Real University Basic English Language Writing and Grammar Skills Course | Cal Hyslop MBA, University Instructor | Skillshare

Real University Basic English Language Writing and Grammar Skills Course

Cal Hyslop MBA, University Instructor, Work Harder on Yourself than Your Job!

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16 Lessons (2h 17m)
    • 1. Welcome to the Course!

    • 2. Forming Format

    • 3. Paragraph Structure

    • 4. The Big Idea - Capitalization

    • 5. A Tale of Topic Sentences

    • 6. Describing Adjectives

    • 7. Sentence Basics

    • 8. The 4 Major Types of Sentences

    • 9. Articles (the/an/a)

    • 10. The Good, the Bad, and the Many - Plurals

    • 11. Getting Into Prepositions

    • 12. Comparatives and Superlatives

    • 13. Comparing Signal Words

    • 14. You Can Use Modals

    • 15. "If" You Use Conditionals

    • 16. It's a Wrap!

13 students are watching this class

About This Class

Join an Actual Formal English Writing Course Designed for International University Students!

Why take this class?

As an English instructor who has been teaching non-native English speakers since 2007 at Sungkunkwan University, South Korea’s second-ranked university, I have taken the core elements from my Formal English Writing class and compiled those lessons here for you to learn. This is the same writing and grammar curriculum top South Korean students learn as a requirement in order to graduate, and now you, too, have access to this material.

What topics are covered in this course?

The goal of this course is for students to develop a basic level of knowledge and understanding of writing in grammatically correct English. You will start with the fundamentals of grammar related to writing and build up your English skills as you progress through each lesson.

You will learn the following:

· Paragraph Format

· Paragraph Structure

· Capitalization

· Topic Sentences

· Descriptive Adjectives

· Sentence Basics

· The 4 Types of Sentences

· Articles (The, An, A)

