, nevertheless, I'm still going to push a light behind this object to light it up from behind as well. Let me just go and fly around, I'll take the fill light and then Control drag this behind and I'll rotate this towards the scene and then maybe rotate it down, like that. This is our back or the rim light, let me go and rename this. Now the intensity of the backlight really depends on what you'd like to see. If I zoom in and then fly to the backside, we can make this dimmer. If you go to the Intensity Multiplier and then lower this down, it's vaguely affecting the scene or we can push this up to be even brighter than the fill light, that's completely up to you. The backlights can be used quite creatively depending on what the scene requires. I'll fly around again to the front side and looking at this now the final render, I think the backlight is a little too intense, so I'll just go to the right-hand side to the Intensity Multiplier and then just lower this down again like that. Now I think the object looks much better, being lit up by three different lights: the key, the fill, and the backlights. This is also particularly useful if you're animating. Imagine a camera flying like this, as soon as the camera gets to the backside like this, let me go into one of these two lights for a second, if you didn't have these two lights, once the camera flies back, you'll see that there's not much detail there and it doesn't look very appealing, but if I turn these two lights on, this is still obvious that this side is the backside, but it's not as black anymore, so we still have some detail there. You can, of course, combine lights with different colors or temperatures. For example, if I go to my key light, and if I change my mode from color to temperature, and if I make this warmer, let's say there, let me just fly to the front side here. I'll make this a little warmer and then I can go to the fill lights, change its mode from color to temperature and then this can be a little cooler, let's say a bit more and then the backlight can be whatever you like. If I select the backlights, change this from color to temperature, and then I can make this cool or warm depending on the look that you're going for. Let's compare this to what we'd normally have with just a single key lights. Let me just go and turn off the back and the fill lights. This is what we would normally get with a single key lights and if I turn them on, this is what we get with the fill and the backlights added. Although in this example, I only use three area lights, by all means go and experiment with different types of lights like a spot or point light to create a three-point light setup. You can also use area lights with different textures like we talked about earlier, where you have the soft box image, shining through the lights. Go ahead and experiment with different lights and see if you can create your own three-point lighting setup. 10. Lights - Volumetric Lights: Let's now talk about volumetric lights. Volumetric lights in cinema are amazing and in redshift they're even better. Let me show you what I mean. I'll start by first deleting this dome lights. I'll create an area light instead. I'll make this slightly little smaller, like that and maybe lift it up a little, there. I'll pull it back maybe a bit more. You see the light is a bit too bright here. I want to change the intensity of the preview. I'm going to go to the area lights, general and the preview and the illumination adjustment. I'll just lower this down like this. Remember when I do this, only the preview here gets affected and nothing happens to the final render. We zoom back in. With the redshift lights, we have a tab called volume. If I go here and if I increase the contribution scale, you can think of this like the strength. You'd expect to see a result here, a different results, but nothing happens. In order for volumes to be rendered, you need to have an object called the environment in here. Let me just go and create it. I'm going to go to redshift, objects, this is the environment object I want to create. But since I actually use this more often than some of these lights here, I'd like to actually add this to my interface. I'll tear this apart. Right-click on one of these. Go to customize palettes. I can now go and add the redshift environment here. I don't actually want some of these objects here, like the IES lights. I'll go and double-click here to remove it. I'll also remove the portal light, which we haven't talked about. I'll actually remove the physical sun and replace that with the redshift sun and sky rig that we talked about in the previous lesson. I'll double-click to remove this as well, and then drag the redshift sun and sky rig down here. I actually tend not to use the infinite light as much either. I'll just go and delete this as well by double-clicking. I can come out of this and then come out of this customize commands. I want to save this as my new custom layouts. I'll go to Window, customization and I'll save the layout as redshift. It will ask me to confirm. I'll go and say yes. Now we can actually go and create the redshift environments. The whole purpose of this environment is so that we have some air particles or dust particles in the air, I should say, so that the light can scatter around. See what happens when I create one. The light scatters around like crazy and everything's over exposed. Let me now go to the area lights, come down to the contribution scale and lower this down. This is a number that you tweak between zero and one. The higher this number, the higher the contribution will be, the lower the number, the less of a contribution this light will have on the overall volume. Instead of using some tiny numbers here, you can actually go to the redshift environments and then come down to scattering and then lower this down. This you can think of like the overall scattering of all of the lights. The lower this is, the less the light will scatter. That's all of the lights and not just this one. Had we created other lights, they would also scatter less. But if you can see this looks a bit too foggy, so what I could do is to go to the area lights. If I come down to general and I can scroll down, I can lower down the spread of this area lights. You see this will now start turning into more of a directional light, like a spotlight almost. Now it's facing away from the objects. At this point, let's switch over to our 25, where we have the more recent version of redshift. I can show you a couple of updates for the volume tools. Here I am in our 25. If I go and create an area light, let's see if I go ahead and lift this up first and then pull this back. Let me zoom out a little more. You'll notice that there's no volume tab here either. Just like some other tabs are missing, the volume tab is also missing. But the volume settings are now going to be inside the Details tab. If I click here on the contribution, I now have the volume contribution here, which is set to one by default. If I go and create an environment, you see the light automatically has full contribution. I can go to the light, come down to details, contribution, volume and then drag this down. Let me also go to the lights object tab and then bring down its spread so it looks more like a spotlight and you are back in business. This is still bright, of course, so I'm going to bring the intensity down. That's where the volume settings of the lights are going to be in the new version of redshift. Let me now switch back over to our 24 so we can continue from where we left off. In order to get something to point at an object, there's a new trick I'll show you. If I get this object to be selected and then go to cameras here and choose use Camera. This option here, selected object as camera, allows you to use this object here, the light in this case, as a temporary camera. If I go in here, now I'm seeing the scene through the perspective of my lights. As I fly around using 1, 2 or 3, you see I'm actually moving the light around, not just the perspective of the camera, but the light itself because the light is now the camera. I can now come out of that light. Now that's where the light's pointing towards. You can see the lights actually coming towards here. Let's say for example, if you wanted the light to shine on these two birds, I can go to the cameras again, use camera, selected object as camera. If I fly up above the birds like this, I can then come back out. That's where the lights shining towards now. The overall light here is still a little too bright, I'll go to the intensity multiplier, lower this down, let's say about there. In order to show you some more settings, I'll actually go and switch to a different scene. I'll just go press Command N or Control N on PC. I'll just go and create some texts. Maybe change the text here to something a bit more interesting and pick a different font. Let's say this, the showcard gothic. Interesting font choice there. If I go and make this also center aligned or middle aligned, then press H to center everything I'm seeing here. It looks like this is actually cutting off now a little bit. If you see the n here, actually is completely visible, but here it cuts off. I'm going to zoom out by using the scroll wheel. Then I'll hold down the Alt key to center this again, like that. Now what I'm going to do is to go and create an area light again. Push this in front of the text, increase the height a little. I'll also create an environment. Go to the area light, volume tab, and increase the contribution scale a little bit. Then go to General, come down to the spread and then lower this down. We can, of course, change the actual shape. If I go to a rectangle, set this to be, let's say, a disk. You can see how this light changes to a disk. I'll stick to a rectangle for now, though. Although I'm going to increase the size like that, so it's wider, and then maybe make it slightly taller like that. I'll go to a side angle, let's say, here. I think this is still a little too bright so I'll go to the environment object, lower down the scattering amount. Let's say, there. Then we had the attenuation here. You can think of attenuation almost like the distance that the volumetric lights travel. The higher this number, the more attenuated the light will be. The lower the number, the less attenuated the light will be. In other words, if you increase this number, the light will travel less. Let me show you. If I push this towards right. Let me zoom out a little bit here so we can see what's going on. I'm going to increase the overall scattering as well, so it's a little brighter. Then maybe this lights contribution to be slightly higher as well, like that. Under the environment, as we push the attenuation towards left, you see the light travels more as I zoom out. As I walk the attenuation towards right, you see, this will diminish quicker, like that. I'll put this somewhere in the middle, maybe, here. Another interesting option here is the phase. Phase changes the volume that you're seeing based on your camera angle. Let me show you what I mean. If phase is set to zero, this light will be volumetric regardless of your angle. As I fly around, the light you'll see will always be volumetric. However, if I increase the phase, the light will be more volumetric or I should say, the volumetric part of the light will be more visible towards the camera. Right now, you can see, I'm actually behind the light so I see less volume, but as I fly around, the volume becomes more and more visible. This is now phased towards the camera. As you decrease the phase, it's exactly the opposite. As I pushed this towards left, the volume becomes more and more visible as we go behind the light now. As I fly behind, you see the volume becomes more prominent. That's what the phase is. If I set this back to zero, the light is always going to be volumetric regardless of our angle. We can, of course, go and add some color to these volumetric lights, if I go and increase the saturation here and then maybe give this a different color like that, that changes the color of the scattered light. Now, with these settings in mind, let's go back to our previous scene. Here, we'll just go to the Redshift environments. I'll increase the attenuation, so the light fades out a little quicker. I'll also increase the scattering a little bit like that, so that these lines here are a bit more prominent, these gold rays as they're called. I'll then select the light itself and then increase the contribution scale a little bit so that the overall effect is a bit brighter, like that. But as you can see, this is still a little too bright. You might actually like this result. I personally don't, so I'm going to go and make this light a little smaller by pressing t on the keyboard to get my Scale tool, and I'll just scale this down a little, like that. I'll then go to the lights and then down to General. Then come down to Exposure to make this a little less bright. I'll just lower this down towards left, like that. You see, since I'm decreasing the exposure, the actual volume gets dimmer as well. In order to compensate for that, I'll go to the Volume tab and then increase the contribution scale like that. As you can see, this is almost always a balancing act. You can also add some texture to this volume. If I go to general, if you remember from one of the previous lessons, you could go and add an image. If I just go here and then let's say, add this Softbox sample. I'm not going to copy it. Now, inside the volume, I had the texture of that Softbox. If I go to the spread of the light, lower this down, you can actually see the texture much better. As I increase this, this gets a little blurry, but then you start seeing the texture on the volume as well. Another neat trick that I use a lot is to shine a volumetric light through an object. Let me first go and disable this area light for a second. I'll go and create a new one and I'll just go and fly around so I can see the rest of the scene, and then pull the light back a bit more, maybe. I'll also go and create a plane through which this light can shine. I'll come down here and make this a little smaller, like that, and then I'll rotate it like this. Then maybe pull this back towards the light so it's actually blocking the light first, and then I'm going to go and create some holes on this plane. Now, we can cut some holes on this plane in quite a few different ways, but a quick way that I use a lot is this Atom array here. If I go and add the plane inside the Atom array, it will turn it into spheres and cylinders and the density of these will depend on how many segments you have. If I want the holes to be bigger, I can just go and lower the segments down to five by five. I'll now go to the Atom array, set the sphere radius to, let's say, 10, and the cylinder radius to 10. I'm actually going to zoom into this by using the scroll wheel on my mouse. Then what I'm going to do is to take the Atom array and then drag this inside the lights so that as I move the light around like this, the Atom array will move with the lights. It's almost like a grid that I locked in front of that light now. As I rotate that light, you see the grid rotate with it. I'll lift this light up, flip back, maybe rotate it down a little, and then lift it up further. What I'm going to do now is to go and set this slide's volume contribution scale to be different than zero so we can actually see some volume, and it's spread to be lower, like that. The light doesn't spread as much. It's only shining through these holes here, like that. I can now go and push the light further back and maybe lift it up, like that, and maybe bring it this way a little bit. I'll zoom right in here and now, it looks like the contribution is a bit too high. I'll go to the lights, volume, and then bring the contribution down. Also, I'll go to the Redshift Environment, lower down the scattering. Let's see what this would look like if you actually shine this light through a surface again, like that image that we used earlier. I'm going to go and select the light first and then come down to General, and then down to the path here. I'll pick the same Softbox sample. I'm not going to copy it. I can't quite see those holes anymore. Let me zoom back out a little bit. Now, I can. In order to make these a little more obvious, I can go to the light again and lower down the spread further, like that, and then increase the light's contribution a little bit. Now, we can see these, but the light itself is a bit too bright. You can see these bits are a bit too hot. I can go to the light again, General, and this time, bring down the intensity multiplier. Let me zoom in now to see what this looks like close up, like there maybe. I'm finally going to increase the spread a little bit so that the light isn't as focused. Remember, the volumetric light doesn't need to be an area lights, it could actually be any other light as well. For example, if you want to go and add a spotlight to this, I'm just going to create a spotlight here, then just turn off my area light for a second. If I take the spotlight back, lift it up. If I want this to be a volumetric lights, I'll go to its Volume tab, increase its contribution, and now you see we get some volume coming from the spotlight. I can, of course, go to General, come down to Spot, Cone angle. As I increase the Cone angle, I can make this wider or more focused as I decrease it. One more thing I want to mention here is that when you go and change the color of the environment, if I go and increase the saturation here, you see the scattered light becomes green like we expect, but the light itself doesn't. Let me zoom in first. You see, the light still shines white here but the scattered light is green. If I go and select the spotlight and then come down to the general color settings, I can now make this green. Another light isn't shining white anymore but it's green instead. You can actually combine these. If I go and push this around, you see my green volume gets combined with the red tint of the light here. That's how the volumetric lights work in Redshift. 11. Lights - Shadows and Light Reflections: When we have lights in the scene, naturally by default, we are going to get some shadows as well. Let me show you first what I mean. If I'm going to select this key and enable it. These are the shadows I'm talking about. We're going to enable the fill as well. Now of course, we get some shadows here on the left too. But if you only wanted the key light to cast shadows, you can go to the Fill, come down to the Shadow tab, and then turn this option off. Now that's fill will no longer cast any shadows. Let me just go and turn his fill off so we can actually see this a bit clearly. Right now, the shadows are only cast from the key lights. If I go and disable it, you see no dark areas, no shadows are created here. An alternative would be to make this a little more transparent. If I increase the transparency, you can see that the shadows aren't as dark. They're a little lighter now. This was before, and this is after. There's one more option down here called softness, but this one be available for area lights. But if I go and add something like a point light, let me just go and disable the key first and then add a point light. If I lift this light up and then pull this back, and I also want this to be a little brighter. If I go to the Point light and then come down to General, and then increase the intensity multiplier. I'll lift the light up a little more. You see now if I go to Shadow, the softens option is enabled. This will control the softness of the edges of these shadows. Let me zoom in a bit. Having the softness set to zero is very similar to having hard shadows in cinemas, standard lights. But as I increase this, you see the edges will get blurrier and blurrier and blurrier. Softness is also something that you can control. If you wanted to change the softness of an area light shadow, let me just go and turn this off and then turn on the key. If you want to control the softness of this shadow here, you actually do this if you remember from the General tab. It looks like I actually just turned this key on but I didn't select it. I'm just seeing the point light still, the one I had selected here. I'm going to switch back to the key here. Then to control the softness of this shadow, select that, and then go to General. Then the size of the light here will control the softness of the shadows. Just like in real life. The larger the size of the light, the softer your shadows are going to be and the smaller the light, the harsher the shadows are going to be. If I go and lower this down to something like 15 by 15, you see I have harder shadows now, but of course the image got darker because the light is now smaller. I can compensate for that by either increasing the exposure on the right, like that. Or I can actually use this option where it says normalize intensity, which means that the size of the light will have nothing to do with the intensity of it. I can now go and increase the exposure to, let's say 10, maybe a little more actually, let's say 12. Now the size of this light is no longer going to affect the intensity. If I'm going to set this to be, let's say 55 by 55. You see the shadows are getting softer, but the light intensity isn't changing. Let me lower this down to say 5 by 5. You'll see now that the shadows will get harder around the edges, but the image didn't get darker. That's what this normalize intensity option does. I also want to show you one more thing to do with the reflection of the lights in reflective surfaces. Let me first go out to a different view. Let me just rotate this first and zoom out a little bit maybe like this. I'll also turn on the fill and the backlight. You can see as soon as we turn this on, the reflection of the backlight appears here on the floor, and I think it looks a little distracting and ugly. If I go to the backlight here, change its size, you can see that the reflection is going to update like that. I'll undo. If you didn't want to see the light reflected in these areas. You can go to the Ray option of the lights and then come down to where it says Affects Specular and turn this off. This means that the light will not be visible in the specular or the reflection channels. If I go and turn this off, it's no longer visible in the specular. An alternative would be to dial this down. If I zoom more in, let's say you didn't want to turn this off, but just wanted to make it a little less opaque or less visible, we can go to where it says Scale and then down to a Glossy. If I lower this down like that, you see that this specular here is getting less intense, but we can also control these as well. These are coming from the field light. If I go and select the fill light here in the list first, like that. Then if I come to it's specular, I can go and turn it off or I can dial them down from here. Now, let me switch over to our 25 where we have the more recent version of Redshift installed. Here I am in our 25. You'll notice that the Array tab here disappeared from the lights. If you want to see the settings of this specular or the light reflection, you need to first select the lights. Go down to details. Instead of seeing two different settings, one for specular that affect specular setting, and then one more for glossy, we now had this option here called reflection contribution. If I go and lower this down, you see the reflection of this slide here. They start diminishing. If I push this down towards left, you'll see the light disappears. Or if I drag this towards right slowly, the light starts revealing itself again in the reflections. That's just one slight difference between the previous version of Redshift and this version as of October 2021. But apart from that, it works exactly the same way. That's how you control shadows and lights reflections in Redshift. 