Reason: Music Production & Sound Synthesis | Yng Wok | Skillshare

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Reason: Music Production & Sound Synthesis

teacher avatar Yng Wok, yongeWok is a Toronto Music Producer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

23 Lessons (6h 57m)
    • 1. Introduction to Music Production and Sound Synthesis

    • 2. Lesson 1a. The Rack Window

    • 3. Lesson 1b. The Sequence Window

    • 4. Lesson 1c. The Mix Window

    • 5. Lesson 2a. Oscillators

    • 6. Lesson 2b. Envelopes

    • 7. Lesson 2c. Filters

    • 8. Lesson 2d. LFOs and Mods

    • 9. Lesson 2e. Shapers

    • 10. Lesson 2f. Mod Matrixes

    • 11. Lesson 2g. Voice Modes and Global Parameters

    • 12. Lesson 3. Samplers

    • 13. Lesson 4. Drum Machines

    • 14. Lesson 5. Sampling in the Sequence Window and Misc.

    • 15. Lesson 6a. Saturation Effects

    • 16. Lesson 6b. Time Based Effects

    • 17. Lesson 6c. Dynamic Effects [Theory]

    • 18. Lesson 6c. Dynamic Effects [Practical]

    • 19. Progress Update

    • 20. Lesson 6d. Mastering Effects (EQs)

    • 21. Lesson 6d. Mastering Effects (MBComp)

    • 22. Lesson 7. Mixing PSA

    • 23. Lesson 9. Exporting

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About This Class

This class is a crash course in Music Production and Sound Synthesis using Reason software. The class is intended to be accessible for anyone who has opened Reason for the first time and is ready to learn how to navigate around and make informed decisions as they build their song.

Parts 1-4 cover the GUI and the main instruments including synths samplers and drum machines.

In the coming lessons we will look at the different types of effects (signal processing) and begin to mix our jam into a final product using the different mixing and mastering utilities available.

Meet Your Teacher

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Yng Wok

yongeWok is a Toronto Music Producer


I am a hiphop dancehall and afrobeat music producer from Toronto with a classical background in performance and theory. I'm interested in learning about coding and electronics to incorporate into a modular synth setup, and I'm also interested in marketing topics as it pertains to music publishing and promotion. Also interested in culinary arts.