· Plural Usage

· Prepositions

· Comparatives and Superlatives

· Signal Words

· Modals

· Conditional Sentences

For a list of more helpful classes, visit my profile page at


1. Welcome to the Course!: hello and welcome to the native English writing in Grammar Skills University course, where in this university level course you will learn some of the key writing and grammar skills that will not only level up your written English ability, but we'll give you a better command of the English language. My name is Cal Hislop, and I'll be your guide through this course. As an English instructor who has been teaching non Native English speakers since 2007 at Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea's second ranked university, I have taken the core elements from my formal English writing class and compiled those lessons here for you. This is the same writing and grammar curriculum top South Korean students learn as a requirement in order to graduate and now you to have access to this material. In this course, we will cover format structure, style and numerous grammar rules that help build a better writer and a better communicator in English. The ideal student for this course is a non native English learner, an English enthusiast, and anyone who likes learning the English language talk to you soon. 2. Forming Format: hello again Today we're going to speak about forming format or, more specifically, paragraph format. So what is paragraph format? Basically, it's what you need to do to make your paragraph or your essay look good and easy to read. Simple. But there are a few things you need to keep in mind, and I'll take you through those today. First of all, look at these two people What's similar about them Here We have two women that look identical, their sisters from the same mother. So we call them twins. Okay, why do I have a photo of twins? Well, we're going to use a paragraph talking about one sister and her twin sister as an example for paragraph format. This paragraph is the one I'm talking about. However, there's no need to read it, not yet. I just want you to look and tell me, Does this look good to you, or does it look a little strange to you? Obviously, there's something wrong. It's not pleasing to the eye. Can you find some possible mistakes with this paragraph? I'll give you a hint. There are specifically 123 45 six mistakes that I want to talk about. So what's wrong here at the top? What do you call this thing? It's a title. What's wrong with the title? Well, it's incorrect for a couple reasons. Number one, If you remember, it's not capitalized correctly. And really, it's not in the right area over here. What's wrong? There's no indentation. The writer did not. In Dent, that basically means we need some space right here before you begin writing or typing. Third, there's different sized font here. Everything is the same size except here. Why did the writer do that? I have no idea. But some people make this strange mistake. Fourth, the writer has cut a sentence in half. I don't know why either. Here we have on the other hand, comma. And then the rest is on the next line. Of course, you shouldn't do that. Fifth, the writer skipped a line. Essentially, this is one paragraph, but the writer cut it into two. You need to keep it one solid piece and sixth. Now, For some reason, the writer had created a new paragraph and did and Dent. But look at how long this is. The space is too big. So it really should be five spaces about right here. Not way over here. That looks unprofessional. So let's correct this. It should look like this. It's fixed notice. The title is correctly capitalized. It's in the centre at the top. We have some space between the paragraph and the paragraph is one whole block. It's easy to look at. It looks good. It's simple to read. So what do you need to do to make sure your writing looks good like this? You need to keep in mind. Five things. One. The title to in Dent or indentation. Three. Sentence spacing for fun type and size and five correct length. So let's begin with titles. A correct title needs three things. Here we have my sister and I, and it's correct. Number one. It needs to be center. Notice. It's at the top of the page in the middle or the center of the screen. Great Next. It needs to be correctly capitalized. Remember those rules? First and last, words capitalized. Important words like noun capitalized. However, this word is not. It's a conjunction. It's only 123 letters. It's not really important, so we're going to make it lower case and third. No punctuation. At least not usually. Here. This isn't a sentence. So you don't need a punctuation mark. Punctuation is a period, an exclamation mark or a question work. So I usually don't do that unless your title happens to be a sentence. So remember Jum, period? These were the same things. And typically, no Jum. My students all too often make this mistake. Please don't be one of those persons. A correct title. Well, what would it look like? Here's a really quick test. What's wrong in this title? What do you see is wrong? Well, a correct title should look like this. Notice. First word is capitalized. Last word capitalized words like day life or capitalized because they're now here in the of and they're not capitalized because they are articles in propositions. And finally, as I just said, No. John. Ladies and gentlemen, no job. Bad. Good. Okay. Next we have in Dent or indentation two in Dent. What should you dio well in denting? Uh, first of all, as I mentioned earlier, we have two words. They mean the same thing, more or less. Number one in Dent. This is your verb, Dongzi indentation This is your now. I'll use these words fairly often throughout the rest of the course. Here's our indentation. It's 12345 spaces, so don't hit the space bar instead. What should you do? Super easy. Hit the tab button. It automatically goes five spaces for you. Fantastic! Next we have don't Adoum space. This is outer space. I don't mean this kind of space. I mean space seeing sentence spacing to be specific, what is sent in spacing? Well, we have several sentences throughout this paragraph and you need some space between each sentence. For example, these two sentences don't forget Jum period. Space spacing is important. So sentence one you're period and then some one space here and then the next sentence. How many sentences do we have in here? Well, these dots represent periods, so there are 123456789 10 11 sentences and between each sentence again, you need one space. Next. Correct fonts, font size wants style. There are a lot of choices for find type in style. However, the most common are serif and sans serif thes air two categories. This category serif has several finds that if you look at the edges, they sort of protrude out. That's this type of style. These three are the most commonly used for formal writing times. New Roman care Mind Bookman Old style. It's your pick. Choose one of these three unless you prefer a sawn sarah. The difference here is that the corners Theo edges are smoothed. The three most commonly used San Serif types our aerial Helvetica in veranda. You can choose these. Choose any of these six and you should be OK. And keep in mind it's best to use size. 12 below size 12 is sometimes difficult for some people to read, and above size 12 doesn't look very professional, so stick to size 12. Next, you need the correct length of a paragraph. What do we mean by length? Well again, How many sentences do we have in this paragraph? 11. We have 11 sentences. That's a good sized paragraph. It's good length. However, you don't need that many, but you do need a minimum. The minimum is five sentences, so remember you need at least five sentences. Keep in mind. Don't forget it. Need a title? You need to. In Dent correct spacing, correct. Fun size and type in length. Quick quiz. Can you answer these questions? Number one? What are the rules for titles? Remember, there are three rules. I'll give you a second to think about them. One, 23 The answer. They need to be centered, correctly capitalized and usually no punctuation to what button do you use to in Dent? It's not the space bar. You should push the tab button. Okay. Good. Number three. What font size is best? You just saw me tell you the best size is size 12 and four. What is the minimum number of sentences in a paragraph? Not one, Not two. Not three. Not four, but five. At least five sentences. OK, awesome job, guys. I knew you do. Well, that's it for forming and format. See you soon, guys. Bye bye. 3. Paragraph Structure: Welcome back, ladies and gentlemen, today we're going to talk about building structure, specifically paragraph structure. So what is paragraph structure? Well, it's laying the foundation for a good paragraph. You need to put certain sentences in the correct order to make sense. In a way, it's like building something. You have a topic, a body and a conclusion. And these three things come together to make a good paragraph. Many English instructors use an example of a hamburger to demonstrate paragraph structure. For example, you might have seen this. The parts of a paragraph include the topic, body and conclusion. And this is one way of visualizing a paragraph. We have a topic sentence here as the top bun. The conclusion is at the bottom, and it's also a bun because really, the topic and conclusion are very similar. The body, however, it's the meat. It's all the good, juicy stuff. It's the details that you're really going to be interested in and the reader should be interested in. So we'll use this hamburger as an example for paragraph structure. First of all, the topic sentence what is required in a topic sentence. Do you remember these two ladies there are twins from a previous lesson, we're going to use their paragraph to help demonstrate the three parts of a paragraph. First of all, let's read through this, starting with the title My sister and I at the beginning, Let's read together, even though my sister and I are twins were very different. First, she lives in the United States with her husband and Children. Her daughter's names are Nicole and Katie. On the other hand, I live in Kuwait and I live by myself. Our jobs are different, too. She works in a bank while I'm a teacher. Unlike my sister, I am not very good with numbers. A final difference is in our abilities. My sister is good at art, and she can draw wonderful pictures. However, the pictures I draw are not very good. These are some differences between my sister and myself. So can you identify the topic sentence in this paragraph? I'll give you a hint. Here it is in red. Even though my sister and I are twins were very different, you'll notice it's the first sentence. Usually a topic sentence is the first sentence. It's also fairly general. Down here are the details. The body has the details where the topic sentence is more general and it's considered the most important sentence of the