12. Materials - Creating and Applying Redshift Materials: Let's now talk about materials in Redshift. Now before I do anything else, I want to go and customize my interface a little more. I'm going to come down here and open up my materials palette. In order to create a Redshift Material, you need to come up here towards this Create. Then here we have Redshifts, then we can create the materials here. But since I'm using this menu a lot, it would make sense to add this somewhere on the interface, maybe somewhere here. I'm going to go and click on "Create", and tear this menu apart. I'll then right-click on any of these, and then go to Customize Palettes, and I'll add this Redshift Materials drop-down here. Then I'll close this, and then close this as well. I can squish this down a little maybe. Now I'll go and save this as my new custom layout. I'll go to Window, Customization, and I'll save the layout as Redshift. It's asking us to overwrite it. I am going to overwrite. Now this becomes my new layout. I'll go and save this file as materials. I'll just go and press "Command Shift S" or "Control Shift S" on PC. I'll call this one materials, and hit "Save", and we can now have a look at the materials. But before we do, I want to show you how we can do this in R25. Although there isn't that much of a difference between the two versions as far as this customization goes. I'll still show you. I'm going to switch over to R25. Here we are in R25. Since the material manager is no longer down here, remember they moved it now up here, I need to go and click here, go down to Create. I'll tear this menu apart, and I'll go and right-click on where it says "Redshift Materials", Customize Palettes. Then we move this out of the way. I'm going to drag this up here now, let's say next to this Plus button, then close, and then close this as well. I'm now going to and save this as my custom layout by going to Window, Customization, Save Layout As. I'll save this one has Redshift as well. Click "Yes", now this becomes our custom layout in R25. Let me switch back over to R24 now. Now before we create any materials, what I'm going to do is to take this existing one, the one I created at the very beginning to show you some examples, and delete it by pressing "Delete" on the keyboard. Then I'll remove it from here as well. I'll also go and make my dome light a little brighter. If I select it, come now on to Exposure, increase this. But you see nothing changes here because I haven't activated the render view here. Let me just go and turn this on. If I now go and walk the exposure up, you see the whole thing should be a little brighter, like that. If you look at this carefully, you can actually see that there's a red color cast on the entire scene here. Let me zoom in first so it's a little easier to see. You see there's a red cast here on the entire image. That's actually coming from the colors of the HDRI that I've used inside this dome map. I can come down here towards a Saturation, and lower this down, let's say to about here, so that red isn't as obvious. If you go all the way down to the left, it will just be a monochromatic image. Now with all of this setup, let's go and create our first Redshift Material. I'll come down here, go to Materials, and these are the different Redshift Materials you can create. We'll go to material here. I want this to be the material for the floor. I'll go and double-click to rename it, and I'll simply drag this onto the floor like that. An alternative way of applying a material in this version of Cinema is if I undo this, is to select the material and then select the object that you want the material to be applied to, and then click on this "Apply" button, and then that material gets applied to that object. If I now go into my object, you see that's applied to my floor now. Now to see the settings of the material, you go down here, click once, it gets activated here, then you go to Material. Then these are going to be where the settings will appear. You can also, if you're familiar with working with node-based materials, you can also go and double-click on this material. This will bring up what's called the shader graph for the Redshift Materials. You may be familiar with this. Let me make this a little larger. You may be familiar with the setup from the node-based materials. On the left-hand side, you have your nodes. Right in the middle, you have your shader graph. On the right-hand side, you have the properties. But for now, most of the settings that we are interested in would be located here on the right-hand side. Instead of using this huge window, I can actually come out of this. Select the material once, go down to Material, and then come here to where it says RS Material, and these are the same settings as we saw inside the shader graph when we double-clicked here. I'm also going to go and fold up my Objects panel for the time being by "Control" clicking here. Here this panel now is only the attributes manager. Initially, as you can see, the Redshift Materials will be reflective. If I fly around here, you can see I have some reflection on the floor. I'll come down to it says Reflection. Dial down it's weight. You can think of this word weight, like the strength or the brightness in standard Cinema 4D materials. The higher this number, the more this property will contribute to the overall shader. If I don't want this to be reflective at all, I can click and dial this down, and you see the object is no longer reflective, so it's just a diffuse color. But as I increase this, you get the reflections back, then just go to a different angle let's say like that. I get all these different reflections here. If I push this back, you see all the reflections disappear, and we're only left with the diffuse. We'll spend a lot more time on the reflection channel later on. I'll skip this for now, and concentrate more on the diffuse. Now, diffuse is your base color. By default it's going to be 50 percent gray. But I can change this, if I go and dial up the saturation a little bit, and then maybe pick a different color, like a light green. That's now what that color is. That's a bit too bright, I think. Let me zoom out. I'll bring the value down. The weight of the diffuse channel again is the overall contribution of this channel to the entire material. If I lower this down, it will eventually turn black. I'll bump this up again. Roughness makes the diffuse channel go from what's called the orange layer mode to Lamberson mode, if they mean anything to you. If you've used Cinema 4D Shaders before. If you don't know what I'm talking about there, as I pushed this towards right, this would be more of a matte surface. As I walk this back towards left, this will have less of a matte, but more of a shiny look. The shine I'm talking about here is in the reflection shine. We'll talk about that later. But it's a slight color change here that we're getting. If I show you this before, and after again, this is before with no roughness, and this is after with roughness. I'll dial this back down to zero. The other option we have here is this backlight and translucency. This is particularly useful when you have really thin objects, and you want the light to actually shine through the object. Here's what I mean. Let's say for the time being, I'll take the material from the floor, and apply it to this frame here at the back. Let me just go and open up my Objects Manager again. I'll collapse this light bulb so it doesn't get in the way. I'll take this material from the floor, and then drag it onto the frame tool, that's this frame here. Now I'll go and select the material again so I can see the settings, and then come down to where it is Backlighting and translucency here. Right now, let me scroll down. The weight of this is set to zero. Which means if I had something that was casting shadows on this, let me just show you this by turning off my dome light, and maybe creating a point light, I'll then go ahead and lift this up and then go to General, and then come down to the Intensity here to make it brighter, increase this a little bit. You can see as I move this, the candle here, we'll start casting shadows onto the surface, and just adjust it so that the shadows are exactly on that surface there. Maybe slightly smaller like that. Now if I fly to the backside of this, I can see it from behind like that, and bit more maybe here, you see there's just no detail here. Everything is pretty much just pitch black. But if I'm going to select the material first, and then go to the Backlighting and translucency here, increase the weight. This will now starts showing the shadows like that. We can also give it some color. If you remember, the front side of this was green, let me just fly to the front side so we can see here, like that. If you want the backside to be green as well, you can just go and increase the saturation here and the backside will match. I can of course go to the Light, and the Shadow tab and increase the softness. This will soften the shadows here. In this case, we don't actually want the backlight and translucency. I'll just go and turn it off by bringing the weight down to zero. Then I'll fly back again. In fact, I'll go and delete this new point light. Drag my material onto the floor again, and then turn on the dome light. Now we're back to square one. In the next lesson, we'll have a look at reflective materials. 13. Materials - Reflection: Let's now have a look at how to add some reflective materials to our objects. First, I'm going to go and create a redshift material. I'll call this bird because I'm going to apply this to these two birds. I'll go and apply this to this bird and also this one as well, actually. I'll then go and select the material. I can go to its settings. For now, I'll go and collapse the Diffuse and open up the Reflection. In fact, I'll just go and collapse this Object tab. I'm going to hold down "Control" and click. That disappears for the time being. It gets folded. I have more space here. Now you see by default, every material has this weight of reflection set to one. The materials are reflective by default. As I lower this down, they become more diffused. I'll increase this back up again to one so it's fully reflective. Now, the reflection is being added on top of the diffuse channel. If I go to Diffuse and lower the weight of this down, I get more reflection and less of the color here. If I go all the way to the left, you get no color. Diffuse turns completely off and we get pure black reflections. Let me go back to Reflection down here. Next we have the roughness. Let me zoom in here. You see we get some sharp reflections here, so the image of the reflection is well defined. I'm actually going to see if I can rotate this. I'll open up my Objects Manager, go to the Dome Light, and then down to Coordinates. I'll play with the heading a little bit. I get a different part of that image reflected off that object, like that maybe. Let me fly to a different angle here. Now we're looking at a different part of the image. If I now select the material and go to the roughness of the reflection, as I increase this, you see that the reflection that we get here is becoming more and more blurred. Let me go and add some color back to this. If I go to Diffuse, increase the weight, and then maybe make this a slightly different color. Now you see that we have a rough reflection here. I'm going to set this to be white again. In fact, I'll just go and disable the diffuse. Let me zoom out a little. Just to make life easier, I'm going to make the entire scene a bit brighter by going to my Dome Light, General. I'll increase the exposure to, let's say 1.7. That looks nicely here on the reflections. I'll then go back to my bird material and then come down to Reflection. Then we have the samples, which will control the quality of the reflections. We'll talk about the samples and the render settings later on. We then have this BRDF, this stands for Bidirectional Reflectance Diffuse Function. You don't really need to know what that means. All you do need to keep in mind is that you have three options here, Beckmann, GGX, and Ashikhmin-Shirley. Generally speaking, Beckmann is used for surfaces that are non-metal but reflective. Things like marbles, plastic, glass. We use Beckmann for anything that's not a conductor, like gold or silver or copper. If you want to create reflections on metal surfaces, you tend to use this GGX. For example, if you want these to look like they're gold, you turn this into GGX. You can think of this last one, Ashikhmin-Shirley, like an all-rounder option. You can use it for metal and non-metal surfaces. In fact, if you're not making the surface rough, if I set the roughness down to zero, you really won't see that much of a difference between these different options. Let me zoom back into this bird on the right. If I change it from Beckmann to, let's say GGX, this looks pretty much exactly the same. If I change it to the last one, Ashikhmin-Shirley, this also looks pretty much exactly the same. You'll only get some differences as you increase the roughness, as I go towards right. The way the roughness is created will look different depending on which one of the three methods you select. So if I go to Beckmann, this looks different than the GGX. This looks more diffused, you can see. Ashikhmin-Shirley looks somewhere in between the two. Although this can be quite complicated and technical, I tend to experiment with the different settings and see what works best. But generally speaking, like I said, the Beckmann would be used for anything that's non-metal. Then the GGX for metal and Ashikhmin-Shirley for everything in between. I also tend to use the Ashikhmin-Shirley option when anisotropy is turned on. Let me show you what I mean. This next option here, Anisotropy, makes the surface look like it's brushed. If I go and increase this and if I go and decrease the roughness, you get these streaks now on the metal surfaces and you can then rotate them as well. If I go to Rotation, change this, you can see how those streaks change. That's what that looks like. This is very different. When you add anisotropy to a surface, it looks like the metal is a brushed one. You almost create these directional scratches on the surface. I'll switch this back to GGX because I want this to look like a metal surface. I'll just go and lower down or zero out the Anisotropy. Then we had the Fresnel Type. Fresnel changes how the reflection appears to the camera. There are a couple of settings, and by default, the one that's called IOR, the index of refraction, is selected. The index of refraction is set to 1.5 by default. If you set this to one, that basically means that the light will not reflect off the surface. As I go towards right, light starts reflecting and it gets stronger and stronger and stronger. As I go left below one, it reflects in the opposite direction like that. As you can see as I go towards left, the light actually starts from the outside of this bird. Let me zoom in. The reflection starts from outside of the bird and goes inwards. Let me just start with one again so we can start from scratch. As I dial this towards left, you'll see the edges will become more reflective first than the inner side, like that. But as I go above 1, the inner surface becomes more reflective than the edges. That's the index of refraction. This makes even more sense when you have transparent surfaces, which we'll talk about later. The other option under the Fresnel Type is the Color and Edge Tint. If I click on this, you can now dial in two different colors; one for the reflectivity, let me just go and make this brighter, and then maybe a different color. You see the reflective surfaces now become blue and the metal edge tint will let you control the reflection color around the edges. If I go and increase the brightness of this and then make this a different color for now, let's say saturated green. This one is a little less technical or scientific than the IOR, the index of refraction, but it's a lot more visual. You can actually see the colors and then they'll be the colors here as well. Let me zoom back out to see what both of them look like. They look good, but let's say I want these to look more like gold. If I now go and set the reflectivity color to something a bit warmer, let's say like that. Maybe that's going to make these copper-like. I'm going to go towards red some more. I'll go to this Metal Edge Tint because I don't want it to be this weird-looking green color. I'm just going to make it a little warmer, maybe, like that. Let me go and zoom in as well. Maybe a little warmer for the entire reflectivity, like that, then lighter. Then I'll go and make the roughness of the entire material a little higher. The whole thing looks a little rougher now, like that. That looks good. I'll zoom back out. That's looking pretty good actually. I'll show you a couple more settings. I'll go to the Fresnel Type, change it from Color and Edge Tint to Metalness. What that does is it uses just the reflectivity color combined with the color of the Diffuse, then it just gives you one color control here. Here's what I mean. If I go to Reflectivity and let's say make this green, if I make the diffuse color, lets say blue, and if I increase the weight, it combines the two. That's a bit too much. Let me just lower this down. It combines the two colors and then this is the result that you get. You can think of this like the ad blending mode in Photoshop. You can turn the weight of the diffuse channel down all the way and then only control the reflectivity color. If I go and set this to be, let's say red, that's what that looks like. This perhaps is the easiest one to control between all of these but you have more options if you use the color and edge tint or the IOR. Now for those of you who are more technically inclined or geeks, you can actually go to this IOR Advanced. This will let you control the different IOR types for the red, green, and blue channels and it can also dial in the absorption values as well. Every material is going to have these as separate values. So if you just go and do a quick Google search on the IOR values of different metals, something like this chart will come up. Let's say if you wanted to create a gold material, you can copy and paste these values. The n values would go to the color values. Let me just go and copy and paste these, let's say from here to this first one. This is the red channel. This one's for the green one. Then this for blue. Then we copy and paste these values as well. These are called absorption coefficients. I'm going to go and paste this one here. Switch back, copy the green absorption coefficient, paste it into here. Then I'll copy and paste the blue one from here to here and that is a scientifically accurate representation of gold under this lighting setup. Looking at my scene now, I don't actually like the green floor because the light bounces off that floor and fills in these areas as green. I'm going to my green material and then bring down its saturation and then maybe make this slightly cooler and then maybe add a tiny bit of reflection to the floor as well, like that. The next option after Reflection is Sheen. Let me just scroll down to the sheen here. You can think of sheen almost like an effect that you use to create some soft backscatter, like the reflection that you'd see on surfaces like satin or velvet. It's pretty good for shiny fabrics. In this case, obviously we don't have a fabric here, but I'll zoom in so I can show you what that looks like. If I go to the weight of the sheen and if I increase this, it looks like I'm actually still tweaking the material of the floor. Let me handle this and then go back and select the bird material. Then I'll increase the weight, like that. Now I see this almost adds a shine on top of everything. It's like another coat of paint that's shiny on top of the surface. I can go and increase the roughness of the sheen so that makes that top coat little more rough, like this. In fact, I'll just go and turn this down a little bit and maybe actually turn off the entire sheen altogether. But keep in mind that if you have fabrics like satin or velvet or any kind of cloth really, sheen is something that you definitely want to play with that can create some really nice results. On that note, we'll wrap up the section on reflection and start talking about transparency or refraction in the next lesson. 14. Materials - Refraction: Let's talk about transparent materials now. Here I have this jar inside which I have the branches. For this, I'm going to go and make this transparent by creating a new Redshift material. I'll then go and rename this to be glass. Actually, let's call this glass jar because we'll have different glasses here. Then I'll apply this to the glass jar. I'll go and select it. Here on the right-hand side, I'll collapse the reflection and the sheen and then we add the refraction and transmission. This option here, weight is how you turn on or turn up the refraction, which is the transparency, so it's now a completely transparent object. I actually just realized that there's this branch sticking out so that's an issue with my model. Let me go and fix this real quick. Let me go and select this and then push this in a little. I also want to fly to other sides to make sure that it's not sticking out from there. Let me just fly around to see. That's looking all good. Now that we have this glass material, we can go and make some adjustments to it. Let me select it and then go to color here and I'm going to throw this down and maybe give this a slightly different color like this maybe and when you give this a color, depending on your refraction values, which we'll talk about in just a second, the opposite color here will also be visible. For example, if I go ahead and set this to be red, the opposite of red is cyan that's why you're seeing the cyan here as well. If I set this to cyan, the opposite of cyan is red so you'll now see some red here on the right-hand side. To understand this a bit better, you can go to this color wheel here and then select the complementary colors here, the third option, let me scroll down. As you pick a color, let's say if I go and pick the green color here, you see the opposite color of green, which is magenta, will be displayed where the light gets absorbed. I'll go and set this back to white again and collapse this. You'll also notice that the roughness here for the refraction is disabled. That's because it's linked to the reflection here. If I go to reflection, change its roughness. As the reflection gets rough, the refraction also gets rough. This is how we can create a cloudy surface like this. If I undo this and then go back to my refraction and then uncheck this option where it says link to reflection, I can control the roughness and the IOR values separately between the refraction and the reflection. What that means is this, if I go to roughness of the refraction, increase this, you get this cloudy surface, but the reflection isn't rough. You can still see some sharp reflections on this. Let me fly to a different angle to see if this makes a bit more sense from a different angle. I'll go and exaggerate the roughness of the refraction a little more, so it looks a little cloudier like this and you see, although the roughness of the refraction is high and it's cloudy, the reflection is still quite sharp. You can see that the reflected surfaces aren't cloudy or aren't rough. They're quite sharp here. I can now control the reflection roughness as well by going here and then tweaking this setting as well. But by default, in real life, these two values should be linked to each other that's why Redshift link is done by default here. I'll turn this back on so that the rougher the reflection is, the rougher the refraction is going to be as well. I'll lower this down so we have some roughness, but not too much. We also have this option for dispersion. Let me bring this down a little. Dispersion allows you to split the colors through the refraction. What that means is this. As I increase this, you see the colors will start spreading or splitting inside this object and the higher you go, the more dispersed the colors get so the less splitting you'll have. It's very faint now and very subtle. But the lower this number is, the less dispersed the colors are, the less splits there'll be. So we can actually see the effect much better. Let me zoom out. This last option, thin-walled is going to eliminate the inside part of this and just give you a 2D shape almost. If I turn this on, you see what that looks like now. It's almost like a 2D plastic, so there's no depth to it if you like. This can be quite useful for things like really thin glasses or a balloon. But for now, I'll just go and turn this off. I'll actually increase the dispersion, so I don't want this much dispersion here. I also have an object here called water. There's just another model inside of this. So I'm going to go to water, turn it on, and then I'll apply another refractive material to water. I can take this existing material, control dragged towards left so I create a copy, I'll call this water and then I'll apply this to that water object. I'll go and change some settings here. I'll go to water. First of all, I don't want any dispersion so I'll lower this down to zero. I'll increase the roughness of this a little more like that so it's not so clear. I'll also give this some color. Let's say if you're going to make this slightly cooler, let's say like that and then press ''Okay'' and now the glass has this faint blue tint. Now that I'm looking at this, I don't actually think that the water would be that color. So I'm going to go back to the color here again and then maybe make this exactly the opposite color here hit "Okay". Let's see what that looks like. I think that's looking a little better now. It's got some dirt almost inside the water, as Bob Ross would say, maybe those lonely the branches have been sitting there all alone for a while. But what I want to do is to take this glass material and apply to different objects that are also supposed to be glass in the scene like this vase here. Let me just go ahead and drag this material onto this. I'm not sure if this is supposed to have some water in it as well. I don't think it has. Let me just go and double-check in the object manager here. No, there's no water here, so that's all fine. Maybe I can apply a different type of glass material to this candleholder here. I'm going to go and create a new one. I'll call this one candleholder. I'll drag this on here, select the material, go to refraction, and I'll increase the weight so we can see through these objects. But I don't want it to be this clear, so I'll just go to the roughness of the reflection and since this is linked to the refraction roughness, they'll update at the same time and now this looks more cloudy or hazy and then we can go and give the reflection a different color. Let me just go and change the Fresnel type to color and edge tint. I can make the reflectivity, let's say a dark red like that and the metal edge tint slightly warmer as well. So let me increase the value here and maybe we make this a bit more yellow and you can see now some reflections are actually showing their color, but these bits are a bit too cloudy and hazy. That's because these are the refractive areas, not the reflective areas. If I fly around now you'll see that this will depend on the camera's angle. The front-facing sides here are going to be more reflective and the sides are more transparent. The sides here are transparent and you can see that the front-facing ones are reflective and I'm seeing the color there. I'm going to go to the color of the refraction and make this slightly warmer as well. Let me open this up. I'll just go and increase the saturation and then make this slightly warmer like that. But as you can see, we still have this white hazy look to this. Well, that's because we had the diffuse color turned on as well. If I go to diffuse, lower the weight of this down. The only two things that are affecting the shading of this object are the reflection and refraction properties because we lowered down the weight of the diffuse channel to zero. In the next lesson, we'll talk about subsurface scattering and light transmission. 