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1. Introduction to Music Production and Sound Synthesis: Welcome to my Skillshare class on music production and sound synthesis. To go over what this class is going to be about: This class will teach you how to navigate around Reason. This class will teach you the different types of synthesis. That's to say, the different types of synthesizers, how they produce their sound, and the differences between them. We'll learn how to create custom patches. I often learn from these pre-made patches. Through this course, you'll learn how to make your own, what all the different parameters (settings) do. And you'll be able to create them from scratch. We'll look at some sample processing. We'll process some, some audio files. maybe some vocals or instrumentals, we'll see when we come to it. And I'll show you, how to process them using Reason, and the different options you have. We'll also look at the mix window up here. I'll show you around the different parts of the mixer. And we'll also talk about the different effects, different kinds of effects. And finally, we'll talk about the master section, which is essentially what you move on to when you're finished your song, bringing it up to a loud and marketable final product. So we'll cover that in near the end after we're familiar with the rest of the program. And the last main thing we'll talk about is how you export your project. How to export stems, as well as multi-tracks and stereo mixes. So in a nutshell, that's what the class will teach you, but there will be a few more things here and there. I'll go over a few things that this class *is*: In many ways, this class is applicable to other software and hardware units. Now, that's not to say that after watching this class, you should jump right into using an analog synthesizer. It's a very different scenario as you're working with very expensive units. They can and will get blown out if you crank things too far. They can short-circuit as well, So although some of the information about synthesizers and the drum machines in this course can be used in real life, there's a different skill set that comes into play when you're working with when live or analog hardware. So while you might learn a few things here, those are very expensive mistakes to make. So... this course is a catch-all course, kind of like a crash course, you might say. We'll start from the basic user interface, going to learn about the different modules. We will build a song throughout the course, and learn from what we make, as we make it. This course is also legacy friendly, which is to say, although I'm using Reason 11, a lot of people don't have (or want) Reason 11, for all sorts of reasons. For that reason, I'm going to be using the older modules, at least at the beginning. We'll probably touch on some of the new modules later on. But for most of the class, we'll be looking at instruments that have been around for some time and that everybody using Reason will likely have access to. This course is also in-the-box friendly. This means I'm not going to be using any external plugins. Everything's going to be stock instruments. So those are a few things that this class *is*. Now, just a few things that this class is *not*: This is not a music theory class. Of course, you don't need harmony or counterpoint education to use this. And you don't need it to make music. However, sometimes I will mention some musical terms here and there, maybe in talking about octaves or different intervals. but I will not be going into depth about music theory. Maybe I can do another class about that if anybody is interested. But we're not going to be going into depth in that in here. This class is also not an electrical engineering course. We're going to talk now and then maybe about voltage levels, this type of circuit or that, but we're not going to talk about how those how those circuits are built. I have a basic understanding but I'm not qualified to teach that. The other thing that this does not cover is live sound. This means we're working in the box. I'm not going to be talking about how to connect it to the rest of your studio. That's a whole other subject. On the same note, many things that work and may be safe to do in Reason are not necessarily safe, or healthy for physical gear. So keep these experiments within the software, because the software instruments do not blow, they don't short circuit or anything. They have overload protections in place and they're not actual electro-mechanical systems. The last thing that this class is not going to be covering is mixing and mastering. We will be talking about some effects, the different kinds of effects. Certainly you can use that knowledge in your mixing and mastering. But we're not really going to be going into the advanced techniques that are used. I have some understanding of it, but I'm not a mixing and mastering engineer, so I wouldn't consider myself qualified to teach you that at an advanced level. So we will not be going into depth into those subjects. But that's essentially the introduction and the overview of the class. Briefly I'll share a little bit about me, just so you know who is talking to you. I have a background in classical music. I started off playing the drum set and was a big Rush fan in high-school. When I got to university I was into composition after playing in classical settings, and I took a course in digital and electronic media, I think that's what the course was called. That focused on a couple different programs, but mostly on Reason. So that's a big reason why... [laughs] ...a big reason why I am interested in this program specifically. Something I like about it is that it emulates an analog studio. You get the experience of patching things physically, which we'll see shortly. And yeah, it's it's it's like a sandbox. As a university student I was into composition and I found that in Reason and other digital media, you can get the same experience of composition, but it's a lot more practical as well. For one thing, you can have more and more control, and you can be more specific about the sound that you want. And on the other hand, you also don't need to hire anyone. You can make a song, but you don't need to go around and hire a bunch of people just to record your music. You don't have to worry about that. Certainly, you can still do it if you want to, but its not your only option. You can use the software, even just to create a demo or something. It's a very practical skill for any musician, especially if you're into to creating songs of any kind. So I really took a liking to that. And I ended up studying at Recording Arts Canada, where they went into more depth about signal processing, which is to say popular music production They focused a lot on Reason, as well as music production and sound design. In 2015, I got my diploma there. Since then I've been honing my skills. One thing to note: a lot of this stuff I didn't necessarily learn it while I was in school. School teaches you what the things are and what they do. But it can't really teach you how to use them [creatively]. If you want to know the technical side, then by all means go to the school. But if you want to be creative, if you just want to make some music, if you're into the creative side of it, then this course is for you. I'm going to be showing you what they teach in school, but you're not going to be paying a few stacks, which is always great to avoid doing. Most of your knowledge is going to come from, from practising after this class is done. So once you're done this, if things are still confusing, if you're struggling with understanding compression maybe, like just keep on working with it. Took me years after graduating to get a full understanding of what everything was doing and how I can really use it in my work. So that's my background, in terms of the software, and why I think I am capable of teaching it to you. And hopefully as we get into this class, you'll feel the same way. So for the first lesson we'll be looking at the user interface, which is essentially everything that you're seeing here. And then we'll jump right into synthesizers. I'd like to do the user interface first because, I don't think it makes sense to start on all of the juicy stuff, and then cut it off with all this kind of jargon. I say lets get all these technical buttons out of the way and then we can jump in and everything else is fun after that. So lets get onto the first lesson talking about the user interface. And we'll start that in a few moments. I'll see you in the next lesson. 2. Lesson 1a. The Rack Window: Okay, welcome to the first lesson. I'm glad you're still here. We're going to start out by just looking at the different, different windows in reason. The way I'd like to start is with the interesting window, which is the rack window right here. Rack window is where you could say all the action happens. All of the instruments, all of the different utilities and effects that you use, they're going to be displayed in the rack window. And that's also where where the master section, which is right here, that's where all of your master inserts will will be will be located. Basically everything with dials, anything like that, any controls besides what's on the mixer will be shown in the rack window. So right here, I have, I have a bunch of the different instruments laid out. These are all Reason stock instruments. So, if you buy Reason, these are all included with the purchase. I don't think any of these we're introduced Reason 11. So if you haven't upgraded to Reason 11 yet, you most likely have pretty much all of these unless you're still on Reason 5, for whatever reason. But still, we will start with the ones that are even all the way back in Reason 5. The way I've laid it out here, I've kinda sorted them by the different functions of each different module. Right here you have your basic tracks. You have your mix channel and your audio track. And what I did right there, I hit Tab and that's switches to the rear-view of the rack. You'll also notice that the mix channel has an input, while, the audio track does not have an input. What that really means is, if you have a module like this, maybe a Subtractor for example, and you try to play it, but no sound, you have to route its output to the mix channel, which really just brings it into your into the mix up here. There it is, right there. Back when I started with Reason in 2012 my university was running Reason 5. And at that time there was no mixer up here. There was no mix window. The way we would we would we would mix things is you would run it through this. I mean, it *is* a mixer, but it obviously doesn't have the same, the same capabilities as the one up here. But this is the way we used to do it. Here we have a combinator, which basically allows you play multiple instruments with one lane of MIDI to control all of them. It basically controls many at the same time. We'll talk about those. So this is your mixer, then you have your line mixer, which is essentially just a smaller version of the mixer. People often use them inside the combinator to mix all of their combinator instruments together. I often end up just why wiring them out separately, into separate channels, but depends on what I'm doing. Here's your mergers and splitters. Here we have a merger and splitter for audio. This one is a merger and splitter for control voltage. And control voltage... so it's not an audio signal... it's more of an electrical signal, it can be either an on or off, or a gradient signal/voltage. They can be used to control another instrument... Like here we have a CV out from the compressor. You can use it to side chain other things. In other software it's more like you're typing it in (through drop-down menus) wherever you want it to this side chain or controllable voltage to go. In Reason, you can drag your cable anywhere where there's an input. Here, for example. And that's going to be controlling the volume of this fader, whichever one it is... that's eight... So that'll be controlling this level. You can use this splitter to split into many different ones. This will invert it and chain them like that. You can merge them. That's what these two units are for. Here we have just some of the basic effects. These are usually for mastering, meant for use in the mastering section, but you can use them anywhere. Up here you have... we have our basic synthesizers. And these ones kind of look similar, but these are samplers. And instead of using using electrical signals, these use these use little sound files. They play them back. Here we have our drum machines and sequencers. This one is a drum machine with a sequencer, kind of modelled after maybe an 808 or just those kinds of sequenced drum machines in general. This one is just a sequencer on its own. It doesn't have any internal sounds. This is more like a drum machine with pads, kind of like an MPC. And you could control it with an MPC or a keyboard or any kind of control surface. This is kind of a loop player. That's what you can think of it as. And you can load different loops and it'll play and play them back. You can slice them up here. Over here we have our saturation effects. These are all saturation/distortion based, and they basically take the signal and saturate it in a certain way. It has the effect of behaving like an amplifier/distortion. And these are our time-based effects, they take your signal and processes them over time. Sometimes it'll delay it, or like this one, its sequenced filter-gate. But all of these incorporate time. These incorporate that colour and saturation. These incorporate time into the effect. We'll come back in more detail to all of these things in a bit. And next we're going to move on to this onto the sequence window. So let's go there now. 3. Lesson 1b. The Sequence Window: Okay, so let's get into the sequencer window. So I cleared the project window, just to give a better sense of what's going on in the sequence window, and we can build from the ground up. So essentially, in the rack window you have all your instruments. But you can't, can't control or save any note information from this rack window. The way you do that is in the sequence window. So let me... I'm going to create a track here. There's two different ways you can do that. I'll go with a ReDrum... and it creates it here... And it also creates a track in the rack window. Now, you can also do it the other way around. That might be kind of self-explanatory, but just to show that you can do it both ways. Now, what the sequencer is? It's really anything that stores notes over time and plays them back, or sends triggers to play them. Really, this whole part here, this is essentially a sequencer as well. It's a drum machine that sequences itself. Another, another example of a basic sequencer in Reason is the Matrix. It's essentially this part of the ReDrum drum machine, just without the drum machine attached to it. And you can use this to control all sorts of things, like maybe instruments, nearly anything in reason. So a sequencer really just stores notes and plays them back. All that the sequence window is, is just an advanced version of one of those sequence. The sequence window can store drum notes, patterns, sequences. It can also store MIDI, and the drums are stored as MIDI as well. But you can also store melodies, chords in the sequence window. So essentially this is where you do all that. So there's a few more buttons going on in this window. Starting in the top left corner here, we have the different cursor types. There appears to be seven, haven't counted them before. Well, it seems to be seven. And they can be activated with a few very useful hotkeys. Hotkeys are all located along QWERTY. And you so so if I hit Q, that brings up my basic cursor. It does a lot of things. If functions as the drag, it functions as a Zoom sometimes. Its the Cursor. Hit Q for that. Say you want to draw something like maybe a region, now you hit W and turn your cursor into, into the pencil tool. And I said 'region' there, a 'region' is really just an area where you can add MIDI notes or MIDI information. Those are called regions. So with the W key, you can switch to the pencil. Another thing to note, if you hold down Command and click, you can also do that. You can have a temporary pencil just like that, kind of on the fly. So that's W... E That's your eraser. Really, just erases. Too much to say about that. The R is your razor tool. You can use that to slice, slice regions or to slice MIDI notes. Slice different MIDI notes at the same time. It's probably the one I use most often besides the cursor. Now the little M here... which is T hotkey, that mutes regions. And I don't really use this, I just hit M. But it should also... it should also mute individual MIDI notes. So I have a few different ones here. And to just mute this one, whichever ones I want. So that's T. Y is your zoom. You can zoom with it. Again, I don't usually use it this way. I usually just I usually just hold Command and scroll up and down to change the zoom. I usually do that, but it's there if you need it. Maybe if... maybe your mouse isn't working properly or something, who knows. And finally U, U is just the hand/drag tool. You can use it to just navigate around your project. So those are the main tools, the main tools that you have access to. Next over, we have you have the edit window. Select any region. Let's put some, put some stuff in there and hit Edit. And you can open it up. You can also do that by double-clicking on the region. Closing. Double-clicking. The edit mode is just another way to get into this region. So now, the next part of that we have is your snap settings This effects how precise your cursor is... or the intervals that the play-head snaps to when you drag it around. If you turn it off you can you can drag things very precisely. You can set it to any division, really. All the way up to a 128th notes, I'd like to see the person who makes use of those. But that's essentially what this snap is for. And as you drag things around, this section up here shows you its position and you can even drag it around this way too. Or you can just refer to its exact position or exact length and change that as well. That's really the top bar and what there is to know. Moving on to here, you'll notice that this record arm button is 'on'. And whenever I create a new track, it's 'on'. So that can be a problem, especially if we're dealing with... ...well, I don't have an input here... ...but if you have a microphone connected if that can be an issue. because if you're not expecting it you can get some feedback. So just throw it on manual record, just do it manually, and then record your stuff. And that can be a big help toward avoiding some injured ears. Moving over to the right. These stand for 'mute' and 'solo'. These ones don't actually mute or solo anything. What they do is they un-mute and un-solo everything. So if you have a bunch of things soloed, you're trying to hear something, and then you're finished, you want to cancel all of them. To cancel all of the mutes, You just hit that and same thing with the solo. It just cleared the board. Staying up here... This one... this little plus sign... It adds different different note-lanes, which is basically how you can have different streams/regions of MIDI information playing at the same time. So I have this one here... ...I can have this one and then add a new layer, add another melody playing at the same time. The other way you can do that is the left and right triangle brackets. I guess that's what they're called. I don't know what they're called, but the left one does the same thing as this one. And then the right one... I think it mutes the old one... Essentially the same thing as that little plus sign. It creates a new lane for your MIDI information. This one here is almost like a bird's eye view of your, your automation options. So by going here and say... I want this filter frequency to move on its own over time, The way you normally do it is... Hold down option/alt. Click on the parameter that you want to modify. And you can write your automation. Have like a little filter sweep here. And you can see it's moving there. So that's the more common way to do it. Sometimes you might be able to automate more things than are visible at first glance. Or, without focusing on other plug-ins, but with sometimes, you can't do this option click thing. And in order to automate something with those, this is a way that you can do that. You can really go deep here. We'll try to do the same one. I think that was filter... B... ...that was filter B, So if I go into the filter, and select filter B frequency. I've opened an automation lane for that same parameter. And I can do the same thing. You'll see its moving like that. So that's essentially what this drop-down does. And it changes depending on which which which track you have selected. Because each different track, or each different instrument has different parameters available to automate. So that's what that does. There's little box with the boxes inside it. I actually, I actually didn't even press that button until I was preparing for this class. This only works with a sequenced drum machine. And I imagine it would work for the... ...for the Matrix too... we'll test it.... Yeah, I'd also works with this. So what this does, you hit that and it automates the pattern select. So... when you automate that, it's a selection for the patterns that you have available. When you automate this, you open up a pattern select and you can tell it to play different patterns and when. It's basically how you, how you have different patterns going on. And we'll come back to this when we're talking with the drum machine. But that's what this little button does. It opens up a lane for... It opens up the automation lane for this pattern select. So that's kind the top bar. This is your transport channel track. If you wanted to change the tempo, that automation lane will show up here. And you can see the tempo changing, this one can be useful in some situations. It's there for whenever you want to do that. You can also automate the time signature there. So moving down to the actual channels, you have your mute and solo. And like I said before, you can cancel those up there. This is your automation record-arm. So if you start recording, you can change things like this and it won't latch. As long as this is off, you can change things, while it's recording and it won't, it won't save those changes. With it turned on, you can begin changing parameters and it'll automatically write, and save the automation. If you've used something like Control 24 or a nice digital mixer. The automation modes are 'write', 'latch', 'touch' and I think another one. I don't own one of those, So, you know, I don't really use that. But I believe this is always in the 'write' mode. This one does the same thing for recording MIDI notes, and the same would apply for an audio track. We hit this. And also for, for the automation-arm/enable. The same thing applies. This drop-down here has to do with the Groove section. And this bottom bar is one of the main things that's changed since the last version. The Reason version I was on before, there used to be, a rectangular button. It looked like this, and it had this logo on the button. And you would be able to, you would be select that button and open this window. So this window is where, if you have MIDI information, you can snap it to a grid. You can move the MIDI information, to a shuffled grid, which are kind of like, like pre-aligned grids, or shuffle profiles; they have different different characteristics, different feels to them. Plus the groove section. And this is just where you select which one will to be active, for that note lane. This is mute different from this mute. This mutes the entire MIDI channel or track. This one just mutes this note lane. So if you have another, another note lane, then you can have this one muted... ...or both of them, or you can use it to just monitor different things... you'll find your own uses for it. This X just deletes the MIDI lane. It'll give you a message if there's data there and asking if you really want to delete it. So that's it for that section. This is for monitoring. If you have a microphone, this is only on an audio tracks that can receive microphone/line signal. The monitor is basically if you're recording and you want to hear it back through the headphones or the speakers or something, you just activate this and you can hear it live as it comes in. If you have an interface, you might not need it because you can listen to the input. But this is where you can change it to manual monitoring. You can change it to automatic monitoring, or external monitoring. I have it manual because you can have bad experiences, you know, maybe you go to record, enable it, and then its automatically monitoring... you can get feedback that way. So I keep that on manual and then only turn it on when I need it. So that's what this one does. So that's it for this side panel here. You'll see that there's, there's some boundaries here. These determine where you want it to loop around, if that's what you want. And some hotkeys for that are... you can select the location of this Left boundary by holding down Option/Alt. And you can quickly set the, set the Right boundary by holding down Command/Ctrl. You can set the right boundary. And these boundaries are affected by by your snap settings. So if you want it to snap right to the bar, grid is kind of like a smart snap. It depends on your your zoom level. And... You can turn snap off and snap it anywhere... ...or not snap, but place it anywhere. Now, this is one thing that's new, when it comes to Reason 11, And this confused me for a while. I forget exactly how I set it to my preferred default. But I think I just, I just changed it up and I remembered what I prefer to use. Before, all of the dragging used to be 'relative', which means, like this one starts halfway through the bar, But if I were to have an 'absolute', which when I downloaded the new version, that was the default, 'absolute' takes it from whatever position is within, within the bar, and then it places it at the beginning of whatever division you have the snap on. So maybe if it's on quarter snap, and the region/note starts on an eighth node, it'll snap it right to the quarter. Which, I didn't really like that. I spent some time looking for how to change it and that's right here. So if want to move it around, and keep it in position, just go relative. And then if I put it to bar snap, it'll move it a bar. But it'll move it exactly a bar from where it was at. And I usually just keep it always on there. If I need to move it to a different point, I'll go here and then move it back, or I'll just change the snap level. So those are your options for snapping. I think I already went over these these locations here. They are pretty straightforward. It just changes the length and position. This is where you would apply any fades if you want, you want to fade in or fade out. And I think believe this counts in... I think 16th notes, because this one is in ticks. And ticks is another thing... You can count things in time - like seconds and milliseconds. Or you can also count them in bars and beats. And when you're counting in beats, the smallest division is generally a 16th note in most software. So what happens when you need to move it by a smaller division than a 16th note? The 16th note is divided into 239 ticks. And it's 239 because at 240... 240 happens when you wrap around back to one. It divides into 2 and 3, these are common denominators, which means that it works both ways if you're using triplets or if you're using duple time... it works well in different time signatures. That's why it's 239. And you can see what happens if you snap it around... You can see that I'm moving it by 16ths and the 16th values are changing individually. But for anything smaller/finer than a 16th, you'll start moving it by ticks. In this case, by 120, which is half of 240. Triplets work too. They also divide nicely, into an even division. Again, that's why it's 240 because it has a common denominator. The divisions fall upon on whole numbers, or even numbers, just easy numbers to remember. That's kinda how this, how this time code works. Everything from here on deals with audio, not MIDI because you can't directly fade in and out with MIDI. You have to encode that into the actual MIDI by changing the velocity. But on the audio tracks you can apply fades, you can change the gain level. And you can transpose it up or down, which is another way of saying you can change the pitch. The maximum range for this is plus or minus 12 semitones. But if you really want to, you can slice it with R and rejoin it with Command J, And now the transpose is reset to zero. From here you can change it up or down further, but it doesn't always sound great when you change it too much. But that's one option that you have and we'll come back to that when we talk about samples. So that's this window... we talked about loops... Now the last, actually last thing here is the 'end' boundary. So... say your song ends here and you want to export it. Even though the song ends here, and all the information ends here, it'll still keep recording until this end boundary. So you have to be sure to move it to wherever your song ends. Also if your song goes past it, then you have to move it to the end of your song. Or else it will stop recording/exporting, it won't export the whole song. So just be mindful of where this is placed when you're finishing your song. This bottom part here, this changes the boundary... or the Zoom, the vertical zoom. When you have some audio in here, let me load something... this one... You can change the size of the wave form. That's useful if it's already really loud, and you want to make it smaller or it's very quiet, but you want to see the waveform a bit better. That's what this is used for. And the last thing here is your, your zoom-to-selection. Other programs, like if you use something like Auto CAD, they call it zoom-to-extents. Which I guess if it was the exact same, it would zoom to your loop boundaries. But the way it works here is it zooms to your selection. Or if there's nothing selected, it just zooms to the to the start of the first region, to the end of the last one. So it just kind of fits your whole project onto the screen. And nothing more. And this little... ...little view port... you can just navigate around with that. So that's this main window. Lets go over the bottom, down here real quick. There's your onscreen piano keys, which is what I'm using right now. I don't really have that much desk space, so I don't have a keyboard out right now. But you can open this and type with your keyboard, and you can play the play your instruments that way. I actually use that quite a lot. You can open it by this button, or you can also press F4. ...I always get this issue... Here's the Groove we already looked at. This is the Q Record. This is how you turn it on and off, like if you're recording some MIDI into an instrument this basically quantizes your input that, whatever you record, it will lock to 16th notes or 8th notes or whatever you want. It's also called input-quantize, which is what a lot of systems call it. This is your sync mode. I don't really ever really use that personally. And also for the purposes of this class, we're not talking about anything outside of the box. But if you did have something outside of the box, this is what you would use to sync them up. It has MIDI Clock, or you can link it to Ableton. Or you can send the MIDI Clock. I don't have a MIDI input active right now. So those are faded out because I don't have the hardware plugged in. This down here is your time code. It just tells you where this play-head is located. Here you have your click track. You can change the volume of your click track with this. And obviously you change your tempo. You can tap whatever tempo you want. And you can change your time signature here. The other thing you can do is this pre-count. If you're going to start recording... You can hit record... And if the pre is on, you can get one bar of 4/4 time. It'll give you a count-in and you'll notice that this won't start moving until the count-in is finished. And now it starts going. You could turn on click still if you need it. But that's basically just a count in. It gives you some time, lets you prepare to record. That's your metronome section. This is your transport. You can just fast forward, rewind, stop, start, and record. This is your overdub. And this is your 'alt'. This allows you to create a new lane, or a new take. This just turns the loop on and off. So whether or not it listens to these boundaries. This shows you the extent of your loop. Set it from there... Set it from here... and it'll just show you where it is... These things down here... You have your 'disk overload', your 'demo mode'. Reason is a fairly lightweight program before you start incorporating plugins. So if you're using the stock version, and you have an okay computer, you probably won't see this thing light up. This is your 'automation override'. That will light up if, for example, let's say... for drum 1, I have it written to be muted... So you see it here... Right now.... It's following whatever automation I have... If I change that automation, it'll light up here. It says automation override, which basically says... you told it to do something other than what it's automated to do. And if you want to go back to automation, and you just click that and it will go back to whatever the automation is telling it to do. Another thing is... if you have automation... you can change the value very precisely. Here, this is obviously a binary setting, which is why he's saying just 1 or 0. But maybe if I... if I have a spectral parameter... you can change it a lot more... lots more range of motion... And you can dial it in a lot more specifically then you would be able to here, sometimes this moves like in increments of two at the max. But you can, you can really, really dial it in if you use that function. Over here... This is another change from, from the older version of reason. I think this... I think they had the side window in Reason 9. I forget if I moved from, from 7 or 9 to 11. But this was not always there. You would always you would usually go from here [drop-downs]. And then otherwise, I believe you would drag and drop samples from your desktop or your year or a year finder, or whatever protocol... into your sequencer or your instrument. That's how you used to do it. Now they have this side window where you can select the different instruments. You have your patches, for the different instruments. This drum supplying is fantastic. I love that clap. That's a great clap. There's a lot of great sounds in here. And we'll go over how to modify those later. Here's the rack extensions... That's my stuff there... These are your samples here... self-contained... un-assigned... any sounds, or sound files that you bring in, They'll be stored here. Usually it should move them together. And if not, just go here. This 'song self-contain' and then you just self-contain it, which basically means, any resources that the project uses... It'll incorporate those files in into the project file. So wherever you take the project file, you don't need to go through any other, any other folders and collect all of all of your resources. It's all contained in the file. Showcase... I don't really know what this is for... seems to be a bunch of patches, probably the ones that [Propellerhead] likes. I'm not sure... This is where you'll be doing most year work... utilities, effects and instruments. So that's this sidebar here. And next we'll go on to the mixer. And we'll discuss how this thing works. So I think that's it for this section. And I'll see you at the mixer. 4. Lesson 1c. The Mix Window: Okay, so let's move on, on to the mix window. So each channel strip has a pre-amp. Everything in this strip is happening after you send it into the input here. And for an audio track... the sound file is kind of 'married' to this track. and then you can bring copies out through these, but it goes through this part first. Now this one has pre-amp, you can also have negative gain... you can bring it down. Gain is great because for all of these different units, they'll produce all some noise. And giving it a bit of gain At the beginning of the channel strip is a lot better. Then turning up the volume at the end. Because any noise or just unwanted artifacts or signals that are coming from here... If you turned up at this stage, that's going to turn up all that noise as well, is going to be a muddy. So the best thing that you can do is even though there's potential to have some noisiness here, it's best to, to give it a bit of gain. Just give it a bit here and it'll bring up, bring up the whole spectrum of... maybe it's drums, or some chords. It'll bring up the whole thing. Its a powerful gain knob. So putting it up to the top... that's a lot of gain. But basically that gives you some better material to work with when it comes to the rest of the chain. This little signal path section determines what order the dynamics EQ and inserts happen in. If you want to insert 'pre', that means these inserts... it goes through these inserts before it goes into dynamics or EQ. If you wanted the dynamics after the EQ... It doesn't change the position here... but it'll change the signal flow. 