paragraph. It's the main idea. Next we have the body. Now the body goes from general to specific. What I mean is that remember the topic Sentences General and the specific The detailed areas are really in the body specifically in this area noticed. We have these words like first on the other hand and final thes air signal words to show you a progression from one idea to the next idea. Finally, we have the conclusion in the conclusion. What you want to do is restate the topic. What does that mean? Restate. Basically, it means you need to say again with different words. So you take the first sentence even though my sister and I are twins were very different. You say it again at the end with different words. Notice that we have a few words that are similar but different. For example, the word difference becomes differences and the subject here, sister and I becomes sister and myself. These air very similar. However, they're different enough to make a concluding sentence. Let's take a look and get these arrows out of the way, even though my sister and I are twins were very different becomes These are some differences between my sister and myself. It's up to you how you restate the topic. However, as long as you restate the topic, it can be a good conclusion. So it's quiz time. Here we have five sentences that are not in the correct order. I want you to put these sentences in the correct order, but let's read these sentences first at the beginning. First, you should eat McDonald's for breakfast, fried chicken for lunch and pizza for dinner. Finally, get as much sleep as possible, as you can see. If you follow this simple advice, you can get as fat as a sumo wrestler. Gaining weight is incredibly easy. Next, it is best to move as little as possible and never exercise. Okay, now you have an idea of what the paragraph is about. Can you move these sentences into the correct order? Go ahead and pause your computer or phone and think about it for a few minutes. Okay, go. So did you get the correct answers? The correct order is as follows gaining weight is incredibly easy. Is your first sentence. It's the topic sentence. And we have two ideas here gaining weight and easy. If we look at the last sentence, our conclusion you should see the same two ideas gaining weight. We can see down here as fat and easy. We can see again as simple. So we've restated our topic sentence here. Thes three sentences are the body sentences Notice we have these words like first, next and finally. Now let's see what this would look like as a paragraph notice everything is blocked. Together we have our indentation. 12345 spaces. And it looks good and is easy to read. So we have a correctly written paragraph here. Okay. How well did you do? Delicious. Oh, I'm sorry. I mean, good job. Okay, ladies and gentlemen, Thanks again. This has been building structure or paragraph structure. I'll see you again soon. 4. The Big Idea - Capitalization: Our next lesson is on capitalisation. So what's the big idea about capitalization? The purpose of capitalization is to know when we should and should not make letters Large and small letters that are large. We call capitals like the large a here, B and C and the other letters that air smaller. We don't call them small letters. They have a special name called Lower case Lower Case A, B and C. So when should you capitalize and when should you not? That's a good question. First of all, you should always capitalize the first letter of the first word of every sentence. This is a good example. Look at this sentence. This is the first word of this sentence. This is the first letter. Therefore it should be capitalized. I think you already knew that, though also that includes quotations inside sentences. Look at this sentence here. Albert Einstein said imagination is more important than knowledge. This is a complete sentence. However, there's a sentence inside of the sentence. We need to capitalize the first letter of the first word. We also need to capitalize this letter because it is also a sentence, something that specifically Albert Einstein said. Thus a quote from Albert Einstein. So don't forget capitalized quotations. Inside sentences always capitalize. The pronoun I I is important. You're important, right? So my So how many eyes do you count in this sentence? I always wanted to be somebody, but now I realize I should have been more specific there. Three. Remember, Always capitalize the letter I when it's alone, referring to yourself. Next capitalize. Proper noun, if you remember now owns themselves. Are people, places and things proper? Noun are the names of people, places and things. So an easy thing to remember is always capitalize names. Pretty simple, capitalize names of people, whether they are real people like Michael Jackson, fictional people like Harry Potter or people like your uncle and aunt's. Here's an example. Good old American Uncle Sam also places, for example, Seoul, Korea. MPR's France. Also things like the Eiffel Tower and the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Don't forget to capitalize. Brands. Brands are simply the names of companies. There are several you could think of. For example, Coke, McDonalds, Audi, Nike, some sun Microsoft always capitalize these words, as they are the names of specific companies. Religion should also be capitalized. Why? Because it's out of respect. Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist. There are so many religions in the world, and let's capitalize them all. Ethnicity and language, for example, Korean, French, English. These words are capitalized. Maybe you are Korean and you speak Korean. However, I am American. You capitalize American. It's my nationality and I speak English. We capitalize. The E in English. Geographical regions are also capitalized because they are the names of areas throughout the world, Central America, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Asia and so many others. And, of course, the days, the months and holidays. The seven days in the week, Monday through Sunday, the 12 months in the year, January through December and even holidays such as Christmas, one of my favorites and New Year's Day. However, titles are a little bit trickier. You need to capitalize, the words entitles, however, you don't capitalize every word. So this is something I want you to pay special attention to, because we're going to need to use this several times throughout this course, Here are five rules to remember. Number one always capitalize. The first and last word in a title to always capitalized. Now owns pronouns, burbs, adjectives and adverbs. Three. Don't capitalize articles, Uh, and the Unless there at the beginning of a title. Four. Don't capitalize propositions that are less than five letters, for example, in on four and all the others in five. Don't capitalize short conjunctions. The most common ones air here and but so in. Or unless for some reason, there at the beginning of a title. Here's an example. The cat in the Hat. The words and blue are capitalized. The words in red or not. Why first, the is capitalized because it's the first word cat in hat or capitalized because they're both noun. However in and the are not capitalized in is a proposition. Fewer than five letters and the is an article. They should both be lower case now. Hot. Yes, it is a now, but it's also the last word in the title, so it's just another reason it should be capitalized. Here's a quick review What should be capitalized when writing all of these things first and last words proper noun brand names. I days, months, holidays, geographical regions, ethnicity, language, religion entitles. Here's a quick tip. If you're ever unsure about capitalizing simply look in the dictionary. If the dictionary has a word capitalized, then you know you should also capitalize that word. It's quiz time. Can you capitalize this title? The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy on 321 Go! Did you get it? Correct. The is capitalized. It's the first word Hitchhiker Guide Galaxy are all now owns. This is last. However, these are not capitalized. Two should be lower case because it is a proposition And the is lower case because it is an article. Okay, ladies, gentlemen. Fantastic. Good job will see you next time for our next lesson. I look forward to goodbye. 5. A Tale of Topic Sentences: next we have a tale of topic sentences. We're going to cover topic sentences in a little bit more detail before we begin. I'd like to say that a good paragraph has one topic sentence. That all the sentences in the paragraph or about the topic, and that every paragraph then needs a topic sentence. So topic sentences are really important, and that's why we need to talk about them a little bit more to begin. A topic sentence is usually the first sentence in the paragraph. This is not always the case, but it is most of the time. A topic sentence is more of a general statement where the details are going to be found in the body and a topic sentence is really considered the most important sentence in a paragraph. Do you remember this topic Sentence from earlier Are twins, It states, even though my sister and I are twins were very different. It was the first sentence in the paragraph, and it's a general statement about how they're going to be different. How the paragraph will talk about how they're different in the body will find more details . Every topic sentence consists of two parts number one a subject and number two one controlling idea. The subject is the main noun or noun we're going to talk about. And the one controlling idea is how we're focusing on the subject. And we have a couple rules that we need to keep in mind throughout this process. Number one, the topic sentence needs to be focused. Yes, it's a general statement, but it cannot be to general. It needs to have some direction. It needs to have some focus to. You can take the subject and the controlling idea and switch them. It's possible for the controlling idea to come first and then the subject, as long as you write it grammatically correct. And three, the topic sentence cannot be a commonly known fact thes air facts that everybody already knows and they don't work well for topic sentences. So keep these three things in mind. Number one focus. How do we focus a topic sentence? Remember this sentence, even though my sister and I are twins were very different. If we take a closer look at this sentence, which type is it this first part? Even though my sister and I are twins, this is a dependent cause here we have the independent cause and notice I've changed the colors in the independent cause. Our subject is we This is our pronoun. The object or the controlling idea is very different. So we've taken the subject and how have we focused it? We focused on being very different. The body will continue to tell us. How are these two twins? Very different. You might also remember a previous