15. Materials - Sub Surface Scattering: Now let's talk about light transmittance or subsurface scattering. Light transmittance is quite useful when it comes to creating materials for things like skin or really thin objects that let the light through or some objects like candles, some organic looking objects. These surfaces that I just mentioned are far from being metallic and light transmittance option is really good for that scenario. Let's go and create a new material. I'll call this one candle. I'll apply this to the candle like that. I'll then select the material, go down to Refraction and I'll increase the weight to one so it's fully refractive. Then I'll scroll down to it's Sub-Surface. There are two options. There is the transmittance or extinction. Although you can get similar results with both, the way they work is slightly different. Let's start with transmittance. This controls how the light transmits or scatters inside the object. Let me just go and pick a different color first. I'm going to go ahead and click here and then maybe pick, say, a greenish color, like that. You will see much a part from almost like a glimpse or a tint of green in this glass here, so this could be a different way of coloring the glass. But as soon as you start increasing the absorption scale here, the light will start getting absorbed by the object. If I go and increase this, you see as I push this up, the light is getting more and more absorbed and eventually once the light is fully absorbed, the whole object becomes black. I'll undo this. The higher we go with this number, the more difficult it would be for the light to travel through this object. Then down here, we have the Scatter Scale. You can think of the Scatter Scale almost like a way for the light to be scattered even more inside this object. The higher the scatter scale, let me increase this, the more organic or the more candle-like the object starts looking. You see the thicker parts of this object like these will absorb the light more, so it looks more solid, but the thin areas, like the top here or the space, because they're thin, don't absorb the light as much, so they look like they're see-through. That can be adjusted with the Absorption Scale. As I dial the scale up, the object becomes more and more solid and as I push this down, it becomes a little more transparent, especially near the thinner areas here. I'll go to the Scatter Scale, lower this down again so it looks more like glass so it's more see-through. But as I increase the scatter scale, the thick parts will start getting thicker inside and we won't be able to see as much through the thick sides. Now to make this look more like candle, I'm going to increase this a lot. But I can still see through these thin parts, so I'll go and increase the absorption scale as well. We can go and change the color as well, I don't quite like this green. Let me go and pick something like a yellowish tint and then lower the saturation down like that. Now I actually realize that these areas, the thin parts, are still very much like a glass. If I go and increase the absorption scale, but this now makes the whole thing a bit dark because now the light is being absorbed, so there's not much to be reflected, so I'll undo this, but instead, I'll increase the scatter scale so the light that's being absorbed gets scattered around the object, so it's less like glass, but more like a candle. The other option we have here is the Scatter Coefficient. This you can think of almost like the color of what's being scattered inside this object. If I make this, let's say, a really obvious color like magenta, the light that gets absorbed and scattered now has a hint of this color as well. You can see where the light doesn't get absorbed as much, say these areas don't show this color as much, but since the light is scattered more near these thick areas, we see more of this color. It is like a complementary color to your transmittance color. Let me just go and use a slightly more reasonable color here. Let's say if I go and dial the saturation back down and then make this maybe even warmer and then hit Okay. To see the changes live, I can actually click on this right pointing arrow and then make some updates. Let's say if I go and change the colors here, and then give this some more saturation so we can compare quickly. You see as I change this, the color of the light that's being scattered inside the object changes. I'm going to make this white again so it has no influence on our final object. The second method is the extinction method here. This works a little differently. With this method, you tell Redshift which color should be extinct first. Whatever is left is going to be the opposite color of what gets extinct. Let me show you what I mean. Let me collapse this first. If I go and make this white here and then if I go and increase the Extinction Scale, eventually this turns black because now the white light gets extinct first. But if I go and pick a different color, let's say red, now the opposite color, blue here, becomes visible because the color I selected here near where it says Extinction Coefficient is now extinct. If you are using the extinction method, you might want to click here, then go to your color picker, if I scroll down, and then use this complementary color method, and with that selected, if you go and pick, let's say, this color here, magenta, it's going to make this color extinct, and then whatever is remaining is going to be the opposite color here. If I select a blue color here, that's going to go extinct and its opposite color, this brownish yellowish tint, is going to become visible. But now looking at this, it looks a bit too plastic, so I think the extinction scale here is a bit too much, so I'll lower this down so we get more of that wax-like result. I want this to be a little brighter as well. Remember, if you want something to be visible, you're to think of the opposite thing inside this extinction method. If I want this to be brighter, I need to make this color darker. If I go to the value, I can get the darker shades to be extinct so I'm only left with the lighter shades here. This looks too much like a weird candy, so I'm going to change the color here a little more. Then I'll go to the saturation and move this back a little. Then maybe bring the value up a little bit so it gets a little darker around here. If I just go and push this up like that. You have two methods. You can either use extinction or transmittance. I personally like using transmittance more because to me that makes more sense. It can control what color light gets transmitted and scattered. But there are two options. Feel free to pick whichever one you like. The other thing I want to do here is to adjust the reflection roughness. You can see this looks too plastic, it almost looks like it's wet. I'm going to go to Reflection, increase the roughness so it looks less like plastic but more like wax. But now I'm looking at this, I think this feels or looks a little too yellow, so I'm going to go and lower down the saturation first. I'll scroll down, come down to the Sub-Surface, Transmittance Color, and lower down its saturation like that. It's almost white, but not quite, so it's off-white. There's one more option here, which I'll briefly mention, but won't get into too much detail, and that's the Multi-SSS, that's the Multilevel Subsurface Scattering. This allows you to control the subsurface scattering with three different layers of colors. You can choose at what level, at what thickness these colors will show. These are great for some more complicated materials like skin. You can get, for example, the eyelids to be thinner, so that would be your first layer, and you can control the color that will be shown near the thin areas. As the surface gets thicker, let's say you go towards the face, you can change the color of the light that's being absorbed. You can control at what thickness these different colors or layers override the others. As I mentioned, Multilevel SSS is something that we are not going to cover on this course, that's beyond the scope of this course, but I just wanted to make you aware that more can be done here. That's how subsurface scattering works in Redshift. 16. Materials - Light Emission: Let's now talk about self-illuminating objects. There are three different places you can set up the self-illumination on the objects. I'll show you all three and my favorite one as well. First of all, we'll go and create a redshift material. There we go. I want to apply it to this object here and in particular something inside this light bulb here. Let me just go and disable. If I open this up, I'll disable the glass here by holding on "Alt" and then clicking on these traffic lights so that they update at the same time. Now, I want to apply this material to all of these objects here. Normally it would only be applied to the filament at the bottom, but I want to apply it to the wires here and then the coil support as well as the filaments. I'm going to go to the right-hand side here and then just double-check that I have the right ones highlighted. That's the coil support there and then we have the copper wires and then finally the filaments. I'm going to select them all and then right-click on one of them and then go to connect objects and delete. I only have one object here now. I'll just go and rename this to be filaments. Now I can apply the same material to all three objects at the same time by simply dragging it here, like that. Another material is applied to all three at the same time. One more thing I'll do actually, I'll go and place this object on the floor. Let me fly out to a different angle and then go back to my objects manager here, scroll up, select the object, and actually let me turn the glass back on here. In order to drop this onto the floor, I'm going to use this new tool called the dynamic place. That's a pretty cool tool if you haven't used that before. As you drag this now, this is going to start interacting with objects that aren't necessarily dynamic objects. If I fly around, you see as I push this, as soon as it hits something like the floor or anything else like that, it actually is bouncing off those objects or it's being blocked by those objects. What I'll do is to hold down the "Shift" key as I drag this, and then let go of my mouse and then keep holding down the "Shift" key until it settles down like that. Then I'll let go of "Shift" to stop that simulation. I actually wanted this to rotate the other way so I'm going to press R to get my Rotate tool and then just spin it this way like that. Let me fly underneath and see if there's a gap between this and the floor sometimes that happens. It looks like there's a slight gap here. I'll just get my move tool by pressing E and then just push this down until it touches the floor like that and then just fly to a different angle to see if this is all working fine. It looks like this is perfect now. What I actually want to do also is to go and disable both the cable and the holder here so they don't get in the way for the time being. I'm going to go to the right-hand side and disable the holder and also the cable. I'm only left with the light bulb here like that. I actually want to use the dynamic place tool once more so that this bit, the copper bit, touches the floor. I'll go and get the dynamic place tool, I'll click and play and I'll hold the "Shift" key down and once it settles down, I'll let go of the "Shift" key as well. That's looking good now it's touching the floor. If I fly around, that seems all good from here as well. But this glass object here is getting in the way, so I can't see the filaments. I'll go and turn this off. That's what our object looks like now. With that material selected, I'll go to where it says "Overall." When you want an object to start emitting light, you increase this emission light and it won't work just like that because the emission color here is set to black. I'm going to give this, let's say a white color. Now I can see if I zoom in this object here is now a luminous object. If I go and increase this even more, let's say to 22 maybe, it becomes even brighter. Now, you won't see much of an effect because we actually have our dome light lighting up the scene. If I turn the dome light off, you see this object is actually lighting up the entire scene now. This becomes the only light source in the scene and the higher the emission weight, let's see if I go and set this to 50, the brighter the illumination is going to be. Well, this is a really inefficient way if you're using a small object like this to light up a larger area, it takes a while and it looks really noisy as well. Now, there are some ways of optimizing a scene so it doesn't look as noisy, but for now, I'll just show you an alternative way of lighting up your scene by using an emissive material. What I'm going to do is to go down to the overall tab here and then lower this down to 0 again and in fact, I'll just go and delete this material and then create a new one. This time, I'll create an incandescent material here. This is a material that's by default lit up. If I go and apply this to the same object, the filaments, you see the object already starts lighting up and you can control this material much like you control the lights. For example, we have the color here, or you can change the mode from color to temperature and you can control the color by using the Kelvin scale here. You can increase the intensity multiplier to let's say 60, so it's 60 times as bright and you can see now this is actually having more of an impact on the scene and it's easier to control because it works more like a light. It's got the intensity multiplier, the color options, and so on. But this, as you can see is still quite noisy. Instead, the method that I actually like to use is to turn a light into a mesh light. Let me show you what I mean by that as well. I'm going to go and delete this material, in fact, I'll remove the material from here as well and then I'll go and create an area light. There a light gets created as a rectangle and it's lighting up the entire scene. I'm going to go to the area here and then down to shape and change it from a rectangle to a mesh and everything goes black because it's now expecting us to drop a mesh inside this field. I'm going to drop our filaments in here and you can see it's less noisy already. But we can't see our filament here, it's actually visible in the reflections if I zoom out, you can see that the reflection shows up that filaments, but it's not visible here in the final render. In order to make it visible here as well, I need to go to the settings of it on the right and then come down and turn on this visible option and this makes those polygons visible again. Now since this is an actual light, I can come up to the intensity multiplier or the exposure values here, and then push this up and you can see the whole thing gets brighter. I can go to color, maybe switch this to temperature, I can make it cooler or warmer. Let's say like that and I'll just push up the intensity multiplier to let's say maybe 300. It's three times as bright and of course, if I go and enable the glass and then create a glass material and I'll call it light bulb and apply to that glass object and then open that material up, go to base properties. I'll come down to refraction and transmission, increase the weight to 1 so we can actually see the light through this transparent surface. I'll also add a copper-like material to the space. I'll come down here and create a new material. I'll call this one copper and then I'll just go and apply this to this copper object here. Let me zoom in. I'll square and drag this here and then I'll go to that material, go to color, set the weight of the color to 0, go to reflection. Maybe open up the funnel type, change it to color and edge tint and I can now get these two different colors so the reflectivity color can be something like that, and then the metal edge tint can be maybe a little cooler, let's say here. I think this is a bit too red now, so I'll just open this reflectivity up, make this slightly more yellowish like that and I can go to the glass and then go to IOR and then increase this just a tiny bit. The light is reflected a little more inside this. As I move that object around now, so if I select the light bulb and move this around, you can see that our scene is being lit up with that light bulb only. Now that I'm looking at this, I think it's a bit too bright, so I'll just go to that area light, bring down the exposure to let say maybe 1.5. That's looking nicer. Now, it looks like this is still too noisy, but this is way better than what we had before with the incandescent material and the emissive material that we set up in the overall tab on the right-hand side. Plus let me do the final render it's not going to be as noisy as you see here. Let me just go and quickly show you what the final result is going to look like by coming up here and clicking on this button here called "Bucket render." We'll talk more about this when we come to rendering, but for now, I'll just quickly show you the final results. This will be the result when we do the final render. As you can see, it's pretty clean and noise-free. Let me just reframe this and we can do one more render. Let me just turn off the bucket mode for a second so I can get real-time updates. I'll zoom in here and then I'll do one more render. Again we'll talk more about this bucket rendering mode in the rendering section of this course, but for now, I'll just click the button and see what the result looks like. Now that the render is finished, let me zoom in to show you how clean this render is without us doing any optimization. Let me zoom in. Now, of course, this looks a little pixelated now because our zoom level here is set to 150 percent. But regardless of the zoom level, if you look at the noise level of this, it's pretty much noise-free. I'II also zoom out a little bit so I can show you one last thing. I'll go and turn off the bucket rendering mode first and also turn off this additional render information and I'll go and reframe this. I also want to go and turn on my dome light now. I'm going to the right-hand side, turn it on, and you can see that the whole scene is being lit up now, but this is a little too bright so I'm going to go and select it, come down to exposure, lower this down like that and you can see now that the dome light is being combined with my light bulb that I created earlier and the two are not contributing to the entire lighting scheme of the scene. If I turn the dome light back off, this is what it was like before and this is what it looks like now. I actually like this a little better without the dome light. That looks a little more dramatic, but that's one more option we have. We can combine light objects or the emissive materials with actual lights in redshift. That's how we can use emissive materials as well as objects as lights. 17. Materials - Applying Materials to Selections: Sometimes, we apply materials not to the entire object, but only a part of it. That's what we'll talk about in this lesson. Let me concentrate first on this jar here, so let me zoom in. You can see that the entire object here is made of glass, because I created this material and applied it to the entire object here. Just dragged it on top of it and it applied to the entire thing. But let's say I wanted this top part to be a different material. Let's say maybe a golden material or a different metal. For that, you need to create selection tags. If I select this jar here and go and find it here, this is the material. You see with every material comes this field called the selection field, and this field is now waiting for you to drop a selection tag into it. These are the selection tags I created. You can see now I have tool. For the jar, I had the alto jar, this is the glass parts, and I have another one called the rim. If I want this material, the glass material, to be limited only to this glass parts, I can select the tag and drag my alto jar tag here. Now you can see that the top part, the rim, doesn't receive the material, because we've limited the material to only be applied to the bottom part, the glass parts. But I had the second tag I created here, that's the rim tag. For that, I can go and create a new material and then use this tag on that new materials selection field. It actually looks like there's a material here that we can make use of. This is the copper material that we created in the previous lesson. I'm going to make use of this by duplicating it first, I'll just hold down control and drag it to one side. I'll rename this to be gold, then I'll apply this to the entire object first. That writes over the existing material. But now, I can go to this material here and then drag my rim tag, the selection tag in here. That's going to limit this material to only show on this section here. Now, I want to change the way this looks. I'm just going to the gold material down here first and then go to reflection. Then I'll just go and update these colors and make them a little lighter. I'm going to select the reflectivity color and then make it slightly less saturated, and then lighter, and then the same maybe with the metal edge tint. Less saturated, lighter like that. Maybe even lighter for the reflectivity actually, so It looks more golden. Something like that. I think that's looking a little better now. But I think it's a little too shiny, so I'll go to the roughness of the reflection and increase this a little. Let's say maybe something like that. That seems to be better now. I'll zoom out a little bit. Then I'll come down to the second vase here on the right, this one, and I'm going to apply the same trick here as well. I'm going to select it first and then go to the right-hand side. Here's a trick, if I go and hit S here on the keyboard, that will scroll all the way down to the selected object. There's my vase, and this single tag is applied to the entire object. That's the glass jar material. Let me see what these two are. I've created one called glass, the other one called base gold. That's for this part here. If I limit the glass material only to the glass and then if I drag the same gold material from this jar, this golden material here down to the vase as well by control, dragging this material down here. I can now use the second tag here, the base, to go in here. If I go and drag the base here, the base here turns golden as well. As you can see, I've got quite a few selection tags on all of these objects. I've created these in advance. For example, if I go out for these birds, if I wanted to color, let's say the base a little differently. If I select the bird here, I have three different tags I've created. There's the bird itself. If I go and drag this bird tag into the selection field here, it limits that only to the top. But if I drag the second one here, that limits the material to be applied only to the stand or the pedestal. If I delete this text, then it will be applied to everything. Let me show you how you can create these selection tags as well. Let me go and zoom into the back here where the picture frame is on the right, and I'll select the entire object like this and I'll go to the right-hand side. You can see I have two tags. This is the outer frame tag and then the second one here is the back tag. I'll select this tag and then press I to get the extrude inner tool. Click and drag to create an inner extrusion like that. Now, if I go on and double-click on the first one, you see that's what I have selected. If I double-click on the second one, that's the part I have selected. I can first go and rename this to be picture. In fact, Picture 2 because this is Frame 2. Now I want to select the outer polygons here by getting my selection tool, I'll then select these outer polygons like that. I want to create a selection tag based on this now. I'm going to go to the Select Menu at the top, and then down to Store Selection. That's going to go and create the selection tag, which I'm going to rename to be Paper 2. Now I have this frame, the picture and the paper area around the picture. Which means I can apply three different materials and then use the selection tags to limit those materials to show only on these areas. Let me just go and quickly do that. If I go and create a new material, let's say we call this plastic. Apply this to the entire object here and then limit that to the outer frame. If I now select that material, go down to Base Properties, come to Reflection, increase the roughness of the reflection maybe, and then maybe I can make the color a little darker like that. Then I'll create a paper material and then drag this one to the object here, and then drag the paper tag here. I'll make that paper material. Let me just go and rename this first to be paper. Go to Diffuse Color, increase this to be, let's say, a little lighter, then we can turn on the back lighting translucency. If there's anything behind, it can actually show the shadows of that. Then we'll use an external picture to go in here. That's something that we'll talk about when we come to the shade the graph section. But before that, I want to give you a quick task. See if you can go ahead and apply another selection tag to this frame here for the center of this frame. So in total, this will have three tags. Also, you'll go and apply different materials to different parts of these objects as well. Although the first one here, for the branches, let me just go and select this object here. You see the first tag I have here is for the stalk, then the second selection tag is for the leaves. You can see here, if I zoom in. I'll do this one only and then leave the rest to you. First, let's go and create a new material for the stalk. Let me call this stalk. Drag this onto the object, limit that material to go to the stalk selection. If I select the material, I'll go and make this brown like that, maybe a little darker. If I come down to reflection, I can make this a little more rough, so it's not as reflective. That's looking good. I'll now go and duplicate this top material by control, dragging it to the left, and I'll rename this to be pink leaves. I'll then select it, then give this a color, let's say a lighter shade of pink like that. There, and then I'll apply this to the same object here and then limit that by he second tag here. Let me zoom out a little. I don't really like the pinkness of this, so I'm going to go and select the material and then maybe make it a little warmer like that, maybe a little more. Something like that. You can see I'm experimenting, and I don't quite like this either. This looks a bit too golden. Maybe pink was a better color after all, maybe this time we can pick a lighter pink like that. If you only want some parts of these leaves to be colored and you want to leave the rest alone, you can go and create one more selection tag. For that, I'm going to switch back to my selection tool at the top. I'll just go and select it here. Then I'll middle click and just drag right to make my cursor a little larger, the brush gets a little larger when you middle click and drag right. Then I'll hold down control to deselect some of these. Just by control painting these, you can deselect them. Now that these sections have been deselected, I can go and create one more selection tag for this. For this, I got to Select and down to Store Selection. Now I have a polygon selection here. I can select and rename it. I'll just go and call this one red flowers. I'll also go and duplicate this material by control dragging this to the left, and then rename this to be red flowers or red leaves, then I'll select it and make it a little more red like that. I'll then apply this to the object here. I want to limit this by the selection tag here, so I'll just drag it down. Now you can see that the left side is colored red and the right side is colored pink. Let me go and zoom out. This is what that looks like from a distance now. Your task now is to go ahead and add some materials to the rest of these objects. I'll see you in the next lesson. 