'Filters to dynamic side chain' basically reads what's. Going through the filters, it detects whatever's passing through, whatever is being filtered. And then it uses that presence of a signal to create a side chain signal or a control voltage. And I believe that, that goes to this, that goes to this master compressor? I believe... So. Here is your dynamics. You have a compressor and you have a gate. A gate. so as I'm talking to you right now... When I stop talking... If I have a gate... and I might put one, not sure... [I did put one]. When I stop talking... It'll detect that this volume has gone below whatever threshold/cut-off that I say... and when it drops below that, it turns off all sound. So it's a way of getting rid of noise. The other aspect of dynamics is using a compressor. So a compressor reads when I or any instrument hits to a loud volume, it will detect anything above a certain volume... And then for every one decibel above that threshold, it'll bring the whole thing down. and it'll break down by a certain number of decimals. And that's determined by the ratio. So if we have a 2:1 ratio, that means for every decimal over this threshold, it'll bring it down by two decibels. So it kinda flattens... flattens out the sound. If I have like a guitar and there's some very loud tones, but there's very quiet strumming... It'll bring those two closer together. So you can hear everything without straining your ears or without turning off, like all the fans or closing a window to be able to hear those quiet things. It brings everything up/closer. It reduces dynamic range, which allows everything to be a bit more audible, especially in more complex sounds. That's your dynamic section. Moving on to the EQ section, you have some filters. You can take away the highs... the lows... You can see them active here. That's what they do, and we have... we have the actual EQ. Its a pretty good EQ... It doesn't have very have very fine Q control. That kind of [wide] Q is very reminiscent of vintage equalizers. So while this EQ is a stock one, it has a very good sound. Especially, especially the high shelf... sounds pretty great. So I would recommend playing around with this. You can change the high frequency to a bell. You can combine these two and have it roll off there. That's your EQ section. This is the inserts section. Now they have some default insert options and they're kinda cool. The other way you can do inserts is going to the actual channel and then just adding... adding maybe an equalizer here. This is a plugin EQ, but just to demonstrate, you can plug it in here. That just doesn't show up here. This is kind of like a different way of doing inserts. More like a big studio. But... a lot of the time I just usually opt for this way because it's more individual. This way... With this, you can have certain inserts for everything across the board. So that's kinda cool. Thats how you would turn them on, turn the volume going to that parameter... That's your inserts section. So inserts is one way of adding effects. Inserting effects basically means you're pointing it. You're, you're adding it to your adding it's to the flow of the channel strip, you're inserting it into the into the pathway. A 'send' creates a copy of whatever is passing through at this point and sends it across what they call a bus. In a real board... it would send it across some wiring called a 'bus' over to the Effects section, usually to your patch bay if you have one of those. And then you would patch it to whatever effect you need. And then when you bring it back into the board, it would come out the 'effects return', which is separate from the original. So what a send allows you to do, is you can keep the original signal. Like maybe if it's drums or a guitar, you can keep the 'dry' or the 'clean' signal coming through here. And you can have maybe a distorted or a fuzz kind of signal coming through here. And you can balance the two accordingly. And the other thing about sends is You can send different channels to the same unit. There's also a 'pre-fader' button here. What that means, is when pre-fader is off, the signal passes through the whole channel, including the fader, adjusting to whatever volume this is at, and *then* it sends it to the effect, after all this happens. 'Pre' stands for pre-fader... So if you have that 'on', it sends it to the effect before the fader section [at full volume]. So, even before this panning pot... it sends it before all of this. Also, if pre-fader is on, but the send is off, then no signal is sending. So you need to have both active for signal to go through. And the level is here... you can change the panning of the effects return, or mute the effects return, or change the level. That's the send section. You can change your panning here. If you have a stereo file or a stereo sound coming through, you can change how far to the left and right stereo image is projected [stereo width]. Hard left and hard right. This has some mid in it. Or have it all the way shut, that it turns into mono. Here, you have some different output options, we'll get into that when we're talking about the masters section and outputting our stems or, or multi-tracks or things like that. There's a few things you can do with that. That's really the extent of it... well there's the fader... I'm pretty sure we all know what that does... But when it says 0 dB... basically it's at line-level, which means there's no additional or no less power being supplied. It's at its nominal state. You also have these little buttons... In each window... You have these buttons... It shows where this is located in the sequencer or in the rack. It'll flash quickly. You can also see them here. You can see it in the sequencer and see it in the mix. That's how you do it in the sequence window. Click on it, it'll flash where it is. And it'll move to where it's at. For the sequence window you don't have to click any buttons. Just click on the track... It'll take you there. Now... This bar on the right-hand side, this is really part of the master section, but to give you an idea... This is your master compressor. this applies to everything just before it goes out to your speakers. I would not recommend using this while you're creating the song. I would recommend using it either when you're finished the song, or after you've exported your file, and you've taken it back in for mastering. Because when you use this before everything's done, a can create some 'breathing' effects. It can be very unsteady. We'll talk about compression a bit more... Here in the inserts section, you can see which inserts effects are active. We'll touch on that a bit when we're talking about effects. This is the returns section, we already looked at that bit. And then this is the master fader section. And this is the final volume control before it hits your speaker. I'd recommend keeping it at 0 dB. If you're about to send it out to maybe Spotify or something, can help to turn it down by one. For Spotify, YouTube... all those services have maximum thresholds for all your masters. The lowest regulated peak is -2dB and the highest... I believe... is -1dB peak amplitude. So if you're compressing it properly, it'll already be just below this 0 dB peak value. But it can't hurt to... just bring it all back down a little bit... because if you're already up there chances are your mix is plenty loud as it is. So it can't hurt to pull it down and just avoid the hassle of the streaming services processing and messing with your file. Then you also have a few different peak modes or different metering modes. When we have some signal going through there, we'll be able to see more clearly what they do. Also a little visualizer on the way out, just before it goes to your speakers here. And this is for the control room stuff. This is outside of the box. For you have like a big setup. That's a bit more complicated than we need to get. You can also open the sequence or rack windows here... and also opens a master section channel there. And just like we saw in the in the sequence window, we have these unmute/unsolo buttons, we have the same thing here. These are separate mutes from the sequence section. You'll see it. These are muted. These are not, these are for the actual note/MIDI information. This is for the sound. But they do the same thing. And the last thing here isn't like little dim button, which I mean, if you get a call but you don't want to stop, stop the music playing, or somebody's talking, you're having a conversation, you can dim it. Just saves the trouble of a bring it down and then bringing it back up. You could just hit Command+Click to default it. But say you have it down... you have it set down here... You can't just command click and bring it back to your setting. So that's the dim. The dim is... it's more of a social kind of thing, most major studios have it. So it's cool that they added that. Here you can, you can hide and show the different parts of the, of the mixer. And with this guy... you can navigate around. And that's really the long and short of this mix window. Now the last thing I'm going to show you how to do in this part is... if you have a second monitor/screen or if you just want to have different windows, just hit detach main mixer... You can have this as its own window and then click between them... You can detach the rack window... I used to take my TV monitor and put it up sideways... turn it like 90 degrees... I can would a huge long rack window. So that's what you can do it if you detach the rack window. So that was kinda fun. It turned out to be a hassle to keep a TV monitor on its side all the time. But you can do that if you want. And that's really all there is to know about the user interface... as far as I can tell right now... They also have little tutorials here. If you want to take any of their tutorials, they can't hurt either. That's really all there is to know about the user interface. So after this, we're going to move onto, actually talking about synthesizers. How they work, the different components that go into them and how we can use them to make our own patches. And that will be in the next lesson... lesson number two. So I hope to see everybody there. It's going to be a fun lesson. And I'm sure that's what, that's what we're all here for, is to play around with the instruments. So without further ado, let's get onto the lesson. See you there. 5. Lesson 2a. Oscillators: Welcome to Lesson 2. We're going to start looking at the different synthesizers. First, I want to go over the different components of the synthesizer. So you can have a better sense of what's going on with all these different buttons. So when we talk about synthesizers... every synthesizer needs to have a source of the sound. And generally that's produced by an oscillator. Different modules might have different sound sources. Sometimes oscillators, sometimes samples. Samples can be played on a keyboard similar to a synthesizer. They are just little clips of audio. On the other hand, an oscillator... it's more of a circuit. If you have a breadboard, there's ways that you can build your own oscillator and synthesizer on a breadboard. Moritz Klein on YouTube, has a very good DIY tutorial on how to make your own synthesizer on a breadboard, if you have one of those. Essentially, an oscillator is a very simple circuit. And what it does is it creates an oscillation, which is simply an alternation between two points. In this case, and in general for electronic music, we're talking about an oscillation between two points of positive voltage and negative voltage. The zero line is where it comes to rest. And when we're talking about positive and negative voltages, you can think of the zero line as where your speaker is at rest. Whenever the waveform is above the line. that's when your speaker is pushing out. And when it's negative, it's pulling back in. Technically that's referred to as compression and rarefaction. Because the positive point is where the air is being compressed and pushed out. And rarefaction is is where it's being [rarefied], where it's pulling it back. And the combination of those creates the vibration which you perceive as sound. So an oscillator is really, just a circuit that creates this alternation between voltage points. Now... a sine wave... This one... it visualizes a sine wave right here... A sine wave... In terms of music... it's the most basic type of wave in music or sound. You have what's called a fundamental... So if I select this one... and I play a tone... ...let me turn off the second oscillator... Here... a very basic tone... And when it comes to a sine wave, whatever I'm pressing, it's playing only that single frequency... And that node is called the fundamental. So a fundamental can also have what's called harmonics, which are higher frequencies that vibrate sympathetically... which means kind of they naturally arise out of the fundamental frequency. In nature this is all over the place. It's referred to as the harmonic series. You have the fundamental tone, The next harmonic is... an octave up... And then the next one you'll get is a fifth... ...I'm trying to do it on a little keyboard... It goes up progressively. And essentially the balance, or the pattern in which these other harmonics show up, That's what differentiates any sound. Every instrument has a fundamental, but the pattern in which these other tones show up is what allows you to tell the difference between maybe a flute and a clarinet... or a bass guitar or an acoustic bass... or electric guitar or an acoustic guitar, any kind of sound. It's just the balance of harmonics. So what a sine wave is, is it has no harmonics. It's the most 'pure'... the most basic waveform. So, looking at this sine wave here, we see that it starts out in its compression going to a positive voltage, drops down and then it cycles back. Now, when it comes to the waveforms, that path from zero, going up and coming back to a loop... That can take any manner, any number of paths. Really an infinite number of paths, from the start to the end and back to the beginning. And the journey that path takes is called the waveform. Now electrically, the square wave is the most basic, the most basic oscillation. Because really it can be produced, with a binary system. And then from there you can use electronics to filter, or round off... those sharp edges there. And that way you can create a sine wave, you can create a sawtooth wave that way... That's what a basic oscillator circuit does in terms of when you have different wave forms. It's really just different ways of taking a journey from zero up to a point of compression, back to a point of rarefaction/vacuum, and back to the starting point. So when you cycle through all these, you're basically looking at different, different waveform is different journeys from, from start to end it back to one. This one that I'm playing with right now is called the Subtractor synthesizer. It uses a form of subtractive synthesis. And what that means is, you have a couple of different waveforms that you combine. You can have different algorithms to combine them. This one, it's subtracts this value from the oscillator 1. I'll balance the mix here. I'm going to incorporate a sawtooth... I'll start it out with just the normal combination. You can bring that in. With this subtraction algorithm, it sounds a bit different. And this one multiplies the two together, which produces a lot more high frequencies. You can also do it with the same waveform. It won't necessarily make a huge difference there. But when you start to use the multiply, you can really start to hear when they're multiplied together. So the other couple of things to talk about, at least with this one... This one has the option to phase... if you have a point in time... And you have your wave form... the phase is when the wave begins... So if I move this back a bit... that means that at the point that... that you trigger it... the waveform begins just a bit before that... So you're going to... you're gonna catch it on when it's already up a bit... And what that means, is you can offset these from each other. For the sine wave you might not necessarily hear a huge difference, but when it comes to more complicated waveforms, like maybe square waves. Can, you can start to hear some differences... especially when you have... other algorithms going on. Something also to know about phase is... like in math... 1 + (-1) = 0 So if your phase is set so that oscillator 1, for example, is positive... but oscillator 2 at the same time is negative... well those are going to cancel each other out... And you're really getting no sound in that case. This is very noticeable in bass frequencies. Sometimes you can get very strange bubbling sounds that can interfere with your mix. So that's something to keep in mind about phase. You can have some fun within the high frequencies... and also have fun with it in low frequencies... but be sure to use headphones, or be able to hear what's going on... Because it can create some strange effects that can take away from the overall mix. Another type of oscillator, besides the waveforms, is the noise oscillator. You can use this to create different, different characters of noises. And the way you balance them... you can create sounds, maybe like a flute blowing across the mouthpiece. You can shorten it... shorten the decay and create little attack... for a percussion type of sound. So that's your noise oscillator. And that's really essentially your, your oscillator section, at least for this one. Frequency modulation multiplies them both together. This one is a multiplier algorithm... for effecting the second one beforehand... but this one multiplies the final product. Can be quite psychedelic. The ring mod... I believe it kind of loops, loops back on itself. And we can go into that in a bit more detail. But I would have to brush up on the, on the specifics of that. But really creates kinda feeds back... for a ringing sound... a bit more resonance... So that's the Subtractor synthesizer in Reason. And essentially what you're doing is you're producing a sound and you're kind of cutting away at it. These different algorithms... they cut away at one another. And it's the kind of subtract from each other and produce sound that way. This is a graintable synthesizer, also called a granular synthesizer or granular synthesis. Granular also uses waveforms, but it's not exactly produced from like a coded waveform. What granular synthesis comes from is very tiny samples from an audio file/sample. Maybe even like a millisecond long, or you can use longer samples as well. But they can really be any kind of sound, any kind of sample. So what people do when they're creating grains for something like this is they'll find a nice loopable part of a sound file. And they'll slice that little bit and load it in here, and it's called a grain because it's like a little grain of a sound. You'll notice that this one has a lot more options when it comes to different wave forms. And it also has very specific sounds that the waves are modelled after. Real things like strings... I'll zero all these... I'm still selecting the Subtractor... I have to select the Malstrom here... its going through the Shaper... So this is just a little tiny segment of a string sound. There's all sorts of different ones. There's tanpura... Can do some nice things with that... Obviously not quite the real thing... but it's very useful... And you can get very specific with how you want to work with them. In the Malstrom, you have this motion potentiometer... these knobs are actually called a potentiometers... In electronics, it controls how much resistance passes through. It's like a resistor, but it's variable how much resistance you have. And that's called a potentiometer. So essentially what this 'motion' is... it takes whatever grain you have loaded... And you can change the speed that, the grain is playing at... So if I want to take just a little snapshot of this tanpura, I can slow down the motion... really slow... or you can also speed it up... So you can really change the character of these sounds. One of my favorite grains is, is the resonant noise. I'll use this as... a background to another sound... to compliment different sounds. For instance, you can adjust just the motion of these. Now the shift option... it'll kind of shift up the pitch... but it shifts up by the harmonic series... It's not like the semitone knob - I'll load a more tonal sound... a sine wave will be great to hear this... So if you have a sine wave, the semi-pot is just a linear... a linear transposition. Use the Shift, it'll add the fifth... it'll go up the harmonic series... it can really change the sound... Something to note... this sine wave doesn't have harmonics, So you can't shift it down because that would take away harmonics. It's a sine wave, and because it's a sine wave, you can't take away harmonics because it doesn't have any. If you have, maybe a sawtooth, Sounds kinda similar to the motion, but with something that's a rich sound, you can shift it down. But you can shift anything up with that as well. These potentiometers here [in the Malstrom], they're same thing as this one [in the Subtractor]. You can change the octave, you can change... basically how high it is... You can tune it differently. And this is generally included in all synthesizers. Some of them just do it a bit differently. But this is basically included in most oscillators. This one just uses the seven-segment displays. But it does the same thing, really. Some semitone novice will go down and up. Some of them only go up, and then you have to drop an octave if you want to step down a semitone. But you'll figure your way around that. So that's really, that's really the oscillator section. The Thor has a bit more of an advanced oscillator section. They essentially have different kinds of oscillators. I'll select the Thor... So, this is basically the analog oscillator option for the Thor. Got your semitones, and your octaves and your tuning there. This one's pretty interesting. It has a keyboard trap track knob. This one [Subtractor] has a keyboard-tracking toggle. This means if you have it off, then it'll just always play the same note. But this one [Thor] has a keyboard-track potentiometer, which is kinda cool. So it'll change tones, but it won't move according to an actual piano keyboard. Or you can go all the way to zero and I'm changing notes, but it's not changing pitch. So this is the analog oscillator. This is different because... this square wave allows you to use pulse-width modulation [PWM]. A square wave is made of even pulses. And pulse-width modulation is where you change the width of those pulses. So at either end the pulse is nonexistent, and as you bring it here its at the maximum [in the middle]. And this way it's non-existant. Here's a triangle wave. It's kind of like a sine wave, but with a bit more harmonics. Thor is a very powerful synthesizer... Namely because of all the kinds of oscillators. Here's the wavetable, which sounds similar to this shift option. In the Malstrom. You can change the... change its the position in the harmonic series it's following. Without crossfade it jumps to different positions in the harmonic series. With crossfade on, it moves smoothly. Now, the phase modulation is pretty cool. It's modelled after some of the more classic analog synths. You kind of combine two different wave forms. I like to use this one... and any other really... This is the FM pair - this one is kinda complicated, you can select different carriers. And they're going up by the harmonic series. I don't use this one too much but, but its going by the harmonic series. And then the 'modulator' side is doing the same thing... And you just add/multiply them together. And when you start filtering those out, they become a bit more palatable. But this one's pretty useful. I don't use this one too much, but, but it can be very useful. This is my favourite one. This one has a nice detune function. Very trance-y sound. So that's your basic sawtooth. And I like 'Random 2' detune... You get your typical trance-y sound... There are different waveforms... this is my favourite one... This one's cool too... it's a little weak... This is just a single pulse... that's very useful as well... And you have different detune modes... I usually use Random 2... This one, the linear would... Not sure if it would keep a copy in the centre... but it would definitely take two and spread them... Spread them apart from the main tuning note. This one adds fifths on top... This one does octaves. It spreads out to an octave, above and below. So there's all sorts of different ones in there.. And finally, the noise oscillator... And this is a pretty advanced noise oscillator... ...getting some monitor issues... ...monitor...issues... So there's your basic white noise. This one's pretty cool... Different types of noise... The band one is very interesting because you can actually create notes... This is the noise without the band-pass filter... and this is with the filter... And we'll talk about band-pass filters later... But essentially they let a narrow band of this spectrum to pass through. And when that sliver is tight enough, it can isolate a single note... kind of sounds like that Duracell commercial... This is sample and hold noise, kind of cool... Sounds like an eight bit Metroid bomb... . It takes a random number and... it'll hold that number for a period of time. And then it will take a new random number... that's the sample and hold... You'll see it in different synthesizers... Many analog ones... You can do all sorts of things with that. So this is normal static like the TV, ...let me turn this off [filter envelope trigger]... And that's where we can change the density, these words over here, those determine what this is doing. So this is changing their density.. kind of harsh, but maybe useful for a record crackle... This one changes the 'colour'... from low almost brown noise, essentially to a pink noise... and just plain white noise.... So those are the oscillators of the Thor. And hopefully by now you have an idea of what oscillators are doing. There's a few bonus options that you can use on the Thor. For example, this 'amplitude modulation from oscillator 2'... with this enabled, oscillator 2 is going through here... Turn this off... and I still have the signal affecting oscillator 1... it's not hugely noticeable with noise, but... there are all sorts of things you could do... So we'll come back in more detail... But for now we'll move on to the next component, which is envelopes. 6. Lesson 2b. Envelopes: Okay, talking about envelopes now... Oscillators have a bit of an issue, an engineering issue to address. Generally, they're kind of always on and if they're not, you can have issues restarting them and having them say in sync. So the ideal solution is to let them remain on and oscillating. And what we do after that is we need some kind of traffic light, or a gatekeeper to let the oscillator pass through to your speakers when you hit a key. And that's where envelopes come in. So let's go with let's go with the Malstrom because I like the envelopes on this one. Let's go with this nice and thick sound. So when you hit a key, you want the oscillator to start sounding. So when you hit a key that essentially triggers the envelope. Sometimes you'll see it in automation being called the 'envelope gate'. Or 'envelope trigger'. Similar things to that. So what happens when you hit the key is... it goes through these different parameters of the envelope. And these parameters are Attack, Decay, Sustain, and Release. So when you hit the key, the envelope essentially opens and allows signal to pass. The Attack determines how fast the envelope opens. So if you want a sharp attack, keep the Attack fader down. But if you want a softer attack, or for it to grow, just raise up the attack. It will slowly fade up. Keep in mind this is only affecting the volume of the oscillator right now. It's only dealing with volume. You can have a cushioned attack, fast but cushioned, that helps in avoiding pops... Here with a sine wave, you can hear that it's a smooth wave, but since the attack is zero, it's not fading, it's just cutting straight to it. So there's a little bit of a click and we don't really want that... Usually don't want that unless you're filtering it out later. But... we're not going to go under that assumption right now. So I like to have it right here, just for a general synth sound. Now, I'm going to skip over Decay because that heavily depends on the Sustain parameter. So when I press down a key and I want it to sustain, as long as I have the key held down, I'd want the Sustain maxed out, because the Sustain determines the volume that the oscillator plays at when the key is held down. Similarly, you can use that to have the signal drop down and hold at a medium volume, or you can have it drop out completely. Now if I wanted to have it hold here, this is whether Decay comes into play. As long as a key is held down, then the Decay is operating. And the Decay will determine how quickly it goes from the Attack... peaking at the max volume... the Decay will determine how fast it drops down to the volume at the point determined by your Sustain. You can create punch... you can have it hold but still have a punch at the beginning. You can also have the Sustain drop away, and determine how quickly it falls off. The Decay and Release are two sides of the same coin, except the Release happens when you release the key, And you can combine these two... to have it drop down a bit... but it's not completely gone... And when you release the key, the release will take it from there. Maybe having dropped down quite a bit, and then release slowly, all sorts of combinations of these are possible. But this essentially shapes the character of how it sounds when you hit the key. So that's referred to as an amplitude envelope. And that's because it's affecting the amplitude of the oscillator, or rather the signal that's coming through. And this affects the overall volume. Now, envelopes can be used all over. There's filter envelopes. In the Subtractor you have a mod envelope. In the Thor you have filter and mod envelopes, and you also have this global envelope that can be used for other parameters altogether. Envelopes can be used for virtually anything. With units like these, there are some limitations in terms of where you can route them into. Again, pressing tab to switch to the back. And you can see, here's the filter envelope. You can you can wire it and have it go to maybe the shift. It's essentially doing that motion. You can do it for all sorts of things. And right now I'm using the filter envelope. That's an additional thing you could do with the filter envelope. So there's a lot of different variables and we haven't talked about filters yet. So I'm going to leave it, leave the envelopes alone for now. Because until we talked about filters, there's not too much to talk about regarding that. So that's envelopes. So play around with your envelope parameters and see what sounds good to you. So... moving on to filters. 