paragraph on gaining weight. What was the topic? Sentence? There it was. Gaining weight is incredibly easy now. This sentence is a simple sentence and easier to understand. Notice that gaining weight is our subject and its first. And the controlling idea is incredibly easy. So we're focusing this part by using this controlling idea. Let's take a look at another sentence Example in the background. What kind of animals are these ostriches? Correct. Here's an example. Sentence. Ostriches are big, can run faster than horses, and the males can roar like lions. Do you think this is a good or bad topic? Sentence. Let's take a quicker look. We have sausages are big, can run faster than horses, and the males can roar like lions. This is not really a general statement there, too many details in descendants, So it's really not a good topic. Sentence may be a better one Would be ostriches are really interesting birds that could work better. How about this sentence we're talking about? What subject? Maybe Christmas. There are two reasons why I like Christmas and two reasons why I like New Year's Day. Is this a good or bad topic? Sentence? Well, if you look closer, there seemed to be two subjects. Christmas and New Year's Day. There's too much information in here. We're not focused on one subject and one controlling idea. So this one is also incorrect. Next, before and after you can switch the subject and the controlling idea the before and after can become after before. In a way, our first sentence, even though my sister and I are twins were very different. We again have the subject and the controlling idea, and we could switch these. It will take a little bit of changing the grammar, but that's OK, so let's try that we've put very different first. Very different is what we are. Even though my sister and I are twins, this is grammatically correct. But maybe it's not the best example. Gain weight is incredibly easy now. We want to take our subject and controlling idea and switch them. Take a moment and look at this sentence. Okay, let's put incredibly easy first and gaining weight last. It is incredibly easy to gain weight. We've switched them and it works well. Okay, I don't have any example. Sentences for you. So here's a picture of a cute cat. Finally, common fact. What is an example of a common fact? The moon revolves around the earth. The moon circles the earth. That's what revolves means. So everybody already knows this fact. Therefore, it's not a good idea for a topic sentence. Where do you think this picture is? What city? What major city. Correct soul. Seoul is the largest city in South Korea. Is this a good topic? Sentence? Well, no, it's a common fact. Everybody knows this. Most people at least How about this? The molecular formula for water is H 20 You knew that, didn't you? So no, it's not a good topic. Sentence. I'll give you one more example. Autumn in Paris is beautiful, huh? Yeah. This one works whom? Here This is more a statement of opinion or belief. Therefore, it works well for a topic sentence. Okay, so remember these things a topic sentences usually first. It's a general statement, but not too general. And it's the most important sentence in the paragraph. Also, with your subject and controlling idea, it must be focused. We have a good idea what the rider will talk about regarding the subject before and after, which means the subject and controlling idea can be switched. And finally, not a common fact. Remember, fax or common facts are not good for topic sentences. However, opinions or statements of belief are good for topic sentences. All right, ladies and gentlemen, Thanks again. We've finished the details on topic sentences. Stay tuned for the next lesson. Bye bye. 6. Describing Adjectives: Hello, guys and girls. Let's start describing adjectives. So what are adjectives? Well, I think you already know them. As young, young czar, adjectives are descriptive words that modify or give more details about now owns or pronouns, for example. Funny, beautiful, delicious. Amazing. All of these are adjectives. How about this image? What words would you use to describe this? Maybe tasty. Hot, spicy, flavorful. Mm, I should get that. Are you hungry? Well, adjectives can come before noun. That's one of the more typical ways we will see. Adjectives. So let's take a look at this image. Where is this? This is somewhere maybe Southeast Asia, perhaps Thailand. So let's use the word or the place. Thailand. For an example, take Duke, Thailand. How are the watchers like the oceans, the seas? The watchers in Thailand? Well, Thailand has spectacular waters. Here is our adjectives, and it's describing the waters waters form or examples. He bought a smartphone. Can you find the adjective right here? Smart is describing the phone. Everybody has a smartphone these days, right? Or happy? People smile a lot. Happy is describing people. I watched a sad movie. Sad is our adjective, describing the movie and she ate a large pizza. She can really eat pizza. Well, large is describing the pizza. Also, adjectives can come after certain verbs. Those verbs include Be feel seem and look, Let's take a look at two of these How about feel and seem? We can feel happy and something, or someone can seem upset. So are adjectives are coming after these verbs. For example, How would you describe this kitten? Perhaps this kitten looks scared. Our adjective is after this particular verb looks scared. A few more examples are he is intelligent. Is is our verb Intelligent is the adjective I feel happy. Happy is the adjective. This is our verb. She seems upset. Upset is the adjective and they look fantastic. Fantastic is the adjective Okay now believe it or not, there is an order toe adjectives and don't get scared. It's not as difficult as it looks. Here is a large table with the correct order for adjectives. And here's our Now we're going to describe a bag address and a vase. First would be opinion in size, shape, condition, age, color, pattern, origin, material M purpose. Oh my God, So much. But don't worry Usually, students can naturally tell if they sound better or they don't sound good. So, for example, an ugly small bag or a white French dress, or maybe broken ancient vase, No matter what adjectives you use, keep in mind. There should only be a maximum of three adjectives used because more than three starts to sound a little strange. It's okay to say ugly, small, thin bag or beautiful long white dress. But it's not OK to, say large, broken ancient Greek clay flower bases too much Limit your number 23 adjectives at a time. Here's a tip, usually before an adjective plus. Now we usually have something called a determine. Er, for example, Uh, and the articles My, your her. These are possessive pronouns. 24 those air numbers, of course. And this those those or these are descriptive pronouns. Usually we have something like this before an adjective Plus. Now, for example, what kind of shoes do you see in this image? How would you describe them? Maybe read or interesting or colorful? We need something before that word. For example, his colorful shoes, his colorful shoes are expensive, or these balloons how many balloons do you count? 123456789 Maybe. Something behind here? I don't know. So there are several birthday balloons. Several represents a large number birthday balloons. Okay, let's take a quick quiz here. We have five sentences. I want you to choose the correct response in each choice. There are two adjectives, two adjectives, but one is in the incorrect order and another is the correct order. Which one goes best in the blank practice? Saying them out loud and think to yourself which one sounds better. Let's take a quick look at that table. Remember, Here is our adjective order. Try to use this table to get the correct responses. Okay, here we go. Take a moment and choose the correct response. Go for it. Okay. The answers are he's a charming young doctor. I plan on wearing my long black coat. This is Ah, well known French painting from the 18th century. She was wearing a beautiful green dress and the poor little bird. I'm going to help it. Okay. I hope you did Well, I bet you did. Brilliant job. Thanks again. Guys and girls. That was describing adjectives. See you soon. 7. Sentence Basics: Hello, ladies and gentlemen, welcome back. My name is Cow Hislop, and today's lesson is going to be sentenced. Basics. So let's begin with the basics. My first question for you is what is a sentence that complete an idea. So you need three things. Number one, a subject number two a verb and number three. You need a complete idea. That means it's a finished idea. The listener or reader is not left wondering what else you want to talk about in the sentence. A sentence also needs correct order. You'll need your subject and verb and sometimes an object. However, the object is not required. It's up to the person who's creating the sentence so we'll use s for subject V for verb and over object. The correct order that you put these in is subject first verb. Second, an object last, for example. I love games, doesn't everybody? So let's make a couple sentences together. I'm going to give you a few images. You try and think of one sentence and I'll give you my sentence first. Pizza pizza is popular everywhere, isn't it? I love pizza. You probably like pizza. What sentence can you make using this image. Here's my sentence. Pizza is popular worldwide, so let's check together. Is this a correct sentence? Where is the subject? Pizza. Where is the verb is now this popular worldwide can be your object here worldwide could be your object. My question is, is this sentence a complete sentence? Sure. We aren't left curious about what the writer is trying to say. OK, second photo What animal is this? Can you guess This is a cheetah? What sentence can you make about this animal? 