18. Materials - Applying Materials to Selections - End Result: Here's what my final render looks like with all the materials applied to different parts of the objects. I also went ahead and duplicated the light bulbs here, and I placed them all inside the null. I've also rotated the dome light a little bit, so I get this library in the background. Finally, I also tidied up the entire scene by bringing the objects closer to each other, so they're not as separated as they were before. Feel free to explore this scene and compare the results to your own render and I'll see you on the next lesson. 19. Materials - Material Presets: If you're in a hurry, but still want to create realistic renders, well, you're in for a treat. Redshift has a ton of different presets that you can use. You don't really need to know much about materials in order to use them. Let me show you what I mean. We'll start by creating a standard Redshift material. Let's say we want to apply this to this bird here. Let me zoom in. Just for the time being, I'm going to turn off these lights here, coming from light bulbs. I'll just go to the search field here, search for the area lights, because that's what they were, if you remember from the previous lesson, and then I'll just go and turn these off , and then come back out. They'll help us speed up the render as while we are doing the previews, so it doesn't have to calculate the light coming from all of these different angles. It's only using the light in now coming from the dome light. If I come out of the search, here's my dome light here, that's the only light source in the scene now. Now I apply that material that I created here, this one, to the bird. If I actually select the material, and then go to the right-hand side, scroll down. Instead of going through all of these settings that we talked about in the previous lessons, you can actually go to the Presets here, and then change it from lets say, Custom to Copper, and lo and behold, this turns into a copper material. You can then of course make further tweaks. For example, if I wanted this to be a little darker, I can go down to Reflection, Reflectivity, and lets say you make this slightly darker, hit "Okay " and it'll just go and update the copper material. There's a ton of different options you can select from here. Let me just go and create a glass, for example. If I go here, create a new material, apply that material to this glass, and then select it. Go to Preset and change it to Glass. There we go. There's our glass. I can create a gold material as well. If I select this, go to Presets, set this to Gold. If I want this rim to be the gold material, I can go and drag this on top of that object. I already have a selection tag here for the rim, this one. If I go and add the selection tag to that material, it just makes that rim a gold material. There are others. If I zoom in here, let's say, if I want to make the edges of this frame plastic, well, we have a plastic preset. If I go to Preset and come up to Plastic, I can apply that plastic material to this frame. Then here, this plastic material can have the frame selection tag, which is this one here, the outer frame. If I go and drag this in here, the plastic gets applied only to the outer frame, and of course, like I said, you can make further tweaks. If I select the plastic Material, come down to Color, I can make this slightly darker let's say, it's a darker plastic. I can also set this inner part to be a paper material. If I go create a new one, drag this on top of the object again, and then select that material and set this to be Paper, and then limit that to this selection tag here. If I select this, drag the paper selection tag here, only this section now has the paper material. Let me do the same for this picture frame here. I'm going to take both of these materials I applied to this frame, control drag them up. Then it looks like this section here is actually working, so the plastic bit is working, but the paper area didn't work, because the selection tag has a different name. It's not this one. It's this one here, Paper 1, whereas the previous one was called Paper 2. This material now is looking for a selection tag called Paper 2, which doesn't exist. I'll just go and change this number to one, that now shows the material on the paper section here. Let me now zoom my card. I'm also going to apply material to this one here. See if I go and create a new one, apply it to the bird on the right. Then select the material, go to Presets, and let's say you make this one a silver. That's what that looks like now. Of course you can still go in and then tweak all of these settings. For example, if I go to the roughness, lower this down, the reflection doesn't look as blurry anymore. If I zoom in, you see it's not as blurry as it was before. This was before. This is after. I'll zoom my cards, and re-frame this. I'll also now go and turn these lights on. I'm just going to go to the Search field again, search for Area Lights, and then turn them on. I'm going to do a bucket render. That's what the final render looks like. Minimal effort, amazing results, just by using material presets in Redshift. 20. Materials - Shader Graph and Nodes Editor: Now, although Redshift is amazing when it comes to creating materials and especially using material presets. If you want to take full control over your materials, you really need to start using the Shader Graph. Let me show you what that is and how it works. You may have noticed when you create a material, let's say this golden material here. We have all of these settings that we went through in the previous lessons. But also there's an option at the top that says Edit Shader Graph. If I click on this, it brings up this expression like interface that's called the Shader Graph. Now the Shader Graph is split into three sections. On the left-hand side you have your nodes. These are the available effects if you like that you can use. Then in the middle, you have the Shader Graph. This is where you get to connect nodes to each other. Then on the right-hand side here, you have the attributes of whatever node you have selected. For example, if I go and click on this Output Node, I had the settings of that Output Node. If I click on this RS material, I see the settings of the RS material. This section here really replaces the attributes panel here. If you remember, when you create a material, if I just go and select the material once. The attributes panel now gets populated and we see on the RS material all of these settings here. RS material is this node here. When I select this node, the settings that we see here are exactly the same as the settings as we see here. There's the Basic tab, Base properties, multi-SSS, and so on. Here you had the same ones, Basic, Base properties, and so on. Now you might be saying to yourself, what's the point of using the Shader Graph if the settings are exactly the same as what you saw here. The point of this is that you can do much more inside the Shader Graph. For example, let's say you want to create a new material and that material to have an image as its texture. Let me show you how that can be done. I'm going to start by creating a brand new Redshift material. I'll rename this to be picture. I want this to be applied. Let me just move this to the side. I want this to be applied to this frame here first. I don't want it to be applied to the entire image, I just want it to be applied to the center point there. That's easy enough to do if you remember, we had these selection tanks next to the pictures here. That's frame 1. This is the selection tag that we want. It's called picture 1. I'll select the material here first and then drag this tag down here into the selection field. Now the material is limited just to that selection there. If I go and change the diffuse color like that, you can quickly see that only that section is updating. But what if you didn't want to use a color like this, but an image instead? That's why I start using the Shader Graph here. In particular, we'll be using a Texture Node from the left-hand side menu here. I'm going to search for texture. This is the one. I'll just go and drag this into the shader field here. That's my Texture Node now. I can move these around by the way, just like that, like you would in Xpresso. You can also use the one and two keys to navigate around here. Now what I want to do is to use an image inside this Texture Node and then link that to my RS material. Just to give you a quick breakdown of what these two are, the RS material is what we saw in here, like I explained earlier. If I select RS material, the settings that we get here were the same settings as we saw here. Then the Output Node here is a way for this entire material, the picture material, to talk to this object. When things are fed into this output material and the material is applied to an object. That's how the object displays the material. You can think of this Output Node almost like the results of whatever you do inside the Shader Graph, things will eventually need to be fed in or linked in to the output node here. Back to our texture node. If I select this texture node, I now see the settings of it on the right. I can go and specify a path for the texture. If I go and select this, and then let's say I choose this first image of Istanbul. Open that up. Of course, it asks us if you want to copy this next to the project, no, we don't. Now on its own, this doesn't do anything. We need to link this to the rest of the setup here. I'm going to click on this out color port. That's what these are called. These are the ports, that's the out color port, the surface ports and so on. I'm going to click on the circle next to it and then drag a wire into the inflow. That's what the blue bits here are called inflows. Then as soon as I let go, it will say, what do on this out color? In other words, what do you want this image to be connected to? I can come down to diffuse. I can make this the diffuse color texture. Now what you see if I move this out the way is this. Let me actually move this down here so we can see the result as it will render in the final output. You can of course make some further adjustments. For example, if I select the texture, I can go to the right-hand side. I can increase the scale here. Let me first actually move this out of the way so we can see what's happening. If I come down to where it says remap of the UV and increase this from one to let say 1.5. You see that it squashed the image sideways by 50 percent. If I do the same here as well, that will vertically squash this by 50 percent. I can also go to offsets and then increase this to move the image around left and right. Let me go and reset this back to zero. You'll also see that the image is tiled. You can see it's tiled here and then it's tiled that way as well. That's because this wrap U and wrap V are highlighted. If I uncheck those, you see it no longer tiled. Now I'm going to make the image a little larger by decreasing the scale here. That's the way you need to think about this. The smaller the scale of the UV, the larger the image is going to appear, and the larger the UVs, the smaller the image is going to appear. I'm going to go and set this, let's say to 1.2 maybe, and the same with the Y as well. You can see the image is larger now. I just want to lift this up a little bit. I'm going to go to the offset Y and then decrease this so the image gets higher like that. Maybe that was a bit too much. I'm going to bring it down there. Let's say I want to push the image right a little bit so I can see the front side of the ship by shifting the UV to the left. So as the UV goes towards left, the image will appear to be on the right, like that. Let's do the same for this frame on the right. What I'm going to show you is a slightly different approach to this. Let me first go and close the Shader Graph here. Now before I create a material, by going to here and the materials, and I create a material. Before I do this, if I come down to it says Create Redshift. If I go to Tools, if I select this first option where it says Use Node Materials for Presets. What happens now is if I now go and create a new material and then let me just call this picture 2. If I double-click to open this up, instead of opening up the Shader Graph, which is what we saw before, this opens up Cinema 4D's native Node Editor. If I go and open up the previous one, this is using the Shader Graph of Redshift. If I open up the second material, this one is using Cinema 4D's default Node Editor. If you'd like to use Redshift Shader Graph, this one, feel free to leave this option turned off. I can just go and make sure that this option here is turned off. if you want to make use of Cinema 4D's own Node Editor. This is the one that you want to go for. Let me show you how this one works as well. I'll go and close the Shader Graph. The Node Editor is very similar to the Shader Graph. But you see the left and the right panels are missing. The left panel being the panel for the nodes, and the right panel being the panel for attributes. But really you don't need those anyway. For example, if I want to create a texture material, all I had to do is to go up here to where it says add Nodes and search for Texture. Then just double-click on this. If I want to see the settings of this node I just simply select it and then make use of my attributes panel here on the right. An alternative way, if I just go and delete this, an alternative way is to go and tap the letter C anywhere, then this brings up the exact same thing that you saw by clicking here. If I now go and drag the texture from here to here, that's where the node goes to. I'll go and click somewhere else to get rid of that panel. I'll then go and link this texture to RS Material. If I drag the out color into the color of the diffuse. If I then select the Texture, go to Path, select another image, let's say this Paris image. I don't want to copy it and I'll move this out the way. I also want to apply this tool here. Then to limit this, I'm going to go to the second frame and then drag the selection tag into the materials selection field down here. Of course, I had the material selected first, let me select the material, then drag this down here. That limits the image just to appear inside this inner frame. Let me just move this out the way here. I'll just go and select the Texture Node here. Then come down to the right-hand side where the attributes panel is and then scroll down. Here we have the same options for remapping the UVs. In this case, I'm going to go to the rotation down at the bottom because you can see this is not rotated properly. I'll rotate this by 270. Remember I'm doing this in reverse so that the UVs are being rotated and the image looks correct now. I'll also go to increase the scale of the UVs so that the image fits improperly. I'll set this to 1.2 and maybe 1.2 here as well. That seems about right. I can of course offset this as well by a tiny bit. You see this jumps of it too much. I'm going to move this in decimal points by holding down Alt and then use these arrows like that. That's minus 0.9 and that seems to be working fine. That's a really brief overview of the Node Editor and the Shader Graph. Remember you're free to use whichever one makes more sense to you and you feel more comfortable with, the result is going to be the same. I personally prefer using Cinema 4D's own for this own Node Editor. Some people prefer using Redshift Shader Graph. That's completely fine tool. Use the one that you find easier. In the next lessons, we'll talk about a few more tricks that you'll find quite useful when working with the Shader Graph or the Node Editor. 21. Materials - Noise: Let's now have a look at how we can add some variation to the roughness of the reflections. Here I have an existing material applied to these two birds, and it's this copper 2 material. What I want to do first, is to convert this into a node material. Remember, if I double-click on this, it opens up the Redshift shader graph, which is fine. You can go ahead and use this if you like. But just to show you the points, I'm going to go and close the shader graph and then come down to the copper material. To create Redshift and tools, I'm going to convert to nodes as opposed to converting the materials which you'll turn them into Redshift materials. If you had existing cinema 4D materials, you can convert them into Redshift materials. But I'm going to click on this convert to note button here. What that's going to do is to leave the existing material here, this one alone and it will create a copy of that on the left-hand side. It will call it the same thing, copper 2. But that new copy is going to be based on nodes rather than the shader graph. I actually want to convert it and then replace the usage of this with that new version. I'm going to make sure this is highlighted. Go to Create, Redshift, tools. I'll convert and replace with nodes. If I select this, the new version here gets created. If I double-click here, that opens up in the nodes editor. Just be aware that the previews here don't always update properly, but eventually they'll find their ways. As I start playing around with these and then add more new things to it, then the preview might just update to show me the new version. But regardless of the preview, it will still work. Here I have the Redshift material and the output node here. You can see that the RS material is connected to the surface of the output. Let's say I want to create maxon generated noise, to drive the roughness of the reflection. Let me make this a little smaller so I can actually see what's happening on the surface here. I'm going to add some noise here. I'll just go and press "C" on the keyboard to bring up my nodes, and I'll just search for noise. There are two different types of noise you can create. There's the noise, which is a simple noise, or a maxon noise which gives you more control. I'll use the maxon noise so I have as much control as possible, just by simply double-clicking on it. I want this noise to be driving the roughness of the reflection of this RS material. But before that we seem to have an issue here. These black rectangles are supposed to show us some previews and they don't. I'm going to go and close this first and then reopen and see if that helps. No, still the same issue. You see these black preview areas are just empty. What I'm going to do now is to go and quit Cinema 4D altogether and then restart. I'll close the nodes editor first and then save the file like that. Then go and quit cinema and simply restart and then head over to file again to open up the recent file that I worked on, here. This seems to have loaded correctly now if you look at the copper materials preview, that works. If I double-click to open this up, you'll see the little thumbnails here updated as well. If I start the render view, we're back to square one now. Everything seems to be fine. What I want to do now, is to link the noise to drive the roughness of the reflection of this RS material. But you can see there's no reflection or roughness visible here in this list. We can go and right-click anywhere on the left-hand side to reveal these options. Then if I go to add inputs, I can add any of these channels including reflection. Once that's revealed, I can drag the out color of the noise to drive that channel. An alternative way is to drag the out color directly to the left side of this node. Then as soon as you let go, it says, what channel do want this to be connected to? If I come down to reflection and choose roughness, that's what the noise is going to control now, the roughness of the materials reflection. One thing that's going to help a lot is this S button here. If I click on the "S", it makes that a solo node. That's all you're seeing in this final results. Let me just go and select that node again. Let's go and make that noise a little smaller. I'm going to go to overall scale. Let's say we set this down to a 0.1. I'm now dealing with smaller noise. I can actually change the noise type from noise to let say, one of these, say poxo. That looks a little different. What's going to happen now, is that this noise is going to drive the roughness. Now anytime we have white here, the little white specks on the noise, let me actually go and make this a little larger so it's easier to explain like 0.8 maybe. Now these white areas that you see are going to be 100 percent rough. The black areas on the right, let's say here, will remain completely sharp. Of course you have everything in between as well. I'll come down here towards this low clip. As I increase, this, dark pixels will get even darker. As I decrease the high clip like this, the light pixels will get even brighter, so we have more contrast. Looking at this now, these areas would be completely sharp, whereas these will be rough. Let me go and un-solo it so we can see the result. You can see now these areas that were black remains sharp so they didn't get affected by the roughness, whereas these areas on the left, because they were white, are now rough. Let me go and solo this again so we can see the black and white version. I'll also go and change the noise from poxo to let's say, standard noise. If I go and make this even more contrasty like that, I can now see that this area is going to be completely sharp, so no roughness, whereas the white here is going to be completely blurry or rough. Let me un-solo it, and that's exactly what I'm getting there. The left side is sharp and the right side is rough. I'll solo this back again. Let's say you want to create a streaked or a brushed metal look. Well that's quite easy. If I go and change this to, let's say something smaller. Let's say 0.1 again maybe. You can also do some ultra proportion scale by increasing the x scale and then maybe decreasing the y scale, so it's shorter on the y. But looking at this now, we still have some big chunks of blacks and whites. I can lower down the overall scale even more. Let's say 0.05, maybe even more actually, let's say 0.01 like that. To reduce the contrast, so I have more grays. I can come down to where it says low clip and I zero this out by right-clicking. Then it's same with the high clip as well. I get more of the grays here as well. It's not just black and white. If I un-solo it, you can see, let me actually zoom into this. You can see now wherever the noise was white, that makes objects rough and the black bits on noise will remain sharp. If is effect is a bit too extreme, I can actually use colors that aren't black and white. If I go and select this noise texture first. Then go to the first color. Then maybe change it from black to something slightly lighter than black, let's say maybe 15 or 25 percent black. That's dark gray rather than black. I can decrease the white value to, let's say 75 percent. That's now a light gray, so that the contrast isn't as much here. I can actually come down and lower down the contrast even more. If I go to contrast here, lower this down even more, let's say there. Now I have even less contrast, meaning that I have more grays this, so that the noise effect isn't as obvious. Let me do the same for this rim here as well, this golden rim. Let me move this out the way and close it maybe even. I'll zoom into this rim here. Now the texture I used for this was this gold 2 texture. I'm going to select it and go to create, Redshift, tools and then convert and replace with nodes. I can actually see the nodes that make this material. I'll then double-click to open this up. You can see the previews here didn't update like last time, but I don't want to restart Cinema 4D, so that's okay for now. What I do want to do, is to bring in an external image by pressing "C". Then I'll search for texture. I'll then drag the texture node here. Then with that selected, I'll go to path, click on "My textures" folder here, and then bring in this scratches file, I don't want to copy it. I'm going to drag the out color of this texture to drive the reflection roughness of this RS material. Now you can see that's exactly what's happening. Let me solo it. Anywhere where the texture is black, is sharp. Let me un-solo it. The white bits on the texture are going to be rough or blurry. Let's say you wanted the exact opposite effect. We want these white lines to be black and then the black bits to be white. Well, for that, we can add one more node. If I go and search for inverts, its the color invert I want. I'll just drag this here between the texture and the RS material here. Then I'll drag the out color of the texture to go into this color invert node. Then the invert node will be connected to the reflection of this RS material. If I let go here, reflection, roughness. Now if I go and un-solo this, you see the effect is exactly the opposite. Most of it is blurry. Those white bits are sharp. If I go and move these around so I can make a bit more space for everything, like that. I'll also solo this color invert so we can see what's happening here. Now I can see that most of it is white, and those white lines are now black, which is exactly what we wanted. I'll un-solo it. Let's say you wanted this effect to be a little less obvious. We want to dial down its intensity. We don't want full black or full white colors. If I solo this, you see, this is all black and white, but maybe you want to have some grays there as well. We can add one more node for this. Let me go back to my nodes here and then search for this time color. It's the color correct that I want. I'll drag this between the color invert and the RS material. Let me move these out of the way a little bit. I'll zoom out and move this towards right, and then this goes here. Now the art color of color invert here will be connected to the color correct node. Then the color correct node will be connected to the RS materials reflections, roughness, just like we did before. I'm going to go to reflection, roughness. Now if I go to the color correct and solo this, I can now see the result of that here. I'll select it so I can go and change this. Let's see if I go and lower down the contrast, and then may be lower down the Gamma as well like that. A little less on the contrast maybe as well like that. Now we have lots of grays here as you can see, so it's not fully white or black. We have the in-between shades as well. Let me go and solo the color invert so we can see the before version. This is where we had just this color invert effect there. It's black and white pretty much. If I solo the color correct, this is the updated version now, so we see more of the grays. I'll un-solo it as well so we can see the final result. If I close this, then zoom out. This is what the texture looks like from a distance. 