7. Lesson 2c. Filters: So filters are an essential part of synthesizers. For a lot of waveforms, if they didn't have a filter, they would just hurt your ears, or alternatively can just be very boring. There are many different kinds of filters. We'll just go over a few different kinds of filters. The most basic kind is called a low-pass filter. And generally if you open a synthesizer, it defaults to a low-pass. The way you can think of low-pass filters is "lows can pass". They look at the whole spectrum of the sound that's going through... Here we can the whole spectrum... And then you choose the cutoff point... At that division... it'll start to roll off all frequencies above or below that point. So lets go with a sawtooth... that's what it normally looks like.... I'll turn up the sustain so we can hold it down... it'll be a bit easier to hear... hold it down... So now I'll route it through the filter and lower the cutoff... and you'll start to see these fade out... those high frequencies have faded away... you can bring it back and back out... Again, something to note is this does not work with a sine wave, or anything with very little harmonic content. So you can see the sine wave, it's just this one tone. There's no harmonics above it. And well... if the sine wave is above the cutoff, then it'll turn down the sine wave. But it's really the same thing as just turning down the volume. So this really has the best effect on harmonic rich sounds... See all these harmonics - it has the best effect on harmonic rich sounds... Now... Now the next kind of filter... We'll look at a high-pass... This one [Malstrom] does not have a high-pass... So that's why I'm switching synthesizers... Lets get a nicer sound... Lets go with this one... turn it up a bit... so I'm going to start engaging the high-pass... and high-pass means "highs can pass", just like low-pass... So lets go... turning up the sustain... and you start taking the low frequencies out... this can create very shrill sound... but it's very good for... if you have an acoustic guitar and you want to get... just the sound of the strumming or the frets... a high-pass filter really isolates those... it gets rid of any thumps or things that can interfere with other sounds. High-passes are very useful for creating very crisp effects. And you'll find all sorts of uses for them. Going back to the Malstrom... And we're going to talk about the band-pass. Band-pass filter is essentially a combination of both high-pass and low-pass filters. So this is our normal clean sound. And if I engage the band-pass filter right here, I can filter out everything on the top and bottom... So it's neither a high-pass or low-pass... but its also both a high-pass and low-pass... it's called that because it allows narrow band to pass through. So the next kind I'll talk about... ...again, the Malstrom doesn't have all of them... ...all different synthesizers have different combinations... ...which is what gives them their characteristic sounds... But... a notch filter is the opposite of a band-pass, and sometimes it's called a band-reject filter as well. So the band-reject... I'll get a better wave... This will be good... A band reject filter... You can kinda see it around here... it's cutting out a space in the spectrum... it's creating a bit of a dip... and that's actually very similar to an equalizer... a band reject filter is really just one portion of a [passive] equalizer, or a band/bell curve of an equalizer... Just as long as it's in negative decibels, it takes out a certain band. So that's called a band reject. The most interesting one and probably the hardest to to visualize in terms of terms of showing it on here... And I'll try to include to include a diagram of what it looks like. It's the comb filter... And a comb filter... sounds pretty crazy... And I think it sounds pretty good... It looks like a comb... It's, it's like a bunch of band-pass filters that are going in sequence up... And I think they may reduce in size according to the harmonic series as well. So this creates a lighter phasey effects... Now be careful messing with the resonance on these because, at certain frequencies it can create massive resonances with huge peaks... And it could rarely either jump out to you, if you're using headphones, it can jump very loud and could hurt your ears... Be careful with those, especially with the positive comb filter. Comb filters are probably one of the most useful a very characteristic sound. Now one thing I didn't talk about yet is the resonance... let's go back to a low-pass filter... we have a low-pass... what the resonance does is the same as the 'Q' in an equalizer... an equalizer the 'Q' changes the sharpness of that curve. And similar to that, the resonance knob on a filter... It kind of creates a bulge around that cutoff... It kind of gives a little boost around the cutoff... which allows you to hear the filter-sweep moving around... You'll hear this a lot in the meditation music, all sorts of things. It's a very natural sound as well. If you ever hear someone blowing on maybe a steel pipe or a PVC pipe, or there's an instrument called a 'Fujara' which uses this same kind of resonance pattern... it's a very natural sound... and actually found in nature quite a lot... so that's what the resonance does... Resonance does similar things on [most] of them, its technically doing a similar thing on the comb filters. But it can be a lot more jarring... it can produce very loud sounds... The resonance be risky to use on all of them... The AM filter is kind of kind of an anomaly... I don't even really understand what's going on with this one... But what I believe is happening... is when you change the frequency... you're kind of selecting a carrier frequency... so you have to tune this to whatever key your song is in... If you set it right, then turn up the resonance, then it'll really mesh with the key you're playing in... I can kind of see... with this visualizer... it seems to go down and then aliases back up... So this is kind of an anomaly of a filter... It's not your typical filter... I honestly haven't seen on another instrument... But it's pretty cool. So that's kind of an anomaly and I'm not going to talk too much about that. It's there if you want to play with it. And that's basically the most I do with it... just kinda play around. The other thing about filters is you have different slopes. Different types of slopes. So let's go with this one... Let's go with this Subtractor... open this backup again... Let's go with a nice, harmonically dense sound. I'll go with that... so if I engage the low-pass filter... you can kinda see it's a medium slope that it rolls off at... 24 is a much steeper slope as opposed to the 12. And what these numbers stand for is the number of decibels of roll-off per octave. So right now I'm playing a C... if I go up an octave its another C... ...they don't create kinda the extra vibrations... ...they sit nicely together because... ...the C above is exactly double the frequency of the C below... Like for example with an A(440Hz)... If I go in the octave above... this is A(880Hz)... as opposed to A(440Hz)... and the octave below is A(220Hz)... So an octave is just a doubling of the frequency. Now, when you set the cutoff, it's going to start to roll-off frequencies above that point... So if you set the cutoff at 1kHz and you have a roll-off/slope of 12dB/8ve... Then the volume at 2kHz is going to be 12 dB lower than it was before the filter. So there's different strengths/slopes for the filters. You could have this 6dB/8ve... which is a fairly light roll-off... again, different synthesizers will have, have different characteristics of filters, different slopes of their filters. We could go with this one... The Thor is great for visualizing this, because it has a great noise oscillator... ...I'll bypass this for now... that's what it sounds like without a filter... Here's that noise, but you can see the filter roll-off working... And that's a 24dB/8ve roll-off... Here's the 12dB/8ve. And this is the 6dB/8ve roll-off... very light roll-off... 24dB/8ve is a nice crisp roll-off... The highest one I've seen is 48dB/8ve. And that's kinda like a brick wall. There's a few different kinds of [filter modules in the Thor]. Here's a high-pass [found in the state-variable filter]. Sorry if this is kind of piercing... So, the band-pass... the resonance... You can see it makes a narrower band.. And these are the kinds of resonance issues I warned about... If you turn it up... it can really produce... not a very good sound. Here we have the notch, or band-reject... Change the balance of the two... And peak filter is sort of like a band-pass... Anyway... this is the comb filter... this is a better visualization of the comb effect as its happening... you can really see the filter's effect on noise... So, that's the comb filter... The formant filter is kind of fun... The formant just makes it sound like a voice... A formant is just a set of frequencies that are found in speech... So basically this formant filter, it allows frequencies that are characteristic of human speech to pass through, making it sound like somebody talking... You can make different vowels... different sounds... So those are essentially the filters that are available on in Reason. And they can be affected by envelopes and I would just suggest playing around with them. 8. Lesson 2d. LFOs and Mods: So the next thing we're going to talk about is modulators. Some units called them modulators like, like the Malstrom... Mod A and B. More often they're called LFOs, or Low-Frequency Oscillators. And you can see it's called that here, here and here.... What LFOs do is... they're basically an oscillator with the ability to go a lot slower... That doesn't mean they have to go completely slow... They can go pretty fast, but they are generally used to, to produce different kinds of modulations on different parameters. Let's go with the Malstrom. And let's use the Mod... lets use Mod A... And let's say we want to effect the pitch of oscillator A. So we would switch the target to oscillator A. I'll select a sound and we can play with it from there.... So as we increase the pitch modulation... The pitch starts to move according to the rate of the modulator. You can create some detuned keys... or things like that... you can change all sorts of things... One thing that LFOs are often used for is wobblers in dubstep. You'll be able to hear this pretty well if I use a harmonic rich sound... And we'll modulate the low pass... and we'll modulate filter B. So there's your typical dubstep... wobbler type sound... nice smooth wobbler if you want... So you can modify all sorts of things... You can even modify the actual output volume... Actually, I think this is modulating these [oscillator] volumes... And this is the inverse... If you have it up... [then the modulation follows the wave exactly] If you have it down... [its like the wave is playing upside down] So LFOs are pretty straightforward... You mostly have to play around with them in order to get the hang of it. There's not too much to talk about regarding them... The only other thing is you can have the rate sync to your tempo... This 4/4 is a full bar... So it'll be very slow... 1/8th notes... Triplets... Dotted 1/8th notes [dotted = 1.5]... 1/4 notes... Dotted 1/4... without sync it's free form... And as you can hear LFOs can go fairly fast... That's what you can do with the sync... And one-shot basically means when you hit your key, it'll do it once and that's it... And you can have different waveforms for your LFO... this one's like random one... Kind of create some cool effects... This one is random but smooth... This ones like noise... static... This one, I really like this one... You can create some cool sounds with this one... So, that's LFO's and I'm going to distracted if I don't move on. 9. Lesson 2e. Shapers: So next thing is shapers. And shapers can be a bit complicated in terms of the algorithms. So I'm not going to get detailed into all of them, because some of it is just not for me to know, it's for the developers to know. This is your shaper section... And they affect different signals differently... so I'll turn that down before I begin... but let's start at the top... I'll neutralize this... Just a basic sine wave... The sine shaper just adds harmonics according to the sine function [I think]. Saturate... has a similar effect to an overdrive pedal. It just adds some saturation on top... it's basically an overdrive... Clip on the other hand, is distortion. So saturation has a softer sound, clip is distortion. Now quantize... Quantize is kind of similar [not really]... but the thing to know about quantize is... if you have a sine wave... it's moving up and down at a smooth rate... And the way that digital audio works is... you can have bit-depths of either 16 bits or 24 bits... the zero-voltage is right at the middle of those 16 bits... There are eight possible voltages above, and eight possible voltages below... it tells the speakers that for this discrete point [in time] the wave is right here... And then the next point, it's up here... And there's 16 different possible positions for that wave to be at... So what quantize does... is it reduces how many of those voltage points are available... Usually in digital audio it automatically smooths those points, making a smooth sine wave... In some synthesizers you can customize the bit depth and the sample rate... I think in this one, what's happening is, it's just generally locking the sine wave to fewer discrete points, so it's not a smooth curve anymore... it's stepping up, then stepping down and then back... it's kind of more blocky and you can hear that... You can hear it getting more... steppy... Noise is what it sounds like... it just introduces some noise... And the Thor has a more advanced shaper... It has a nice soft clip... It has a hard clip... Some saturation... Again, the sine harmonics... Bipulse... what I believe is happening with this... Again, this is more for developers to understand completely. I think... it's locking to two discrete points... that is having... less discrete points of signal... This started out as a sine wave... and it's kind of turning into a square wave... It goes to the maximum, then back down and it fills in-between... Regardless, its about how it sounds. This is more of an effect to have fun with. Peak... this kind of shaves off the the tips.. Similar to the clip, but a bit smoother... Rectify is kind of like the quantize. Sometimes they're just called different things... And wrap I believe it folds back... Maybe some aliasing involved in there... If you really crank it through it makes a very jarring thick sound... Very effective and low notes... So those are shapers... they're more fun to work with... 10. Lesson 2f. Mod Matrixes: Now, let's get into the MOD matrix... and this is where it starts to get kind of fun... Here we're going to be focusing entirely on the Thor, because of the legacy instruments, the Thor is the only one with a MOD matrix. So the mod matrix is this monstrosity down here... So you might notice that there are only so many routing options on the back... Some outputs, some inputs... just a couple different ones...'s called the Thor, sounds pretty intense..., to make up for the lack of patch points here, you have this mod matrix. So I can go and take maybe... maybe the LFO...'ll also notice that there isn't any input for the shaper on the back... so, if I wanted the LFO to go to the shaper drive, I can just go find the LFO I want... LFO 2... that's our [modulation] source... then you can find the shaper drive here... then this is the amount that it changes it by... so if I play a note now... what it's really doing is moving that [shaper drive]... Just like these ones control predetermined parameters, with this one... with a MOD matrix... you can really interconnect almost anything... The only limitation is that the ones available in the source menu are the ones that have the ability to output a signal [CV]... and the ones available in the destination menu are the parameters that have the ability to receive signal... But there are a lot of options there... Then this other option over here... this is called the scale... the scale parameter... If you have maybe a keyboard that has the potentiometers or knobs, faders, You can link these settings to your [controller], Or you can link them to any other one of these [parameters]. And essentially the value coming from the scale will change how much the source affects the target... So you can have a modulation upon another modulation by using the scale... There are a couple other options here... you can have two destinations... You could also use two lines of the basic one to create two destinations... But this one saves a line... And this one, it's a single destination, but you can have two scales... So those are kind of interesting to play around with... I usually don't do too much Matrixing.. But it's very useful to be able to wire anything together... and that's really the main advantage of the MOD matrix. Its also great to look through the pre-made patches... let's go with this one... And you can see what the Propellerhead company did with this one... you can see what they're doing... So like they have this button going to the delay, I believe... yeah... this button goes to the chorus... they have these rotaries active for certain parameters... you can connect these to your keyboard knobs... The LFO 1 is affecting the pitch of oscillator 1. So you can increase that, you could get rid of it... and the mod wheel is affecting that value too... So, if I increase this... scale this up... that'll affect this one because the scale is operating on it... So mod matrixes are great... And I highly recommend playing around with those... In Reason 11... the Europa synth and Grain also have matrixes I put off upgrading my Reason for awhile, and some of the other instruments I can live without... but Europa and Grain are pretty great... I'll probably open them up later in the class and talk about those... Okay, so the last thing to mention regarding mod matrixes is the step sequencer, at least in terms of the Thor, the step sequencer is related to the matrix. If you remember the ReDrum drum machine and how it related to the sequence window it's really just another sequence element used on the Thor synth. The main difference being with this is you can program pitches... a pitch sequence or a melody sequence... And you can also control the different parameters like the velocity, the gate length, which is kind of like the sustain length, the step duration, So you can have an irregular timing on it. And then curves 1 and 2... And you can use curves 1 and 2 to affect different parameters via the matrix... So let's make a little sequence... There's a few different modes... Let's initialize the patch first. To reset/initialize the patch (to start from scratch), you go to 'reset device'. In the old version this was called initialize patch (init patch)... So... I love the multi oscillator... So I'm just going to go with this one... Nice. I'll go with this one. Make just a quick little sound... State-variable... crank the drive through here... And then I enter will crack it into the wrap... maybe... that may be a little bit too much... That might be better for these purposes... Another thing, as we're getting to the step sequencer... just follow these arrows and they tell you the signal chain/flow.. So these three oscillators, they go into this mixer. Oscillators 1 and 2 are balanced with [this potentiometer] And then those are mixed together, they're controlled by this fader. And then oscillator 3, you can fade that one up independently. So, right now we just have one oscillator going. I'll bring it into the filter 1... through the shaper... the wrap might be a bit too much... it might not even need anything... Let's go with that. And you can change the direction... You can have it go straight out the amp to the speakers... or the output... Or you can route it through a second filter... I'm going to use the low-pass on the state variable... State variable just means there are different kinds of filters in the same unit... But the state variable, you can see it has low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, notch and peak. The main difference is with the low-pass ladder filter... You can have 24dB/8ve slope... But something about the state variable... I like the sound... the highs are a bit more active... This should be fine... And since we're using the step sequencer, we won't really need the keys... and... lets go! So with the step sequencer, there's a few different modes you can put it on... Step... it should move it one step at a time... One-shot, it'll go through the whole sequence once... And repeat, I find myself using the repeat most often. It just repeats the sequence. So once that's done, we can change the notes. and create a little melody. This kind of thing... and once that's running, you can start to play around with the amplitude envelope. Put some delay on it... you can just mess around with it... So that's really how you use the step sequencer, its very open to experimentation. When you're in the notes section, by default you have two octaves. One up, one down. You can also have four octaves, which is two up and two down. And you can also have the full range of the keyboard. So you don't have to be limited to these to these two octaves. You can also change the division that it's playing... or also the direction... Pendulum swings forward and backward. Pendulum 2 swings backwards and forwards. And random... is random... You can change how many steps are in the sequence with this knob. You can also just click how many you want. You can turn off a step. So let's go with that. We're just going to leave this and then we can use this later. So that's really what there is to know about mod matrixes. The reason I included this in with mod matrix is, is you can do some interesting things when you apply the curves. You can do all sorts of things. We can get into those later, when we're further on into the song. So that's mod matrixes. And next, we're going to go into the voice settings. 11. Lesson 2g. Voice Modes and Global Parameters: Okay, so moving on to the voice settings. Virtually all synthesizers, at least those in Reason, will have voice settings unless they're strictly monophonic. So, when the first synthesizers came out, they could only play one note at a time. You can see here there's the mono mode, And that sort of gives a sense of what it was like to use these first synthesizers. I'm pressing one and then shift to another note, but it's only playing one. and with Mono Retrigger mode is it will start a new attack to make it more pronounced. It starts the envelope sequence again. Mono Legato means if you're not pressing anything down and then you hit a key, it'll start the amplitude envelope. But if you press a different key while, while the previous one is still down, It will move without restarting the amplitude envelope. That can be useful... lot of people use it for 808s [slides]. There's all sorts of uses for that. Like maybe an drill 808. Now, when you're on mono mode, you also have the option to use the portamento. And this is another element that is widely used in, making drill 808s and just generally sliding tones. So you want to turn portamento on, and usually it has to be in either of the mono modes for this to work, but what it sounds like... when you switch to another note, it will slide up to the new note. You can change the speed. You can make risers this way. All sorts of things. When portmanteau is in the auto mode, the rate of sliding will be constant... Normally, the farther away the new note is from the original note, the longer it will take for the portamento to reach the new note. When portamento is in auto mode, it'll reach, no matter where it is, how far away the new note is. it'll reach it in the same duration. It reaches up a few octaves in the same time that it takes to move a single tone, fourth, fifth... So that's the difference between the 'auto' and 'on' for portamento. Now, when polyphonic synthesizers, First came out, I believe the first one was the Prophet 5. You could play five notes at once, which was pretty impressive for the time. So when poly is on, you can have multiple notes going, to play chords... It's a little loud... Now... On all of these, you'll have the polyphony options. And that determines how many notes you can play at once. If polyphony is on one, that's really the same thing as mono retrig mode. For two-note polyphony you can play two... but if you added a third, it'll drop the oldest note... Some synthesizers will drop the lowest note. Some have different rules for how they drop notes, and some I think you can customize them. I don't believe any of the stock synths in Reason have that option, But it's a very detailed feature. You won't necessarily notice it missing. The same applies to any of these other, any of these other synthesizers. If I select a Subtractor... Very different sound for this one... It's a little quiet too... I'll bring it down to 1... Bring it up to 2 notes... it drops the last one... or the oldest one that was triggered. So that's the voice settings that you'll come into contact with in Reason. So the next thing... I'll include this in the same section... is the global parameters. And that really is just the pitch and mod wheel. In the Thor, this global section serves a bit of a different purpose. But it's the same idea. These things like the delay and chorus, they, they affect only the [final] signal that reaches this point. You can't really and put it in to this area without... without doing additional matrixing down here. But for all intents and purposes, the global parameters are generally the mod wheel here. Which for instance, on these two, your options for the mod wheel are shown here. And let's do this one for, for instance. Right now, the default is that the mod wheel is affecting that filter frequency. I turn this up... Raises the filter... as if I were to do that manually... You can have all sorts of things. Resonance... you can turn up the LFO... the phase which can be... kinda interesting... that's a very subtle change, but the FM... and those are your basic options. These are some of the other controllers that you can use... after-touch is a special type of keyboard that monitors the pressure, as you're holding down the key. Breath, I believe it's like little insert into your mouth, and it can sense that... And expression that's another external device. And you would map though is using these options here. The other thing, the other global parameter is the velocity. So the velocity is how hard you hit the key on your MIDI keyboard. I'm using the computer keyboard right now. And so you can select that with these numbers up here, with the numbers on the top of your keyboard. We'll do frequency modulation, because that's a very clear one to hear... Here's the minimum... if I were to turn it up to max velocity. there's a significant difference. If I were using a MIDI keyboard, you would be able to change that volume by the strength you hit the key with. So, those parameters you can find them in virtually all of the synthesizers. At least those in Reason. Here you have your velocity, which was here. Your mod wheel options are down here, which on the Subtractor was here. And on the Thor, You can add velocity to the filters when with these knobs, and that affects the envelope as well... But all of your velocity and mod wheel parameters are going to be mapped with the mod matrix. And that's generally the case for most digital synths with a mod matrix. So if I wanted to find the mod wheel... where's my mod wheel... lets do a basic low-pass filter sweep with it... I'll get the Thor going... So you map those using the mod matrix... Another global parameter would be these rotaries and buttons, you can map those with... yeah... under the modifiers here... So now it's selecting 'rotary 1'. And I can also map that to the filter frequency as well... The buttons can be used in the same way... I normally wouldn't do it this way. But button one... press it down... it'll go up 44% [in this case, according to the 'amount' parameter]. So aside from those, the other main global parameter is the pitch bend. That's over here, and you can change the range... you can get some good effects... maybe with a small range... Or you can use very large range... So it has so it has a pretty broad range available. Some of them only go up to 12, I believe... Or maybe not... Yeah, those are your global parameters, they affect the whole output, the whole thing. So those are all the components of synthesizers in Reason... And like I said earlier, you can learn quite a bit from just opening, opening some of the patches that, that they make/provide for you. Maybe go with this one... So you can see they're using saw-tooth. Let's see what they're doing. It's like they're just cranking these ones out. Ah... what they're doing here is... They have it cranked to a fourth [5 half-tones = perfect 4th]... Here they're manipulating the pitch using the LFO... And it looks like here you can adjust just LFO 1 with the mod wheel. So you can get an idea of what they're doing with it, they have a very strong attack here. Here we've maxed out with them. What they're doing here is they're detuning it manually. Which is sort of like the multi-oscillator's detune, just doing it manually. The more separated they are, the more detuned it sounds... So learn from their stock patches, its a great way to see different options. And like I said before, virtual synths like this... you can't blow them... So if you have some hardware, and you want to play with the hardware, You know some of the fundamentals now, But also, just take a look at some videos on precautions, and best practices when it comes to hardware. Because those are expensive units to make a mistake on. But at this point you should be familiar with the different parts of the synth, and you should be ready to move on. Next, we're going to be looking the samplers. They're more similar to the synthesizers, their sound sources are just different. So lets move onto that next, and I'll see you in the next video. 12. Lesson 3. Samplers: Welcome back to Lesson 3! Right now we're going to be looking at the different samplers. So, samplers don't use oscillators. Instead, they use an audio file or a sample. A sample is just a sound that you want to use and play on a keyboard, We'll go with the factory sounds. We'll go with music loops... You can use either of these... We'll find one that sounds good... I like this rhodes one... I'm going to work with this one... So we'll load this one up. So if you look here, we have that sample loaded into the sampler here. So there's a few different parameters here. You can have multiple sounds loaded in here... It's usually more practical to just work with one sample in the NN-19. The NN-XT is better for working with multiple samples. I usually stick with this one... with the 19... If I'm just using a single sound and pitching it around. Another reason I would go for the NN-19 is the pitch knob here. This can be automated. But, you can't automate this one... ...the NN-XT semitone knob is fixed. So for certain reasons, if I'm maybe making an 808, sometimes I'll use this to change the pitch for certain purposes. So if I want to automate that I would usually go with the NN-19. So these don't really do much unless you're, unless you have multiple samples. If you were to have multiple samples, this 'lo key' knob would, would change the boundaries on your keyboard for where the sample will be playing. This will be the lower boundary here, and this would be the upper boundary. This one changes the sample you have selected. This one changes note on your keyboard the sample will be playing as-is, which is to say its not pitched up or down. So that's basically where your center is, without any tuning changes. That's where it's going to 'live'. This one's for fine tuning. You can also use this, but you can't automate this. So for whatever reason if you want to automate your fine tuning, You set this to the baseline, and then automate this one. You can change the level of the sample here. And you can change the level here as well. But if you want to do it at this point in the signal chain, you can do it here. Looping mode changes how it loops, either just forward, or if it scrubs forward and back. Or when it's off, it's just going to play through and stop. So if you right-click, you can look at the sample that you're working with, in a bit more detail by going down to 'edit sample'. And you'll see this a lot when we're working with but samplers. So this is the file I've loaded, that Rhodes file. I'll play it. I want just one stroke, so I found this one. We want to hone in on where that last transient is... which is the attack of the sound... where that transient starts... ...kinda still jumping around a bit... That's about where it starts. I might have overshot it. So this is pretty good right about there. Now, I'm hearing a bit of a click. So we're going to zoom in a bit farther. And when you're working with samples, the best way to avoid a click... number one way is to have a fade-in... but another way is to look for 'zero-crossings', which is this line through the middle. That's your zero voltage point. And it's going to be starting from zero. And then the sound will start. If we start it from, say, here... It'll be wanting to jump straight up to, to the peak of the wave. And that's the kinda thing that creates clicks, that creates pops. And that's not good for your speakers. Not good for your ears either. You just really want to avoid that. So one way to do it, if you can't find zero crossing, is to use a fade-in... but it's always good to do both... So I found that point and what I'm going to do now is I'm going to hit crop. And now this is the sample we're working with, so that's what we got. And just to be safe, I'll select up to here and put a little fade. Doesn't have to be a long fade. Just enough to, to allow it to taper off without jarring the speakers too badly. Up here, there's some different loop modes as well. That'll make the sample loop back. This one just plays through and then stops. And this is the forward-backward setting I had before. This, you can play it back. So now that its loaded up, you can start playing it [on a keyboard]. Has a bit of a house/trance sound... And like I said, its similar to a synth. A lot of the parameters are the same. So... you have an amp envelope, you can turn it into a pluck... You can have it taper off a bit, you can have it sustain... all sorts of things. Then you have your filters here. We can match the keyboard to it. I like that. So I'm going to record this and add it to our song. So lets go. I'll find the tempo [tapping a tempo]. So you can record it, I like to type it in, for melodies that are straightforward and blatant like this. I like this sample because of that swell back up, it gives us a good opportunity to have a retrigger... it compliments the re-entry of the sample. In order to change your your cursor types, you have to close the on-screen piano keys. You just hit F4 and hit 'R'... copy this to the last bar... change my grid to half, and then down a whole tone... and another whole tone... And we should have that loop that I played And we have a nice sampled loop going. Another thing to note about the sampler is this 'sample start'. And it really does what it sounds like. It makes the sample start a bit later in the sequence/file. but since I already trimmed it to where I want, I'm going to leave it at zero because it's already where I want it to be. So let's go on to the NN-XT We have a nice loop going on there. And let's move onto here... Now before when we were working with the Malstrom, we explained how granular synthesis takes a small portion of a sample. Now that we have a sampler open... Lets go in and make our own... Let's try this out... So this is what our flute wave-form looks like. Let's try to find... Let's hear it one more time... Let's try to find a good place close to the zero-crossing. And when you're making grains, it's important to find 0 crossings, or a place where it loops back consistently. Since it's so short, it's not a very good place to put it fade, because you're going to hear that fade. So lets find a good zero crossing. I have a little thing where I like to start, start my grains going into rarefaction, could be psychosomatic... lets just crop this real quick... it's fairly close... lets just see, if I put it on a loop, you should get a tone. now it doesn't really sound like a flute because it's such a short segment. So let's expand this, this grain a little bit here... I think that's, I think that's the most even place in terms of these two cycles, so lets try this one. So it doesn't sound like a flute... But it sounds like a synth, or it sounds like a waveform and it sounds like a tone. And what's really going to change this is when we start to filter it and give it some processing. So I'll select the NN-XT and let's see how it sounds... Sounds like a synth... so lets try a band pass on it... let's change the amp envelope... I mentioned in the envelope section how sometimes they have five [parameters]. This is an instance where it has a fifth parameter. Actually in both envelopes. Most of the fifth parameters are a hold function. So that's what the hold does. I'm going to turn this to a mono... and let me load another sample too, because that's what the NN-XT is great for. Let's go with maybe some strings... maybe like violas. Lets go with a nice open C... open viola... that's the lowest note on viola... so we know it's going to be nice and resonant. These boundaries allow you to, to determine where on the keyboard it's going to be active. So, here... it's playing the strings... still playing the strings... strings... and now it should be the flute sample... so that's the crossover right here, and that's where this sample takes over. But you can layer them as well... have them play at the same time... And similar to the NN-19... all of these parameters are fairly similar. You can change the boundaries. This changes the play mode, whether it plays once, if it loops or if it's cycles back... This is where the loop begins, which is to say, you can have it start playing from a certain point and then it loops around these green boundaries. The sample start determines how late in the file it starts playing. The root, that's the key the sample calls home... where there's no changes to the samples pitch... And this is the fine tuning. You can add some fades here. And it really does what it says it does, really. These two are unique from the NN-19. These low and high velocities allow you to only have the sample playing if it's above a certain velocity. So actually, for simplicity's sake, I'll select both of them. And these only apply to whichever ones you have selected. So, pretty sure it goes up to 127. So let's go to like 60, I guess 63 or 64. That's the low velocity threshold. I'm [playing] 42 velocity, it says here... And I'm not getting any sound. But if I go up to 63... ...lets find out where it begins... There, right at 63. Then you start getting sound. I'm going to make another grain out of this viola sample. Quite different wave form. Lets find a nice zero crossing. This one looks like a great zero crossing... And that one looks great too... So let's start it from there. And we'll crop. Lets see how this one sounds... ...all right... now I'm making very small grains... and to make it sound a bit more human, it has to be kind of a larger grain, but just for demonstration purposes I'll do these small grains. You can also find waveforms online. There's a great website called A lot of people upload their waveforms, some individuals upload their waveforms under Creative Commons. You can play around with those. And at least if it's CC0 license... and licensing is a different ballgame... but CC0, CC-Attribution... You can use them commercially in your song, Just, if it's an attribution license you need to give credit. There's many different waveforms you could find online. But, of course, there's all these sounds and you can make your own too. So I've isolated this grain. But my issue now is they're not really married together very well. So what I'm going to do is to correct the root note. It says what note [the original] is playing in here [in the original file-name]. And it says they're both C's... the root for this is a D-sharp right now... So let's bring it down to a C... but it's very low as well... Our root here is C3... the three denotes which octave of C it is... So let's bring it up to C3 and they should be in tune now... but they're not... So let's play around with it... with the different octaves and the tunings... we're almost there... There we go... and we're in tune... that's good. If you know a bit of theory, you can move it up a fifth [7 semitones] from the B. Now, you can go up to maybe an F#... maybe a fourth... in this case it's going down a fifth [it's inverted]. So we have a bit of an instrument going on here. It's a little boring... So I'll play around with the filters a bit, I think this one was good as a low-pass. This one... Maybe I'll give it some release... Give this one some release too... turn down the hold... Up the attack... Lets go with some LFO modulation on the pitch... ...let's affect both... We could also do something with the filter envelope too. Psychedelic... don't mind my plant-light going out behind me... Sometimes I don't really like that "wa" sound... it's a bit distracting... especially if you're going to be using it with vocals or something. But for now, let's see how that meshes with our NN-19 sample. I might actually use it as a bass or something... So I'm going to go ahead and start recording... So we have that recorded... You'll see that here. Its a pretty interesting sound. You can solo it, see how it sounds on its own. I think it's going to shape up to be kind of trancy... Now related to samplers is this... a bit of a powerhouse here... called the OctoRex. And it's basically a loop player lets go with... maybe some shakers. It's good to try and match the tempo. We're at 114, so 120 is pretty close. Some pretty straightforward shakers I think I like that one. I'm going to select this one, and something you'll notice about the OctoRex is it slices the loop into its transients, which is very useful when it comes to slicing loops. And you can do that in here [sequence window] But the Rex is is pretty cool because each slice, has all these different parameters you can play with. So let's just play it. I think having an accent on the last 16th note of each beat will make it pop.. Filter it a little bit... it also has the amp envelope so you can give some shape to each slice. I like that... so... I'll press play to see how this fits with the other instruments we've recorded. Now, one thing I don't really like is those last two eighth notes. I feel like its taking away from the smoothness/flow of the rhythm. So one thing you can do with this is, you can copy the loop to the track. So let's go here... and let's hit this and it's now copied to the track [sequencer]. And the way the OctoRex works each slice can be played on a keyboard, as far up as the slices go... however many the sample has... what I want to do is I want to cut out those last two stagnant eighth notes... but the first half of it was great. So I'm going to slice this in half, and I'm just going to use the first half of the loop. and obviously Command/Ctrl+V to paste. To prevent them both from going at the same time, just turn off 'enable loop playback'... here's the global transpose... That's really the OctoRex... there's a lot of room play around with this as well... Really only as limited as your loop supply... and... We have a nice shaker loop going... So... not sure if those gel too well... So we have a bit of a song/beat building up here... So next... we've really covered the samplers... and we're going to move into the drum machines now, since they're related to the samplers. 