321 Okay. My sentence is cheetahs are the fastest land animals. Where's the subject? Where's the verb again? Here's the object. So is this a complete idea? Yes, it is. Good job. One more laser. Gentlemen, What animal is this? This is my dog. Don't you love him? What sentence can you make here? 321? Because my dog is beautiful. What don't you think? My dogs. Beautiful. Mm. Well, is this a complete sentence? Subject? Dog verb Is Is it finished? Is it a complete idea? No. So what's wrong here? Actually, this is a common mistake students make when writing and even speaking the problem. Here is the word because the word because leaves us questioning. What Mawr does the writer want to say? Because my dog is beautiful, so we need to change this to make it a complete sentence. There are a couple ways you can do it. A simple one could just be removed because, for example, my dog is beautiful or you can leave in the word because and finish the idea because my dog is beautiful. People like to take his photo so handsome. So now let's cover the parts of speech that you will find most often in sentences. And these are vocabulary words that we will discuss over and over. Throughout this course, the parts of speech we will focus on mostly are now owns pronouns, Verde's adjectives, adverbs, propositions and conjunctions. Later, we'll have specific lessons on some of these now, depending on where you place a word, it can change its part of speech. For example, Adam shows up for work early. He needs toe work over 40 hours a week. That is a typical work week for Adam. Each of these work is different. The first sentence work isn't now. The second sentence work is a verb, and the third sentence Work is an adjective, but don't worry if you're confused. Soon you'll understand why work convey a now a verb and an adjective first. We have now owns noun are persons, places and things. Here are three examples. One. The president to the city. Three. An airplane. The president is a person. The city is a place and an airplane is a thing. We could make a simple sentence with these three. The president travels to the city on his plane. Pronouns are quite similar to now. Owns a pro. Now takes the place of a now instead of president. You would say he instead of city you would say it instead of airplane. You would say it. Examples of pronouns include i you, he, she, it they. And there's some other examples. Next, we have verbs. Verbs identify action or state of being. What does that mean? Well, some examples are seeing dance be seen. Eat, for example. This man is singing. That is his action. Next is adjectives, adjectives modify. Now an example would be hot, lazy, funny, bright. We use adjectives to describe downs and to make our sentences more interesting and descriptive. For example, This animal is a sloth, and sloths are lazy. Adverbs, adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and even other adverbs, usually but not always usually adverbs. And in al y, for example, loudly, slowly, Onley. But not often, As I said, usually the end in L. Y slowly, for example, Let's use this in a sentence. The ant slowly walked across the screen. Here, slowly, is modifying the verb walked. The ant slowly walked across the screen. Propositions, propositions show a relationship between other words in a sentence, words like in on at over under. Take this box, for example. Let's put a cat in different places and use propositions to describe where that cat is in relationship to the box. The cat is behind the box, the cat is on the box and the cat is in front of the box. And finally, conjunctions conjunctions joined words, join phrases and joined clauses. The most common conjunctions are and or so in. But we could say bacon and eggs or beer or so do you. Okay, quiz time. What I would like you to do is identify the parts of speech in each sentence. Look at the words highlighted in yellow Playground ran shiny loudly inside. What parts of speech or each of these? Let's start with number one. Do you want to come to the playground with us? What type of speech is this? It is a now number two. Anna was so scared she ran down the street. Ran is ever number three. We hung shiny decorations on our Christmas tree. Shiny is an adjective four. Alan's dad sings loudly in the shower loudly is an adverb And fifth There are many animals living inside the zoo. Inside is a proposition. How well did you dio You did a good job. Okay, that was our lesson on sentence basics. Thanks for joining me and I'll see you soon. 8. The 4 Major Types of Sentences: So let's talk about sentence types. Four types that will talk about now are simple sentences, compound sentences, complex sentences and compound complex sentences. Each one gets progressively a little bit more complicated. But don't worry, they're not too difficult. But wait. Before we talk about those four sentences, we need to talk about one other thing. I c and D. C. Do you know what those are? I see is an independent cause and D. C is a dependent clause. What does that mean? Well, the word independent means that it can stand alone. Here we have an adult. Think of an adult as an independent, someone who doesn't need help from others. And in every independent clause, it includes one subject in one verb. However, dependent clauses are similar yet different. A dependent clause needs help. Like a child, the child needs help from the parent. And the dependent clause needs help from an independent clause so we can have independent clauses alone. But we cannot have dependent clauses alone. We need help. Okay. Now, remember this cute little guy, My dog. I gave you two sentences. Last lesson. Those were one. My dog is beautiful to Because My dog is beautiful. So now you should be able to identify which one is independent in which one is dependent. Can you guess? Here we have. My dog is beautiful. It has a subject and verb. And because my dog is beautiful, also the same subject and verb. But it has the word because this word is important and it changes the entire meaning of a sentence. So be careful when you have a sentence beginning with, because you'll need to add more. But we'll talk about that soon. So now you know independent clauses and dependent causes. We can start with simple sentences. A simple sentence is simply one. I see one independent clause, which means it has one subject and one verb. For example, Mary likes apples. One subject, one verb. These can also be questions. For example, does Mary like apples or does Mary like apples and oranges? Here we have a coordinating conjunction, but no subject verb over here. Justin object. So does Mary, like apples and oranges. It's the same. Were treated the same as apples. It's one subject, one bird. You can have mawr in a subject, for example, Mary and John like apples they like. There's no s apples again. One subject, one verb simple, easy, simple sentence compound compound is also an easy concept, but you just add a little bit more. A compound sentence is one I C. Plus another icy It is to independent clauses. However. They are joined by words like and but or so these are called coordinating conjunctions, and these are the most common coordinating conjunctions. There are others, for example, four yet nor but these are the most common examples of compound sentences are Mary likes apples, but she doesn't like oranges. We have a subject and verb in the first independent clause in the subject verb. In the second independent clause, they're connected with this word, but and notice we have a comma before the coordinating conjunctions. Don't forget, ladies and gentlemen, we need this comma complex sentences or a little more difficult, but not much. A complex sentence has one independent clause and one dependent clause connected somehow with words like who? When? That. Because although and there are several other words, these types of words are called subordinating conjunctions. When you see one of these, you should be able to identify that there is a dependent clause. Examples are Mary Eat apples because they're healthy. Mary. Eat apples with subject verb. They are healthy, they are subject verb. And you have because here, when you see word like this, you can identify that it's a dependent cause, and usually you can switch the order. You could change the order like this because they're healthy. Mary, Eat apples. Now Take note of this. When you start with this word, your subordinating conjunction because they're healthy. You need a comma before you start the next independent clause. Because they're healthy, Comma Mary eats apples and finally, compound complex. Remember, compound equals one independent clause, plus another independent cause and complex has a dependent clause. So this is the formula for a compound complex sentence 12 independent clauses and one dependent clause. Or you could add another, but it's not necessary. For example, it's dinner time, but I can't eat because there is no food in the refrigerator. It's dinner time subject verb, but I can't eat subject verb because there is no food in the refrigerator subject for so it is. Dinner Time is an independent cause. Here's our coordinating conjunction with another independent clause and then there sub ordinating conjunction, which makes this a dependent cause independent, independent, dependent again. But is the coordinating conjunction and because is the subordinating conjunction? Okay, it's quiz time. What I want you to do is read this paragraph and identify the sentence types, But let's read together first. Starting at the beginning, a boy asked his father a question. Dad, are bugs good to eat? Because the father was busy eating, He ignored his son's question, and he continued eating. When they finished dinner, the father was curious about the boy's question. Why did you ask that question? The boy smiled and replied, There was a bug in your suit. But now it's gone. Okay, take a moment, pause your video and read the sentences again and try to determine the types of sentences you see. Okay. Oh, Oh, sorry. Scared me. The answers are a boy asked his father question to simple sentence. Dad or bugs. Good to eat. Simple. Because the father was busy eating, he ignored his son's question, and he continued eating This one is a compound complex sentence when they finish dinner. The father was curious about the boy's question This one is a complex sentence. Why did you ask that question? This is a simple question or simple sentence. The boy smiled and replied, also simple. And there was a bug in your soup. But now it's gone. This one is a compound sentence. How well did you do if you made a few mistakes? That's okay. It's a little bit difficult at first, but you'll get the hang of it soon enough if you got them. All right. Fantastic job. I knew you could do it. Okay, that's it for the four sentence types. See soon for our next lesson. 