22. Materials - Bump: As you may well be aware, bump is a way of simulating displacements, or imperfections on surfaces. Let's say for example, we want to make the surface of these two bird objects here look a little different. I'm going to go and open up that material first, the copper material. Here, if you remember, we had this Maxon noise driving the streaks here on the surface, that was connected to the roughness of the reflection. Then this RS material, is connected to the surface of the outputs. Let's say we want to use a different noise to drive the bump channel of these objects. For that, I'm going to go and first create a noise, by pressing C here, and then I'll search for noise, and I'll use this Maxon noise again. I'll double-click, and then drag this to the left. I'm going to solo this so I can actually see this texture on the objects here. I'll then go to the type and maybe change it to Voronoi 1. I'm going make this a little smaller as well. Let's say if I'm going to set this to a 0.1 maybe. No, maybe that's a bit too small, I'm going increase this back again let's say to 0.2. That looks a bit better. I'll also increase the contrast, so we have darker and lighter pixels rather than grays like that. What I want to do now is to drive the bump map of this RS material in this noise texture we just created. But you can see this material has no bump map. I need to go and add it, by right-clicking here, and then we'll go to add inputs. That's under the overall tab, and the bump map that gets created here. Now you'll notice that the Out Color of this Maxon noise has this yellow dot, and the bump map is purple. Generally speaking, you want these colors to match. If I'm going to drive the bump map with something, that something would also need to be a purple color. You can see here the Out Color is not purple. To fix that, I'm going to need to create an object or a node in the middle between the Maxon noise and the RS material that's going to convert this Out Color to a purple color here. Then I can link those two together. I'm going to and press C here, to add a new node. Then I'll search for bump, and it's the bump map I want. I'll just drag this here. Then I'll connect the Out Color of this Maxon noise to the inputs of the bump map like that. Then the art of this you see is purple. I can connect that to the bump map of the RS material. That works now. This bump map node in the middle, takes the Maxon noise we created first, so this noise, and then it convert it into what's called a vector. That's what these purple lines are called. They're vectors. The vector can then be connected to the bump map of the RS material. If I now go and disable this or bypass it by just dragging this Out Color directly to the bump map, look at the result here on the right. You find they go here. You see because the colors don't match, one's yellow, the other one's purple, this creates a strange result. I'm going to go back and drag this back into the input of this bump map, and then the out of the bump map into the bump map of the material. That's looking better now. Let me now go back to the Maxon noise, I can now play with the settings here. Let's say if I go to the overall scale. Make that a little bigger, like that, or maybe a little smaller actually, let's say if I go and set this to a 0.1, or somewhere in between. Let me go let's say, 0.15. That's what that's looking like now. Now if I want the effect to be a little less intense or more subtle, I can go to the bump map, and then go to the height scale and lower this down. This is like the intensity of the bump. You can see it's not as obvious now. If I come down and select the Maxon noise again, and then on the type, change it maybe let's say to Voronoi 2. That's what that's looking like now. This gives me the full results. If I now go and solo again, I can see what that looks like on its own. Let me switch this to Voronoi 3 maybe, that's a different result as well. Let's say maybe we try the Naki here. That's looking a little more interesting, let me un-solo this. That's the result of that now, so it looks a little more organic. I'm going to try the last one here. Let's say the Poxo noise. That's looking like that. Let me actually move this out the way and zoom in a little bit. I'm going to drag this down, and then zoom in to see this a little better. That's what Poxo looking like now. That's quite interesting. If I select and solo the noise again, you can see everywhere that's black is remaining sharp, and the white bits are blurry. Now if I go to the right-hand side, and then scroll down until I see contrast, and then lower down the contrast, so I don't have as dark or light pixels. This is mostly gray. If I un-solo it, you see most of this is going to be blurry, because most of that texture was gray. If I wanted this to be a little less intense still, I can go to the bump map and come down to the height scale and lower this down even more like that. It's really subtle. This looks like now golden foil, which is pretty nice. This might actually look nicer on our jar as well. Let me now I'll zoom into this jar here. Now the texture I used for this jar was this Gold 2 texture. I'll select it and zoom out from this, and maybe move this to one side so I can see what's going on like that. If you remember, we had the scratches image driving the roughness of the reflection. This was the texture driving the roughness. Let's say I want this to drive not just the roughness, but also the bump. Let me come down here, and then press C to create one more bump map. I'll use that. I'll drag the Out Color of this texture into the bump map's inputs like this. Then the out of this bump map, into the RS material's overall bump map. Now as well as making those bits rough in terms of reflection, it's also making them look like they're raised. You can see here those lines are now being raised because the same texture, the scratches texture is being used both as a bump, and the roughness of the reflection. If I don't want this effect to be as much or as intense, I can select the bump, and then lower down the height scale, and then that makes it less intense. Looking at this texture now, I think the roughness of the reflection is still a little too much. I'm going go to this color correct node and solo it. I can see the result of that after this has been color corrected. I will then come down to level scale and lower this down to make this image darker, so the roughness is less, so the image is sharper. If I go and un-solo this, you can see the roughness isn't as much. But you see we haven't done anything to the bump. This bump map here hasn't been affected. The scratches are still looking the same as they did before. What I can do if these are a bit too much, is to select the bump map, draw to height scale and then lower this down even more, let's say to 0.05. That makes the bump more subtle as well. Now of course we can use any image we like, we don't have to use this existing bump map. Say for example, if I want to drive this with the noise, so if I'm going to search for noise here, and then use this Maxon noise again. Then I can take the Out Color of this and then drag this into the input of the bump map. If I then select the Maxon noise and solo it, that's all I'm seeing here on the final render. This is looking quite foggy because the noise is quite large. Let me come down to the scale of the noise, the overall scale, and then lower this down to let's say 0.1. Then maybe also change the noise type from noise to Voronoi 1. That's what it looks like. If I go and un-solo it, that's the result we get now. Let's say if I come down and make this even smaller , let's say 0.05. That's looking much better now, almost like hammered metal. If I now go and move this out the way or close it, and then zoom out, and then re-frame, that's what those materials look like from a distance. 23. Cameras - Intro to Redshift Cameras: Let's now talk about Redshift cameras. Well, there's no such thing really as a Redshift camera. There's a cinema 4D camera with a Redshift camera tag attached to it. Let me show you what I mean. If I just go and create a simple camera, let's say here. If I look through the perspective of the camera, and we also go and re-frame this so we get a closer view of this frame. Let's say, here. Now, this is a standard cinema 4D camera as we know it. In order to turn this into a Redshift camera, we need to go and add a tag to it. If I come down here and then right-click on this camera, come down to Redshift and Redshift camera. This just became a Redshift camera now with this tag and all of the settings down here. But instead of doing this manually, I can actually use a quicker way. Let me go and first delete this camera. Then I'll go to the Redshift menu here, and then down two cameras and standard. Now, this is the exact same thing as we had before. A cinema 4D camera with the Redshift tag. This makes it a Redshift camera. The only thing that's different between a cinema 4D camera and a Redshift camera is this tag. Now there's one more way of doing this by using a shortcut. I love shortcuts. I'm going to go ahead and delete this RS camera and I want to add one as a shortcut here to this menu. Before that, I'm going to go to the Redshift menu again and cameras. I'll tear this apart by clicking here. I'll then go and right-click on anywhere on any of these objects. Then go down to customized palettes. I can now go and drag the standard one down here. Then I can go and close this and also close this. I can now go and say this is my new custom layout, by going to Window and then down to save layout as. I'll call this Redshift again. I'll go and hit save, and I'll replace the existing one. it's just become my new Redshift layouts. I can always see this camera option here and just click to create it. I'll do just that. I'll also make sure I'm looking at the scene through the perspective of this camera by clicking on the little cross area and myofibril are flying around. I'd like to be updating the position of this camera since that's the one that's already selected. You go closer here. Like that's my fault to lock this in place. I can come up here to it as random and change that to the RS camera which is the name of this camera here if I select it. As long as this is locked, if I now come out of this camera, it will let me now see this view, the locked view of this camera. Even though that I can still fly around here in this view. As I fly around, you see this view on the right, it doesn't get updated because that's the perspective of what the camera was seeing, and being able to fly like this, while as your final render view remains the same, it's locked is an amazing advantage. You can see the result here as you make some updates on the left view here. Let me select this candle holder and the candle inside. Then I'll push these to one side like this. You can see that this updates right away on the right-hand side. I'll pull them back. I don't want it to intersect that leaf, so I'm going to push it back this way as well. That's how we can create a normal camera, a Cinema 4D camera, and then turn it into a Redshift camera by adding the tag, the Redshift camera tag. Since we already created the shortcut, you can also go and click on the standard button, and that will also create a camera and add the Redshift tag to it automatically. The advantage of this being a standard cinema 4D camera, which only has one tag. The Redshift tag is that it can use your existing camera skills and translate them directly into Redshift. If I, for example, want to update the focal length of this, I can select it, come down to objects, and then down here and the focal length, I can update it to, let's say a 50 mil-ans. You see this one here will update right away. If I was a different one let's say a wider angle, say 25 mils, That's what that looks like. The primary purpose of having this Redshift camera tag is so that the standard cinema 4D cameras can communicate with Redshifts. But of course, this Redshift camera tag is much more capable than just that. That's what we'll be spending some more time on in the next lessons. 24. Cameras - Redshift Camera Tag: Let's now have a look at what's inside this Redshift camera tag. I'll select it first. The first option we have here is the tag option or the tag tab and the first option within that is the motion blur. We'll spend some more time on motion blur later on, so I'll skip this for now. You can change the camera type from standard to one of the others here, let's say Fisheye. We could have done the same actually by going to Redshift here and then cameras and then selecting Fisheye. There are a couple of other types here that we have which I'm not going to get into, so I'll flip this back to standard. We also have the environment option here. This allows us to go and add an environment to this camera tag. The next tab is the Bulky tab which I spend an entire lesson on. I'm going to skip this as well for now. But I want to concentrate on the Exposure tab in this lesson. Let me select it first. The first thing you'll notice is that with pretty much all of these tabs, let's see if I go to Bokeh or distortion or bloom or exposure. With all of these options, there's a button here that says Override and then one more that says Enabled. The only thing that you can actually click on is the Override button. While you may be asking yourself, what I'm I actually overriding because I haven't done anything? Let me show you. If you click on this double arrow here in the Redshift RenderView and then open up the render view settings here. There are these options. These are called the post effects that you can add to your renders. For example, if I go and add the photographic exposure global effect just by turning this on and then if I tour these down, I have these different settings which I'll explain in just a moment. But if I just quickly update one of these properties, let's say if I increase the sensitivity of the film just by pushing this towards right. Now the whole thing is a bit too overexposed. This exposure tab has exactly the same controls as the photographic exposure Global Options here. What if I want to do this on a camera level? I'd click on this Override button and this Override button disables this effect here and this effect on the left is a global effect, meaning that every single render that you take out of this is going to have these settings applied as opposed to being able to control them individually for individual cameras, so that's what you're overriding. These settings are now being overridden by this camera. I'm going to come out of the settings here and of course, we selected this Override button but we didn't actually enable this option. I'm going to go and turn this enabled button on as well. This enabled button is enabling or disabling all of these filters now. Generally speaking, when you use any of these tabs, let's say the Bokeh tab or any of the others, you first override and then enable if you want to control those settings with this camera rather than inside the render view settings. Let me go to exposure again and talk you through what these are. The first settings we have are for the film settings and all of these will change the exposure of your film. If I go to film speed, ISO or the film sensitivity, I can increase this so the film becomes more sensitive to light, so everything is a bit more overexposed now. I can also go and increase the shutter time ratio or your shutter speed if you're familiar with an actual camera. If I go and push this towards right the shutter remains open for a shorter period of time, so there's less light being allowed, so the image is darker. You can go and change your F-stop number or the aperture. If you lower this number, you open up the aperture or the diaphragm of your lens, so there's more light being let in. If I increase this number, the opening of the aperture gets smaller, so there's less light entering the lens, so the image is darker. These settings here are really there for us to control the render in a bit more of a filmic way. If you're familiar with an actual camera, you'll know what these settings do on an actual camera and you can control your renders using the same numbers as well. But you should also keep in mind that these settings, unlike in an actual camera have no effect on the physical properties of your render. What I mean by that is normally, if you go and increase the film speed, let's say if you go and up the ISO in an actual film, the image would get brighter, so we can do some low-light photography, for example. But that will also result in a grainy look. It starts introducing some grain. Similarly, if I go and decrease the shutter time, yes, the image gets brighter again because more light is being let in because the shutter remains open for a greater period of time. Normally in an actual camera, the lower shutter numbers would result in higher motion blur but that's not the case in Redshifts. Finally, if you're going to increase your F-stop number in an actual camera, it creates a greater depth of field or a shallower depth of field is created with a lower F-stop number but this in Redshift has no effect on your depth of field. These controls are only here for exposure and nothing else. I'll go and reset them by right-clicking on these arrows here. Next, we have the white point which you can think of like a white balance control. If I click on this arrow here and let's see if I go and make my white point say blue and then increase the saturation, the result we get here is going to be the complementary color of blue which is yellow. Whereas if I make this yellow, the whole image will turn a bit more blue. I'm going to go and set the saturation down to zero. One quick tip here is if you have a reference to something that you know to be a neutral color, let's say, for example, this paper here in the background was supposed to be pure white or gray. If you know that such things exist, you can go and use this eyedropper here and then click on that something that you know to be neutral let's say this paper here and it makes that thing that you clicked on a tone of gray, so it becomes neutral and everything else will fall into the right color space based on this neutral color. Now, this doesn't actually look quite right because now everything looks a bit more cyan. That's because it made the paper a little less red. Let me undo this first. If I zoom into this paper first, so I can show you what's happening a bit better. This paper is white, yes but because it's reflecting some other objects like the HDRI image that I'm using, it actually is showing us some red and that's what we're supposed to see. You wouldn't just see white here if the surrounding HDR is a red tint which it is. The eyedropper here doesn't work but if I zoom out and let's say we see some of the HDR if, on the HDR, we have something that's supposed to be gray but it isn't, let's say, for example, this vase here in the background looks a bit too green and cyan. I can go to that Redshift tag, select my eyedropper here and then click on the vase, it makes the vase a neutral color and then everything else will fall into the right color space. I'll go and set the saturation to be zero again, so it's got no effects. Then we had the vignetting which is the darkening of the edges of the frame. If I go and push the vignetting up, you see the edges will get darker and if I exaggerate this, it's a bit too much, of course now, so I'm going to go and lower this down. This stuff like vignetting and the exposure settings and the white balance is usually done in the compositing stage. While you comp things it will go and tweak these settings. But if you're not going to comp anything and you want these results to look as close to the final render as possible, Cinema 4D does give you or Redshift does give you some options here that you can tweak. Next, I want to talk about Tone mapping which is pretty useful and interesting. The first option here allowed overexposure and lets you control how much of the white pixels can actually be rendered. If I push this towards right, this will allow more of the overexposed areas to be rendered. Let me zoom in here, so we can see what's happening. You see these bits here become quite white, so they're overexposed because of my light setup. But if I lower down the lab overexposure, deselect, crushing those white pixels to give us some more color here. It doesn't allow the pixels to be as overexposed as they were before. By lowering down the overexposure option here, I'm introducing more saturation to the entire render. These white pixels became a bit more yellow but if I don't want that to happen, let's say I want these pixels just to be darker but not more yellow, I can check the second option here, allow overexposure desaturation and it makes those pixels darker but they're not becoming more yellow. This was before, this is after. I actually quite liked that saturated version, so I'm going to uncheck this. Then we have something called black crush. Now, black crush controls how dark the dark pixels are. For example, the shadow area here or the background or these dark pixels here. You can control how dark they are by increasing the black crush amount. If I go and push this towards right, you see now the background turns pretty much black and we have some really dark pixels here as well. Then this option here, black crushed threshold will let you control how dark the pixels need to be before they get affected by this black crush amount. If I go and load this all the way down, nothing is affected. All the pixels are exactly as they were before. But as I walk this up towards right, you see the first things that are going to be affected are going to be these very dark pixels in the background and this shaded area here as well. Gradually, as I move This towards right I'll start affecting pixels that were not as black or as dark as the other ones here in the background. The black crush amount will let you control how dark the pixels get and the black crushed threshold will let you control how dark the pixels need to be in the first place before they are affected by these black crush amounts. This is a bit too over the top now, so I'm going to go and dial this back and also the black crushed threshold as well, so this only affects the darkest pixels. Then we have the overall saturation. so as I walk this towards left, the image becomes black and white, monochromatic. As I go towards right, it becomes more and more saturated. I'll pull this back to be just on the one, so it's a little less saturated than the original render. Let me zoom out and see what this final result looks like. Let me now go back to that camera tag and then disable the exposure. This was before and this is after. It looks like the shutter is a bit more balanced but I don't quite like how dark the pixels here actually got. I lost all the details. I'll go to where it says black crushed amounts and lower this all the way down to zero, so it doesn't crush the blacks. This is before now and this is after. In the next lesson, we'll talk about adding and controlling depth of field. 