13. Lesson 4. Drum Machines: Okay, so let's get into some of the drum machines. Going to organize this a little bit... samplers over here... melodies there... and then have the rhythm... And maybe have the drums on the side... So let's go ahead and just start with the ReDrum. If you've ever used on a sequence based drum machine before, this is essentially what it is. We have 10 different channels. There some commonly accepted purposes for each channel. Channels 8 and 9 are usually reserved for open and closed hi-hats. That's because you have this 'channels 8 and 9 exclusive' function, which essentially says, if you have an open hi-hat here, and the closed hi-hat is triggered again, that will stop the sample from playing here. Which essentially, if you've seen the hi-hat stand, on a drum set, you hit it open... and then if you're hitting it again and it's producing a closed sound, that means it's not open and they're not ringing anymore. So they've kind of built that circuitry into this. And you would use channels 8 and 9 to create that effect. Different channels have different properties. These ones have kind of an EQ. This makes a brighter or darker sound. You have one over here for an auxiliary pad. I usually use these two for the kick and snare. I usually use channel 3 for a clap. Usually an 808 clap. Sometimes a rim or maybe a shaker on channel 4. Channel 5, it's kind of a wildcard... a lot of the time... I'll use it for... maybe a deeper kick drum... or sometimes I'll link it to an 808 and have it trigger from channel 5... Channels 6 and 7 are usually used for toms. And that's because this pitch wheel, it has these additional bending functions, which can make that *pew* that tom sound... it has the rate and velocity associated with that bend... But besides from those differences, all the channels are relatively similar besides those things. So down here, the high-quality interpolation... sometimes I feel like if there's different instruments/channels on the same beat, I feel they're timed in a certain way... I believe it kind of prioritizes certain channels. And without it, it's just a straight up drum machine... it's just playing exactly as you put it in. It's not a huge difference between the two of those. Here you have the patterns section. Just like how I exported this one to the track and it went down here, You could do that with this as well. If you were to have a pattern programmed here, and you hit 'copy pattern to track', then you'd have them both playing, and then you would just turn off these... If they're both playing at the same time you'll get some phasing and delay issues... So these are these are the different patterns you can have. You can have eight patterns in a bank, and four different banks. So that would be like 32 different patterns within a song. Not too bad. You can have anywhere from one step all the way up to 64 steps. And obviously here you can see there's only 16 steps here. But in order to have a larger loop, you just step up here and now you're working from this becomes 17 to 32, step up again, this becomes steps 33 to 48 and then 49 to 64. You can also change the resolution of the divisions, or essentially the the time signature you're working in. If you change it to triplets, you're playing in 12/8 time or triple meter. You can work in 16th note triplets, sixteenths, eighth notes, quarters, halves, very fast, very slow. All depends on what you want your drum machine to do. We're going to work in 16th notes shuffle. Some other drum machines have a bit more detailed shuffle. But this one's just a toggle shuffle. Like we said before, if you want advanced shuffles, you always have the Groove section. When you have a drum selected... actually lets load up a sound... this isn't very legacy friendly... but this is the sound library, there's great sounds in the factory sounds as well... but I'm going to use the clap from here because it's a good clap. So now that we have a sample loaded here, I usually like to shorten the length and make it nice and tight... maybe not that tight... and pitch it up a little bit... You also have the ability to have a gate... which opens and then it snaps shut. Or you can have kind of a sawtooth... it decays gradually... since there's a smooth sample in the background, I might switch back to the decay one, but I'll see how it sounds. So you have three different dynamic levels. If you're typing in your beat using [the sequence window], you can have the whole dynamic range. But if you're using the ReDrum sequencer, then you have these three dynamic ranges, which are pretty sufficient. So, lets go. So we have a clap going... and lets play it... Let's get a kick drum going... So another thing we have going on here, I'll use the bass drum as an example, because we have some different dynamic levels. This velocity knob controls the range between these dynamic levels. So right here I'm maxing it out. That means that the volume of this one, is as far different from the max as it can be. If you want them to be closer together, just bring it down. You can also record samples directly from your microphone by hitting this. And I don't have the microphone connected to Reason right now, But you can record directly into the ReDrum. I didn't cover these 'sends' up here. So these two outputs here are connected to these two [knobs] here. And those are for using effects. So I'll use this compressor up here... the M-Class compressor. Because this is a great compressor. I'm going to get rid of [the wiring] because I didn't mean to wire it that way. Now, another key command is: if you want to create any effect/instrument, without it automatically plugging into something, You just hold down shift before you click. And there it is, it's unconnected. So let's go, let's bring it out send 2... actually send 1 because I'm going to save that for later... we're gonna do something else with send 2... And now let's make a new mix channel... And the way you do that is with Command/Ctrl+Shift+M. You have a new mix channel there. And let's bring that into the input here. So we have, connected to send 1, a compressor. And that will be parallel to raw output. That's actually a signature style of drums processing. It's called New York back-bussing, You just take all the channels, route them through a compressor and a squash them. And then play that alongside the clean/raw signal. So let's see how that sounds. Here's the drums on its own. And this is the compressed signal. So we're gonna go over compression later, but I'll just dial in some quick compression. And now if we bring this next to the original... its a lot fatter... a lot more thick... I like the sound of that... Lets hear how it sounds with the whole song. There is something kinda bothering me about it.. The drums are kind of overlapping the sample... might as well show you guys how to side-chain in Reason. Really, all you have to do is create your compressor... and you have your side chain right here... and let's just take another send... I'm going to just extract it straight from the kick drum... Drag it out of here... But I don't want all of the kick drum to go into the side chain. So I'm going to bring that channel here. And I'm going to bring a copy out in parallel, into the side chain here. So once we have that linked up, you'll see this gain reduction meter, it should be pulsing at the same rate as the kick drum. So we can hear that kind of breathing a bit with the kick drum now. You can change how much it's affecting it... I don't want it to be too noticeable... Just enough to stay out of each others way. So we have a nice beat going on, but... but I'd like to fatten it up a bit. One way that you can do that is to use the Kong. This is a bit of a different beast than the ReDrum. Each drum has these different modules... it has its own master bus effects... it has its own effects slots for each drum... its very different... So you have a few different options. You have sampler, you have a little version of the OctoRex. You have a physical model of bass, snare and tom, and you have a synth model of bass, snare and Tom. Let's go with the snare. What I'm going to do here is use the control voltage (CV) to control the clap on the Kong. Before I do that, I'm going to hook this up to a mix channel so we can hear what's going on... we're connected up now... And lets find our clap. That's on channel 3. So we'll go to channel 3... gate out... And we'll go down to channel two... which is where I put it [on the Kong]... And let's just run this and see what happens. So we can hear that snare drum coming out now. Here, we can make a lot of different changes. Like the sound of that snare drum, So I'm thinking something a bit different for this, I'll use a discrete channel for this. Really, just play around with these. So I'm just playing around and finding a nice neutral tone. I kind of like that... I have no idea how it's going to sound in the mix... so... It's a little quiet. So lets bring it up with a compressor. So that's what's going on inside the pad. There's some of these macro settings. We've got a few different options here. You can group the pads. If you had maybe a longer sustaining sample, maybe a musical sample on one of these, we'll just load something up... Load up the Nano sampler... Let's get a music loop... I believe I can copy them... Yeah, let's go here... I'll put them all in 'mute group A', and what that will do is allow only one to play at a time. Link will connect them together. And with 'alternate', for every other note played, it will hit the next pad once. We also have a few different hit types and that's shown here. You can load different samples at different velocities, or different intensities. Just like in the NN-XT over here. Those are the main things about the Kong drum machine. I'm going to initialize these. I do like that sample though. So we've got a nice snare drum going here. I believed that really wraps it up for drum machines. At least in terms of in-the-box things. So we really have all three different elements of the, of Reason going on here. We have some synthesizers. We have some sampling elements. We've sampled some, some tones to make, to make melodies. We've also sampled a loop, a shaker loop. And we've also used both the the Kong drum machine... ...a nice hollow snare going there... And we've got some drum samples on the ReDrum. Yeah, the next thing to get into are these effects. So I'll see you in the next lesson... See you there. 14. Lesson 5. Sampling in the Sequence Window and Misc.: Okay, Before we go into effects, I want to just go over editing samples in the sequence window because I think I mentioned that earlier. So why would you want to edit samples in the sequence window when you have all these samplers and stuff. So a couple of reasons. Well, the main reason is that editing samples in the sequence window, it's very similar to the way you would to take samples. So back when, when people use by tape players like tape samplers, you would actually be slicing the tape with a razor to get the part that you want to kinda similar to how you have to line things up on a, on a record player. For turntables with tape sampling, you would have to slice out that segment of the actual tape. Some reasons that you would want to do that is if you're not doing any, any advanced changes or like if you're not pinching it around too much or you're not, you don't need any crazy envelopes. It can, it can be good to, to edit a sample of just straight in the sequence window is here. It can be good to do that because there's less distractions. If you have all these envelopes in different bells and whistles in front of you can be easy to kinda overprocessing. And if you stick within the sample, when within the sequence window, it's harder to get distracted and you can, you can let the sample kind of b itself without changing it too much. And the other benefit is that samples edited in the sequence window. It's very lowest CPU intensive. It's a lot easier on your computer. Then, then using a sampler. Everything had written reason is pretty light, but but working in the sequence window is even ledger. So there's all sorts of benefits. So, so let's, let's edit a sample. I've picked two samples here. Disabled this. And so let's start with the melody sampler. And both, both of these samples are from some place. For a sample is that's one of the things I'm going to be using out of the bugs, but it's working with samples is this. It's the same thing, whether you're working outside or within with factory sounds, doing the same things to the samples. So I can make this the one exception I'll make for this. So let's here to sample that. I picked out a here, and it'll solo here. So little bells sample. So the first thing that we need to do is lined it up to our tempo. It's turned on the click track to see what our tempo is. Spin faster. So what I will usually do, it is a listen for the sample, for AGI kind of sort of for any kind of pulse in the sample. And I'll try to count out four quarter notes are just four main pulses. So the first two notes are pretty clear. So I can use that as, as, as an anchor. So these, these pulses here are the beat and make it a bit bigger. So what I'll do there is kind of slice it the closer point. And then I will hold down Option or Alt. Alt if you're on a PC, I think. And 0, 0, 0. And dragging I can time shift here. And they'll basically just lying up these pulses with the quarter notes of my grid. That looks pretty good as well. Zoom in a bit further and see how close it is. Might be a little bit fast. Slow it down. And the way you really, you really winded up close is by extending it out. And really if you extend it out, if it's, if it's a little bit off here, you'll start to see that it, then he goes out of phase, which means it kind of goes, is it goes off the beat later on. So just what I did up here at the end here. It's a little bit, there you go. You might be a little bit slow over here, just there. And hear how it sounds now. Now sounds all right, I'm going to trim off here. And turn on loops so we can hear how, how well it's looping back. Okay, So there's our little melody loop. So a few of the different parameters that you have for audio is over here. So in reason, you can actually easily, easily transpose or pitch shift things up and down. So I can shift the dough. The maximum boundary for transposing In reason is 12 plus plus 0.5, effectively 1270 tones. There is a way you can, you can get around that is P slice it in half. You'll see it's at 12 semitones now. And if I slice it with R and then I rejoined with Command and J joining it bath, this is reset to 0 and I can, it's 0, but it's high. I could shift to deal with even farther. Just won't necessarily sound that good. Won't sell that good for all samples, at least. So in my work, it might not. And also go down here. And you can go down to down even farther. Works both ways really. But this one sounds good, sounds best in the mail. And zoom in at the end real quick. Just to see, just to see how it cuts out. Just to be safe, I'm going to put a little micro fade. And maybe the beginning should be fine. Yeah, the beginnings fine. You can see it already fades up there a little bit. So there's a little loop. And preparing for this video, I made it just a little pattern and the redrew them is certainly to give us some motion. So the other thing I wanted to look at is Wednesday do a quick little 800 eight pattern. So let's just hear this little still 800 eight sample and make sure it's a newton. Is here. Nice thick. 800 eight sample. It's going to bring it down a little bit because it's a pretty loud. So just to give it a little bit of headroom, sounds pretty good. It's one of my favorite ones and it uses it in a lot of things. I will also sometimes use sublevel and I'm not going to talk about this. Blinn said, good plugin for, for 800 eight, you can do them yourself. But sometimes it sounds better to just just use, you just do it like this. And it has a better effect. Just going to make a quick little pattern. So here's like a real quick pattern is listen through. You'll play with a trumps quick. Bring in the sample. So this is one of the ways that you can sample in reason. And there's all sorts of either instead ache or just kind of kinda personal taste reasons why you would want to do it in this sequence window. And so the last thing that I want to talk about when it comes to editing in the sequence window is the slice edit. So if I go in here and double-click my audio file, you'll see that it has all these. It's printed detected. All of my transients that are in the file. And the cool thing about this is I can drag these around wherever I want. I can kinda flung ear. You hear that any kind of a time shift things are written based on those trends. And obviously before it was on the corner nodes. You can shift things around that way. And also the other cool thing you can do is hold down command and a right-click. And you can go down here to split at slices. And as you can see, it's turned, is taken all of those slices in turn, turn everything into discrete regions which I loved is feature. So if I select all leaves, again, this hit reverse and it will reverse all of them individually in place. Which is pretty cool. It's a lot easier to do that and then to slice it up individually. I'm sure a lot of people would slice it up individually anyway, but they don't have to you have to spend all that time with this. While I'm here, I'll show you a little, little tiny secret effect to that. I haven't really shown this before, but it seems kind of appropriate with this kind of rhythm. So on, on the fifth channel, I've, I've incorporated, or I've added this little bass drum. So when I like to do as a way to make, to make a sub, just add some low end. So I'll usually take like a kick drum with a lot of click to it. And I'll bring it out usually on Channel 5 into its separate channel. And I wanted to get a trigger from, from this, from this note, which is say I want this sound is to play another instrument. And really I want it to trigger a sub note. So the reason I don't want to take this signal out of the gate out is because that gate out signal is really short. And see I have the, have the sustain up, but it's just like a couple of milliseconds long. The only way to extend it is with the release. And that works, that's fine. Something like horrible, but but there's just not much control over it. I'm like I don't have much control. So what I want to do is create a longer signal and that's not just a little blip. So the way I do that, I'll bring this channel five into another channel. And I still want to hear the original, so I'll bring it out in parallel. I'll bring it into a compressor. So now we can see that the compressor is reading the presence of, of this base from signal. So whenever the, whenever the bass drum is head, it creates, creates a little event. And the gain reduction. And that gain reduction can be, can be turned into a control voltage. This CV out. And this is where you would normally get a side chain signal to change something else. But what I'm going to use that for is actually a binary gates. He control the trigger. Because if it's sending a binary signal through the CD, then that can only be used as a 10. But if you have, if you have a scaled signal going through the CV, that can be used as a binary because whenever there's no signal that's treated as a 0, and wherever there is a presence of signal that's treated as a one. So I can use this scaled, this scalar CVE as a trigger for here. Bring it in here. And you can see here that I can now control, you can now control the length of that trigger. Like to have it about there. Not that sure. And I've previously automated this to a specific frequency. Now break it down. There were burned nice, glowing. Easily. Put. The original end is signals side-by-side. So that sounds nice, but it's recognizable as it kick drum when they're both main. So let's bring in the other instruments. Except for the AUA, because they were quiet. The other thing I'll do is I'll put in a little bit up, a little bit of automation in gear. I'm automating the octave range. And it sounds kind of shadow ranks, kind of beans. They are just shifted up. And again. You'll also notice that I have, they have the pattern going here. So show you kind of restarting. So I got really in the pattern that you can see that this doesn't have the green square around anymore. And the main difference I've programmed into here is these last 2 eighth notes. In Pattern 1. The eighth notes are here. Eighth notes are on the last quarter. So I'd like it to switch between those two. So when I do for that, hold Option two is our Automation button. Click to animate this. Again, you can, like I said before, you can use this black and white communities quicker that Tejas, I'm a click and hold down Command or Control on PC to rate in my pattern. And you can see it's a one which corresponds to a one here. Now radio another pattern for the second one. I'll switch it to a. And now you'll see that you'll switch between something to know. I get rid of it. It's not going to play anything. Is having this pattern select. It eliminates the need to mute things like that. You can just get rid of the pattern. You can also drag it around something like that. Ledger. So that's a little trick that I like to do. I don't think I've shown this make aren't on camera before where it's done. And in my little by little secret, shabby kind of beat technique. Pretty sure it's an odd at first wanted to think of it probably won't be the last kind of a cool way to create a pattern. I like the idea of a good beat kinda be a machine or like a kind of contraption. Kinda running on, based off of the redrawn by the arm is reaching out all over the place creates a good sound in my opinion. So that's just kind of quickly how to edit in the sequence window. I had added samples in the sequence window. And now let's move on to effects. 15. Lesson 6a. Saturation Effects: All right, so let's move on to effects. Squared gets kind of fun. So I'm going to go over four different kinds of effects in this section. We'll first talk about saturation or TAM, role of banks. To then talk about time-based effects. And then I'm going to go over effects that are used in the mastering and the mastering stage. So let's start with when was saturation for tangible effects. And when I say TAM role, a lot of people call them saturation effects and think I like that term Tambora as well. So what does Tambora mean? Timber refers to the unique characteristics of a sound. I talked earlier about how a sine wave is just a fundamental tone. It has no harmonics above it. So if we look into wave, any wave other than the sine wave, the reason that we can tell the difference between those different sounds is what's called the timbre. Timbre is, is really any harmonic information other than the fundamental back home, that harmonic information, the patterns that it comes up in, and which frequencies are also present above the fundamental that comprises the character of the sound. And that's called the timber. So, so Tambora, ill effects or saturation effects can change the harmonic content of a sound. It changes those, those upper frequencies. Some people will say, Yeah, it's colored to a sound that's great. Tour all sorts of creative terms to change the sound. So some examples of saturation effects. You've definitely heard of probably most, if not all of these overdrive distortion. Saturation effects is kind of a broad effect, but there's all sorts of different signatures, saturation, petals and effects. Also tape emulators to emulators buy vinyl emulators. Those all use certain different combinations of saturation, sometimes other time-based effects to make it sound like like a certain, maybe a certain model of a tape machine. Or are certain, sit in certain brand, a record player or two. And it's the combination of those that make that sound. So what kind of describe a little bit each type of saturation device and go, I'll give a little example of each. So I've pulled up a little maelstrom batch and just have a sine wave on it. On the sine wave to easy to hear the harmonics showing up. So start with just kind of saturation in general, more just to find saturation because it's so broad. Basically anything that pushes sound up and then kinda, kinda squashes it or kind of kind of shaves it off. And that shaving process, a result in the coloring of the sound or the different, different timbres and different characteristics of different distortions. And saturation is just you're kind of changing, changing the form of the wave overdrive, little bit overdrive, quite a pull up one of the amps overdrive, these is one of the first saturation effect that was ever produced. It wasn't originally like, like an effect by unit, affect or module. The first overdrive sound was produced by electric guitar players, are some of the first electric guitar players. They would kinda crank through their amps up to 11 rent and salaries they could go. And generally as speaker is rated for for a certain volume and as it gets up to the top, to the upper limits, it won't be able to respond. They won't be able to accurately produce those sounds. And they turned it up that high, it would start to distort exactly, but it would, it would start to kinda crackling kind of warmth. What happens at that point is it starts to, things start to get flattened off. The instantaneous peaks get, get chopped off. It's not really static, but there's a bit of noise introduced and just a basic grid. And people like them a lot. So the first, the first overdrive tones were really accidental and it remained that way for years because that's just what it was. They were over driving the AMP. You'll see in some shapers instead of you'll, you'll have a soft clip in the sense that's what overdrive is. It is clipping, but it's not, you're not slamming into the, into that wall. It's kinda of writing just below the wall. Now distortion, basically distortion is overdrive and kind of pushed to the next level. As I said, overdrive is, it's clipping, but you're not slamming it in. Distortion is you're slamming it and either appear percentages clipping it, chopping is sharpening. The tops are essentially distortion will turn your sine wave into a square well, because it just chop, it chops that top up. It doesn't really lead to anything pass through. So I'm going to, I'm going to quickly open up one of these little mill amps. Let's go at this one. You can hear it still sounds like like normal sinewave. So this is our original. I'll turn on the air sounds pretty much the same, but it is certainly boost. The gain. Here is getting, it's getting a bit more saturated. You can even visualize that. This little spike that's going tone say increases. You'll see these, these extra frequencies come up. And that's, that's, that's the overdrive. That's the effective of overdrive. That's what it does. Anybody hearing with the overdrive? Hear it pretty well. Now distortion, on the other hand, some good example. I honestly like to use this, this D11 for bad distortion when these basic ones have some other plug-ins. But I use these is two units along the scribe, like all the fancy plug-ins to label a visa, then they're actually great. Don't, don't discount them. So, so kinda we'll start the same way when just the basic telling. Now turn on this storage and you can see it's already, it's already giving, giving me some saturation. So this mic down here, this is really just the amount of that is cranking. It is distortion. And this is the this is how low, this is how much of it is chopping off. And you can see it see here this is the, this is how it is originally at the bottom. It's just barely starting to round it off. This is more of an, this is more in the realm of overdrive. And as we bring it up to here, it gets flattened off. Like that really gets chopped off. And you can see that it's like a square wave. And you can also, you can also compare it by switching to a square wave. And if I play the same note, it's not a very different sound. So let's go back to the sine wave so we can hear it in action. Now, the reason this is called afford that distortion is because of this end here was a form that you can actually go past the point of shedding enough flat. You can see there's a gray Arch. That's the original. And if we imagine, if we imagine this arch continuing but being reflected back down, you can actually kind of picture, picture this right here, this little diagram here. And what's happening is it's getting bounced back down or reflected back down, folded back down. And when it hits the, when it hits the zero-point again, you'll fall back up. So some, some of you might recognize it as, as aliasing, which is aliasing. Aliasing is when something reaches the limit of bandwidth and then it reflects back down as it, as it's supposed to go higher, instead reflects back down. So this is kind of a similar idea in bounces back. And that really, really distortion times 10. Again makes it really thin. Dorothy distortion is always pretty effective in the low end. And something else that's very effective with distortion is running it through a filter after the study is pretty harsh. It can be abrasive. A cell. Just run it through a filter, 24. And especially in the low end. You can make something fairly audible on small speakers, but also use the filter to roll it off. So it's not too, it's not exactly a, so it's not a traveling string is still a bass instrument. And the band-pass is great for this too. If I wanted to, if I wanted it to have this, this, this original sine tone on its own. But also make a copy that can be heard on it, that can be heard on smaller speakers. The best thing to do is route it out in parallel. And what this does is I can keep the original scaling and then mix in process. And then mixing the process signal to kind of balance them out. And make, make this base article on a small system. But also have the full, the full sound on the fun on a large system. So that's overdrive and distortion. Now, emulators are also pretty cool. I'm a big fan of analog emulated. Am using one, was using one in the previous section right here to make, to make it a bit more audible in case there were small sneakers elements using small speakers. The best one that's available in stock for reason, I think is the audio Maddie retro transformer. This, this thing is, you can see it has all these different models sounds. I almost always use the tape and just credit kind of blasted through. So I'll bring it in, bring it into parallel. And this is the original. And that's a very, very low, you probably can't hear that. But starting high and mix it in. And a lot of people won't be able, will be able to hear that a lot better. And small speakers, especially down here and down there, like even on headphones, you can't necessarily hear that on the headphones. But Fade this up. And that's my headphone right now, pretty well. It really, these tape emulators, something like this can really increase audibility across a wide range of, of, of playback devices. They have these other ones which are kinda cool. It's kind of weird sounds. I usually just go with tape is probably one of the best tape emulators on a budget that I, that I know. So that's emulation without without getting into plug-ins on. This is where you wanna go for that. And move on to time-based effects now. And we'll get into that. Now. 16. Lesson 6b. Time Based Effects: Time-based effects. So what are time-based effects? Time-based effects, or effects that use time as part of their, their processing algorithm. Most, most time-based effects can kind of be boiled down to either single or, or cascading delays. Delays are probably the most basic form of time-based effect that you can think of. And I'll load one up here from here. So I've loaded up a little like Sawtooth. Sawtooth. So a delay reads, reads whatever signal is coming in. And when it does is it makes a copy of that signal and takes I copy and shifts it over a certain amount of time, and then plays it back alongside your, your, your original. Easily. It shifts it forward in time. There's some that can look ahead and shifted back, but knock and talk about those. Zeros are not in reason. And we have a few different parameters here. We have our step or number of steps that is delaying it by. And we can also have it in milliseconds. And that's kinda the same thing as having this LFO or mod on sync mode and unsinkable. I'm going to keep it on the steps, is his best to hear it in sync mode. You can also change the steps between 16th notes and triplets. And we're going to keep it on 60 pounds for now. So the number of steps or milliseconds is the amount of time between when it detects your signal and when it plays it back the first time. And the feedback determines how many times this repeats. So, so if I have it at 0, it'll just repeat it once and it'll, it'll be done with it. If I have the feedback up and as they go up further, it'll repeat it more, more often. And it'll kind of echo and decrease in volume over a longer period. I'm panning just changes the, the, the delay from being on the left or right. Even automate this to you so it can bounce back and forth. You can also control it with C, with the control voltage and keep it down to center. And the dry wet controls the balance of the raw signal to the delayed signal. So if you have it completely on dry, you're not going to hear the delay happening at all. If you have it on wet, your you're not going to hear the the initial the initial strike and you'll just hear the echo. If you have it on 5050, you'll hear both. You'll hear the original sound and the, the, the delayed sound. So I'm going to turn it on and we'll hear how it sounds. And keep out 5050. Put it around halfway. Let's hear it. He definitely heard this in a lot of places. Probably just not dead mouse sum. So you've definitely heard this in a wider places. One of the, one of the major uses are wet and probably one of the most well-known uses of it is what's called a slapback delay. In the way you make when you though is, is usually turned it down, turn the feedback all the way down. You just get one single slab bag. He turned down the turn down the speed. Be turning up the speed. I guess. Something very quick. Let's go with a 100 milliseconds. Basically, this is often used on vocals. And it really, you'll hear in London, in hip hop vocals, in a lot of pop