9. Articles (the/an/a): Okay, ladies and gentlemen, we're going to talk about one of the most difficult subjects in the English language. And those things are called articles the and And, uh, are you ready for some fun? As I mentioned, articles include the words the and and, uh and the really difficult for a lot of students to understand. They're usually scratching their head and wondering When do I use the and, uh or nothing at all? Well, hopefully today's lesson will help clarify some of this. What? Our articles. Articles come at the very beginning of a noun phrase. Noun phrases, of course, include now owns and any other words that might come before them, like determine er's and adjectives these sort of things. An example. A black cat, uh, comes before this noun phrase or perhaps the first snow. First snow is a noun phrase. So, as I said, articles come before noun phrases. In addition, they can be categorized into either indefinite or definite articles. But what does that mean? Indefinite are four, and and a definite is for the What does indefinite mean? Well, simply it's not specific and definite means specific. So here we're probably talking about something were uncertain about. And here we're talking about something we are certain about Also, the indefinite articles and and, uh, are used for Singular Countdown's and the definite article the is used for all. Now. It could be any time. So are you confused? That's okay. You probably should be. But let's go over some of the rules, and you should better understand. Our first rule is we use an and, uh the first time we talk about something, and then the next time we talk about it, it changes to the. For example, let's look at a conversation between John and Mary, John says. There is a pretty bird outside. This is the first time we're talking about this bird. Next, Mary says. What does the bird look like? It's the second time. Then John could say the bird is small and light blue. The first time we talk about something, it's, uh or an and then it becomes more specific and it changes to the That's a pretty simple idea, but what are the other rules? Also, an and uh is used for non specific words, and the is used for more specific ideas. For example, again, John and Mary are having a conversation, John says. I'm hungry. I want to eat an apple. This could be any apple. It's not specific. It really doesn't matter. And Mary replies, Ah, you could have the apple in the refrigerator. The apple is a specific apple. It's one specific apple where in the refrigerator, the Onley refrigerator in the house. So from non specific to specific. And we use an and offer countable noun. If it's a now that you can count like 12345 we use the for now that you cannot count, for example, a dog and apple Ah book and ah, piece of something that is either accountable or not countable. You can use those for these words music, water, money, time. These words are not countable. They are uncountable, so we cannot use an aura. Instead, we say the music, the water, the money, the time again. A conversation with John and Mary John asks. Is the beer good at this restaurant? Now remember, beer is a liquid, so it's not countable, so it's the beer. Also, it's a specific beer at this restaurant. Merreikh in reply. Yes, you should have a glass of beer. Notice glass is countable, so we have a But we're not using the word beer with an article. So ah, glass of beer. Furthermore, when it comes to all of something or generally of something within the we don't use them. What does that mean? Well, for example, insects, all insects have six legs. Sorry, guys. Spiders are not insects. Those air actually called Arak NIDs So all insects have six legs. Snow is generally cold, right? All snow is cold and games are fun. At least they should be. And pizza is delicious. At least I think so. These are all or general ideas Insects, snow games, pizza. So we do not need an article before them. And finally, when do you use an or, uh, do you remember these letters? They're called vowels. A e i O u. What is the rule with these letters? Well, I bet you think that you should use an before words that begin with a e I O u. At least that's what most teachers say, but they're wrong. You probably think you need an before words that start with a apple or I image. Oh, object. However, it's not right. What is the rule? The truth is it comes before words that sound like vowels. They should sound like a E i o u. This is a good one. And apple, listen. Ah, a apple. But what about these two here? They don't start with a e i o u. But I have in here. Why is that? Well, how does this word of sound listen to me? And honest man, it sounds like honest. Ah, like oh, or maybe a It's got a vow sound. And this one, an MP three player. Look at the letter M. How does it sound? Maybe a m. So here, we need an for both of these. Not a It's how the words sounds not how the word is written. Can you put the correct word and or ah into these blanks? Ready? Go. Umbrella and umbrella. Sounds like, uh, umbrella University. Ah, university. Sounds like you. You like a Why? Ah, horse sounds like Theo H and and our sounds like a vowel sound. Our So how do you feel now? Do you feel a little bit better about articles? Well, I hope so. Guess what's next? You're right. It is Quiz time. What I want you to do is choose either the and, uh or nothing for the space is provided. Take a moment, pause the video and think about the right answers. Are you ready? Go. Okay. Lets do this together. At the beginning, I had Ah, strange dream. It's the first time we're talking about something. It's not specific. I had a strange dream last night. I saw ah, UFO. This starts with a vowel, but it sounds like a why. Yeah, UFO in thus guy, there's only one sky for us. It's specific. Next it's the Why not? Uh, because this is the second time here I saw a UFO is not specific. But then this is the second time we talk about it. It becomes specific. The UFO landed And and Aylin, this is not specific. It's the first time and it sounds like a vowel. An alien stepped out of the spaceship. He wanted to ask me Ah, question. It's not specific. First time he asked, did This is difficult. Ladies and gentlemen, Americans Are we talking about some Americans? All Americans, I think all Americans. So with all of something we use no article did Americans elect Donald Trump is president? I said yes. Then he just laughed. Got back into the spaceship and left. The is the same thing as UFO. These air the same things. And again it's specific. It is the 1 to 3/4 time We talked about something. So we need the How well did you do, Guys, I hope you did. OK, but remember articles air difficult and you just need to continue practicing them to get better. You are the best. You get it the best. Okay, Thanks, Ladies and gentlemen. That's it for articles. At least for now. Talk to you later. Bye bye. 10. The Good, the Bad, and the Many - Plurals: Welcome back today. The good, the bad and the many florals. So what are plural Z? I think you've heard of its opposite. Singular singular means one alone florals is the opposite. Basically, florals means mawr than one. Now it's really important to work on your plural because it makes a big difference in the English language. When I hear someone incorrectly use a singular or a plural noun, it doesn't sound quite right. So what's wrong with these three sentences? Can you find the mistakes my friend loves to watch? Movie. The encyclopedia has a lot of informations. You should brush your tooth after eating. Each of these has one problem. Can you see it? It's a plural mistake. The first sentence movie should be movies. The second mistake is a little more difficult. Informations is not correct. It should be information. This is a word that is already in its plural form, and it never has an s. Thirdly, Tooth and tr irregular words and the singular is spelled much differently than the plural. So you have one tooth or several teeth. So today we want to improve your plural Z writing. There are a couple plural rules when you're texting on your phone, you might write something like this. What does this mean in English? Kind of sounded out. All right, Here's a guess. Do you got it now? No. Well, how about now? See you later. Can you see? See you later. It's OK to type like this on your phone on Cacau. Talk on some other s and s. But when you're writing formally or in business, you really need to write correctly. But hold on. Before we go further, we need to talk about something else. Vowels? What are valves? Do you remember the five vowels in the English alphabet? A E I O u. And what about all the other letters in the alphabet? What do you call the other letters that are not vowels? They have a special name too. They're called continents. They include all of these guys. So now you know Vowels A E I O U and continents. Everything else. We'll talk about these a little bit. Throughout today's lesson. Rule number one is the most common of all with most now owns you simply at an s at the end and they become plural. For example, pen book table. How do you make those plural? Adan s pens, books, tables? Real simple. I think you already knew that one. For example, I have read three books this month. And not really number two with noun. Is that end in a continent plus a Why drop the why canceled the why in ad I e s, for example Lady Berry Galaxy? No. Why? And add. I yes. There are countless Galaxies in space. Are you ready to go to Mars? But wait, Be careful when a noun ends in a vowel and why you don't cancel the why and add i e s. Instead you just add s for example boy Trey Valley, They become boys trays valleys rule number three What if it ends in C H s S H, X or Z with all of these, you basically add es box dress church, for example. The churches in Europe are amazing. Have you ever been to Europe? Go book your flight tomorrow. But wait again. Be careful if a noun ends in a ch but it's pronounced with a coupe. OK, if this happens, you only add s examples are not that common. But here are a few lock monarch stomach. We add simply an s Otherwise it would sound strange. Locks, Monarchs Stomachs rule For what? If a noun ends in N o. Sometimes you add an s or you add an E s And believe it or not, some words you could do either or it doesn't matter. Some examples. Photo memo, hero, potato photo and memo. You Onley add an s but hero and potatoes you add e s. For example, I have a lot of photos of potatoes. Why would I have that? That's strange. Rule number five it The noun ends in F or f e. Basically, we drop the F and F e An ad ves leaf self, half knife life F e leaves, Selves, nines lives. You can hear the V sound in the plural. They say that cats have nine lives. Did you know that this one looks like it has at least two? One other thing for today's plural rules. Some words are a little strained. We call those irregular words words like child woman, man, person mouse. These words don't have a specific rule. Instead, they have their own spelling child to Children. Woman toe women notice the pronunciation Woman Women man Two men, person to people Sometimes you can use persons but that's really more formal and mouth to mice. So keep a look out for irregular noun quiz time. I'd like you to correct the plural mistakes. This paragraph has several problems with plural Z. Can you find them? Pause the video. Take a moment and think about your answers. 