25. Cameras - Depth of Field and the Bokeh Effect: Let's now talk about creating background blur or the bokeh effect in Redshift. I think I can easily say that this is my favorite tool in all of Redshift. You'll see why I say this in just a moment? Let's go and select the Redshift tag. I'll go to the Bokeh tab, I'll first override it as we talked about in the previous lessons. Then I'll enable this as well. As soon as I enable this, the first thing Redshift does is to look at the settings of this camera to derive the focus settings. It's looking at the focus distance as well as the circle of confusion or the blur amount if you like, from this camera. For example, if I select this camera and then go to the Object tab, I can then come down to, let's say, Focus Distance, click on this and then point this at, let's say, this bulb here that automatically sets the distance between the camera and the light bulb here. If I click on this arrow, I can then right click on, let's say, the jar in the background, and this updates it, so that the jar is what the camera is focusing on. I can however, go to this tag and tell Redshift not to look at the settings of the camera by changing this to none. Now I can manually go and set my focus distance, as well as my circle of confusion radius. Now, the focus distance is calculated from the camera to the object or a plane actually that you're focusing on. The thing that you focus on is always going to be a plane. Let me come out of this camera. But I actually want this to be locked to that cameras view. If I go to the camera here and then I look that view, if I zoom back out from here, you see now this camera is focusing on this section. If I go to focus settings and derive from camera, just the focus distance, that tells Redshift to look at this plane here to focus on. If I go to the camera settings and change the focus distance, now Redshift is going to focus on that plane, which happens to be on those picture frames in the background. You can see that's what's in focus now. If I want to get the other things to be other focus even more, so everything apart from this plane here or this plane to be out of focus even more, I can go to the Redshift tag, come down to Bokeh and increase the circle of confusion radius. As I increase this, you see things that are blurry will be even blurrier. As I go to my camera settings, and if I change my focus distance, let's say here, I'm now focusing on different parts. Let's see if I focus on those birds like that, that's what's in focus now. But you see, this is quite tricky to get exactly right. Redshift is an amazing tool to help you focus exactly on what you need to focus. Let me show you. I'm going to go to the tag and tell Redshift not to derive anything from the camera. I'm going to go and set this to none. If I want to focus on, let's say, just this bird here on the left-hand side, I can go and click on this button here, which will interactively focus the camera. If I go and click on this, and if I go and click on the bird here, that sets the focus distance to be exactly how far the bird is or that point is from your camera. If I now go and click on, let's say this jar in the background, that's the thing that's going to be in focus now. If I click on the leaves here, they'll be in focus. As long as this button is turned on, you can click anywhere on the render and Redshift will focus just there. This option here, the circle of confusion radius is effectively how strong your blur effect is. As I increase this, things will be even blurrier, and I can decrease this so that effect isn't as extreme. Let me now go into the camera and then fly to a different angle. Let's say here. This effect works great when you have close-up shots like this. There's some stuff in front of the camera quite close and some further away like these. If I now go and click on those leaves, that's what now Redshift focuses on. It focuses on these. Let me actually fly to a slightly different angle, let's say here. If I now go and click here to focus, that's what Redshift is going to focus on. But this is such a shallow depth of field, so I think this is a bit too extreme. I'll go to circle of confusion radius and lower this down a little. I get some detail in the background back. If I click here, let's say, it focuses back on just that point. Looking at this now, I think this is still a little too extreme, so I'll just go and lower this down even more. Then maybe change my angle slightly. I can see some more of these leaves. Then I click back on these leaves here so they get in focus and everything else in the background is blurrier. I can of course, go and click on these pictures in the background so they become sharp and everything else will become blurry. I can click on this jar. That's the main thing that's in focus and everything else is quite blurry. Let me zoom out a little more. In fact, I can go to a slightly wider angle lens. If I go to the camera, changed my focal length to, let's say, a wide-angle lens, and if I now zoom in, I can see some more of the background there as well so I was trying to see the top of these leaves, as you can see here. Let me zoom out just a tiny bit more. Then maybe tilt the head of the camera up like that. We now have these leaves and the fallen branches on the floor in front of us and everything else in the background becomes sharp. Just to be sure because I've moved the camera around, I'm going to make sure that this button here is turned on, and then just go and click on the jar again. That now focuses on the jar. Or of course, if I go and click here, this becomes in focus and everything else in the background is blurry. Let's go and talk about some more bokeh settings here. I'll go and select the "Redshift" tag , come down to bokeh. Let me increase the circle of confusion radius so I can explain the rest of these options a bit better. I'm going to go push this up. Let's say there maybe. The next option is power. What power does is add some holes inside your areas that are blurry. For example, if I go and increase the power, you see these bits which were only blurry and round, now have these holes inside. Let me actually go and set a region here, so I only run this a certain area. If we move this here. If I now go to power, increase this. If I increase the circle of confusion radius as well, you see that's what's happening now. I'm getting these holes inside those circles. With low power, you have fewer holes there or shallower holes so you see the holes aren't as big. As you dial this all the way down, that just turns off the entire effect. You need to have some power together with your circle of confusion for this effect to start showing. I'm going to go and push this up a little more like that. We then have the aspects which changes how wide these circles are. If I go and push this towards right, you see they're more elliptical sideways. As I push this towards left, they're more vertical like that. Let me go and kill this render region here. Everything is going to be more vertical. As I increase aspect, things become more sideways, horizontal. Let me go and set this back to one. Next, we have the blade count. This is quite interesting. If the blade count is set to zero, these shapes are going to be perfect circles. But as I increase these, let's see what happens, if I go and set this to three, let's say. Instead of seeing circles, I now have triangles where those blurry areas were. If I go to, let's say four, that's going to be a rectangle. Five is going to give you a pentagon, and then you'll have an hexagon, and so on. You can also change the blade angle. If I go and to increase this, you see that will just rotate these blades here. Just to make this a little more obvious, I'll go to a different angle. Let's see if I go, fly back. I'll increase the circle of confusion radius. Let me fly to an even more extreme angle. Let's say here, where we have some HDR image showing through the background as well. We get these highlights here. I'll lower down the power so that the holes aren't as big inside. I'll increase the circle of confusion even more. These are getting even blurrier. Let me run there just this region here by pressing "R" on the keyboard. That's the same as clicking this button. Then I'll place it here. As I change the blade angle, you see these will rotate. Now, in order to see this a little better, I'm actually going to go and set this to be three. We get the triangles here. As I rotate the blade angle, you see those triangles will be rotating, and that's what the angle here does. Let me increase this a little more, so it's even more obvious like that. As I increase the blade angle, you'll see those triangles are now rotating. I'll set this back to six. We have a hexagon shape there, which is quite common. Another interesting thing you can do is that you can actually use your custom image as your bokeh image. If I go and turn this on, and then come down to the path, and pick an image, let's say, if I go and pick this heart bokeh here, which is just a heart shape. That's what it looks like. If I picked that up, and then I'm not going to copy this again. We now have these hearts here. Let me go and kill this render region. If I now fly to a bit more of a sensible angle, let's say here. Of course, everything is now out of focus, so let me go to my automatic focusing tool here, and then click on, let's say, the picture frame there. I'll also lower down my circle of confusion radius. It's not as crazily blurred as it is now. Maybe actually let's go and click on something closer, like this bird. One thing you'll notice apart from the bokeh shapes turning into these hearts is that the overall image became a bit too dark. That's because it's using the black and white image here and the black bits here are actually making the image dark. To compensate for that, you can go to the normalization mode and change it from none to unit intensity. This makes sure that the black bits don't cause any darkening effect on your overall render. I'll go to the circle of confusion radius again. Lower this down a little more. If you now go to a different angle, let's say a close-up of these leaves again, and if I click here, it focuses on this. This is a bit too extreme again. I'll load this down. That's what I'm getting now. Actually, I'm going to click here to focus more on the front side here, and then decrease the CRC, so we get a deeper or a greater depths of field. Now you have these heart shapes as well. Using the same method, but a different image this time, we can also create what's called chromatic aberration. If I go to the path here, pick up a different image, which is this guy here. Let me show you what this looks like. This is our image. I just created this simply in Photoshop by adding a few objects here and then setting their modes to lighten. If I use that image here, this is the result that we get. If I now zoom back out, let's say here, and if I focus on the birds here, you see we now have some chromatic aberration. An aberration is a phenomenon where light disperses rather than being focused on one point, and different wavelengths dispersed differently, because of this image that I've used, the left side here is always going to be green. The left side of the blurry bits will always be green and the right side will always be this bluish magentaish tints, and that's what I'm getting here as well. You can actually create your own chromatic aberration image. We don't need to use three colors like this. If I switch back to Photoshop, for example, I can delete all of these, and then create one layer, and then fill this layer by right-clicking and then going to blending options, or I could have double-clicked as well, fill it with a gradient overlay. In that, I'm going to click on the "Gradient" here and then make this go from, let's say, red to white, to blue. If I press "Okay". If I go and fill this layer with any color, so I just press "Control Backspace" to fill it with the background color, I can use this as my chromatic aberration, but usually chromatic aberrations happen from left to right. Let me go and change my gradients angle. If I change the angle here to zero. If I now save this as, I'll call this one, Chromatic Aberration 2. If I switch back to cinema, change that image to the second one. I don't want to copy it, now that will eliminate the green from this. It only has the left side being red and the right side being blue. Now, this oversaturates the image as you can see, and this option here on the normalization mode, where it says white color sum, will compensate for the weird-looking saturation effect. As a result of using an image, if you get this weird-looking saturated results, you just change your normalization mode to white color sum, and that will eliminate the strange-looking results. It will desaturate the image where it needs to. But we still have their effect. On the left-hand side, we have the more reddish tints of those blurry bits, and then on the right-hand side, we have the more bluish tints. In the middle, since the color here is white, we don't have any effect. If I go and increase the circle of confusion radius, I should be able to exaggerate this result, and you get these beautiful looking chromatic aberration results. I'm going to focus on the picture frames in the background here, and change my framing as well a little bit. Let's say there, and refocus on the picture frame in the back. I think it's a little too extreme now. I'm going to go to the depth of field amount or the CoC radius. Lower this down, so it's not as extreme as it was before. That's the bokeh effect in Redshift. I hope you now understand why I said that this was my favorite effect in all of Redshift. Stay tuned, and I'll see you in the next lesson, where we'll talk about animating the depth of field. 26. Cameras - Pulling Focus: Now that we talked about how to set up the bokeh or the background blur, let's have a look at how we can animate it. There are a couple of different ways we can animate this. First of all, you can just go and animate the focus distance. For example, if I wanted this to start closer, let's say on this light bulb, I can click on this button here at the top and then select the "Light bulb" here, so that's what's in focus now. I can open up the timeline, let's see if I go and open up my timeline here. Keyframe the focus distance at the beginning, go forward, let's say to frame 40. Now, provided that this button is still turned on, I can click back on, let's say this picture frame in the background, and then keyframe the focus distance once again. Now the focus will shift from the foreground light bulb to this background picture frame. Then we'll go back and play. Now just to speed up the render, what I'm going to do is to uncheck the use bokeh image, so it works a little quicker. I'll also go and lower down my resolution, let's say to 40 percent. I can zoom in or actually come down here and press the letter "F" to fill this whole screen. Not the quality won't be as good because I'm seeing only 40 percent of the quality. But if I go and play this, you see the focus will be pulled back. One more thing we can do to speed this up is to switch the look from the final rendered look to the clay mold here by clicking on this button. That eliminates all the materials, so it doesn't take as long to render. If I go back and play it now, you now see that this is in focus and as I play, the picture frame in the background gets in-focus. Let me exaggerate this. If I'm going to increase the circle of confusion radius higher up, let's say there. Then if I go back to the beginning, this should make things a little clearer now, so now this is in focus, and the focus will be pulled back gradually. I'm pressing "F8" here to start and stop the playback. If that's happening a bit too fast, you can actually go and do this manually just by moving frame by frame and you can see how I'm pulling the focus from the front bulb to the background picture frame. That's one way of animating the focus distance. The second way is that we can actually go and animate the camera on this. Let me go and disable the focus distance animation by right-clicking and then going to animation and we'll delete the track. What I'm going to do now is to go and create a path for the camera to follow, so let me do that from the top view first. If I get my pen tool or in fact, if I go and get my sketch tool, I can increase the stroke smoothing, and if I go and let say start the camera here behind this light bulb, and let's say it does an S like this, like that. Of course, I can go and smooth this out even more by using the spline smooth tool. Let's say like that. I can then go and select "Spline" go to my front view with my move tool and then lift the spline up. It's more or less the same level as that picture frame here or here. I can then go and send the camera to be on the spline by right-clicking on it and then animation tags and align to spline. I can drag the spline in here. I'll also go and set the target to the camera, so I'll go and right-click on the camera target. I can go and use a null now as a target. If I go and draw a null in the scene, put the null say here by the picture frame is and then lift it up to be in front of the picture frame just here. Let me go to the side view and zoom in to see why a null actually is. I want this to be right on top of this picture frame here. I'm going to get that null to be the target of the camera by dropping it here, so the camera is always looking at where that null is. If I also want the camera to focus on where the null is, I can go to the camera, go to "Object", "Focus Object", and I can drop the same null in here. Right now the camera is going to focus on that null if the Redshift tag allows it. If you remember from the previous lesson that we set this derived from camera option to none, so it was only using these settings here from Redshift itself. Well, if I go and change this from none to focus distance, it's now using this object to focus on. Let me go and lower down my circle of confusion and that's what's getting focused now. Of course, since we disabled the materials by clicking on this clay mode button, we don't see the materials and more. But I'm going to go and click on this again to show me the regular render and now that's what's being focused on. If you want to be a bit more precise with this, you can actually go and move the null around. Let's say, for example, if you want the null to focus more on the top part of this frame, you can just go and lift that and then pull it back, let's say there and that's what the camera is going to focus on now. Now the only thing I need to do to animate the camera is to go to the "Align To Spline Tag", go to the beginning of the timeline. Let's say we set the initial starting position to be here. I'll keyframe that and then go forward and set this to travel on that path like this, let's say maybe until here. Then I'll keyframe again, and if I now go back to the beginning by pressing "Shift F", and if I play it by pressing "F8", this is what we have. This picture frame always remains in focus. Of course, since we're not in the final render, the quality isn't great. But this ensures that this picture frame in the background is always in focus. Let me go and increase the render quality back to that, let's say 75 percent, and then decrease the size to let's say 80 percent. If I now go to any frame you see on every single frame, this picture frame is in focus and the setup already is really good. Because I can now simply move that null on top of let's say these leaves. If I go to the null, move that's on top of the leaves, and then maybe from the front view, lift it up a little. That now ensures that the camera always focuses and looks at where these leaves are. If I now go back, you see the camera always focuses on those leaves. Let me just check this from the right view as well and then maybe lift this up a little bit. It's now focusing on these leaves here. It's quite a shallow depth of field, so let me go to the Redshift tag, decreases the circle of confusion radius down. Now as I play it, you'll see those leaves are always going to be in focus. Those are only a few ways of animating the camera and the bokeh effect in Redshift. 27. Rendering - Progressive vs Bucket: Let's now talk about Rendering in Redshifts. Now, rendering can actually be quite a complicated topic, or it can be quite straightforward depending on how much control you want to have. But before we get into any of the rendering settings, I want to show you two different modes that Redshift works with. The first mode of rendering or even previewing things is called the progressive mode. Progressive mode is this, as I fly around to different angles, let say like this. If you look at the render view on the right-hand side, the picture that I'm getting is quite grainy. But as soon as I let go off my mouse, this grain starts cleaning up. There's a bar at the bottom here, the progressive rendering bar and this keeps increasing from 0 to a 100 percent, and what's happening now is that red shift is trying to clean up the grain or the noise over time, and every time it tries to calculate the noise and refine them, that's called a pass. Now we can go and limit the number of passes it does to save some time. Let me open up my render settings first and then go to Redshift and then advanced. Then here, let me just move this out the way, here where it says Interactive Rendering, we have two different modes, progressive is the default one that's turned on, and bucket is something we'll get into in just a minute. But if you want to limit the passes that the progressive renderer does, you can come down here and lower this number to let's say two to start with, and what happens now is that Redshift does two passes on this image, and that's not enough to clean up the grain. If I go to three, that adds one additional pass, it looks a little better. As I increase this, the results are going get better and better every time Redshift does a new pass. The default is 1,024 passes, but if you don't want your GPU to be constantly working on updating things as it does right now, you can limit this to let's say, 128, we will only do that many passes and then this bar moves much faster, and as soon as this reaches a 100 percent, your GPU stops working. This of course, might not be enough depending on the actual frame your rendering, you might still end up with some grain. In that case, you just go and increase this to be a higher number and then it will do more passes to clean up that grain, that's the progressive rendering. It works really fast, that's why the default setting for the interactive rendering is set to progressive, and it's super responsive as well. As I go and fly around, I pretty much get a real-time feedback. Depending on your computer, you might actually want to drop down the quality of what's happening here, while you're interacting with the frame. That's also something you can do by going to the View menu and then coming down to IPR under sampling. If I increase this to let's say two, as I now fly around, the quality here of what I'm seeing is even worse. But this should be a lot more responsive depending on your hardware setup. Right now my GPU can handle this, I'm going to go to View and set this down to zero, it looks a little better and it doesn't look too pixelated when I'm flying around. The downside to the progressive renderer is that it's not very accurate. If I go to my Render Settings again by pressing Control B, the second option on the interactive rendering is the bucket mode. You can actually flip this on, by clicking on this Button here as well. If I click here, you'll see it'll be the same as clicking on this button. You see it now switch back to the bucket mode and let me move this out the way. What the bucket mode does, is that it splits the image into small squares called buckets and it renders each bucket one by one. This is going to be much closer to the final render quality that you'll be getting. But the downside to the bucket renderer is that it's not going to be very responsive when you're flying around. Let me show you. If I close this and if I fly around, I need to let go first so that it takes a moment to update this and then the little squares move around, and then it does a bucket render. But this is going to be a much closer representation of what the final quality is going to look like. Let me show you what I mean. If I switch back to our previous scene by pressing V on the keyboard and then coming down to the cameras here, that's the previous scene we're working on. Initially, this starts going through those progressive pulses. The image starts grainy, as you can see here, but gradually it becomes cleaner and cleaner, and I'll let this go through those passes one by one, all the way up to 1,024 and see what the final quality of the image looks like. It's almost done here. It looks like the background is pretty clean, and these here are all nice as well. But the foreground here, where we had the depth of field effect showing through is really noisy, and the same applies to this glass here as well. It turns out that 1,024 passes wasn't quite enough, and the same issue happens here as well and I get some noise here on the floor as well. We will talk about how to clean up noise later on. Before that though, to see how long this frame took to render, I can go to view and come down to render info and this took 38 seconds to render. That was in the progressive random mode. If I go and turn on the bucket render mode here, let's see what happens now. This will split the image into small buckets, and it will render each one of those buckets one by one. But the results by default should be much cleaner. Let's see what it looks like. I can already see that the jar in front of us looks very clean, this jar here looks very clean and then the noise here is pretty much gone. Let's see what this bulb here, the out-of-focus one looks like. That looks pretty clean as well actually. Maybe there could be some improvement here, we'll talk about these later on. This is already looking much cleaner, but you can see this is taking much longer than the previous one as well. The previous render, the progressive render, was about 38 seconds and this one, let's see how long this takes once the final buckets here finish. This one took about 90 seconds, so that's about two and a half times more than the progressive renderer. But the quality is much better here. If I in fact go back to my Render Settings, you see the final rendering is set to the bucket mode as well, and I'd say you don't touch this because in the final render, you almost always want a better quality, you leave the final rendering to be the bucket mode. In my workflow, what I usually do is to leave the interactive rendering set to progressive, and set the final rendering to be in the bucket mode so that the final renders or the images that we get are much cleaner, and noise-free compared to the interactive rendering, which is set to progressive. With those two options in mind, we'll talk about some more render settings in the next lessons. 28. Rendering - RealTime Preview (RT): When it comes to previewing or rendering your scenes, speed is everything. Now if you're using one of the latest versions of Redshift, they've introduced a new tool or a new mode, I should say, called RT up here, real-time. This is a really promising looking Beta version. It's not a 100 percent ready yet, but it's in Beta, which means that there might be some glitches, but it helps you speed renders up by a great deal. Let me show you how this works. I'm going to first click on this RT button and then launched the renderer here. It will take a few moments and it will load the render here using the progressive mode in my Redshift Render View. Once that's done, you see the quality isn't great yet. But I'm able to now fly around in pretty much real time. I [MUSIC] can click and fly and you can see the right-hand side view is updating real-time. The quality, like I said, isn't amazing, but the speed is phenomenal. If I zoom into these leaves, let's say. Again, once you let go, the progressive rendering kicks in and it makes the quality much better. But it's going to be limited by default. But the cool thing here is that the speed is super fast. You can see I'm able to fly around pretty much with no lag or delay. If you wanted the quality to be even better, you can go to your render settings. If I come up here and click on this "Render Settings" button. You see now under [MUSIC] the basic tab of Redshift, there's production, which is what we had before. The RT is turned off now you can see as soon as I clicked on production, this "RT" button turned off. Or if I click back on RT, it's the same as clicking on this RT here. Under the RT, I can come down to where it says Progressive Passes and increase this to, let's say 1,024. Now this will give more progressive passes, and you can see here this is going slower now because it's doing more passes. But the quality here, if I close this, will be better. Once this progressive rendering finishes, that preloads the scene into the render view here. I can fly around in pretty much real-time. If I fly around like this, that's happening much faster. I'm going to switch to quality back I'm going to come up to the Render Settings again, set this to be lower again that say 1-8, so that the progressive render isn't taking as long. I'll then come out of this. Because this is still in Beta version, there are a few issues and glitches that you might run into. For example, here, the material here, it doesn't show up. Redshift recommends that you create materials from scratch rather than using existing ones. If you wanted to use the RT mode here, you'd be better off creating a new material from scratch for every single one of these elements if you switch it halfway through, it will be using the old system, but it will try and render them with the new RT system. Sometimes there's some glitches or issues like that. Also a few things aren't supported. For example, the subsurface scattering isn't supported. If you remember, we set this candle here to be a subsurface scattering material and that's not going to be supported. It just makes it translucence. Same with the backlighting and translucency as well. This paper material will no longer have translucency or backlighting feature enabled. But regardless, the RT is an amazing new feature in Redshift and it will help speed things up by great deal, especially when it comes to doing loop developments. Make sure that you take full advantage of this new feature in Redshift. 