music vocals. There'll be doing there verse and you'll kinda hear a little light like Echo, just kind of slapping back and really thinkings everything up. You feel people often pan it in creative ways. And yeah, that's, that's a slap back. You can also turn up the feedback really high and print some weird effects changing the ukulele. So that's the delay pedal. That's your, that's your delay. Now, on the other side, on the side of the coin of delays you have echoes. Don't really use, and usually just easier to lay line just because of the style of music I usually do. But echo pedals or echo effects are kinda meant to sound more realistic. They're meant to sound more like, like an actual, like reflection off of a surface and the real-world. Whereas delay pedals or delays, are meant to sound like a tape loop. Like he, like you've made a loop of tape and it's playing it back. So you can see there's a lot more parameters on the echo as well. For example, ping pong, that allows things to, to jump to balance between left and right. You can see that the delay pedal earlier, you had, you had, you had a pan knob. But if you want to ping pong, you would have to automate that. This one has, it doesn't on its own. This diffusion here makes it so that each repetition, it gets a bit more like I'm kinda, kinda spreads out a bit more and it gets a bit more, kind of fuzzy, I guess. So without the guy fusion. And when the diffusion and it gets a little bit phased. All sorts of funny. And also achieve different effects. Overdrive here, limiting situation. So all sorts of things. Now reversed. Reverb is, is one of the big ones. Everybody's heard of reverb. I think Ben's had been ended over river, too little reverb, too much reverb. Never end. Everybody has an opinion on reverb and see everybody's wrong teeth. So let's open this one. So before we start playing around with it, that's kinda figure out what reverb even is in the first place. So reverb can be described as a bunch of delay petals, kind of cascading, kind of one after the other. And the reason that's the case is you can kinda see it if you imagine, you think about what reverb itself is. So if I'm in this room and I clap my hands, the sound is going to travel away from my hands and reflect off of the walls. And there's going to be a certain delay. It's a very small room, so it's a tiny delay. But there's going to be delay between the time that I clap my hands and when it bounces off and gets back to me. So that delay is called the pre-delay here. And you can see that if we change, this is kind of shifts, shifts ahead. So a longer pre-delay. And it's, it's kind of simulates if you're, if you're in a very large cavern and the clap your hands, it takes like takes a minute or two to get the first reflections back and say It's kind of like like an echo. And then once you get the echo of the reverb starts and that amount of time, it's one of the major things that our brain picks up on when we're, when we're trying to figure out how big the room is, um, without being able to see it. If you're blindfolded and you are taken into a room and you clap your hands or something, you'd the pre-delay is a big factor in determining what kind of room. So that's known as pre-delay. And you can see that we have a pre-delay knob right here. If I turn it, you can see that there's a bit of a gap. So we've clapped her hands, the sounds traveled to the closest wall and it's come back to us. So what happens next is, well, we've, we've gotten our sound off of the closest wall. Then the next closest surface comes back to us. And then the next closest surface after that. And it, it really cascades down, down whatever is closest and whatever is farthest away. And those first few, though at that first handful of, of reflections or reverberations are called early reflections in, in, in reverb units. And we can see that right here. This ER, that stands for early reflections. Here we have ER level and See these little lighter colored iris can make them louder and quieter. You can change their position relative to, to the, to the main reverb. So while pre-delay and is important for determining the size of the room, the characteristics of the early reflections is big in determining what kind of room idioms. So I like whether, whether there's hard surfaces are soft surfaces or whether things are diffusing evenly. Whether it's, it's kinda blocky and you're getting things coming back in chunks. That's the early reflections is it's kind of your first perception of what the reverb in the room sounds like. So now we've clapped her hands. We've gotten the first reflection back to our ears. And we've heard the first few reflections that follow that line. So now, now what starts to happen isn't maybe, maybe the first reflection has passed our ears that has gone to the other wall and comes back and he says our ear again. And so we'll hear that. And then we'll also hear all the other angles that were, that were farther than the, than the early reflections, but they're still coming back to us. So now things start to cross over all the different reverberations and reflection and start to cascade over each other. And this is what creates that smooth, smooth taper down that we associate with reverb. So the main parameter to keep in mind when it comes to that, that decay is the defusion. And the way you can think of defusion is how uniform each individual reflection and that decay is an or how close to each other and level they are, and how smooth that curve is. So we have a diffusion here. You can see it's at maximum because they want this initialize patch to be very smooth. If I start to bring it down, we'll see you, then it starts to get more jagged. And each individual reflection, there's a bit more variation in them. So I bring this down, see the variation increases dramatically and bring it back up. It's very smooth. So now we've clapped her hands. You've heard the first slap back before. I had them the following handful of first reflections. And we've heard that start to taper off. And we've perceived the density and the uniformity of that, of that curve. So now different rooms will absorb different parts of this frequency spectrum at different, at different rates. So, so back can be found in what's called damping. Um, and damping. Damping is really how much of the high shelf of frequencies gets absorbed. So in a large room or in any room with a lot of fabric, the damping will be higher because that'll start to absorb the higher frequencies. So damping is, is pretty important for customizing how you want the, how you want the reverb to sound. What kind of space you want, you want the little reverb to sound like. So now we've clapped her hands, gotten the first, the first reflection. We've gotten the following handful of reflections for how smooth that decay is. And we've heard what kind of materials and what kind of characteristics the room has. So one last term is to discuss when it comes to reverbs is something called RT60. And RT60 stands for reverb time 60 decibels. And what they say is, is the amount of time that it takes for a reverb signal to go from, from its full volume or its peak volume to decay by 60 decibels. It's a unit of time. This is usually measured in seconds or time in general, but most reverbs last a few seconds. So if you look at this one, the 0 and the RT 60 for this signal, looks to be just under two seconds. And the way we can control that in this reverb is changing the decay time. And they decay. If we're changing this in this reverb, it's really changing the RT60 because, because this is changing how long it takes to reach that, that 0.60 decibels below the peak. Rt60 is the last major term when it comes to these different parameters that we're talking about. So if we look through the different presets for this reverb and see a whole bunch of different, of different settings we have like when Lee tree tops, the match, which is probably the Metropolitan Opera. And all sorts of different fears. Looks like the propeller head developers like off his kitchen, all sorts of things. So these reverb profiles are created or they're modeled after real space is using something called an impulse response. And you can really even record that an impulse response of anything. Really what it is. It's a literal recording of something reverberating in a room. So when someone goes to make an impulse response, they'll go into a maybe like a silo where a feeder. And a lot of the time it'll take something like a balloon. Or they'll, they'll take a speaker to deal with like a pulse of white noise. Maybe it's sine sweep. The most common thing, I believe is a balloon pop though. So a lot of the time though, they'll blow up the balloon in the space. I'll hold it up, or maybe prop it up and pop the balloon. And they'll recorded the reverb of that balloon pump and the space. And since the balloon pop is essentially white noise and create contains, it contains a bit of all the different frequencies. So what they'll do is they'll, they'll go back to their recording of that reverb. They'll cut out the balloon pop. So once they get rid of the pop, they have only the characteristics of a white noise, which has all, all frequencies decaying in that space. So what they'll usually do is they'll take that impulse response and then they'll bring it into a reverb like this one. Use the convolution algorithm. And when you open the convolution algorithm, I have this little sample section available. Right now you see they have their little AIF file with their propeller hag teach in, sample loaded in. And we can actually open this up here. I downloaded this one from the Internet earlier. And you have an impulse response, so I can just double-click it here and load it in. And here we've got ours and acted up because I'm playing, played anything yet. And we'll see how it sounds. And this is the rod there and mix this in. So that's, that's how you can, how you can actually create your own reverb profiles if you really want to, you. So what is really doing is it's taking these, is, it's taking this decayed. And whenever there is a peak, it's using that to determine when it's going to, when it's going to play back a reflection of your original sound. And it basically just follows the contour of your impulse response. So that's how you can make your own reverb profiles. I was real excited when they learn how to do that. I thought that was pretty cool. There's a couple other reverb algorithms that are kinda different. First one is a plate. I'm plates reverbs were probably one of the first reverbs to be invented. Really when it consists of, is a plate of metal. And they would, they would fascinate speaker to one end and microphone or a receiver on the other end. And as, as a speaker vibrating the the, the plate on it would have the original sound vibrating through, but it would also have a bit, a bit more of sustain. It would be more vibration than they would pick that up on the other end. And that was one of the first, first forms of reverb or a kind of a sustained kind of kind of decay. And so there's a whole bunch of different reverbs these days modeled after Plate Reverb. You still make your own. You can probably buy some too little wind up quickly. I find plate reverbs are really reliable. They always give a pretty consistent sound. They're not too crazy there, just, just a street reverberating decay. One of the cool things about the original ones is if you wanted to, to damp things. You literally put like maybe a pillow or some cloth on the metal plate itself. And that's probably why it's called damping in most in most reverbs. Because he would really be would literally do you literally damp, damp the plate down. The other kind of classic reverb or original reverb is a spring reverb. And a lot of guitar effects still, like go still make like spring reverbs. They're not obviously as common as it used to be because we have all this modelling now. But spring reverbs is the same thing. The only difference is the sound is traveling through a spring. Spring, the spring and picks up the sound on the other end. Not my favorite sound, but I'm also not a guitar player. I like a guitar player and love spring reverbs. Little screen reader. So a spring reverbs, obviously sounding like lumen different and a little bit more psychedelic. There are also a lot less evenly diffused. So if that's something that you're looking for, would like a lot of individual kind of events and reflections enter. It could be. You might like the spring reverbs, but that's an reverbs, that's kinda of a whole section on its own. Just to wrap up time-based effects. I'm going to talk quickly about phasers and flangers. I'll start out with a phaser. And I'm going to go with us with a single saw tooth because this sawtooth 16 already has some phase. And going on on what a phasor does like, like almost all time-based effects is it takes a copy of your input signal. It shifts it by a certain amount of time that you specify, kind of like a delay actually. And it basically plays two copies of a sound right close to each other. So I can't really describe to you how it sounds like. It only really show you. So this is white but it sounds like on its own. And with the phasor. So the frequency is the band where the phasor as acting on. The split is the time difference between the two copies. The width is the bandwidth of the, of the frequency band. Believe it's using all sorts of things. He's on that. Very useful sound. Little tricky to get the hang of. I would recommend watching some more specific videos on, on, on working around phasing. Another thing related to it is a flanger. And phase has been around longer than a flanger. I'm flange room was coined by The Beatles at Abbey Road. I think. George Martin, the producer, originally made the effect and then he described it as a double bifurcated is blushing flange, which really, which really means it was first done by one reel to reel tape, and then you had another reel to reel tape playing it copy. And then somebody, somebody kinda put their thumb on one of the real and slowed one of them down while the other one was moving at the same time. So basically it's essentially a phasor that moves, that with a rate, moves and changes. So while a phasor, it'll shift it over and it'll stay that way. A flanger. It. It can start to wind up and then it'll kind of shift a shift out of phase and then I'll come back again and shift out and back in. And kinda like the phasor, it can be a very like psychedelic effect. And that's where the flange, flange juries sounds very similar. Just a bit more, a bit more washing. Now. Now a chorus is, and this is the last time-based effect that I'll touch on. So the chorus is very similar to the phaser and that it makes a copy. And it shifts it over. The main difference between a chorus and a phasor is that a chorus makes multiple copies. So it'll have, it'll have, love your original. You'll have a copy shifted this way, a copy shifted this way. And what that does is it creates the illusion that there's like a lot of, that, There's a lot of different voices or instances of your original sound happening. It's probably why it's called the chorus. It sounds like a choir which is saved as many people or many voices. So if i o, demonstrate real quick. Again, this is our original. I turn on the core is sounds very similar to the, to the phasor. Might turn up a feedback or yen delay is similar to the split. It really determines how far apart they are. I'd like to have a very light. Sounds great on base, but very, very light. Very slow. Sounds pretty good on nella sound is too light. So that's a chorus. And that really ramps up a time-based effect. The last thing that I wanted to talk about is the Haas zone effect, which isn't really like an a sound effect light like like an effects unit. It's more of like a physics phenomenon. And we can see it by eye opening up until a line when you have two discrete sounds activated very close to each other, specifically, within 30 to 50 milliseconds of each other, they begin to be perceived as the same event or the same sound. You can really tell that there, that there are two separate transient. And if they're outside of 30 to 50 milliseconds, and generally you start to hear that there, that there are two separate things happening. The precise number of milliseconds depends on the type of sound that you're listening to. And also it depends on your ear as well how sensitive it is. Real life example is a flam. The scattered around. We're just two drumming in general. We put it really close. You can hear that that's separate, but as I bring it closer together, it sounds like sounds like one thing is happening and somebody doesn't play drums. Somebody could conceivably think it's just like a single special stroke or something. So, so let's, let's kinda try to hear this in action. First, we'll make like a very short sound. So I have two. So we've got a very, very short pink noise sound going and give it a little bit of a filter and clean it up. Nice blends. We can hear. Sounds like a snare drum. So if I introduce the delay and I have it on a single slab back, counting in milliseconds, specifically aside 50 right now, I have it on 5050, dry wet. So the so the initial strike is equal to the, to the slap back and going down the center to you. So I'll start a bit higher. And we can hear that compared to the single strike. When I switch this on. The very close succession, can hear that it's added some here at this point that there's separate nodes. I think. If I start bringing it together, starting to sound like almost like the same sound. Like we know it's two different sound. But it sounds like like one occurrence, like they're kind of linked to each other as opposed to two separate sounds. And when, when you, when you start to get down even further, here I'm 25. That's where it really starts to sound like a single event. But to show how, how close together these are, if we raise the feedback, it starts to sound like a tone, actually. Sound, it sounds more like a synthesizer at this one because they're so close together that they said that they really sound, they sound like one thing if we raise it up, you can kinda tell. That sounds more like, like a delay. That's put onto, onto his snare drum. But down here, it kinda sounds more like a synthesizer, which really tells you that your brain is perceiving them as part of the same thing, not separate events. The other thing that this is kinda comparable to is actually a form of synthesis called Karplus Strong synthesis. Well, Karplus Strong synthesis. Short burst of noise that sent through a delay or some kind of relay that, that repeats it back. And the actual pitch of the synthesizer is determined by the rate of the delay. Here we're into things. It sounds more like a synthesizer. And by changing the actual characteristics of the initial sound and the feedback. As well as maybe some filtering. We can actually start to kind of use this. I put this through a filter. Kind of sounds like a plucked string almost. And we're kind of late into the class. So I might as well mentioned that I first found out about this from the Europe, from the Europa synthesizer. They have a Karplus Strong setting. And This will be pretty loud at the beginning. So this is the same kind of synthesis. And when the shape is at the bottom, it's going to be pretty abrasion is I think that's the same thing as having the feed backup. I maximum. But let's hear it. So this is the feedback of a maximum. And if we slow it down and you can kind of hear about it, that is coming from the individual verso of noise. But if we turn down the feedback and I'm pretty sure it's probably changing the filtering. I'm not too sure. I don't know how exactly it works. Starts to sound more like a plucked string. This is really, really useful. So actually, when I, when I started playing with the europa, this was the first time I had even heard of Karplus Strong. So I decided to I looked up what the heck it was and figured out then I can make it myself this way. So really, that's what they said is a utilizes the hot zone made up of a bunch of bunch of noise policies that are within the hot zone. So they separate or separate pulses. But they sound like, they sound like one event and strung together. It, it produces, it produces a tone. And that's really the same thing with any sound wave really. Because each pressure wave, each peak of the pressure wave is a separate event, they're just happening so fast that we can't perceive it. So that's the hot zone. Wanted to go, go over that because I'm, it's is related to time-based effects. It's not sound effects unit on itself, but is still, is still an odd, a time-based audio effect. It can really step up your game when it comes to how you use your year delay, your delay pedals, you delay effects and just time-based effects in general. And so those are all of the time-based effects. We're going to touch on dynamic effects next, which I'll, which is going to be pretty important. And that's another thing that can really step up your game. So let's move on there now. 17. Lesson 6c. Dynamic Effects [Theory]: Okay, so let's get into dynamic of banks. So in music and sound, dynamics refers to, to the different values within sound. And when we talk about the range between the lowest and highest points, that's called the dynamic range. So logically, when we talk about dynamic effects, these are effects that operate on this dynamic range. They can increase this range, they can reduce the range, and they can modulate the range. A key term here is attenuate. And this just means to decrease in level. Another key term that we're going to be talking about is threshold. Threshold is just a boundary. You can think of it as a, as a boundary. Once you pass this boundary, something happens. It can be all sorts of things. You can just think of it as a boundary. So we'll start out with the compressor. So I just mentioned, but dynamic range and how dynamic effects act on this range. And when it compressor does is it reduces this dynamic range. And the way it does that is by using a threshold. Most compressors you can use set. You can set a threshold to a certain dynamic level. And whenever your sound passes this threshold, the compressor will detect this as an event. And it'll read how many decibels over the threshold you're sailing has gone. So for every decimal over this threshold, it will reduce the overall sound by x number of decimal. And that ratio is referred to as the ratio x to one. So in the notes, in the class notes, I've included a couple, couple of charts here. Here we have wind for compression and you can see there's little need here. And this, this is where the threshold is at. In this case, the threshold is set to six decibels. And if we look at what's going on in this chart, you can see along the, along the x axis we have decibels going into the compressor. On the y-axis we have decibels coming out of the compressor up to the threshold, the decimals in and the decimals out and have them the same. Here we have two in, and at this point it's 20. Same with here for n and four out, up to 666 out. And once we get to eight decibels in, eight decibels in is two decimals over, over the threshold of six decibel. So since it's 200 over the threshold, it's going to divide that by two. So 2 divided by 2 is 1. So it's going to take away one decimal from the decimals out. And we can see here that the output is now seven decimals as opposed to who? They're eight decibels and we go up to 10 decibels in. We can see that it's eight decibels out because 10 is 4 over the threshold, divided by two of the two-to-one ratio is 20 decibels above the threshold, which is eight decibels out. Here we have 12 in, which is six above the threshold. And we have nine out, because six divided by two is 36 plus three is nine. So here, everything before the threshold, we have a normal one-to-one slope. And everything above the threshold is being, is being tapered off according to ratio. And we can have different ratios. We can have 3-to-1, 4-to-1, candlelight like 16 to one. Whatever number you like. When it comes to compression, anything above any number above one is valid. One-to-one ratio is no change happening. That's what's happening right here before the threshold is passed. So anything above one, we have a compression ratio. With compressor is you also noticed that we have an attack and release. The attack is how quickly this attenuation is applied. Once the threshold is exceeded. And the release is how quickly the attenuation is removed after the sound drops below the threshold. So with the dynamic range reduced, the idea is that we can turn up a sound more. If this, if this sound, where were they continue without the compressor, then 12 decibels in would be 12 decibels out. And say, let's say like the maximum volume is 12 decibels. That means that anything here is going to be distorting, right? But with a compressor, now we've turned the 12 decibels, editing nine decibels, but the maximum volume is still way up here. That means we have 12 minus nine, that's three decibels. That means we have three extra decimals to work to turn it up. And that's just where the two-to-one ratio compression ratio. So with even higher ratios weekend squeeze even more volume at a normal sound. What this really does and why it's good for, is for you can hear more of what's happening in the sound. Like maybe, maybe for a guitar, if you're playing guitar, and the actual tones of the string is pretty loud. But maybe you want to hear that. The threat, the threat slides and stuff or this thrumming that's a bit quieter than the actual resonance resonant tone. The tone will pass the threshold first. The compressor will shave off, shave them off, and limit their volume, effectively bringing them down and closer to the normal sound that's below. Then those two elements are closer together and they're easier to here. This is, this is really beneficial for smaller speakers or for having something playing fairly quietly, but still being able to hear what's happening. This means that you don't need to turn things up to here, things that are that were originally at a low level. So that's a compressor. It allows you to raise the volume of quiet parts while keeping the loud parts at the same level. So the next one to talk about is a limiter. A limiter is actually very similar to a compressor, uses a threshold as well. But the main difference of a limiter is that it doesn't really have a ratio to speak of. It has an infinite ratio. This means that for every decimal that your input goes over the threshold, the limiter will completely flatten it out. It'll reduce it by infinite, infinite decimals to the threshold. And we can see that in action here. Here's our threshold. Before the threshold we have. We have a normal one-to-one slope with two in, two out for in, four out, six n and six out. And again, a threshold of six, but eight and, and we still have six m. Tannin still sticks out. So a really flattens, flattens all the input infinitely. Once it hits that threshold, nothing is allowed to pass. Limiters are ideal at the end of a mastering chain or the end of your production to prevent any extraneous overages. And they can really, they can really allow you to push your makes to the, to the, to the highest, the highest volume and ensure that nothing clips. So as a limiter, there's a limiter is pretty straightforward. So in an expander is little bit less common. It's almost the same thing as a compressor, except it's kinda the polar opposite. So it uses a threshold the same as compressor has an attack and release. But the difference is in the ratio. If we, if we think of it as similar to a compressor than an expander would have a ratio that's below one, that's below a one-to-one ratio. What this means is that for every decimal over the threshold, it will divide it by 0.5 or some fraction, which is effectively the same thing as multiplying. So for, so here we have 21, 20, our normal thing up to 66 out either threshold. But once we get to eight and it's dividing by half, which is the same thing as multiplying by two. So instead of having two decibels over the threshold, and now we have four decimals over the threshold, which is 10 out. And if we have 10 in, which is four decibels above the threshold, now we have eight, which is 14 decibels. So we can really think of an expander as has the opposite of a compressor. Or a compressor with a ratio below, below one. Some plugins that are dedicated expanders will have 2-to-1 expansion ratios. But sometimes you'll also see a compressor that can also act as an expander. And in those cases you'll have a compressor where you can set the ratio to above or balloon one. Expanders or sometimes called an exciter. And when they're used with a very light, with a very short attack and release. They can be used as kind of like a textural effect to maybe for drums like symbols can make it shimmer. There are very interesting plug-ins and if they're not as commonly talked about, interests me to play with, so play around with it. The final thing to talk about is a gate. So the same way that an expander is the opposite of a compressor, a gate is kind of the opposite of a limiter. So again, the gate has a threshold like any other dynamic effect, except a gate remains closed or it doesn't allow sound to pass through until your input exceeds a certain threshold, and then it opens up and allows sound to pass. These are most commonly used on speech or vocals. And used, they're usually used outdoors or onstage, or sometimes in broadcasting. You can see in the diagram here, anything below the threshold drops down, down to 0. And this little slope here, that's a product of my, of my faulty draft making really the threat. The slope drops down pretty much instantaneously. So for anything below the threshold, you can see we have two decibels and four decimals in, that's increasing the decimals n is increasing like normal, but the decimals out isn't moving at all. That's because the gate is closed. There's no snow sound passing through. Once we hit the threshold of six decibels, then it opens up and allows sound to pass through here. And then anything above the threshold continues like normal. So from, from the threshold of six, as we get to eight, now we have eight out of 10, 10 out, and it continues at a one-to-one ratio. So just like a limiter cuts off everything above the threshold, again, cuts off everything below the threshold. So those are the four main elements of dynamic effects. I would, I would refer back to these charts if you ever forget about them. But once he started playing with them, it'll be pretty easy to get a sense of what's going on. So let's move on to the practical element of this lesson. 18. Lesson 6c. Dynamic Effects [Practical]: So let's get on to the practical side of, of the dynamic effects. I've just little loop. So we have somebody who work with is play real quick. And the other thing to note is, I've taken the drums and have routed them through this line mixer. And I'm just bringing them out. Bringing them might have the same channel so we can process them together. And the other thing to note is I'm going to be using our compressor just to show, just to show what's going on. Because it's a very, it's very visual compressor. And it can also, it also has expansion capabilities that why do people, even people who had been doing audio for a long time, will tell you it's really hard to hear compression. So I've learned recent, actually, fairly recently, a good trick for, for hearing compression. I watched a very interesting lesson from the house of Kush YouTube channel. And it's talking about ways to here compression. His technique. Actually really interesting is it's just turn down whatever you're compressing may get real quiet when it's just kinda poking through the mix, you'll really be able to hear what's going on. So let's, let's hit play. And we'll just kind of peak it into the mix. Bring it up where it would gradually. Just barely enough. So we can here so we can hear the high hats. So we're going to start with a tack because I think that's the easiest one to here. And so when we think of the attack stroke to visualize what's going to be happening. And again, this is on the drums channel. So whenever, whenever something happens in the drums, whenever there's a, there's a, there's a stroke that's going to register and the threshold, and every time though those strokes happen to compressor is going to process a different amount of attenuation for the output based on the ratio. So if we think about it, we have a fast attack, then logically went whenever we have a drum stroke, It's going to slam down on that drum stroke from the very beginning. If we have a longer attack or a slower attack, it'll allow a bit of that drum stroke to pass through before clamping down on the volume. So if we think about it with a fast attack, that's really going to take away some of the patchiness of the drums. We should be able to hear that. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to start, maybe going to start with maybe a long, longer attack, 30. And you're hit Play. And as I bring down the attack, I want you to listen for the, for the high hats to become more smooth and less kind of poppy and just more kindness, sizzling, kind of more flat sounding. So I'm going to hit play and certain bring the attack down. Here. The two is three over again. In here a bit, we're like a sizzling 1900 bandwidth will be written up here. The attack is that they're more beneficence. So what this does is it allows for is it allows us to bring the drums up a bit higher overall. So when it hit again, I didn't bring this up. And I said, you can also see that as I raise the at bat, there's some eclipse happening over here. Because those initial transients are passing through. But with a fast attack, those initial transients are being clamped down before they can peak over there. Now, so here, if we change the ratio. So that's the attack and you just heard that could be a compressor attack in action. Now, when I look at one look at the release. So if we think about what's happening with the release, every time a drum stroke ends, the compressor is going to stop attenuating the sound. And the speed at which it stops attenuating is determined by the release. Then a long release will make the compressor continue to attenuate, even though the sound is already dropped down below the threshold. So the sound is already quiet. And with a long release, the compressor will keep on making it quiet. So if we shorten the release, then as soon as each drum stroke ends, then the compressors attenuation is going to stop real fast. It's going to just get out of there. The attenuation is just going to back off right away. That allows the original sound to rise back up to its normal level. So if you think about how this will sound with a longer, with a longer release, will be hearing a bit more silence and gaps in the sound. Because he has everything between the drum strokes is still being reduced in volume. With a shorter release, we should be able to hear a bit more as sizzling between, between the notes. We'll hear a bit more, bit more action between with a longer release of everything between will be, will be a lot lower in volume. So let's see if we can hear that. Let's go. And I should be able to hear a lot of silence between the nodes here. We bring it down. Here, all the high hats kind of kinda jiggling. And so that's compression. You've officially heard compression inaction. So now let's talk about limiting. So here's that. So this here is the M class maximizer. And it's really reason stop limiter. A maximizer is very similar to a limiter. The main difference is usually Calypso little bit, and it allows you to drive things into, into the headroom, I guess much as possible. And if we think about what a limiter is doing, limiter has a threshold and anything above that, that limit is going to be flattened off. There won't be any additional volume above that threshold. So theoretically, if I have these drums going through, increase the input gain, it'll increase the volume to a degree, but it's never going to clip or it's never going to distort bike it. What if I didn't have it running through a limiter to limit the volume. But I've also pulled up the data row, which is kind of an advanced meter. It'll just make it a lot, a lot more, a lot more easily visible. I'm also just going to turn on the soft clip here just to make sure nothing passes through, just round off any of the outliers. And so what I'm gonna do, I get to take the output gain of the compressor, going to start off by going to start off with the maximizer turned off. And I'm going to, I'm going to boost the gain of the output compressor. And we'll see at what point does it start to clip. Now this is also, it also has floating point peak. So at, at the most, It's going to hit this 0 decimal. We really don't want it to hit that 0. We want it to be right, right below here. So I'm going to start to boost it. And once it went, it starts to peak around here. I'm going to, I'm going to engage the maximizer. So we can see how it helped bring things down to then start to boost it is saturating up here. We have, we have it in the green up here. Give it a bit more. And now it's spending most of its time right at the peak here. So what I'm gonna do now, we're going to engage the maximizer. I've also turned on the software to just twist and broadband outliers from coming through. And we'll see how it rounds things off down here. Now it's no longer peeking out that 0 decimal back, back, back, back. And I can even give it a bit of extra input name. And you can see where we're squeezing a lot more volume added. It becomes very saturated. But, but the peak is, is not, we're not, we're not exceeding the peak, gets back, back, back, back, back. You can also see that this starfish. Ms. the average sound down here is rising up to the peaks are very, spend most of their time up here. Click before we have this average, this average volume way down here. And as we crank it up, the peace and the average sum become closer together. So I've been really cranky at in, normally, wouldn't crank it that much. But that kind of gives you a sense of how it acts kinda like a brick wall there. So I'm going to get rid of these and we'll, we'll just look at expansion as well. And conveniently this are a compressor has, you can do, has both. So I'm going to bring down the gain back to actually bring it to 0. Because we're gonna be adding dynamics. It is, like we said, they expander increases dynamic range. So I'm going to hit play and we have a pretty fast attack and release and actually going to make the release a little bit longer, but keep a pretty fast attack and hip way. I'm going to bring the ratio up, which actually brings it down below one. But as we can see here, it's up because it's going to be increasing the volume. Again, dividing by a fraction is the same thing as multiplying. So as I bring it down to eventually 0.5, That's going to be the same as multiplying by two. So because ago I'm going to start at one to one. And you can hit play. And we'll hear a lot more, lot more action and the drums and increasing the ration. Now we can hear a little kinda pin pricks of sound. One. You can hear, it's a lot more kind of staccato. Just little bits of it by punching through. Anything change this or that. Have a demo coming through. Very short. Smooth like this. And that's how you can play with expanders. You can also play with them on strings. All sorts of instruments, guitars. Really, like I said, he gives a bit of shimmer, right? This, this drums example is, it's more of a punchy effect, but with something that's a bit more lush, you can have a kind of sizzle as there's little peaks of volume, you can increase those, increase those peaks. And the last thing I wanted to talk about is the gate. And probably the best way to visualize this isn't the reason mix window to see they have compressors AND gates here. So what we saw in the class now it's a gate walks any sound that's below a certain threshold. So see we have our threshold here. You have a range, a range of 0 decibels. It won't be much change at all. A gate range of, in this case, 40 decibels, or really just a maximum range. Different ones will have different ranges. That gives you the most difference between the open and closed state. And I'm going to keep the release and hold down because it makes, it, makes it nice and punchy on drums. So I need to hit Play the gates off right now. And we're going to find out what volume the Germans are kinda hanging out. And that'll help us place, place the threshold for our game plan. So they're pretty low right now and probably waist up and then it looks like they're anywhere between minus five and minus ten. So I'm going to go for go for maybe minus 98. Yes, I'm afraid right there. Eight. So now I'm going to engage the gate. You'll be able to hear that you cut out everything in between this wrote a hearing. It's only letting through the loudest, but I can raise the game and have it only let, let through the bare basics. I can go down, have a lead through the hat, lower it down. Heavy lead, two elements, everything. I can also lower the range and still be able to hear the other elements would have a bit more, a bit more distance between them than normal. This is odd. And this here, you can still hear the other stuff. To get more difference. In other words, the whole added, it just allows it to stay open a bit longer. And the release determines how quickly closes. So like I have the fast attack on, so it opens right away. This also has an expander function. In this case, the function is very similar to a gain, honestly. And the reason mixer also has a pretty good compression. I think it sounds pretty good. So that cut that sort of covers all of the, all of the dynamic effects. There's, there's a few other ones. And we'll kind of look at that in the mixing and mastering, such as, such as multi bands, EQs. But in terms of strict dynamic effects, those are all of them. So play around with them. Referred to those charts in the notes that I, in the class, notes and compression and dynamics. It kinda takes awhile. And just a lot of, a lot of practice to be able to learn how to use them. It took me years to learn how to really hear them in action and use them with deliberate intent rather than just kinda moving around knobs. So just play around with them and you'll figure it out. So let's move on to mixing and mastering effects. And then we'll get into mixing and mastering. 19. Progress Update: All right. Hello everybody. So it has been more than a while and is definitely overdue for an update as to what's going on. I seen that people are watching the videos and sure, probably all of you noticed. It stops at six C. Right now in the dynamic effects. Don't want to give an excuse what family's been been moving, then we've had some renovations delayed, so we're in a hotel right now. However, seeing that people had been watching, watching the class, I'm going to do as best as I can. I have my, my phone and my laptop here. I don't have my interface and all this stuff right now. So since people have been watching, I'm going to go through the rest of the notes that I have, which believe it's still the mastering effects less than six D and then bleed there, there's, there's the actual mixing and mastering lessons and then went on export it. So for now, it's not going to be radical or really worth it to do too many audio example is going to do as many as I can. But without the interface had like a whole setup point on. As soon as I'm back in front of my, my setup, I'm going to do the proper mixing demonstration, mastering demonstration. Like I said at the beginning, it's not astounding official mixing mastering course, but I would like to give some kind of demonstration, at least for my workflow in everybody's workflow is different. But once I'm back in front of my setup and get that went out for now, I'm going to do is as much as I can with my phone and laptop. And just go through the rest of the nodes, clear up anything. Because it's always easier to see and hear something rather than result the paper. So that's what's been going on for the last while, more than a few months. And it is overdue for the update. And yeah, this is just to let you guys know what's going on. And I believe at the time this will be uploaded and knock all of these off like real quick. They should be uploaded in and around the time that this comes up. But just just just to let you guys know what's been going on. So and as always, let's move on to the lesson. 20. Lesson 6d. Mastering Effects (EQs): Okay, everybody. So we're kind of back. If you didn't see the update video and you're wondering where I've been. Go watch the update video should be the one just before this. Real quick. Going to just do as much as I can with my cellphone, laptop, and the hotel much as I can for now. And see how this goes. And as soon as I'm back with my setup in two dot folding and faulting. So let's get back to lesson six, D, which is the mixing and mastering effects. So let's start with the EQ. So I've pulled up two EQs here, and we'll use those for the examples. Let's just go over what an EQ is first. So I probably could have included EQs and the dynamic section because they're adding and reducing volume. I think I didn't for two reasons. Number one, because they don't change the dynamic range, they just changed volume, um, which is kind of a tactical details that maybe only I care about. The main reason is IQ uses kinda like your bread and butter for, for mixing, mastering it. Once you, once you know how to use them, you'll probably be using like maybe get like a low latency one and probably almost every stage of your, of your mic. It's really a fundamental, fundamental thing for mixing, mastering the bread and butter. So while ago, probably in maybe the secondary, the second lesson or so, think of a synth synthesisers lesson. We talked about the filters, had few different filters and one of them was the notch filter or band reject filter, which leaves everything unchanged except for i, makes it dip. Wherever you have your frequency set to. And really can think of equalizers as a series of and the big asterisk here, you can think of an equalizer as a series of band reject filters or notch filters. And the asterisk is because an equalizer you can generally boost, which is not a filter. It filters don't boost their Generally passive. You can really think of it. So you can really think of it as being able to control many different bands within the frequency spectrum and being able to add or reduce volume. But only in a certain land. Like see this one here I'm habitat had maybe five k, five k hertz. You can re Saturday lower, right? So that's kinda the simplest explanation of what an EQ does. And maybe some of you are already familiar with EQ, but for the principal Evan, go through it. So there's a few different kinds of EQs. The first one that I have in the notes here is a graphic EQ. Reason does not have a graphic EQ as far as I know. If it if they do, let me know. I don't believe I do though. And the reason for that, I would say graphic EQs are generally used for live sound. The graphic EQ as you go, probably seen one. If anything, maybe a picture of it is generally when it goes whenever those hardware units and has anywhere, anywhere from eight to like 32 unos, maybe even more. Faders just next to each other. And each of those faders controls a certain band in the frequency. Like if we were to turn this, this display into a graphic EQ, we'd have a fader for this 39 hertz fader for this set, 78 hertz, 156. And each one of these, these points, there'd be a fader, bring it up and down. And the reason this is used for live sound is number one, you have all these different ones that you can control independently. With this one you only have like four and then a low cut, which is like for this purposes, is great. But for live sound, usually there's certain frequencies depending on the room that are prone to producing feedback. Sometimes you'll have like a buzz coming from the mic. You want to have many different, different faders that you can use at the same time. Just like kind of destroyed all those problem frequencies. So reason doesn't have one of those because first of all, you can use as many of these normal EEG uses you want. In real life? Yeah, just spend like another like few thousand dollars, right? Reason there's not really a need for, for, for a graphic AQ. So you're not missing out on a graphic EQ and reason he needed here. The other two types of, of EQs are either semi-parametric or fully parametric. And what that means in terms of parametric, and this is the number of controls per frequency band. If you have a semi-parametric EQ, which you often see on a wider of like hardware, like mixers, like desktop mixers, maybe you'll be able to control the gain and the cube and not a frequency. Or maybe you can control the frequency and again, but not the queue or where the semi-parametric. Usually there's not all of the parameters that you could conceivably control. And there's some things that like, it's not like it's not in your stars were this for this hardware items, right? It's only some of the frequency of some of the parameters. Fully parametric is, right. Everything. Like for each band you have a frequency. Again at CU, like, everything that you would want to do with the EQ, even do it. That's, that's, that's a fully parametric EQ like this one here. I would say this is sort of a semi-parametric because it generally has everything that you want. But as I was looking here, you can see this low this is the low shelf, which like we compare that to the low and high shelf. So you can compare that to just this briefly. I can change the low shelf here. And with this one, which is basically fully parent measure it, I can even control the q of the low shelf. I can control that. The shape of that curve. With this one there is no, there is no queue. So I would consider this is it's pretty parametric, but it's not fully parametric because they didn't think the closest control to the q is as emotive. It's like an EQ or the EQ. This makes, makes the, makes the queue more fine. It makes it more fine, but you don't have full control over it. So I would say this one is more of a semi-parametric. So those are the, those are the difference in gravity hue. You have relatively little control. You just haven't many different faders, but no control over that where those frequency, you can't change the frequencies of each fader. Semi-parametric, like you can do stuff with it, but not everything. And fully parametric all the, all the parameters. So, so I'm going to load, load a little sampling here, is going to pull something random from just go from the loop supply here. Or point B is something, something really interesting. There's a lot of slightly interesting overtones in that way and they'd like to use. So it's going to make a bare basics loop. Maybe like five. And you're going to have this go back and forth like this. Pretty speed up so you don't fall asleep. That's a drum and bass and that's fine. Marrow and mean is going to make this make this a worthless notated. So real quick. Okay, that sounds good. Template. So let's get this. So let's hear how this EQ works. Well, plugging in openness is piano loop and run it. And as we answered, the CTO, and I'll probably you compare the two EQs as well. So if the drum here that there's a lot of crackling in the high shelf. Let's say we want to boost that. It's got a high shelf. That's why I wouldn't necessarily want to do that. But it's very, very clear. It's very easy to hear that we can see how the, how the quality factor changes the tone quality. I would generally fade out the highest and something like this because the high frequencies like that coming through pretty easily on anything. So if anything, you want to reduce them so they don't hurt people's ear. And honestly, I'm I need to get a hearing test so I don't know how good my high high shelf hearing is. So better, safe and quiet here and then sorry, and hurting people 0. So, so you can see how, how it affects of sale and materials alive there. So there's a little rule of thumb and let me 0 everything out. The rule of thumb goes like this. And it is boosts things, boost frequencies to make things sound different. And reduce frequencies to make things sound better. So just to give an example of that, Let's, so just to give an example of that, Let's take this as normal sound. And while I'm at it, maybe I'll run this other one. Into the drought is a little bit here. We'll use this one for the drums. So we don't have to change all the wiring and stuff. Just inserting. All right. Yeah. I like it. So and you said attenuate things to make things sound better, boost things to make themselves, Jeffrey. So just for the sake of, sake of interest, Let's get rid of this filter here. And let's, okay. So like we said before, when attenuate things to make them sound better, boost things to make them sound different. So let's think of something that we can make sam better. And obviously it's just me. So it's giving you something that I think sounds bad. So so I think in this sound, the middle, It's a bit muddy, little bit like a washy and the low meant. So I want to make that sound better. So I'm going to say like maybe around 600 hertz. It's generally like my knee area. So make the 0 and then here I was already there and then it moved in. This spike. So get rid of it. You can see here that things are big career. And we can also do that for example, in the high shelf. For it, you can hear about color, a tape or vinyl crackling. I'm going to increase the Q, so it's very fine tuning here and here that, that the crackling sounds a bit less harsh as to what people mean by make things better. Boost their sounded very different. Not necessarily better though. Not necessarily words either by just different, like for certain applications, like maybe this or this, this different sound would be good. Maybe for another song, these different sound will be good, makes it sound different. But generally, if you do it, gap tends to, tends to sound better BY across most, cross most applications. Unless you're dipping out, Bye. Main part of the sample is giving you a boost. Hear sounds different, but it, it, it's very boomy and you kind of, you will, you would, if you were mixing this, you would want to make space where the other instruments for that, like the Dow would want it to be the feature because that would Cloud a lot of other things going on. And we'll talk about that in the mixing. Pronounced attenuate to make things sound better, boosts doesn't make things sound different. And let's do that quick with this drum z1 here to put the poll up a little. So you can see what's going on. So you can see, I just lose something. Sounds data. Make a little dip. I think it sounds better. And like, I think that is probably one of the most solid rules that I know. At least for this stuff like that. It's a rule to live by. So you can kinda see a dip like warming up. Boosted the more you can see in here. Right now. It's at 1.69, okay? And if we find that here, you see that the gap is showing up in, right, then they'll bring in here. And now the dip is over here around the three K and booster. That's pretty definite. So yeah. I wasn't I wasn't boosting and instead of boosting and what I mean. So there's not a whole lot of detail to get into what EQs. Once you know these parameters, then your 3D, then like it really comes down to using it in practice. You also have, have the EQ's built in line with, with, with a reason mixer here. And this sorry anybody who's on the legacy version. This is, this is a rat version of the mixer EQ. So see you in the same college and has stopped growing and do the same things. And we bypass this one. And if he turn this on, you can actually see, see what's happening on the, on the, on the analyzer here. So generally, with an EQ, you usually find some, sometimes poly parametric. You'll find maybe like a high-pass and low-pass built-in can see how it's affecting that. And then you can see also how, how they have EQ effects things. So here we have a high shell, contains it to a bell and have an extra one is the US ones. You can have an extra band. But like I said, I don't consider this for a parametric because the Mozi can do for the queue. Actually taking a risk here, I'm not even sure if this affects the bell. It does. Okay. It does a bit, but not really how it's expected. So it doesn't like, I wouldn't consider this fully parametric because you can't really control the queue on these sheets, the high and low shelf. So honestly using the, using the console or that makes your EQ is an end in combination with this analyzer here. I'd say that's a very good way to get a sense of what the equalizer is doing and visualizing your, your, your changes that you make. In the mixing section, I'll go over, I'll show you some of, some of how on different ways to combine these are different ways to use all these nerves together to create desirable effects. So, and I guess I'm not a whole lot to do with equalizers, just a lot of experimentation. On your side. 21. Lesson 6d. Mastering Effects (MBComp): So another, another big one for, for, for mastering is multiband compressors. But reason does not have one of those, but they're good to know about. So we're going to build one. But to start off, to get into that, I'm going to start with a stereo imager. And this is one of those things that it's not really, it's picking up the audio from a laptop into the phone right now. Not going to be worth like trying to show you who like, like a stereo field right now. So I'll show you how the thing works. But you didn't. Even if I tried to show you how it sounds, you wouldn't hear it because you're off to the side of my phone, up my laptop. So just bear with it for now. But let me pull up the stereo imaging. So we've got the stereo imager. And you'd think about what stereo means to begin with it is you have mono down the center, one sound, so there's no left or right. That's stereo. You have left and right. Things can go even here, something like this way, this way. Maybe the beatles, you have a guitar and you write something on your left, on your left, dramas down the center, who know it. Can get as creative as you want. With a stereo imager. I don't think I should deleted those those samples. This would've been a good one for the other name for the N1. So let's get this one in here. And we'll run the, run the loop through this stereo image you're in. Insert. Okay? So you haven't going through, and you can see about you see these little red thing is going to decide. That's how much of a scenario like image, if this file has is to begin with. So what you can do with a stereo images, you can either make things straight down the center. You can make them extremely wide. Or you might be able to think, you could probably hear something. With that from here. Rate than 10. You're not going to hear this clearly is as the O2 when you can probably hear something. And with the stereo imagery, even generally speaking, generally change that between the highs and lows. And you have a cross over here right now. And yet one way, one k and everything below that is completely Mano. Everything above that is directly left or right. No, no center. Here you can solo the high band. Again, not going to hear a whole lot without me recording and stereo. But you can probably hear and maybe get a bit more watching, for lack of a better term. And also a low band. So that's what a sort of scary image or does divides your stuff up into two portions and either makes the mono or maximizes this stereo field. And I mentioned making. So the other thing to talk about is a multiband compressing. And I didn't say, I'm going to make one. So, so to start out, let's talk about what a multiband compressor is. So we already talked about compressors. And like the equalizer that I probably couldn't talk about this in dynamics, but I didn't because it is kind of an advanced plug-in to use. And reason does not have a stock multiband compressor. However, a multi get, a multiband compressor is kind of like the meeting point between the EQ and compression. Whereas an EQ, you bring up and down each band in a late, in like a linear fashion multiband compressor. You can, you have multiple bands that you can apply separate compression to each band. So this one has it's own like maybe ratio with threshold. This one is different one. So what that essentially allows you to do is to equalize the dynamics across the whole thing. Maybe you'll have something where the bases like, let's say the base is really low and you want it to come up. And both the highs, highs or even here though is like plenty fine. Too near them too well. Like multiband compressor and you can really squashed down those highs or you can leave them as they are. And, and you can take the, take the low end and you can really raise that up, but you don't, you don't have to split. You don't have to physically split the sound, split the file into, into different frequencies like it does it all in one thing. Again, reason doesn't have this. But I think this will be like a pretty good way to demonstrate how it works. So let's say we want to have like 44 bands. And this will also demonstrate the capability of this particular as stereo imager. So let's start with the low band. So let's, let's go solo. Low band. Yeah. Okay, so let's start with the low band. And let's say we want that to be everything below 250 hertz or so. So let's go like 250. 250. And since I'm not really using this as a stereo images, I'm just going to make everything because you'll, It's just easier that way. So let's so a low bass solo at the low ban and see what kind of sound we have coming through there. It's pretty low. Pretty low. So if we look on the bat, won't. We look over here, we're soloing low band right now. So that's what's coming out of this one. And I'm going to make some, some fresh channels for this. So if I am also do this as a journey, as a direct out. So there's no Ra sound, it's all coming back. So we have so we have this on the Solo Loewe ban, pardon the interruption there. So that means this is showing low band. And then, and then the standard output is going to be everything below our crossover, which we've set to 250 and great, 247. Close these count. So we have that, we have that coming into this channel strip. Call that low ban. We're just going to call it row. Solo it. You have to solo this one to you is this is passing through them. Here, like here, the low end. So now what? We only have the low band where there's a multi-band good resident, right? So we look on here. You also have a separate L and you have this toggle between high and low. So I just switched the high band. And then I'm going to bring this to a new town. What I want to have for wanna have four bands altogether, right? So I'm gonna do something else. So basically, you've gotta do this again with another stereo images. And really what we're doing here is just splitting, splitting, splitting the sound into four different frequency bands, which is what the stereo image here does best. So let's take this separate out. Or going into this new channel, let's go into another stereo imager. And then another stereo imager. And then so this is the high band coming out, which means is everything above 247. But we don't want in this channel, we don't want below maids to be everything. Needs to be everything, everything about 250. And we want that to go up to maybe, maybe like 11 k. So let's set that there. And now we'll break. We have this ID soloing, this low band, which will be the low from this cross over. And then the high from this crossover. Let's make it o mono again and bring out the audio output. So now we should have low mids. If I solo this. So it's pretty low and medium. And low and low, mid. Hi, there will be like that. But it's now why is it that we want below me? So we just have to do this again, another h2 times I think. So. Let's just do that again. I'm going to stop talking so I don't distract myself. And then yikes. Okay. One more here. Hold Shift again to create something with no connections on the back. Let's daisy chain again over here with the high band. So this will be everything above one gay. Now, let's bring out another maybe makes channel for the high mids. Coming from this one, which is the lower band. I said it was going to stop talking, but I'm not, um, which is the low band of everything above one gain. So let's just set the next band. Let's just say like five K is the last crossover. And actually we do not need this last one. So high band for the separate out. High. Hello, right here. So let's hear what all these sound like. So it's a one, it's just passing through this one, not hearing that B is coming through the direct out. So she had a low, very low, low mids. High, mid. Okay. And that's that's the very high. And that okay, that's why it sounded weird login here. So right now we have essentially the same as the original, original sound. Basically the same. There's a bit of like Bayesian because there's many different copies, but pretty much the same. So really, this is essentially what a multiband compressors doing. Except, and then it applies compression. Take each one of these plane waves. Well, I just have these basic compressors. And the class here. Yeah, and one more here. Okay. So I think what I remembered from this is that the lowest, we'll wade quieter than the highest, which can be kind of irritating on the ears. So let's compare these two. This is super loud. So. That's like spring these lines barren. Maximize the attack and release soy really. It really just clamps down. And one to bring up the low end to boost the input gain. Now let's see what's going on. Make this one go. Low majors can be very under control. So again, bring this down quite a bit. I want them to be like pretty squash has pretty swatch that. And I want to squash these two. I just wanted to be like free to add my very industrial glad of the cycle. The light value is like a rubber producers should work in filtering. So now let's compare this to the original. I think that's a good idea. And we should hear when I connect it back in good here that the load here a bit higher and the hydrogen, oh, it's a, it's a bit more flat sounding rent. Now this is a pretty shoddy multiband compressing job. Well, that's, that's what a multiband is doing. So I think maximizes are pretty simple, is basically like a fancy limiter. So I'm not gonna touch that, touch on that, on this slide cellphone video. Maybe use one of those in the mixing, like the proper mixing video. That's that's what i that is all I wanted to govern is probably all that you want me to cover on this temporary video. So that's, that's the mixing and mastering effects. And we'll, we'll look more into how to use those when we get to the demonstration. So let's move on. A belief in next one is, is basically a PSA on mixing. So let's get into that now. That's going to be fun. 22. Lesson 7. Mixing PSA: Okay, so welcome back. We are on the mixing lesson 7. This lesson is in the form of a PSA. So I want you to go down and find the lesson notes. We'll get less than seven. I really want you to take this in. Okay. We're going to be doing a mixing demonstration. Again. Once my setup his back when some added this hotel, do with the mixing demonstration. But again, this is not a mixing mastering cores. It's kind of a bonus that stuff. However, I have a PSA regarding this. So what is mixing? So once you compose the musical framework to your song, like me is once you have your instruments, your melodies, drums. Once you have your song, right, you've written the song. You want to move on to the mixing. You might, you might make your song and realize that you have to crank your volume in order to hear something. You might make your, make your song. Some things aren't popping the way you wanted to. It doesn't sound like, like, like like it could play in a club or, or whatever. Doesn't sound very hight by mixing is, is the, the, the missing, the missing step here. So mixing is where E take the finished zone, are more or less finished song. Any bring all the levels up, you think about what's going on in the sum, what is important to hear and when. And you make the changes necessary to make those things audible and clear. Now, a lot of people have many different things to say about mixing and swine. Because mixing, just like creating the sun. Well, depends on it, depends on what you're doing, depends on who you're making a four. Yeah. That's fine. One thing I would say is mixing. Sure. You use plugin. I would say plugins is not the most important thing about mixing. You can make it if you know how to mix and what you're making. Like the reason why you're mixing, you don't need any of these plugins. You don't need any of them. You can use all stocks dub if you know what the stock stuff is doing. You can use all stocked up if you know why you're mixing. So what is the purpose of mixing? The prime directive of mixing is for your audience, is it's do not have to tell your friend that they need to listen to pay to use headphones to hear your sound properly? Like I've been there, like I was doing that for probably way longer than I should have been. I was doing that like probably a while after after I graduated from the school. Write. Your goal is to not have to tell anybody that they have to use headphones to use on headphone. Your headphone mix should be a pleasant surprise. It should not be a prerequisite for listening to your song properly, right? Like, think about it. Like like like fury, like a cook. You don't want to have to tell. Like, you don't want to have to tell somebody that they need to have like a shirt and a with your state share, maybe that would be best. Maybe that's like the best option or like, uh, my low or something, maybe that's the best by your state should taste good. Anyway. Like, it should taste good and like both ways, like your headphone. I already said it should be, should be a pleasant surprise, not a necessity, right? So if you think about it, every listener is, you'll post your thing on, on SoundCloud. Like every listener is going to be listening on a different thing. Maybe somebody listening through their phone speakers, maybe some of these on their laptop. Maybe somebody has a bluetooth speaker. Maybe somebody is on their TV, right? Like so mixing. You went to. The biggest thing beyond plugins is accounting for all of these different sound systems that your son could potentially play through. Car car stereos, two, big one. So I would say your goal should be to have a variety. Not spending like, like, like these waves, like whatever, right? These you'll need those. Get like get like maybe a Bluetooth speaker or your desktop speakers. You have your phone speakers tested through there. You have your laptop speakers, I said through their friend's car. Your, your TV. Like oh, like a Taoist or get like get their worst speaker. Because somebody out there is going to try to listen to your song through something like that. And like what, like, what are you going to say? Like, Oh, you can't listen to a properly or like maybe like Nike, you're not gonna hear it, right? No. No. They don't they don't have they don't have like EQs and they don't have a dog to work with. Like, you have all bad in your control. So the thing about mixing is, is finding the tools that you have and using those to create the best experience across as, as many different sound systems as you can account for. And so this leads me to the next one. This does not mean that you need to get like like like the rocket like 12. So whatever I like, like like some high-end like or like some nice like studio monitor speakers that costs like like like like your year rent, right? You don't need those. So and I know like, I know you like everybody wants them, right. What did you know that? Like even your ear like little Apple headphones like compared to k or k rockets ear hearing more, more low-end, you can hear lower, generally on your, on your Apple headphones and you can have like a K or K rocket. K, okay, rockets make, make the K or K sub whoever is for a reason. Like rockets go down until like I think I have the rocket fires, they go down to like like 47 hertz or something, which okay, yeah, you get your 50. That's crucial array. What I can here lower in the ban on like on some five-year-old like ear buds than it like only ones working. The reason for that is when it is in your ears, it takes like speakers have to move air, especially for low and it has to move air to make that sound like the the particles have to physically move. And you have little ear buds, especially the ones that like little, little subset. The form that the ear buds. Those ones. It creates a cab and it can easily move that air. So like pretty I wanted to say 10 times 9 times 8 to 10. 