321 Let's read together. Whales look like fishes but they're mammal. Other examples of mammal include mouse, cat and bear whale or intelligent animals like chimpanzee the largest well can grow up to 100 foot in length and can weigh 100 time Blue whales are bigger than elephant and the largest dinosaur. The answers are you need an s for whales but fish is actually fishes is irregular. It never has An e s one fish two fish, three fish It doesn't change and s for mammals again s for mammals. Mouse becomes mice, Cats, bears, Wales chimpanzees Wales Be careful of the next one. Grow to 100 Not foot, but feet in length and can weigh 100 times. Good s here we have two more s on elephants and s on dinosaurs. If you got this perfectly fantastic A plus, if you missed a few, No problem. I'm sure the next time you'll do. Fantastic. Well, good job, ladies and gentlemen. That was the good, the bad and the many plural Z. See you next time. 11. Getting Into Prepositions: as promised. Our next lesson is going to be getting into propositions. And as you can see, propositions in Korean are junkie saw and in English, the top three propositions are in on at So today's lesson. We're going to focus on these specific propositions. However, there are several other propositions you'll need to know, for example, during since until inside, behind near and several others to speak properly. And, of course, to write properly, you'll need to know and understand these propositions. So don't forget to study your worksheets and practice these so you get better at English writing. But back to our propositions in on and at with these three propositions, there are two categories that you really want to focus on. Our first category is time. Each of these is used differently for time, and then the second is location in on an at or used differently for different types of location words. Let's start with propositions of time. First, with propositions of time. They really go from large amounts of time down to the smallest amount of time. We have things that are greater distances apart to a point specifically in time. Our first proposition will be in in will include months, years, centuries, generally long periods. For example, in 2017 so in January, in 2016 in 1900 or in the past, in the future, something like that. Then, as we get closer to a smaller amount of time, we have on with on just think of days. Dates are also days, for example, on Saturday or a specific date. So when is Christmas Day? It's on December 25th on Christmas on December 25th and then finally a specific time or precise time at 9:30 p.m. At lunchtime at noon. So try to remember this order in on at from larger too small more examples. In Korea, it often snows in December. And will we go to Mars in the future? Next. Do you work on January 10th and where will you be on New Year's Day? And finally I have a meeting at 9 a.m. And the shop closes at midnight. Okay, good job. Let's talk about propositions of location with propositions of location. We have these three symbols to help you remember. What do you think they represent first again in in is used for enclosed spaces, for example, in the building you can think of inside as well. This dot might represent you or something else. This dot is inside the circle. It is in the circle. Perhaps there are walls around you. There are walls in the building, so someone is in the building. Next we have a piece of wood, a block of wood, and these arrows represent the surface of the wood. So on is used for surface. For example. On the wall, the painting is on the wall. This is on top of the wood or on the side of the wood, and finally, at is used for a a point somewhere. For example, at the bus stop, it's a specific area, and maybe it has walls. Maybe it doesn't. It's a general area. Keep in mind sometimes in and at CA NBI switched. You could say I'm in the park or at the park. However, in is more specific to being in the center and at is Maura about in the general location. Examples include Do you work in an office and I have a meeting in New York with on There are no prices on the menu. I loved that painting on the wall and at She is waiting for you at the bus stop and the shop is at the end of the street. So let's take a moment and quiz you on the proper use of in on at. Are you ready? Try to choose the correct response. Take a moment. Read these and think of the right answer. I'll give you a few seconds. Go for it. Okay. It gets very cold in the winter. In is not a specific amount of time. It's longer than a day. So we have in to He doesn't have a job at the moment. Moment is a very short amount of time. So since it's a small amount of time, we use act. He flew to Japan. He is probably in Tokyo now. Inside the city now. Four. Would you like to go out to dinner Friday night? Remember, Friday night is a day. So on Friday on Friday night number five. Good night. I will see you the morning. The morning is a general amount of time. It's unspecified. So in the morning in six. Were you the party last night? We're not on the party. Of course. and we're not inside the party were at a general location at the party. How well did you do? Pretty good. Alright. Super job. That's it for getting into propositions. Don't forget to check out your work sheets and see you soon for the next lesson. 12. Comparatives and Superlatives: hello again today. Let's talk about comparatives and superlatives first. What are comparatives? You've seen these before? What we do here is we take to similar and or different things, and we compare them. We look at the similarities and the differences and use specific words to show those similarities and differences. For example, A is bigger, then be bigger. It's our comparative adjective, and after bigger, we usually see a word like then A is bigger than B or B is smaller than a superlatives are when we're comparing not two things but three or more things. For example, a, B and C. An example sentence would be a is the biggest here. We do not use the word van, however. We used the It's the Onley, one that is bigger than all the rest. A is the big guest, or we can use see, See is the smallest. So when we use comparatives and superlatives, we have to ask a question first. How many syllables are in the words were using? So what is a syllable? Well, let's explain that first syllables are sounds within words. It's really easy in Korean because you can see just by the writing. For example, I each pair of characters represents one syllable, for example. Ah e. However, English is a little more complicated. Let's take a look at a similar word. I How many syllables do you think are in here? Listen to me, I How many do you hear? Are you ready? I just one You think they're similar, but the really fairly different. All right, let's try it again. Ice. I sir. How many syllables? Uh, he sir. Second A. But what about this word? Ice? How many do you hear? Listen to me. Ice. There are Onley One One more question. Take this word, for example. Interesting. How many syllables are in here? Listen to me. Are you ready? Interesting. Interesting. And take a look. Interesting. There are four syllables. So there are rules If a word has one too, or two or more syllables. Let's take a look at those rules. Here's our chart here or our number of syllables. Generally, if a word has one syllable like nice right here. Nice, we add or we put e r at the end. Nice becomes nicer or as a superlative nice becomes nice ist we need the the nicest. However, if there are two syllables in the word ends in a y, like happy H a p p. Why rule is to cancel the why and add i e r Happier for a comparative for superlatives Again, we drop the why and add i e s t Happy est. But don't forget that the Happy est and for words that have two or more syllables, we just keep the word. But add either mawr or less to beginning for comparatives mawr, intelligent or less intelligent with superlatives, we put the as usual, but most released so the most intelligent or the least intelligent. Let's look at some examples here we have a pig. What word comes to mind when you see this picture? Well, most people will think of the word dirty. How can we use dirty to make a few sentences with comparatives and superlatives? Let's try a compared to first pigs or dirtier than cats dropped the Why add I e. R. And then pigs air dirtier than cats. All right, how about a superlative? Well, most people think pigs are the dirtiest animals. Maybe that's not necessarily true, but a lot of people think so. Okay. Next photo. What is this woman doing here? She is bungee jumping. What word comes to mind? How about exciting? Can you think of a comparative sentence? This is Morrell. Exciting man watching TV. How many syllables are in this word? Exciting. Three. Exciting. So we need mawr. Let's try a superlative. This is the most exciting sport. This is the most exciting sport. One more photo. Coffee. I love coffee. How about you? What word comes to mind in this image? How about hot? Let's use a comparative first. Coffee is hotter than milk. Now we have hot as one word and one syllable. However, it ends with a vowel and a continent ot. When this happens, we double the constant. We double the last letter in ad. He Our coffee is hotter than milk. You can do this with words like big B i g. It becomes B i g g e r. Okay, let's try a superlative. This is the hottest drink I like again. We have a double t here, and sometimes there are irregular adjectives that are used differently. With comparatives and superlatives, bad becomes worse or worst good becomes better or best. There are two different Fars. One is for distance and one is extent. But they're very similar. Far for distance becomes farther and farthest far for extent becomes further furthest, and you have already seen these little, many, much. Little is less released, many for countable ISMM or or most much for non countable is mawr or most as well. So try to remember the irregular forms of comparatives and superlatives. It's quiz time. How about choosing the correct response? Take a moment, pause your video and try to find the correct answer. Are you ready? 