29. Rendering - Using Snapshots: There's a really useful function in Redshift called snapshots. Let me show you what they are and how to use them. First of all, I'm going to make it a bit more spaced for my RenderView. If I go here and then expand it towards left, that will reveal all of the rest of the settings here. If that wasn't the case, if I score sheets back down again, you'll have this double arrow here. If you click, you'll get the second line where you see the same settings again. I want all of these to be on the same line so I'm going to make a bit more space here like that. Let me zoom into this as well. Let's say if I go and set this to 75 percent. Let's say I now want to compare this to what it would look like if I had the area light turned on. If I turn this on, I want to take the final result of this and compare it to the version with no area lights. Maybe actually, I can go and create a dome light as well and I'll go and grab one HDR image, let's say the small studio. I'm not going to copy it. Let's say now I want to compare the three different results. The render with the dome light, the area lights, and with no lights. That's exactly what we use snapshots for. I'm going to go and turn this off. If I come up here and click this button, this will bring up the snapshots window down at the bottom. If I go and click the plus here, that's going to take my first snapshot. If I go and turn on my area light, and if I click the plus again, that takes the second snapshot. If I turn off the area lights and turn on the dome light instead, and let's say I take a snapshot of this, and let's say maybe a combination of the two and take a snapshot of this as well, I can now toggle between these different snapshots. If I click on the first one, I see the first render and I get the settings or the information about those renders as well here. This, for example, took nine seconds to render. It actually shows me this render time because I allowed it to complete all of those passes. If I go to the second one, it will say zero because I didn't let the render to complete before I click this plus here. It'll be the same for this as well and then the same for the snapshot three as well. I didn't allow all of those passes to be done before I click this plus, that's why it doesn't give me this render time because as far as Redshift is concerned, the render was never finished. For example, if I go and turn off my area lights, so I only had the dome light turned on, and if I come out of the snapshots here so I can see the final render. If I let this finish its full passes, then if I go and grab a screenshot, this actually will show me that it took 10 seconds for this render. The previous one here will be zero plus the quality here isn't as good because I didn't allow those passes to finish. Let's say I now want to compare this version to my area light only version. I can set this version here as my A object and select this one and set this as B object. This will now give me a comparison view here. On the left-hand side, I have the A view, on the right-hand side, I have the B view. I can click on this white line and just drag it. This shows me a comparison. I can also click here and make this one fade in as well. The full thing is A or the right-hand side is just B. So it can gradually increase or decrease its opacity. You can also click here and rotate this as well. Then you can move this diagonally like this. If I want to get rid of that, I'm just going to remove the B and then I can switch back and forth between these different renders again. Using snapshots is a great way of comparing different renders, as well as debugging them. 30. Rendering - Global Illumination: Let's now talk about Global Illumination in Redshift. This is something that's actually turned on by default, let me show you, if I go into the "Render" settings here, and then go to "Redshift," come down to "Global Illumination". You see this is enabled by default, but I'm going to and disable this to see what the result looks like without the Global Illumination. Before I do this, I'll go and get rid of my "Dome light" and then turn on my "Area lights" so I only have a single light source in the scene here and I'm going to make a bit more space for my render view here. If I now go and disable the global illumination, the result might not be as obvious right now, but things, especially the dark areas here will get much darker. Let me make this a bit more obvious. I'll move this down. What I have here on the right-hand side is a wall so if I go and turn this on, this is just a simple wall here. Let me just go and fly to a different angle so I can show you this. This is that wall here. In fact, let me just bring this wall closer to the ball like that and then zoom in. Normally, if this was a real-life scenario, we'd have this wall, and everything else in the background, filling in the dark areas here. Well, that's exactly what the global illumination lets you do. If I go and turn this on, the light will now bounce off this wall on the right and then fill in these dark areas. Let's do some comparisons, I'm going to go and take a snapshot of this. It does remember the snapshots of the previous one so I'm going to go and delete these so I only have one left. Now go and turn off the global illumination and come out of this and take one more snapshot. This is with the global illumination and this is without. The render looks much better with the GI turned on but you can see that this took 10 seconds, just under 11 seconds to run there, whereas the previous one with no GI, is almost three seconds. That's just under four times difference. In an ideal world, you'd want to have the Global Illumination turned on all the time so that's how you make things look realistic, but just be aware that this is going to be adding to your overall random times. Let me switches it back and in fact, I'm going to come out of my snapshot view for a second, and I'll turn on my global illumination and then go and apply this material, the red material, to the wall on the right. Right away, since the light is now bouncing, you get the reflection of this red wall on the sphere, as well as the shadow areas here. If I turn the GI off, this is with no reflection, if I turn it on, this is with the reflection of that light from those surfaces. I've placed one more object here, the ceiling, and that is simply a ceiling up here so if I go and turn this on, that's that ceiling here up at the top. If I zoom back in, not that the ceiling is turned on, the light actually bounces off that ceiling as well and it fills in these dark areas. If I go and take a snapshot first without the ceilings. If I go and turn this off, take a snapshot then turn it on and take one more snapshot so this is the one with no ceilings or the shadows are still a little too dark, this is the one with the ceiling which lightens up, not just the shadows but the entire scene so the light which comes from here is now bouncing around at different surfaces. If I give that ceiling a different color, let's say this green material, now the whole image let me call out of my snapshot view, let me zoom back in. Now this is going to have a green tint as well. Let me just refresh this real quick and now you see the green tint in these shaded areas. That's what global illumination is in a nutshell, it allows the light to bounce multiple times in the scene and you can control how many times the light bounces by coming down to here where it says "Bounces" and lowering this down. If I set this to one, the whole scene you'll be a little darker so let me take one more snapshot of this with just one bounce and then set this back to four again and take another snapshot. If I compare it to now, this is with just one bounce this is with four bounces. The higher the number of bounces you have, the brighter the overall image is going to get. There are two options for the global illumination, one is called "Brute Force", and the other one is called the "Irradiance Cache". Brute Force is the one that's going to be much more accurate in terms of how the light bounces, but it will be slower than the irradiance cache. Let's compare them. First of all, I just want to have one bounce and one bounce only so I'm going to set this to one and now let us go through the progress of passes so if I move this out of the way, this bar here, which I can't see anymore, would show us the progress and here it's finished and it's 6.6 seconds. If I change the prime ranging from brute force to irradiance cache, let's see how long this takes. The first one was 6.6 seconds, and this one is going to be just under, so 6.47 but if you are much bigger scenes and more bounces, this is going to make a difference and then the brute force is going to slow down your renders, but the results are going to be much more predictable and more even. If you don't have too much time your hand to render things, you can change this to irradiance cache and that would be quicker otherwise, stick to brute force. The other downside of using the irradiance cache is especially when you do animation, you might end up getting some flickering in those areas. If you're doing animation, you almost always want to stick the brute force. You'll notice as you increase the bounces from one to something else, let's say two the secondary engine also kicks in. This allows you to control how the light bounces the second time it hits the surface. Initially, the light comes from the left-hand side, hits the wall, bounces off the wall using the brute force method and then it illuminates this side of the sphere, but it no longer bounces after that. But, since I now change this to two, the light will also bounce off the sphere the red light coming from the wall will bounce off the sphere in all different directions. You can set that bounce or the result of that bounce to be controlled by the brute force as well, which is also going to be more accurate but slower, or the Irradiance Point Cloud, which is going to be faster but not as accurate. I'll stick this back to brute force, and that should give us a good enough results. In the next lesson, we'll talk about the quality settings or the sample settings of the renders. 31. Rendering - Optimising Renders: More often than not you'll find yourself optimizing your scenes before rendering them out. Let's go through some of those settings together. I'll first show you some really quick ways of creating grain free renders, and then we'll check some detailed settings. First of all, let me open up my render settings here, and I'm in the basic tab. I'm going to start this render view. Since we'll be checking our final quality here, I'm going to switch to the bucket mode here, and that gives us a better representation of what the final quality is going to look like. Let me concentrate on the shallow area first, I'll actually zoom into, let's say a 150 percent. I'll also going to reveal the information here so you can see how long each frame takes to render, so this last one was eight seconds, almost. A lower down my quality by clicking on the slow button, and see what this result looks like. Instead of eight seconds, this one took three seconds to render, but this looks much grania, as you can see. I'll actually go and grab some screenshots, so I'll go and open up my screenshots here. Looks like I already have one here, so I'm going to delete this. Grab a screenshot from this one, this is the low version. I'll go to medium, which is the default one. Once that's done, I'll grab one more screenshots, so that one is taking about eight seconds and change. I'll hit this plus button again, so that grabs the second screenshot. I'll go to the high version, and I'll let that render as well. You can see this is taking much longer than the previous one, so that's about 2.5 times longer, let me grab a screenshot as well. If I go to very high see how long this is taking now. I'm going to fast-forward this part so we don't have to wait. This one took 36 seconds. Let me take a screenshot of this as well. Now let's compare them, so the first one was the low setting, Second one is medium, we've high, and very high. Now in all honesty, if I zoom in as much as I can that say here, I can't see that much of a difference between the last two. There's a very little difference in the noisy areas here, so yes, it is a bit of an improvement, but not a great deal. If I go back to the medium version, this is also okay, this is probably an acceptable level of noise. But the low version is very noisy, so this is something I probably can't use in my final render. But if you're going to do a quick preview, instead of using the default medium, which is this one here, you might want to switch back to the low version. All that's happening when you change these buttons is that inside the bucket quality, If I twirl this down, there's an option called threshold. You can think of the threshold, like the sensitivity of redshifts when it comes to cleaning up the noise. The higher this number, the less sensitive redshift will be in cleaning the noise up, the lower the number, the more sensitive it will be. For example, if I go too low, you see this is a 2.1, whereas medium is set to 0.01, high is set to 0.005, and very high is at the point 0.001, so the higher the quality, the smaller this number, so you can actually go and tweak this number yourself as well. If I set this to, let's say 0.05, that's somewhere between low and medium. Now I can't quite see the results because I'm in the snapshots now, so I'm gong to come out to the snapshots. This is what that looks like now. Let me grab one more snapshot here, this is this current one I worked on, this is low, and this is medium, so this is somewhere in-between these two. If you're in a rush and you quickly want to change the quality of your final renders, this might do the trick, but redshift actually gives you a lot more control when it comes to refining your renders. Let me go to the Advanced tab here, and then go to sampling, and here we have an option called Unified Sampling. This means let me zoom out from this first by selecting this view and then pressing F. The unified sampling here means that everything, so every single noisy area, let's say the reflective areas that are noisy, the refractive areas that are noisy, the global nation that's noisy, they'll all be receiving the same treatments. Redshift looks like at some settings like the threshold or threshold here it's the same thing. Using that number, it tries to refine the entire scene. If I uncheck the Automatic Sampling, two things will happen. First, the samples Min and the Samples Max options are enabled. Samples Min refers to the minimum number of rays that will be emitted, and samples Max, we refer to the maximum number of rays that will be emitted from the camera. Let me come out of this view as well. Again, you can see this is looking much noisier now. This is with the Automatic Sampling turned on, so this will be cleaner, and this is without the Automatic Sampling turned on, so it's noisier. Now, as well as the threshold, I can also control the minimum number of rays that will be emitted from the camera and the maximum number of rays. The idea behind these raises this, redshift shoots out some rays from the camera, and the lights also shoot out rays from wherever they originates, and as soon as those rays meet on a polygon, you get the results. The higher the number of rays we shoot from the camera, the more likely they'll intersect the rays coming from the light, and the less noisy or grainy the results are going to be. Right now it's on the shooting a maximum of 16 raise, if I go and double this is now shoots more rays from the camera, so the results less grainy. If I double this again, it's shooting out even more rays. If I keep doubling this, I'll eventually get to a close to perfect results. Let me go and increase this to, let's say 1,024, so this should be even cleaner now. I'll also go and turn off the global illumination for now, so if I go to global illumination, I'll turn this off, so I can see the results a little better. If I go back to my sampling, if I come down to threshold, load this down a little more. If I go here and then set this to, let's say 0.01, this will start cleaning up all of those weird blotches here in the background as well. If I zoom into the shadow area again, I can see the quality of the noise. I'll go and lower down the samples max, so if I want to set this to let's say 512, it's still at an acceptable level, but I am starting to introduce some noise here. What you're aiming at here is an acceptable level of noise which you can use the denoising filter on, which we will talk about in the next lesson. But before that, let me show you the second thing that happens when we turn off the automatic sampling option. The override section here becomes available, the overrides will allow us to control the quality or the grain amount on these different channels individually. Let me show you what I mean. I'm going to switch back to our previous scene here, and let me zoom out from this. I'll bring this to the center, I'll switch to the bucket model as well again, and I'll uncheck the Unified Sampling, so we have the override options here. Now as you can see, the result is quite grainy here, and here, these are the results of our depth of field throwing things out of focus. We can fix this or improve this by increasing the samples max. If I go here, let's say and set this to 256, this will shoot out more rays to clean up these green bits. Let's see what that looks like. You can see this is looking already much better now, and I think it's an acceptable level of grain to start with. But of course, it does take much longer to run there as well, so the first one was about 24 seconds, and this is just over a minute, so it does take longer to render. But let's say now we want to concentrate on the quality of the reflection areas, let's say these bits here. What I'm going to do now is to go and press R, to open up this view so I can run there only this section, and then move this out of the way here, and in fact, I'll actually go and zoom in here as well. This way I don't have to wait as long. If I want to control the quality of the reflection areas here, well, I can go to overrides and turn on the reflection override, and then twirl this down. I can now control how many samples I want in that reflection areas. Just so that it doesn't take too long, I'm going to go and disable my bouquet effect on the camera. I'll go through the camera, tag multiple k and turn it off, so it rans this quicker now. You can see there's still some noise here on that reflection area. If I go to reflection overrides, and inside the overrides, I have two options. There's the replace or scale. Replace is going to replace the quality of whatever that material gives you, so if I go to that material, well to RS material, every single material is going to have this sample settings, so you can change this on a per material level. If I've gone unchecked overrides here, and if I go to the samples and lower this down to, let's say 4, it's going to lower down the quality of the reflection on that material. I'm going to undo that, I'll turn on the reflection overrides. I can now say the samples would be 512 for the entire scenes reflection values, so not just that material, but everything. I can keep working this up, let's see if I went double that. The reflections are going to be cleaner, not just here, but on the entire scene. The second option scale, is going to look at the current value, in this case to 256 for this material, and it will use this number to multiply that with. If I go and set this to, let's say 2, this is as if the quality is set to 512, not just for this material though, for every single reflective surface in the scene. Let me go back to the other scene, and let me move this out that way, and I'll refresh this view and close that render region. I'll also go and turn on the global elimination here, and the quality of what we're seeing here. Let me move this down a little, is controlled by the number of rays the global nation engine throws at the scene. If I go and lower this down to let's say 1, and if I go and set the balances to 1 as well, we only have one bounce and one ray. But if you want to change the quality of this area, let me zoom out a little bit. If you want to change the quality of what's created as a result of the global elimination, you increase the number of rays you shoot at the scene, and this will give you a better GI calculation. I'll also go back and increase the bounces up to 4 again, so that scene gets a little brighter. Sometimes, when it comes to cleaning up your scene, you don't want to spend too much time, but you just want them to be noise-free. That's when the de-noising filter comes into play, and that's what I'm going to show you in the next lesson. 32. Rendering - Denoising: Sometimes you go through the Render Settings and try and optimize your scenes and they look good, but there's still a bit of noise that you want to clean up. Let me zoom in here. All of this noise that we get here in the background and all of these, this is an acceptable level of noise at this stage but let's say you want this to be even better, close to perfect, without spending too much time, that's when the denoising filters in red-shift come into play. These are amazing, let me show you how they work. Let me open up the Render Settings again. Under the basic tab, we have denoising. I'll simply go and turn this on, but before I do this, I'll go and take a snapshot and I'd clear the previous snapshots I had. I'll then come out of my snapshots viewer, turn denoising on, and let's see what this looks like now. Now, once the render is done, you see this is pretty much noise-free. If I take one more snapshot of this, and if I switch back and forth, you can see this was before and this is after. Now this is an amazing result. You can control how much time Richard spends trying to clean that noise up. Right now, you can see the first one was about five seconds and the noise-free one was just under nine seconds, that's almost doubling the duration. Well, let me show you the settings of the denoising. If I go and click on this little arrow next to denoising, the only option I get is the engine. There are three different engines; there's the optics, which is the faster one by Nvidia, then there's Altus, the single and the dual versions. The optics actually works on Nvidia's artificial intelligence system, this keeps learning the new noise patterns and tries to reduce them and it's super fast compared to the other two, but it can sometimes create some unexpected results. In all honesty, I almost always leave this on optics, and it works amazingly. But on those rare occasions when it doesn't, I switch it to Altus single and I'll let this render and then take a snapshot. This is the current one now with Altus option. This is the optics one. I can't really see that much of a difference to be honest, apart from the duration it took to clean up that noise. Optics was about nine seconds and Altus took about 15 seconds. Altus dual is going to render the frame twice and process it twice to give you a cleaner result. As you can see, the initial pass, let me zoom out from this, the initial pass is going to be noisy and then once that pass is done, it will do one more pass, which is also going to be noisy but it tries to understand how the noise pattern is set up and then it will clean it up. You'll still see the noise until this is completely finished. I'll let this finish and it just did and this one took 25 seconds compared to the previous one, which was 15. Let me now come out of my snapshot view. Once again, you'll almost always be using the optics option. Well, sometimes when that gives you some weird unexpected results, you can switch to Altus single and then to make this even better, you've got to Altus dual, so it calculates the frame twice before it renders out a clean version. Let me show you how you can actually control the duration it takes for the optics engine to work. While it's working its magic, I'll go to advanced sampling, denoising and you can see it's enabled because I enabled it in the basic tab, and it will select the optics engine. The important option here is the bucket denoise overhead. The default value here is actually 10. If I'll go and set this back to 10 instead of 8.4 seconds, let's see how long this one takes. This is taking a little longer. What the bucket denoise is overhead is, is a percentage value of every single bucket. For example, if one of these buckets here is, let's say taking five seconds to render, it will will look at this number and it will take 10 percent of five seconds and it will spend that much time on each bucket to try and refine it. For example, if I go and set this to 99 percent, it will render those buckets first, then spent almost the same amount of time trying to clean up the noise in those buckets. If we're going to set this down to 0, it won't spend any time on those buckets while it's rendering it, but as soon as the render is done, it will just go and do a single pass to try and clean up the noise, so this is going to be faster. You can see if I go and increase this, let's say to 50. As it goes through those buckets, it renders the bucket, cleans the noise, then moves onto the next one. If you want a real quick result, you can go and set this down to 0 and it will just render everything without the noise filter, then it'll just go and turn the noise filter on for the entire frame. As long as you have your denoising filter turned on. If I come out of this, this button here is going to be enabled. If I click on this, this will show us the results before the denoising filter took effect. Let me zoom more in. This was before the denoising filter and this is after. Let's see how much of an effect this has on our other scene. I'll let this render, first I'll go and zoom out by pressing "F. " It's now rendering without the denoiser. This one's already pretty noise-free apart from some sections here, and maybe the shadow areas here. As you can see, there's some noise here and maybe some more on the glass as well, and some here on the reflection areas. What if I were to turn on the denoiser, I've the sampling, denoising, enable it and I'll come down and lead the set to the default 10 and see what this result looks like. I'll go and press "F," to zoom back out and as it renders it, it's also going to try and clean up the noise. This is looking pretty amazing. If I turn off the noise filter and let's see if I zoom in here. You can see how noisy this is and with this turned on, that's pretty much noise-free and the same happens on the shadow areas here as well. This is with