10 times 10. Your headphones are going to like that. You're going to hear more range out of your little headphones, then somebody's like to like 3000 dollars speakers. Unless, unless you get like, like, like like a huge subwoofer, right? You all need all this stuff. Like think about like why, why you're mixing in the first place. Okay? Of course you want that low end to be to sound good, right? But like your Sony, sony, industry standard headphones for a time before I like preacher decades now. It's a Sony MDR 75 06 is the little blue thing on the side and look looks like something that maybe your dad's like like like woodshop, like classic, $125 maybe on sale, like 150, most like depending on location. Reliable. They go down until like maybe 20 like, I don't know, by 20 hertz. Like generally as low as you can, as low as you can, like here, maybe like 25 hertz or something, right? That's like two. That's a whole octave lower than then my, then my rockets. Because I'm not going out like I'm not going out and buying like the rocket itself. Like I'm not I'm not honestly not at that level yet. Right. So like I have my my Sony's and you know, when, when I wanted to hear, when my user tired, sure. Like I'll listen through my speakers and I'm like, don't like headphones, you're hearing plenty. You like in terms of like a club sound. You're hearing like better than the club. 3 or 3 or over the ear headphones, hear him better than the club. So you don't need these rockets. If anything, get your, get those headphones. Maybe get a Bluetooth speaker, get like a little like maybe plugs speaker, get a variety of different ones. Get find the crappy speaker that you, that you, that you can find. And see how your mix sound through and try and make your mix sound good through that. You know, because like I said, I guarantee somebody out there is listening, listening to you, wants to try and listen your mix through like the crappy speaker you ever seen, right? And what are you gonna do even like you went, you went to want to help them out, right? You wanna you wanna show up for them. So so that's, that's like that's the meat of this BSA. Think about why you're mixing, right? Like, like yeah, like managers are great. There's less ear fatigue, right? Right. Like if you're not accounting for your room, like for the resonant tones of your room. If you're not accounting for like, eat, like for the limitations of the speakers, for the frequency response. How well that individual speaker reproduces each frequency along this spectrum. Like maybe there's a Gibson place. If you're not like watching for that, then leg you're going to have very unpredictable results across different speakers. So headphones are fine. Don't, don't feel like you need to go and spend like $2 thousand. You like. It's like they always say like everything needed right in front of you already. If you have like a and you have maybe like yet, like, like some speakers, like goodwill or something, right? Don't, don't let people trick you, and don't let yourself fool yourself into thinking you need like all this extra stuff. Thinking about why you're mixing, think about who you're mixing for. And that really isn't enough. The rest is, is gravy, right? The rest is, is IC. So that's the bulk of the PSA. I've compiled, like eight tips and tricks and for mixing. And if you scroll down, should be on the bottom right, there's class notes. Just click Lesson 7. You can follow along with these tips and tricks. A creature I'm just doing this screen right now. So number one, don't raise the volume fader to me at the end of your channel strip. So if you open the mixer and I imagine you probably should be able to find them makes her by now. And it makes sure you scroll all the way down the volume faders, right? If something's not loud enough, you don't want to be playing with that. Not the bottom one. Because you don't like as you go through the channel strips, you have different effects going through different things going on. Those things produce noise even in digital stuff. Noise happens. If you're raising the volume at the end, you're raising the noise along with that. So what you wanna do, you wanna go all the way up to the top of the mixer window. You want to find the gain that, that cranks everything through. That gives you a nice strong, I need some water, not water, some chat bot. So you want to scroll all the way up to the top of that of your mixer window and find the gain node. And you want him not to. Gain knob is very powerful. I wouldn't win prank that. But you want to raise the initial signal because louder your, your initial signal is, the less and less important or audible band noise is going to be. If you're, if you're, if your sources strong, you're not going to, if anything, you're going to want to turn down the volume at the bottom. And that's generally always, we always want to be doing that. You want to be you want to have a strong source material and dial it back. You don't want to have a week's worth of material surrounded by noise, system noise and bring everything up. That makes for a noisy mix. It's generally a good rule of thumb across everything. Maybe you don't necessarily need to boost everything. Everything. Maybe if things are loud enough as it is. But you generally want to avoid increase pushing the faders beyond their zero-point. If anything, you want to take it down. That's number 1. Number 2. Identify each instrument's role in your mix and make sure other instruments are carved space in other instruments for the, for the, for them. So maybe like a guitar has godlike the high-end of like maybe the fretboard this remain. Then you have the resonance in the low mids and even extending into the lowest from, from the, from the, from the body of the guitar and the strings, right? We want that to be, want to be able to hear that nicely. So maybe if you have like a drum set or like a synthesizer, maybe you want to, you want to look at where those running things are happening in the high-end ink. Make a little dip with EQ in the other instruments so that, so that it's not, it's not clashing with things. Or you can have your guitar. And the resonance of the body that's usually around like 200 hertz anywhere in there. That can clash with, with Tom's on your drum setting to clash with the bass guitar. So if you have those two things, go into those channels, make some depths in there. Or, or if you don't want to change the other ones, Make a dip in your guitar, right? So keep track, like thinking about where things are sitting and what else is sitting in the same place. And if you can, and try to find ways where you can create some, some separation or some discrete the discretion between them because there's too much going on. It is kinda like headache material is too much going on. It's too much thinking about trying to listen to some music and I'm trying to do some mental gymnastics, right? So that's point number 2. Leave some space and B, mindful of where things are sitting. Number 3, saturate low instruments to improve audibility. And this really ties back into what I was saying about being able to hear things. On large speakers of cores. You can hear everything on loudspeakers, but also when small speakers. So you have like maybe a bass guitar or an 800 eight. Fine on unclarity here, you don't really need to worry about that. The reason why you why you wouldn't need the loudspeakers is to make sure that that's not too loud. And you can do that with headphones. Like in order to make things audible on maybe your phone, you wanted to use the saturation from the lesson 6, 8. I think you're going to want to find the, you even want to saturate like maybe, maybe put a distortion or a big crusher, or like whatever, play with different effects. At least for like an 80 weird or, or bass guitar. Generally, I would generally go for like a distortion or something with a low pass over top of that. And you would be surprised how little of that you need to be able to hear that coming through, through a phone speaker. Very surprising how little you need. So don't don't go at your weight, turning it like going to your your base channel and trying to turn it up. Because yeah, he's suddenly you can hear it on your laptop speakers, but then plug in your big speakers again. Now it's like your year, like you're blowing your ears up. Pull it out and parallel. Keep the original one, make a parallel channel, run it through some, some saturation, and then mix, mix that when just this faded up a little bit. And so, so the new one, it won't be getting away in the way because it's very quiet. On your, on your big speakers. White since on your small speakers, you're not hearing the low end anyway. So that little, and you're probably not expecting to hear though in any way either because it's laptop speakers. So fader up, our little saturated one, just ever so slightly to even hear it and doesn't need to be loud. You just have to be like, Oh, I hear the bass. I wasn't expecting to hear the bass. Like it's not like it's not going to like because it physically can't. But you're hearing something and it doesn't need to blow people's ears off for people to be like, oh, like that's hard. We like whatever like whatever it kind of sounds like. Doesn't need to be that loud Detroit to have an effect and for people to perceive it as the base being there. So it'll pause and make some space on my phone because I'm running a space within. So number four is to use the Effects Sends on your mixer. And don't be afraid to try new things. So kind of like a broad one. But I think the Effects Sends is kind of an example of the trying new things. They took me like, took me awhile, like I'll learn how to how to use them. But it was like a hassle and like, I didn't know how to use it properly. And like it was a hassle right? Once I started using it regularly or sometimes even forcing myself, He said, Okay, I want to just like take this one, like this synthesizer and just put the effect directly on it. And I was like, No, I'm going to use a sand just because it's the professional thing to do. So I did that. Now all of a sudden we have another channel. And now I can just press the send button and send, send another instrument to the same one. And like, if I didn't use the send yeah, sure. Like when I was creating the effect, I didn't I wasn't thinking about sending the other instrument through it. But now when you're using the send, you couldn't send wherever you want, whenever you think about it, right? Like he was the sense send it. It is, it is worth it. And just because there's, there's maybe a learning, a learning curve to, to do it. To figure out the routing. Just do it. That's how you figure it out, right? So use the effect sends on the mixer and don't be afraid to try new thing. As number 4. Number 5, utilize the mixture is dynamic sections. So again, in the mixer, scroll to the top, top, top, go down a bit. You see There's a compressor and the gate. Those are surprisingly effective. Shouldn't say surprisingly because if I just stuck stuff is, Gender is usually pretty good. And we kinda do by ourselves into buying stuff we don't need. Though it's the gate and compressor on the reasons a stock makes her pretty good. Like they they do what they're intended to do. The compressor is slams down on, on, on your signal. Light like, light like nothing else. Like it. In terms of when I'm when I'm adding compression and I want to hear it like, the reason stock makes it a compressor, dynamic section, like does that better men in white? And a good number of the ones I like, I purchase, right? Like even if you write it, sometimes it just doesn't sound right. Utilize it makes this dynamic section you will utilize the things that reason gives you because they do give you, give you a lot to work with. And a lot of the time is if they don't give you something, It's easy, don't really need it. Gave you what you need to utilize that and that's number 5. Number 6. Keep the extreme highs and lows for the big buttons. Rounds were reserved for the big gut. So what I mean by this is giving me listening to a song. A good example of this is just like, maybe like a trap, hip hop or whatever. Very good example. Sometimes maybe a psalm will start site down the middle, right? You'll be wasting and seigneur doing the vocals. And then sudden we like, suddenly the 800 eight comes in and you didn't even realize there wasn't a native way. Maybe you'd like because the vocals are really good. Or like for whatever reason maybe the samples really good. 800 eight comes in by somehow by and they do it like that when they hold it back and bring it. Somehow, it's always just a little bit sweeter, right? Is right. So maybe you knew it wasn't there. Maybe you didn't even know what you're missing. Like heat. So the key thing, if you wanted to do something like that, keep those areas reserve. The thing, the thing that makes that most effective isn't that there wasn't an eight away, is that there wasn't low end is to begin with. It's like the same way. Same with like high like high-end, like if you have like the Rowley had like a little machine that high hats or whatever. Lets you have like a sample if things are kinda like low-pass and stuff and you want to bring it to life like this crispy like like like top shelf, Like like supreme like hat stuff. Leave that high-end, like like empty and then just bring it in. And like if you're listening, especially if somebody's patient, they're listening to it through and then that comes in. And like those frequencies haven't been activated before, that creates an impression and you're just like, yeah, like I noticed that, right? So if there's some sauce that you want to bring in, try to, try to carve out space. And like people love 80 aids, right? Like people who love it. Like I love it Like people like it sounds good. And so, you know, people want that. So leave them wanting right leg and then serve them the base like Buick they winded they're looking for and then give it to them. Well, when the time is right, when you wanted I don't don't give them like, y'know, like they say like like the prison of choice or whatever. I don't know how they're putting it right. Like if you if you have like a million, if you go to an ice cream shop, but like 50 flavors you might have like, like a more stressful time then replace with my two flavors are like one flavor that they do really well, Right? Like few openness song, Everything's going or even f like some open set in tech at ten seconds later, everything is going like like where do you go from there? You know, leaves somewhere to go. Leave. We leave. Leave some direction for your song to go into. And if there's something being coming, like give it space to arrive. Like give it like a like a parking spot. If you know what I mean. So I just number 6. So number seven, don't use master output limiters till the very end. And what I mean by that is not even talking about mixing here. Like don't you, I would say don't use compressors or limiters on your final stereo output channel. Because sometimes you'll be like, usually you'll be mixing, especially in logic. You'll have a master channel and you can sometimes put effects on their right. Don't do it. Don't do it. You want it to get your, your, your balance, all the channels balanced without that, because what a master compressor is gonna do, it's going to nullify all of those, all of the dynamic range in your song. So especially if you have an odd and you're leaving it on, and then you want to go back and make changes in the mix. In the mixer. Like you're, you're going to make these changes. And in reality they're making significant changes, but your output from browser is going to be nullifying them. So really, you don't know. My suggestion is you don't want to use output. You don't want to use compress dynamic effects on your final output until you're in the mixing stage. And if you're doing it in the end, you don't want to use it until you're in the mastering stage. And if, if you are doing in the mixing stage, remember to turn it off. If you need to make any changes for forehead. And be aware that if you turn it off it and make changes, likely going to want to make changes to the final, the final output compressor as well. Because you really want to treat, treat them as two different stages and mixing is the hole is all the tracks. Mastering is just the final output. Ideally, you want to export your, your track and then bring that back into a new section. And then do your, do your math and you're mastering on the final stereo two tracks. So only dynamic compression on the whole thing at the very end when everything's done. Because the last thing you do. Number 8, don't make your speakers grant. Sure. Like if you're making a track with friends, it's fun to have it loud, right? But if you're trying to be professional and you want your mix to be loud, turn your speaker volume like down to 50 percent and leave it there. I know what that forces you to do. That forces you to go into your music software and your channel ring goes up and make your actual song, the actual content stronger. This is an example of how to use the rockets. Um, I killed them all the way down. I like a lot of the times people will turn a, crank them up to max power and I take away all the power line level where I'd like it is an powered rockets and get it as loud as you like. If you, if you're getting your, your project to the optimal volume, you should hear it just as well as if as, as you would if you were to power them and have heavier your system on average volume, you should be able to turn your rockets down to unpaired mode. And in here, things clearly. Turn your volume down and bring your project up. Don't turn your volume up. And just like, kinda like leave your project by the wayside. By push, push the limits of your mix. And yeah, that way, like if somebody's listening and they want to crank it, they can crank it and they'll get a soup or a loud mix, right? And you can give them what they wanted, that you can give him the end of volume. So don't make it through speakers, Greg, because in the end, you'll actually end up with aloud yourself because you're not compensating for low levels in your, in your project. Here, you're, you're actively forcing yourself to make your project lab. Number 8 and leaf, that's it for my mixing tips and tricks. So believe the neck. Next lesson is the mastering. But as I've said a few times now, and in the end, the hotel. So not really in front of my setup. Any. If I wanted to do stereo phase, you wouldn't be able to hear it because you're getting my phone audio not optimal right now. So when I'm gonna do have this PSA mixing PSA, you'd see this, right? I'm going to move straight on to the, to the exporting because once again, probably for the third term time now it's not really a mixing mastering boys. Tell you what I know about it. Non-expert is not my specialty. So I'm going to jump next for these temporary videos and then do the exporting. Show you how to export your files. And the terminal aren't any terminology that goes with that. Um, and once, once everything's bad going, I've got my setup back in front of my desk. Do a nice spike mixing demonstration, the mastering demonstration. And we'll look into that. So for now, release temporary videos. I will see you in the next one, which is about how to export your file. So see you then. 23. Lesson 9. Exporting: Okay, So stood on a final portion of the class on in terms of these supplementary cell phone lines of, well, I'm in this hotel right here. So this is less than nine. Less than eight is coming when I'm back in front of my dad's. Lesson 9 is on how to export your project. There's three ways to export sound in reason. Number 1 is your stereo mixdown, and this is the easiest way, easiest way to get, to get sound out of here. Get your song out. And for somebody who listened to it, number 2 is your multi-track. This is good if you want to send somebody your whole project for mixing and mastering. You the basically every channel you export a file for it and it makes it, it makes a folder for, for your project team. Everything's in there. Number 3 is stems. And probably heard this if you've ever sent it to somebody to mix before. This is, this is my opinion. I prefer to mate with a multi-track snot stems AB, sometimes ONE, something, something's up this Dems, or down to stem. Maybe you like drums or something that's useful yet. So let's Less files. Yeah. I like multi-track. I like being able to work with everything. But that's just me though, right? So so let's the stereo. Before we get into how to do it, Let's get some terminology down, right? So the most standard file types, we find, most standard biotypes come from the existing standards, which come from CDs or CU Rava's. And the most common file specification for that are 441 kilohertz and 16 bits per second. Um, so I don't, I'm not sure if we talked about this already. For 4144.1 kilohertz. Not sure if I said Red Book what 44.1 kilohertz. It refers to the sample rate. And what a sample rate means is, every time you're listening to a song. The way that this works is there's, there's, there's a certain number of points where your speaker can go to you, discrete points above and below 0 or its resting state. And the sample rate is how many of these different points there are in 1 second. So 44.1 kilohertz. It kilo is 1000 hertz is cycles per second. So that means there's 44,100 cycles or are discrete samples, which is discrete points of amplitude for you speaker every second. And so there's a 0.4610 times every second for that. This directly Fx the file size. One thing that was really interesting when I first learned it is you can have two different songs. One is like when can be complete silence and when it is maybe the most complex song you ever heard, as long as they're both 441 kilohertz and the same length and the same bit depth. They're going to be the exact same file size. Because even like might be silenced. But it's still taking 44,100 samples of nothing every second. It has to save every one of those. Every second. For every sample. Two completely different songs, as long as they're the same length, doesn't matter what's in the sun. They are the same file side. So the sample rate directly affects the file size. You might also see 48 kilohertz be a bit bigger file size that goes up to, it's like if you think the highest ones are a few 100 samples per second. The the implications of this is essentially, if you think about the reason for 44.1 kilohertz being the lowest. And as we have to get a allele technical with this, if you think about human hearing, it's been said time and time again, you hear up to about 20000 hertz or 20 kilohertz, right? So and in order to represent a sound at 20 kilohertz, which is probably the highest that we would need to represent in a music file. You want to have 20 points, 20 points of information, at least. So if you want to, if you want to reproduce the highest, maybe a 20 kilohertz sound, right? You want to have a point at it's at the peak and the trough of that very high pitched note, right? So that means you need, you need at least two. So 2020 kilohertz, that's 20000 cycles per second. So 20 ohm. And for each cycle you need two points for the top and bottom of the wave. So that that equates to about, you need about 40 thousand cycles per second to have at least two points to represent the highest frequency. You couldn't possibly here. And so the implications of that is at 44.1 kilohertz. Yeah, you're going to hear it. But it's going to be a bit, a bit square wave because if you do the math like 44.1, that works out to be like maybe like two or three between two or three points of information. For each, for each high-frequency cycle, I'm at 20 kilowatt, at 20 K frequency. That's not very much information. That means your computer or your speaker is, it's kind of guessing and filling in the rest. What higher, what higher sample rates do is it gives us those like those 20 k nodes. It changes it from like before. It'll sound more like a square wave because it's blocky, it's only a few points. The more samples per second, the more you can actually have a sine wave or something true to a sine wave happening at those very high frequencies. So that is, that's the reason for that, right? So the other thing to keep in mind is something called bit depth. And depth has to do with it. So we have, are the sideways each sample through time. Now, each, each, each sample has, has to map as the plot a point either above or below the resting point for the speaker. Now, like in 8-bit or even, even earlier, like, let's take 8-bit for example. That's 88 possible points for each sample. So that's maybe like four above and four below and then 0. The bit depth. You can have 1624, sometimes 32. That basically means there's more, there's more detail along that spread. That's why 8-bit music sounds very like block is kind of a basic word, but like there's not much detail. Like if something's either hi volume or mid or low, basically. But with a higher bit depth, there's more gradation of volume and amplitude. So that's sort of what you're choosing. Never side of the fidelity. And that really this one, you'd want to select that base based more on how much dynamic or volume detail you need in your track. Again, this will, this will takes a bit more file size for higher bit depth. But it'll be worth it, especially for something like classical music or something cinematic, could be worth it. Now, another thing that I've put here for selecting a file type, WAV files are good for transferring between music software on something I've noticed is if you're putting things into iTunes and you went like maybe show, show somebody and you want to like nice professional WAV files. They don't store metadata in iTunes. You want to use the dot AIFF files. You can go into like the by adding album art. I always have problems with WAV files. I go try to add my album art for something or point-like demo, this demo the album whenever it's below, I can't, can't. Orbitals are added and then it won't go back to look at it in my flowing and it's not. There. Always happens with WAV files. Aiff. They can Ethan latch the album art and stuff like much more reliably. So those are the basics of selecting the file types. Let's get into to where we go for the stereo mixdown. And now this is going to be the easiest one. So just, if you want to just as stereo mixdown us end the file you're finding here. File. You want to go down to export song or export loop as audio file. So let's go with some. We can demo, put this here, choose my AFF audio IFM, and also have an MP3. Apparently. I don't think I realized he could read that's new here. And this is where you can select your sample rate. I rarely, if ever go above 48. Maybe one day I'll try going above, but not today. And this one is 24. This thing called Gathering. This gathering is, is like a white noise. It's a name that you give to this specific kind of like noise that helps that helps the system quantize the levels to a smaller bit depth, then, then the natural wave, 24. You don't even think you've been turned it on because 24 is is pretty high up there in terms of what you might realistically need. But something lower you can get like, you can get things for weathering between the discrete volume levels and the gathering is it's basically a white noise or special kind of noise that helps it walk to whichever one it is truly supposed to be on. So gathering, you want to use that for us for a lower bit depth. I just made makes things a bit more clear. So I just canceled out I shouldn't have. So is hit Enter and it'll just go through your song. I don't have anything going here. And delete that. Scroll up here. And you can also go in. Those have the export loop. And that will just take, take the left and right locators and it'll make a track for there. You can see how it does it here and I'll just go and you'll see it should be over in Second Life. I'm free. I think it's already done. So yeah, it's done already. So that's the handy thing about that is you can loop, even put it into other software that it'll just like loopback or even like usually if it's like an Android right now. But when I have the iPhone, I wouldn't be able to like put it into my, my Apple Music and then just hit that one song repeat anyway, loop pretty, pretty reliably in past. And you would hardly much of a seal. So you don't have to finish the song. You just bring in people can cipher right there, which is useful. So that, that's the stereo. That's a stereo mixdown and there's a stereo, yeah, it's very mixed down as the simplest way. And I need to clear some space on what bone again because I'm running out here. Okay. Back at it. So she camera action. Make sure you line things up. Okay, So the next one is the multi tracks. This one is also pretty simple. This one you just want to go down to bounce Mixer Channel. You can see here it's a pretty simple project, but you just select which ones you want to export. You can also export the master section, which is the same thing as, as doing a stereo mixdown. And choose either song or loop. Like, like you can't do the other one. Same file format options. Yeah. No, MP3, it would say that's fine. If you want to export it. You want to go to bounced to audio files on disk. Galaxy new tracks in song that will really just take all your midi information and create a bounce it. Convert everything to audio files and not like live generated midi. Which is useful if you're still going to be working on it, um, and then you don't have to start a new project. You could also this applied mixer settings that will like any effects and inserts and stuff. It'll either apply or ignore them. See that the signal will be tapped before EQ dynamics and other channel settings normalize. You. You probably don't want to use this one unless you have a specific reason. Or if you're using it for like a song mix and you use normalized, then if you try to bring everything back into, into if he tried to bring the rod, then you export it. Audio back in. The volumes will be all out of whack. Everything normalized basically means everything is the highest point is brought up to the maximum volume. So they're like anything and you'd dynamic details, things, something's very quiet. That'll be all really basically. So You probably don't like this. And if there's any effect says which happen by any of these, any of these ones that you're sending. You can go here and it'll allow you can export those as well. I'll just show here like the echo. And if I go here now, it will show up as c Fx1, the ethanol. And you'll just be able to have an audio file of just that, just that signal. And so this is kind of like a half. Maybe you're mixing it a bit on your own, then you want to send it to so many to mix it. Or if you just want to convert everything to a hard audio, then mix again, which reduces CPU load. That's, that's how you'd want to do that. You'd want us to just balance everything out this way and then load everything back into a new project. Or maybe into Logic Pro Tools or whatever you use, right? So the last thing and one that honestly, I don't really do this in reason. Number 1 because like I sort of recently figured out how to do it, which is kind of bad. But also because I don't know what most people do mixing and other software. So I just honestly didn't have huge reason to. So right now everything, all of these are going out, the B. All of these are going to go see this output down here. It's going to the master second, which means it's going into this whole, this whole thing on the right-hand side and everything's going through. They're getting some through there. If you want to create stems, what you wanna do is either click here on the output Q output bus. And you create this bus here with the red fader here. And say I want to call this low. Now this one is going to the low, low stamp. So we create a couple more and then do the command G. Now, command G to use. So SYN cuboidal like low, mids and the height. So now if you look here, you'll see that everything except for I see what I did there. Take this high-end new output bus. It's wrong there. Put this one. Yeah. So now if I hit Play, you see everything's coming out of these, these output buses. So the way this translates into stems is you can, you can really, when you have multiple, what like if I want the elbows and low mids both going into low MAB. The high image and highest walkway, the high. Here. You can see here that we have, we have these two channels, rather than them being like one thing per channel. So once you have all your stem is organized that way. Normally you would do this for like maybe drums or guitar, strings on keyboards, things like that. Depends on the song. Once you do that, you can. You can then go to the balanced mixer channels again. And you just find your stem, your stems here, and you just uncheck everything except for those stems that you want. And then you. And like this would be, these ones, say the highs and lows here. And maybe I just want to export those two. And you go here. You would want to make a new folder, stems, stems. And you export it like, like, like an HTML file. So that's how you export the stems. It's maybe a little bit different than the other ones that you and other software for stems. But also not really if it's just like a bit more physical, I guess, which is the thing about reason. So, so it's all good. The last thing there was something else. You just now okay. Pull it up so you read it. So like the last thing you might wanna do is add like metadata. There's an Adobe when reagan that Oldman way I do it for audio files. I just do. I just use Audacity, which is free. And I'll just open this opening here. Again. File doesn't matter. What you want to do is go to your export. Generally, I would go Export Audio because it gives you more of these different file types. Let's go whatever here, break. And then this is where you add your metadata. So this one is saved for my last project. But you just add whatever you need, like track numbers or whatever. And when it exports it, it just writes all of this into the metadata. It's just good to to I don't even know. Like, like how much, like whether it really does. Is number one level of professionalism. Number 2, can't hurt to have your name on the file itself just for copyright purposes. And so I always add my metadata throughout the SD. It's just the easiest, the most free. I don't think audacity is going anywhere. So so that's how I would add the metadata. It also says here you could also go into iTunes, right-click and go to Get info. Then you can, you can change the metadata, which is like a track order and released the album art. You could. It's also. If you're doing that, so important. If you're doing like an album, like it's important to do individual tracks and then also find, go, find it in the album view, find the whole album, and then do the get info and edit the album is metadata itself to generally like I, I, I publish my things through repost by Soundcloud. So they do all their own metadata stuff. But I tried to do all mine so that everything I send them has its own metadata and I don't know if that makes a difference. Like if it does anything, I don't know. But it takes like Like not even five minutes. It takes a few minutes. And if somebody's looking at it looks better that way. So that's x, that's really exploiting. And at least for these temporary videos, this, That's really what there is to talk about for reason. For now. If there's anything that you want me to elaborate on, which I'm sure there's a lot of stuff that I need to touch on. And this is my first time making class of any kind, like anywhere besides like, like a YouTube tutorial like years ago. So there's definitely things that I have not touched on. So anything that you need clarified, Follow up on those with whenever you need it, we'll do like like little updates. We must start a special YouTube channel. I don't know. We'll just see where it goes. Right. But so this this is the last one for these temporary ones. As soon as we're back out of this hotel. And friend my desk do with like some proper mixing stuff. Maybe shadow is one of the plugins. Some of the ones that I like, some of the ones I use most often. Other than that, that is everything to do with reason, at least for the purposes of the guy myself, use reason for, can't wait to see things that you guys come up with. Super interesting to see if the information helped you love to hear your feedback on DC, do better things, to elaborate on things that were good things were bad things with delivery. Yeah, I'm looking forward to hearing your feedback. So for now, happy mixing, happy creating. It's like they say just do it. And most important thing, just like enjoy what you're doing, right? If you have something to work with, it doesn't have to be like the best thing in the world, right? But like you just make something, it's like you have everything you need in this moment. Maybe not everything you want. I don't have everything I want. Like, thank God, I am I have things to work with. So let's take the things that we, that we have to work with and when to use them, right. Thanks for watching. And I hope I don't know how to end this. Hello. Okay. Hello. Thank you. We're here. Okay.