123 Okay, Number one A car is faster than a bicycle. Fast is one syllable, and we're comparing two things to this is the most expensive shirt in the store. Expensive is three syllables expensive, and we're comparing Manny shirts in the store three. And our tika is the coldest place on Earth. We're comparing many places, and cold is only one syllable. Four. This soup is mawr delicious than that soup. We're comparing two soups. This and that, and delicious is three syllables. Delicious. Finally, five. Ah, Wolf is hungrier than a puppy. We're comparing two things wolf and puppy hungry ends in a y. So I e r. Okay. I bet you got a perfect score, right? Well done. That's it for today. That was comparatives and superlatives. See you soon, guys. 13. Comparing Signal Words: Welcome back, ladies and gentlemen, today we're going to talk about comparing signal words. So what are signal words? Well, there special words that signal or give direction to the reader. You've seen these before, For example, 1st 2nd 3rd And but so although, however, because. But today we're going to focus on comparing signal words. When we compare something, we look at things that are similar. For example, these two boxes, they are both square and they are similar to each other. They are each shades of green. In addition to things that are similar, We look at things that are different from each other. For example, these two shapes one is a triangle and the other is a circle. One is green, however, the other is blue and so on. You can also compare for similarities and contrasts for differences. Now, when we talk about the similarities and differences between two things, we use special words like the ones in these boxes for similarities. We use as well, also to like both similarly and similar to for differences we use. However, on the other hand, while although different from though and but however, these air just a few of the compare and contrast words, Take a look at your work sheets to see more details. Let's choose a topic and compare to people. How about Gandhi and MLK, better known as Martin Luther King? Are you familiar with these two gentlemen? Well, let's look at similarities. First. Martin Luther King Jr in Gandhi are very similar to each other. Gandhi was religious, and Martin Luther King Jr was as well. Gandhi and King both recognized that Nonviolence was the best way to approach their goals. Gandhi was killed in 1948. Similarly, King was assassinated in 1968. Like King, Dondi made a lasting positive effect on the world. Noticed the words in white. These words signify or signal similarities between two subjects. So how would we use these four differences? Let's take a look at another paragraph. However, Martin Luther King or MLK and Gandhi shared several differences in their lives. King was born in America while Gandhi was born in India. Although they were religious, Gandhi was a Hindu and King was a Christian. King was a very effective public speaker. On the other hand, Gandhi was a significant leader, even though he did not speak in public. Notice these words and phrases highlighted in white. These are special signal words that show the differences between two subjects. So what should you do? Practice, practice, practice. Take a look again at your worksheets and finish the activities so you too can make better compare and contrast sentences and then a good compare and contrast paragraph. So that was comparing signal words. See you soon. 14. You Can Use Modals: I have a question for you. Can you? Motile So, what are motels? Well, they're helping burbs that express a few things like ability, possibility, permission, an obligation. I think you've seen these before. Would shall, Can Might have to all of these remote ALS And they can be used in different ways and sometimes switched. Let's get to it. The first models will be can could be able to these models express ability. And for the present and future, they're quite similar. For example, John can speak English, but he cannot speak French or Mary is able to play chess, But she is not able to play tomorrow. It looks like all of these are in the present form. However, here, because of the word tomorrow, it makes it a future idea. In the past, we can say, when I was in Europe, I could travel on the subway. However, I was not able to drive a car. You can switch these as well. I was able to travel. However, I could not drive a car, noticed that could and was thes air. The past tenses possibility. You cannot meet Adam now, but you can meet him next week it's possible to meet him next week, but not possible now. I could buy a big house. If I won the Lotto, I could be able to. It would be possible. And permission please. Can you lend me $50 please? That's more informal. Aim or formal way of asking. We change can into could Could I borrow your car? Uh, no, Probably not. All right, our next to May and might. They're really quite similar. And you can actually switch them for permission In a more formal way. You make start the exam now it's OK. You may start the exam now, or you may not wear sandals. Toe work. It's not OK. Toe where these kind of shoes to work or possibility. We may watch a movie tonight, but we might not buy food there. Notice may in might. It's okay to switch these. We might watch a movie, but we may not buy. Food shall Should ought to for suggestions. Shall we buy a gift for him? Or she was visit the doctor here. It's implied that yes, we should buy a gift. And yes, we probably should visit the doctor for whatever reason. Expectation? What do you expect in the future, it ought terrain. Today the forecast said it will rain so it ought Terrain or the meeting should not take very long advice. Good advice or bad advice. You ought to exercise regularly. It's a good idea or you should not drink too much beer. You might gain weight or it's not healthy. Must have to need to necessity a requirement. You need to have a passport to travel. If you don't have your passport, you cannot travel or you must not smoke in the bathroom. Those air the rules don't smoke in the bathroom. Persuade convinced someone to believe you. You must try this pasta. It's absolutely delicious. Try it or you have to visit Paris. It's a beautiful city. You should go soon. Will would a request or statement. For example. Will you take out the trash, please? Or I would like a coffee, please. You're requesting Okay, it's quiz time again. Choose the right answer. But keep in mind that these Kenly Lee have more than one answer. So if your answer is a little different than mine, it could be right. Number one. If you have a cold, you should not Goto work. It's not a good idea to go to work because you have a cold you should not go to. She can see much better with her glasses. It's possible to see better with her glasses. Three. Shall we have a glass of wine with dinner? Do you think it's a good idea? I do. Four. You must not smoke here. It's not allowed. Or you should not smoke here or you cannot smoke here. Those work. Five. Would you mind helping me for a moment? It's a polite request. And six. May I borrow your pin? I forgot mine. Or can I borrow your pin? I forgot mine. That works to how well did you do? I think you did well. I knew you could get it. Hahaha! Okay. Nice job, guys. Kenya Motile Well yes. Now you can. That's it for now. Talk to you soon 15. "If" You Use Conditionals: So, ladies and gentlemen, if you use condition ALS, what happens? So what are condition? Als? Well, their sentences that show cause and effect relationships. Can you guess what could happen here? What's the cause? And what's the effect? Which one is which? 5432 Bang. So the cause was the candle or the fire. The effect was the explosion. If you light a bomb, it explodes for condition. ALS. We usually use these two words somewhere. Usually it's this word if we will usually see the word if in the sentence. However, when can sometimes be used, but it's not as common. Let's take a look at the types of condition. ALS. There are four types and er named by numbers. Type 012 and three. Type zero shows the relationship of habits and scientific fax type one is likely possibility. It's probable. It probably will happen. Type two is unlikely. It probably will not happen, and type three is not possible. It's an impossible past, and with all four of these we can use if in the sentence. However, it's possible to use when in type zero for each one. Here's a nice chart to help you remember Type zero or scientific facts Thes air about 100% thes air fax. They will happen. They do happen no matter what. Type one. It's likely, but not 100%. Type two. It's not that likely. It's lower probability and type three. It's almost zero or completely. Zero probability. Let's take a closer look. Type zero habit or scientific fact. The equation here is to use present simple plus present. Simple. For example, if you heat ice, it melts. Okay. Heat is the present simple form. Melts is also the present simple form. If you heat ice, it melts And remember, it's also possible to use when in place of if, when you heat ice, it melts. It's the same thing. Type one likely possibility. Here the equation is present. Simple plus will firm. For example, if it rains, we will cancel the trip. Present. Simple is just rains. Will burb will cancel. If it rains, we will cancel the trip. Type two. Unlikely probably will not happen. The equation is past simple Gago, plus would verb. If I won the lottery, I would travel a lot. One is the past of win to win Inwood verb would travel. If I won the lottery, I would travel a lot. I would buy a lot of things. I would have a great time and type three impossible past. Here we are imagining a different past, so that's not possible, right? Unless you have a time machine, the equation is past perfect. It's your have PP, your past gua go have PP, plus would and then you're young jae have pp. For example. If I had studied, I would have made a better grade. The truth is, this person's grade is a B minus. Not so good. But if he or she studied mawr had studied, they would have made a better grade. Maybe a plus. I don't know. We'll never know because it's an impossible past. And did you know, did you recognize that all of these sentences are complex sentences? That means they have a dependent clause and an independent cause, and you can switch these. You can put the independent first or last, for example, instead of if I had studied comma, I would have made a better grade. You can switch. I would have made a better grade no comma if I had studied. It's the same thing. There's really no difference. It's just preference. So here's a summary for you. Type 012 and three type zero fax and true statements present Simple plus present. Simple. If you heat ice, it melts. Type one likely possibility. Present simple plus will verb. If it rains, we will cancel the trip. Type two unlikely situation past simple Plus would verb. If I won the lottery, I would travel a lot and type three an impossible past past perfect Plus would have pp If I had studied, I would have made a better grade. So are you ready for a quick quiz? Choose the correct answer again. Pause and think of what answer works best. Okay, Number one If I have enough money, I will buy new shoes to If I had not eaten so much, I would not have felt sick. Three. If I had her number, I would call her four. When you touch fire, you get burned. Five If babies air hungry, they cry. And six She will be late if the train is delayed. How well did you dio? Fantastic. Good job guys. All right, that's it for today. If you use condition ALS, you will write better take care and see you soon 16. It's a Wrap!: Congratulations. You have successfully completed this course on English writing and grammar skills just to recap what you've learned. We covered several grammar points, starting with such things as capitalization and adjectives, and ended with such things as models and conditional sentences. Wow, that's a lot Great job. Now you are equipped with the basics to be a better writer in English. And now that you've learned the skills, don't lose them, revisit these lessons, practice this grammar mawr on paper and even while speaking, practice makes perfect, right. Well, I would like to say thank you again. And I hope you found these English writing lessons of value, and I would very much appreciate it if you would give this course rating. That way, you'll be helping others too again. Thanks a lot. Take care and talk to you later.