the noise filter turned on, this is with it turned off. Look how smoother the result looks here. Let me check this side as well. This is with the filter, and this is without, and that cleans up all of these imperfections here as far as the grain is concerned. It doesn't add that much to the overall render time. Let me go and grab a snapshot and I'll render this once again with no denoising and then we can compare the two durations. So the first one, with the denoising, took one minute and 7 seconds. Let me come out of the snapshot view. The duration of the currents one with no denoising will show up here. This took one minute in three seconds. Cleaning up the noise on it took an additional four seconds, which is 100 percent worth it. 33. Rendering - Motion Blur: Let's now talk about motion blur in redshifts. Let me go to my render settings, and on the directive tab, here we have motion blur. I turn this on. If I come out of this, when I do a render, you see there's going to be no motion blur applied to this. You might be saying, well, of course there is none because you haven't animated anything. Well, to your surprise, I actually have, so if I go back and then play it. That's the ball falling down, or let us play a couple of more frames. Let's say there, and it's clearly moving. But when you render, there is no motion blur. In order to see the motion blur, you need to render this to the picture viewer. You do that by coming up here and clicking on this button. Or if you're not quite ready for rendering it yet, you can come up here and click on this button, and this will show you redshifts' renderer. I'll just go through a bucket render and it will now show you the motion blur. If you don't want to render to the picture viewer by clicking on this, you can click here to the render inside the redshift render view. It will now show you the motion blur. Now we can have a look at some settings of the motion blur. If I go to the render settings on the motion blur, if I twirl this down, I get two options, steps, and deformation blur. You can think of steps like the quality of your motion blur. If I go and increase this, let say from two to six, render again. This will give us a cleaner results. The formation blur refers to the blurriness or the motion blurriness, if you like, of objects that aren't moving. The position scale and rotation of the object isn't changing. But it's deforming in another way. Let's say you've applied a bend deformer to it, or maybe you move the point around, and that's called deformation. If you want those animations to be blurry as well, that's why you need to turn on the deformation blur. Right now since this is not being deformed, we don't need this. Let me show you a couple more settings though. If I go to the advanced tab on the motion blur, we get a lot more settings here. First one is the enabled and disabled button, so it can turn this on and off. Second one is the steps or the transformation steps, which is what we saw here as well. We'll go to advanced again. The next option here is the frame duration. This will control the amount of motion blur. If I go and increase this to, let's say, two frames. If I now do a render, that's going to elongate the motion blur, so it's not calculating a to frame long motion blur. If I exaggerate this even more, let's say if I go and set this to five, that's going to give me an even longer results. If I render this, so this gives us an even longer results. The transformation steps here, will let us control how curved or smooth the motion blur is. Let me go to a slightly different angle, let's say here. If I render this once again, I can see the ball is actually taking this curve here quite nicely. Let me go and lower down the frame duration to something a bit more sensible, let's say down to two and render again. The blurred that we get here is more curved because my transformation steps is higher. If I lower this down to, let's say two, and then render again, the motion blur won't be as curved. You can think of this like the smoothness of the motion blur. We also have these options here on the shutter. It's a start and end. The start option is telling redshift to look at 0.05 frames prior to the current frame to start the motion blur. Then get the motion blur to last for another 0.75 frames. If the frame duration here is set to one, and if I render again, redshift will not take 25 percent of the blur from the previous frame. When the ball was here, and 75 of the blur from the following frame, when the ball is actually here. If I set this down to, let's say zero and then one, and render again. It's going to take more of the blur from the following frame and less from the previous frame. If you want the motion blur to start getting calculated from the beginning or the end of the frame, rather than being centered on this frame, you can come up and click on these buttons here, and they will do just that. The shutter option is going to be something that you won't be tweaking as much. But it's here and that's what it does. That's how straightforward and easy it is to add motion blur to your scenes in redshift. 34. Rendering - Redshift Object Tag: We'll now talk about the Redshift Object Tag. This tag is quite similar to Cinema 4D's compositing tag. For most part, this tag allows you to control how the object contributes to the overall render. Let's say, for example, you don't want to see a specific object. Let's say the frame here inside the refractive areas or maybe you don't want the candle here to reflect off that surface. Well, you control all of those by using a Redshift Object Tag. Let's maybe go and apply this tag to this candle. If I go and select the candle here and then on the right-hand side if I go and press "S", that will go and highlight that candle. I'll then right-click on it, come down to Redshift Tags and select the Redshift Object Tag. Now that the tag has been added, I can come down to Visibility, Override, so I can turn this on. The first option here is the Primary Ray Visible. I can uncheck this, that will make the candle disappear. But that only disappears from the primary rays. In other words, I can still see this inside the reflection here as well as the refraction. But if I come up here to where it says Visible in Refractions, turn it off, you'll see the candle will also disappear from the refractive surface. But I'm still getting some reflection here. Well, I can turn that off as well. The candle is gone now. If I enable these, I can turn off the secondary rays on the candle. If I go and uncheck this, that will eliminate things like the global elimination, the subsurface scattering, reflections, refractions, and so on, all in one go. I'll turn this back on. Let's say for this frame, I didn't want to see that through the glass, through this light bulb, I can select the frame, go and press "S" here, and then right-click on it, Redshift Tags, Object. If I override and then uncheck the Visible in Refractions, the object will disappear by these glasses. I'll turn this back on. Let's say I don't quite like the shadow that this candle holder casts. If I'm going to select it, by the way, you can select objects by using this button as well. Then if I go and click on this, it selects that object, so I don't have to go and click here. Then I can go to the right-hand side and then press "S" here to reveal that object. Right-click, Redshift Tags, Object, Override, and I can tell it not to cast any shadows. If I uncheck this, see what happens to the shadows here. You see that the shadow of this object will disappear. I'm still getting some shadows from the candle inside. If I go and select that candle, and then I can control, drag this tag here, and the candle stops casting shadows as well. The object tag in Redshift is quite a useful one and I'd recommend you spend some time familiarizing yourself with it. 35. Rendering - Creating a Shadow Catcher: Another really good reason for using the Redshift object tag is to combine a 3D model like this fire hydrant that we have here with a 2D photograph. Let me show you what I mean. Let me first go and create a dome light, and I'll launch to render view as well. I'll then go and add an image to this. Let's see if I go and pick one of these HDR images that I've used earlier. Let's say, this one of Canary Wharf in London. This gets added as my dome light now, so it's lighting up the scene, but you can see one thing that's missing will be the shadows. Now in order to create shadows, I need to have a surface onto which I can cast the shadows. Let's go and create a surface. Let's say if I create a plane and I can make that plane a little larger. The trick here is to make sure that the plane actually lines up with the floor and it seems like in this case, it does actually. If it doesn't line up, you'd need to go and rotate the plane around and just move it into position. But this seems like it's actually lined up perfectly and I do get some shadows here. Let me zoom in. We have some contact shadows here cast by the dome lights. But, of course, I don't want the plane to be in the way. I only want to see the shadows. Well, that's exactly when you can use the object tag again. Let me go and right click on the plane. Redshift tags and retrieve objects. Instead of changing the visibility of this plane, I'll go to Matte, override it and enable it. Now what that does is that it makes the object disappear, but I can come down to here where it says shadow and enable this and now I get the shadows back. I can now fly around and you see the object now will cast shadows onto that plane. So the plane now became what's called the shadow catcher. I can fly anywhere I like and the shadows will always be on that plane. Now, since this is quite an overcast day, being in London, of course, it is going to be overcast. So if I look around, this is just outside the office actually, and it's almost always like this, so it's all gray and cloudy, and as a result, our shadows aren't very obvious. I do get some shadows here, but they're not very obvious. If I want to work around that and be able to direct the shadows to a specific angle, well, I can go and create a point like that say, lifted up. If I just go and zoom out from this side [inaudible], maybe move the point light here. Select it and then come down to the intensity multiplier and I'll increase this. So I am now emitting light from here which cast shadows in this direction. You can see the shadows are now cast here. I can lift the light up as if it's where the sun is and I can move this anywhere I like. I'm now getting some shadows here. If I want to control this a little better, let me fly to a slightly different angle, let's say here. If I want to control these shadows a little better, I can go to the light, then the shadow tag. I can increase or decrease the transparency. So I can make this a little more see through or less. I can also go to softness and increase this and this will start softening the shadows. Let me go and push this light closer to the object so the shadows are harsher like that. If I go to softness now and decrease this, you see this is more like a ray-traced shadow, here. If I increase the softness, this is getting more and more diffused and I can exaggerate this even more by pushing this higher than its max, which is two for the slider, but if I go to, let's say, 15, it'll be even softer now. So it's almost like an area light shadow. I can, of course, now move light anywhere I like and direct to where those shadows are going to be cast as well. The only thing that you don't want to do here is to move the plane. So if I go and select the plane and then move this around, you see it's now starting to float. But even if you wanted to object to float, you wouldn't move the plane down. You would actually move the object up. So if I select the object, move it up. That's how you'd make the object float, not by pushing the plane down. I'll bring it back down like that. In fact, I'm going to push the object closer to the stairs. Now, I can either zoom out like this and the object seems to be going closer to the stairs or I can move in and physically move the object that way. So if I click here and then push it that way, that's an alternative as well. Let me create a copy of this over here and I'm going to select the lights and then maybe lift this up a little and then get the softness to be lower. So we'll get some more harsh shadows here and now I can look at these hydrants from a different angle and it still looks like that they belong to the scene. That's how you can use the Redshift object tag to create what's called the shadow catcher. 36. Rendering - Post FX: Here we are in our final scene, and I went ahead and rendered this final version. I focused the camera on this rim here, and a couple of more things that fall into the same plane like this bird, and some of these leaves are also in-focus. What I want to show you now is something called post effects. Let me go and fold up this perspective view by control clicking here. That's all I'm seeing now. I'm just going to go and click here and then press "F" on the keyboard so this centers everything properly. What I'll do is to go and click on this "Gear" icon here. This opens up my display settings on the right-hand side. You see some of these options are already turned on. For example, the photographic exposure is turned on, as well as the Bokeh effect coming from the Still Cam. The first option we have here under the General tab is to apply these settings that will go through to the final output, which is what we want. We can disable or enable the post effects here. Let's now go through all of these one by one. The first option here is for color management. If you're using a different color space, this is where you can change it from. I'm going to fold this back up. The second option here is the LUT or the lookup table, if I open this up, enable it, I can either pick a custom LUT file by clicking here, or I can use one of the built-in ones, let's say like the Elford LUT. That's what that makes it look like. These you can think of like Instagram filters if you like. These are different film stock. You can pick one of these LUTs. You can create these LUTs using a program like Photoshop or tweak them in After Effects or Premiere Pro. I'm going to skip this for now. I'll come out of this. Next, we have the color controls. If I click on this, I get some settings similar to the settings that you have in Photoshop. If I turn this on, first is the exposure, I can bump this up. You'll notice while I'm doing this, this doesn't need to re-render the whole scene. It's working on the already rendered version. It's pretty fast. If I go and tweak this, this increases or decreases the exposure. You can do the same with contrast as well. I can bump the contrast up or lower it down, to reset any of these values you Right-click. Then this option here, which is reset to default, is what you need. Next up is the curves like you have in Photoshop. If I, for example, wanted the highlights to be brighter and the shadows to be a little darker, I can click and then bump this up, and then bring the shadows down, creating what's called an S-curve, this is a little too over the top, so I can maybe bring the highlights down a little. I can adjust individual channels as well. If I go to where it says RGB, switch this to, let's say red. If I bump up the red a little bit, and then maybe take out somewhat blue, so I add more yellow, which is the opposite color of blue, like that. You can turn this effect off and back on. Next, we had a photographic exposure, which is already turned on because on this still camera tag, I had this exposure tab turned on. It turns on the photographic exposure option here as well. I can further tweak these settings. If I go and increase the sensitivity or the speed of the film, it will overexpose the image. I can compensate that by increasing the shutter time ratio, and also the f-stop, like we talked about when we were going through this camera tag. I'm going to reset these by Right-clicking. This one as well. We've also talked about vignetting and allowed overexposure and black crush threshold and so on. I'll skip this for now. I'll come out of this. The next three settings are really interesting, bloom, flare, and streak. Let me start with Bloom. I'll enable this. Right away, you see that the bright pixels like this here, will have this halo around them, this bloomy bit around them. I can control which pixels will receive this bloom effect first, based on this threshold value. The higher this threshold, the brighter the pixels are required to be before they receive any of the bloom effect. The lower the threshold, the darker the pixels can be before they receive this bloom effects. This only works on the highlights. That's why only the bright pixels here are actually receiving this bloom. As I decrease this all the way down, you see most of the frame now has this bloom effect, like this dreamy look. This is a bit too much, I think so I'll go and increase this. Then we have the softness of the bloom effect. This is like the radius. How far out do these bloom pixels reach? As I increase this, they cover a greater radius. As I decrease this, they get smaller and they're more confined to this space here and this space where the brightest pixels are. Then we have the intensity, which is the brightness of the overall bloom effect. If I go and increase this, they become brighter. As I decrease it, they get dimmer. We can also go and add some tints to this bloom. For example, if I click on this first tint color, I can make this, let's say red or any other color here. You see as I do this, the bloom color here updates. This now has a green tints. If I pick white, this was before. If I pick green, this is after. There's this green tint here, if you can see, let me go and increase the intensity a little, then bring up the threshold. I can keep mixing different tints as well. If I click here, I get the second one to be, let's say red or yellow. It's now mixing those colors. I don't want any colors actually here. I'm going to have them white. I'll then click here to collapse this tint color drop down. This is a bit too intense. Let me lower this down. If I turn the bloom on and off, you can see what I've done. This was before. This is after. Next we have flare. Let me collapse bloom and go to flare. If I turn this on, this creates a big flare, like you can see here around the edges based on the bright pixels on the image again. If I first go to flare threshold, lower this down, more of the pixels now, even if they're not very bright, will cause this flare, like all of these. I can go to the softness and increase this or decrease. This is a subtle effect. It's changing how soft the flare here is, or here. You can add some color to the flare by increasing this chromatic effect. If I lower this down, it's monochromatic. If I increase this, it's got some color now. It's got this red tint in this case. I can change the size of the flare, so I can lower this down to make it smaller or increase it to make it larger. Then I can reduce the halo as well. If I go to the halo and reduce this, this halo that I'm seeing is now getting smaller. I can increase this. I'll bring down the intensity as well, so it's not as intense. We can also give this tint or multiple tint like we did for the bloom effect. I'm not going to do that now. I'll go and increase the threshold that it's a bit, so only the brighter pixels will create this flare. This was before. This is after, quite a subtle effect, but you can still see some flair here. Let me collapse this. Next we have the streak option. If I turn this on, you might see some streak effects here. Let me go and exaggerate this. If I come down to intensity, these are the effects I'm talking about. These will only happen again around the brightest areas, like there's a bit of a bright area here as well. Then of course, these light bulbs, if I go to threshold, I can lower this down so that the pixels that are not as bright will still create this streak effect. I can increase or decrease detail. This will make them longer or shorter, like some shimmer here. I can also increase the softness. This is almost like creating some feather around those effects. I don't quite like this actually, so I lower this down. We also had the streak number, this will change how many of these lines or streaks that we're getting. Then we go to the tail and increase this first so I can see those lines a little taller. As I increase the streak number, you see I'm getting more of these. Or as I decrease it, let's say down to one, I only get one streak across the line like this. Then you can rotate these as well. If I go to streak angle, I can click and rotate to where those lines are going to be drawn. That's a bit too intense, so I'll lower this down. In fact, I think I'd like to have two streaks rather than just one. One going in that direction and one going in that direction. Now so far, none of these effects required us to rerun the picture. The next ones here, bokeh, denoise and magic bullet looks, will require us to re-render, if you make a change. If I go to bokeh, which are turned on by default, these are the settings that I set up on the camera's tag on the de-bokeh tab. All of these, just like changing any of these here, will require us to re-render, changing them here as well will need us to render. I'm not going to do that now. I'll come out of this. Same with denoise, so if I go and turn off the denoise or use a different engine, its going to re-render this, which I'm not going to do now. We also have magic bullet looks by red giant. You can click here and then enable it. Then as soon as you click on the "Open magical looks" option, this will launch magic bullet looks, which I'm not going to get into on this course. But you can go and pick a film look here, let's say, for example, if I go to Looks and I can go to filmic looks or any of the others, let's say color film stock. I can pick one of these film stocks here, let's say a Fuji 85, 46. Then come down here and hit ''Apply.'' Just like the bokeh or the denoise effects, the magic bullet looks will also require us to re-render. I'll wait for this to finish. This is that render with the magic bullet looks applied. Now you'll notice that the magic bullet looks, takes over all of the other settings that we went through. There's no bloom, flare or streak anymore. Now I can come down here and lower down the mixed setting here. Now what's going to happen now is that it's going to mix the magic bullet looks effect by 33 percent on top of what we already had here. This should still give us the streak and the bloom and the flair, plus 33 percent of magic bullet looks. Let's see what the result looks like. I can already see that the streak is actually being created, and the bloom here, plus I have about 33 percent of that Fujifilm stock effect. Before we wrap this lesson up, if you want to check what the render looked like prior to applying these post effects and then compare that to what it looks like now, we can simply come up here to where it says enable post effects. Uncheck this. This was before. This is after. We can turn this on and off without having to re-render from scratch. That's how we use post effects in Redshift. 37. Final Render: It's now time to save our render out so you can use it elsewhere. There are a couple of different ways of saving these files from Redshift. First of all, you can use the standard picture viewer. If you go to your render settings and we go to Output and then set this to be 1920 by 1080. We render a full HD image. I'll leave the resolution set to 72. I'm going to render only a single frame, the current frame I'm on, I'll then go to Save and then give this a location. Let's say we go and save this inside our reference files and deliverables. I already have one saved here from a different version. I'll call this one final render, let's say, 1920 by 1080. I'll hit "Save". I can then pick a format. Let's say I want this to be a PNG and I'll just go and close it. My foreground render this to the picture viewer by pressing "Shift R", or if I click on this button here, that's not going to start the render into the picture viewer. As soon as this is done, we'll have a file that we can use. That's one way of rendering. Let me go and close this. An alternative is if you already have something that you've rendered here, you can go up to the File menu and then go to Save Image. But before that, we can come down to Options. Depending on which format you want to save this as, let's say, I want to say this as a JPEG. I can control the quality of that. If I, let say go and set this to 100 percent, then if I go to File, Save Image As, and if I choose JPEG here, I have these other formats as well. I can call this final render 1920 by 1080. If I hit "Save", it's not going to need to rerender this because it's already been rendered in the background. If I click "Save" and switch back to my explorer, you see here I already had the JPEG. If I go and open this, this actually looks like it's smaller than 1920 by 1080. I think I know why. If I go and close this, I'm just going to double-check. If I go and right-click and go to properties, details. This is indeed smaller than 1920 by 1080. The reason why this has happened is because I changed my settings here in the render settings. But this render that I was seeing before actually came from a previous version. It's going to rerender this view by clicking on this button. That will go through the render process again. Let me close this. Now this is being created as 1920 by 1080. Once that's done, I'll be able to go to File and Save Image As, and I'll be able to save a full HD version. I'll let this render finish first. Let me zoom out from this. Once the render finishes, I'll just go and save this. Now that this render has finished, I'll go to File, "Save Image As, and I'll rename this to be, let's say, final render 1920 by 1080 2, because this was the wrong one. I'll hit "Save". Then if I switch back, and this is the correct version. Here I can see that the dimensions are 1920 by 1080, whereas this one, the previous one was 1280 by 720. I'll go and delete this. This is the final render. 38. Conclusion and Next Steps: That's the end of the course. Congratulations for making it this far. I really hope that you found the course helpful and learnt a new few things. Now, in return, I have a small favor to ask. If you've enjoyed the course, please leave a review so that other students can also benefit from it. Also, if you decide to create a render and you should definitely create a render using Redshift, share it with me and the rest of the world, and don't forget to tag me on social media. Once again, thanks for watching my course and I hope to see you on the next one.